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THE WORLD DIVIDED INTO BLOCS

After WWII, two world super


powers emerged the United
States and the USSR marking a
new historical period
Radically different political,
social, and economic systems
Sought allies around the world
Attempted to influence foreign
governments
USA sought to expel
communists from
governments while the USSR
attempted to install
communist governments
Two opposed blocs were
formed lasting from 1945-
1991
CAPITALIST AND COMMUNIST WORLDS
GENERAL CHARACTERISICS
CAPITALIST
WORLD
USA, Western Europe, Japan, Latin America,
Africa and Oceania
Majority had democratically elected
governments recognized individual rights
and freedoms, division of powers, political
plurality
Capitalist economic system based on
private property and the free market
spurred significant growth due to productivity,
international commerce, and state
intervention in the economy
COMMUNIST
WORLD
Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe,
China (1949), Cuba (1959), North Korea,
Indochina, Angola, and Namibia
Led by a dictatorship of the proletariat
state interests superior to individual rights
and freedoms, all powers controlled by
leader of a single party; the communist party
Economy controlled by the state,
collectivized land, nationalized industry
and services and controlled market
prices, recovered post-WWII but economic
stagnation from low production and lack of
incentives led to rationing
THE WORLD DIVIDED INTO BLOCS
TRUMAN DOCTRINE AND MARSHALL PLAN
U.S. president Harry Truman denounced the forced imposition of
communist regimes in Eastern and Central Europe
The Truman Doctrine offered economic and military aid to
countries in danger of falling under communist control, such as
Turkey and Greece
Under the Marshall Plan, American military bases constructed in
Europe and financial assistance provided for the reconstruction of
Europe
ZHDANOV DOCTRINE
U.S.S.R. denounced U.S. imperialism in Western Europe
and the world and offered assistance to such countries
through the Zhdanov Doctrine
Proposed that the world was divided into two camps:
imperialistic headed by the U.S. and democratic headed
by the Soviet Union
CONTROL OF THE BLOCS
E
C
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N
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I
C

C
O
O
P
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WESTERN BLOC
Designed Marshall
Plan (1947) to
facilitate
reconstruction of
Europe
EASTERN BLOC
Developed
COMECON
(Council for Mutual
Economic
Assistance) (1949)
to coordinate
economies of
member states
M
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T
A
R
Y

A
L
L
I
A
N
C
E
S

WESTERN
BLOC
Creation of
NATO (North
Atlantic Treaty
Organization)
in 1949
EASTERN
BLOC
Member states
signed on to
the Warsaw
Pact in 1955
M
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L
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T
A
R
Y

P
O
W
E
R

Massive
investments in
arms, nuclear and
conventional, to
threaten the enemy
with absolute
destruction - MAD
Ultimately
prevented a direct
war between the
U.S. and Soviet
Union but there
were a number of
proxy wars
Political, military, diplomatic, and ideological tensions between the
two opposing blocs led to the Cold War lasting from 1945 - 1991
THE CAPITALIST WORLD (1945-1973)
HEGEMONY OF THE U.S.A.
From 1945-1960 presidents
Truman and Eisenhower
established a severe anti-
communist policy
With the election of Kennedy in
1961 tensions eased and a mass
civil rights movement took place
The U.S. economy grew
rapidly after WWII
Industry and agriculture
developed as well as
tourism, transport,
commerce and finance
Multinational corporation
began spreading around
the world
THE COMMUNIST WORLD (1945-1982)
SOVIET UNION AND ITS
SATELLITES
After Stalins death Nikita Kruschev
began process of de-Stalinization to
fight abuses of power and cult of
personality
Permitted new levels of freedom of
speech and thought
Reforms stopped after his death
when Leonid Brezhnev took power
Soviet Union satellite
states fully repressed revolts
and any claims of
independence
Hungary (1956) and
Czechoslovakia (Prague
Spring 1968)
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (1947-1956)
Berlin Blockade
Berlin divided into 4 sections after unification of 3 allied
sections in 1948
Stalin responded by blocking access to West Berlin
Allies flew goods in to bypass blockade until it ended in 1949
Korean War
After WWII peninsula divided along 38 parallel North with
communist government under control of USSR South with
right-wing dictatorship backed by USA
1950, North invaded South ended in 1953 with the
reestablishment of previous border
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (1947-1956)
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (1956-1976)
THE DTENTE
USSR became nuclear power -
made the possibility of Mutually
Assured Destruction (MAD) real
Dialogue opened and political
tensions eased for a time although
conflicts put this in danger
BERLIN WALL - 1961
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS - 1962
VIETNAM WAR 1955-
75
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (1977-1991)
USSR sought military hegemony through installation
of nuclear missiles (SS-20) in Asian and European
territories
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 to support
communist government and intervention in some
African conflicts strained political climate
USA supported Latin American dictatorships and
increased military budget anti-missile shield (Star
Wars) planned under Ronald Reagan
1985 Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev reopened
dialogue with USA, withdrew troops from Afghanistan
and granted increased autonomy to socialist republics
Soviet Union dissolved in 1991 bringing Cold war to
an end leaving the USA as the sole world super power