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Page 2 Key Exam information
Page 3 Revision Methods and Activities
Page 7 The perfect answer formua
Page !"2! #nit $ Theory and practice activities
Page 2% #nit $ Test
Page 33 Typica Examination command &ey words
Page 3' Actua Past paper to try
Key Examination (nformation
Exam ength" $ hour
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Exam is 25% of your overa grade
)rade *oundaries +,an $' and may increase-change.
T $
P M 0
-12 27 3' '2
3ou shoud aim to spend a minute on each 4uestion which
then eaves time to chec& your answers at the end5
A66 past papers7 mar& schemes7 past essons and theory
can 8e found on the we8site5
On the next 2 pages you will find both Learning aims and all the
key terms you must learn and revise!
Learning aim A: Explore human growth and development across life stages
Topic A.1 The different life stages people pass through during the life course
Infancy (!2 years"
#arly childhood ($!% years"
&dolescence ('!(% years"
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#arly adulthood (('!)* years"
+iddle adulthood (),!,* years"
Later adulthood (,*-".
Topic A.2 Key aspects of human growth and development at each life stage
/hysical development ! physical growth and physiological change across the life stages0
Infancy and early childhood ! development of gross motor skills and fine motor skills
o definition1 common examples of each and activities that promote their development1 the
differences between fine and gross motor skills
&dolescence ! the main physical changes in puberty
o sexual maturity1 growth spurt1 primary and secondary sexual characteristics
#arly adulthood ! physical maturity
+iddle adulthood ! menopause (description and main effects"1 ageing process (hair loss1 greying
hair1 loss of muscle tone"
Later adulthood ! ageing process
o hair loss1 greying hair1 loss of muscle tone1 loss of strength1 loss of mobility1 loss of fine motor
skills1 sensory loss.
Intellectual2cognitive development across the life stages ! developing thinking and language skills
and common activities that promote them0
3apid learning in the early years (language1 moral development"
Learning and developing new skills including abstract and creative thinking1 problem solving
+emory and recall1 effects of old age on memory.
#motional development across the life stages ! developing feelings about self and others0
4onding and attachment
5elf6image (definition1 common reasons for positive and negative self6image"
5elf6esteem (definition1 common reasons for positive and negative self6esteem"
5ocial development across the life stages ! forming relationships0
8riendship and friendship groupings
9he formation of relationships with others
Independence (activities and events that promote independence1 including performing tasks
and activities for self1 entering employment1 learning to drive".
Learning aim : !nvestigate factors that affect human growth and development and how
they are interrelated
Topic .1 "hysical factors that affect human growth and development
:ow the following physical factors can affect human growth and development0
;enetic inheritance (inherited characteristics1 disabilities"
Lifestyle choices (diet1 exercise1 alcohol1 smoking1 drugs"
Illness and disease (general effects on growth and development".
Topic .2 #ocial$ cultural and emotional factors that affect human growth and development
:ow the following social1 cultural and emotional factors can affect human growth and
Influence of play (solitary play2social play"
7ulture (effects of religion and spirituality1 community influences"
;ender (ine<uality of employment opportunity and pay1 social ine<uality1 expectations"
Influence of role models
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Influence of social isolation.
Topic .% Economic factors that affect human growth and development
:ow the following economic factors can affect human growth and development0
Income2wealth (effects of level of income"
Occupation (type1 status1 security of income"
#mployment2unemployment2not in education1 employment or training (effect on income1 social
and emotional effects".
Topic .& "hysical environment factors that affect human growth and development
:ow the following physical environmental factors affect human growth and development0
:ousing conditions (effects of poor living conditions"
/ollution (effects on health".
Topic .' "sychological factors that affect human growth and development
:ow the following psychological factors can affect human growth and development0
3elationships with family members including unconditional acceptance
;rowing up in care
8riendship patterns and relationship with partner2s (effects on emotional and social
5tress (effects on physical1 intellectual1 emotional and social development of individual
experiencing stress".
Topic .( The expected life events that can affect human growth and development and the
positive and negative effects of the events on growth and development:
5tarting1 being in and leaving education
+oving house2location
#ntering and being in employment
Living with a partner2marriage2civil ceremony
Topic .) The unexpected life events that can affect human growth and development and
the effects of the events on personal growth and development and that of others:
=eath of a partner1 relative or friend
&ccidents and in>ury1 ill health
#xclusion1 dropping out of education
Topic .* +nderstanding how to manage the changes caused ,y life events:
9ypes of support (formal1 informal1 emotional1 physical"
5upport offered by people (family1 friends1 partners1 professional carers1 including district
nurse and social care worker"
5upport offered by community groups1 voluntary and faith6based organisations
+anaging expectations.
5 | P a g e
A pe!"# "$ %!&e %'"(g'"(%
)"( *!$e+ T'e) ae #!,!#e# !-%"
. #!$$ee-% /%age/ a-# a** 'a,e
#!$$ee-% pa%%e-/ "$ g"0%'1
#e,e*"p&e-% a-# e2pe3%a%!"-+
3evision +ethods and &ctivities
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4e,!/!"- #"e/-5% 'a,e %" 6e 6"!-g+ M"/% /%(#e-%/ 3*a!& %" /%(gg*e 0!%' e,!/!"- 6e3a(/e %'e)
ae-5% e2a3%*) 3*ea 0'a% %'e) /'"(*# #"+ 7e*"0 !/ a *!/% "$ e,!/!"- %a/8/ %'a% 3a- 'e*p )"( pepae
$" )"( e2a&1 *ea- )"( 8-"0*e#ge a-# 'e*p )"( $ee* 6e%%e %'a% )"(5,e #"-e /"&e%'!-g+ Ea3'
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2:3 -eae %" %'e e2a&+ Ma8e /(e )"( &!2 %'e& (p a-# %) a-# 'a,e a g" a% a**+ 7e/% "$ *(38;
T'e g"0%' a-# 3'a-ge/ %'a%
'appe- %" )"( 6"#) e+g+
ge%%!-g %a**e1 6e3"&!-g !**+
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e&"%!"-/ %'a% &a8e !-#!,!#(a*/
a%%a3' a-# $"& e*a%!"-/'!p/
0!%' "%'e/+
5elect 2 <uestions from the ?ltimate list and complete them.
3ead a chapter of the textbook1 close it and then make notes on what
you think you >ust read. ;o back to see if you were right.
5elect an exam paper <uestion and answer.
9ake your class notes on any topic and try to break each topic down into
* words.
7reate flash cards for the main key words. @rite the word on the
front and the meaning on the back.
9est yourself or get a friend to test you with flashcards.
;et the answer to a long answered <uestion and practice writing the
perfect response.
@rite ( perfect 22$ line evaluation phrases that you could end your
long answered <uestions with.
+ind map any of the key words or topics we have done into a bold1
colourful sheet and give it to me to laminate for your revision.
/ick the hardest topic you can find and write a list of reasons why you
find it so difficult. 9hen next to it write a list of solutions you can do
to overcome your reasons.
;o through the website hs.hlhs.co.uk and select any lessons youAve
missed1 print and read through.
5elect any topic we have done and type it into ;oogle. 3ead the most up
to date information on it and put it into brief notes.
7reate a <uiB2test2puBBle2game show on your topic that you can then
swap2email to a classmate to try.
&ccess the past papers and do a tally chart of what topics come up
most often (shared area"
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Half the total marks so you know how many answers you
Unit 1- Human Lifespan Development
Revision Boolet
!"o#t$ an% Development T$eo"& 'nfo"mation
!RO(TH 9 This term refers to the increase in physica si:e and mass7 e5g5
height and weight5
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Dont forget an evaluation or you wont get more than 3 marks!
the key
word to
get you
DE)ELO*+ENT 9 This term refers to the way we increase our s&is and
deveop our emotions and a8iities5
;e )R<; A/0 0E=E6<P>
P?3@(AA663 +the growth-changes to our 8ody.
(/TE66EAT#A663 +8eing a8e to recognise and remem8er things.
EM<T(</A663 +feeings and how they affect our 8ehaviour.
@<A(A663 +reationships and how we understand others.
Life Sta,es
(/BA/A3 +2"2 3EAR@.
EAR63 A?(60?<<0 +3"! 3EAR@.
A0<6E@AE/AE +%"$! 3EAR@.
EAR63 A0#6T?<<0 +$%"'1 3EAR@.
M(006E A0#6T?<<0 +'1"C1 3EAR@.
6ATER A0#6T?<<0 +C1D 3EAR@.
(nfants are 8orn with RE-LE0ES which hep them to deveop7 e5g5 the
suc&ing refex where they wi suc& on anything put into their mouth and
the grasp refex where they wi hod a finger or other o8Eect if you put it
in their hand5
(nfants deveop physicay through their motor s&is and senses5 Piaget
referred to this as FsensorimotorG5 They deveop !ROSS .ND -'NE
motor s&is5 )R<@@ refers to the deveopment of the arger musces in
the 8ody7 and in an infant these incude 8eing a8e to hod their own
head up and earning to wa& and craw5 B(/E refers to the deveopment
of the smaer musces7 e5g5 earning to hod a &nife and for& and doing
up 8uttons5 )ross motor s&is are simper than fine ones and tend to
occur first5
Milestones in Physical Development in Infancy:
A)E AAT(=(T3
T?REE M</T?@ They can sit with their head steady
if supported5
@(H M</T?@ They can ift their head7 sit with
support and turn to oo& around5
/(/E M</T?@ They can sit unsupported for ten
minutes5 They are roing and
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crawing and can pu themseves
to stand5
T;E6=E M</T?@ They can get from a ying to a
sitting position without hep5 They
craw rapidy and can wa& 8y
hoding onto furniture5
B(BTEE/ M</T?@ They can get to their feet aone
and can wa& and craw upstairs5
E()?TEE/ M</T?@ They can run7 wa& upstairs and
craw downstairs5
T;<"T?REE 3EAR@ They can wa& downstairs and can
cim8 on pay e4uipment7 ride a
tricyce and throw-catch a 8a5
They are E!OCENTR'C at first +they can ony see the word from their
own point of view.5
They cannot ta& or understand anguage so they earn through their
senses of touch7 sight7 taste7 hearing and sme5
At six months they wi not &now something exists if they cannot see it5
This is caed OB1ECT *ER+.NENCE5 At a8out nine months they
&now things exist if they cannot see them5
TA6K(/) A/0 6(@TE/(/) *EA<ME (MP<RTA/T ;A3@ <B
6EAR/(/)5 They 8egin to as& 4uestions and put their thoughts into
Milestones in Intellectual Development in Infancy:
A)E A*(6(T3
T?REE M</T?@ *a8ies ma&e noises when they are
spo&en to5
/(/E M</T?@ *a8ies practice ma&ing sounds7
e5g5 Fmum"mumG or Fdad"dadG5
They understand a coupe of
words such as FnoG and F8ye"8yeG5
T;E6=E M</T?@ They &now their own name and
understand simpe commands
such as Fgive it to mummyG5
B(BTEE/ M</T?@ They can say a few words and
understand many more5
E()?TEE/ M</T?@ They try to Eoin in with nursery
rhymes5 They can ma&e simpe
T;< 3EAR@ They can use 12 words and
understand many more5
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T;< A/0 A ?A6B 3EAR@ They can use 222 words and say a
few nursery rhymes5 They as&
4uestions a the time5
T?REE 3EAR@ They have earned a ot more
words and can carry on simpe
conversations with aduts5
(nfants cry as they have simpe emotions5
They have to *</0 with someone and experience .TT.CH+ENT
8efore they can fee Eeaous5
They must 8e a8e to te the difference 8etween strangers and peope
they &now 8efore they can fee shy5
(f BOND'N! does not occur the chid can 8ecome disruptive and may
fee unoved and unwanted5
Two year"ods can have tantrums and they do this as they do not &now
how to respond to their emotions5 They can aso 8ecome Eeaous of a
new 8rother or sister5
The way infants are treated 8y carers can infuence their sef"concept7
e5g5 if they are encouraged and treated &indy then they wi fee 8etter
a8out themseves than if they are shouted at and criticised5
(nfants soon get to &now their main carer through the carerGs sme7 voice
and touch5 This is caed *</0(/)5
*y the time they are six wee&s they smie at their carer5
*y the time they are six months they can te peope they &now from
They sti do not &now that others have thoughts and feeings5
@TA)E@ <B P6A3>
$5 @oitary +paying aone up to the age of two.
25 Parae +paying aongside others and they may ony Eoin in for a few
35 Aooperative +paying with others and earning how to share.
This is more gradua in chidhood 8ut there is a !RO(TH S*URT
8etween five and seven years5
Brom five they increase their physica s&is7 e5g5 s&ip7 throwing a 8a7
riding a 8i&e7 earning to swim5
Ahidren earn to ta& we5
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;e understand A</AEPT@ " the way we use our thoughts and mind to
organise information5
;e earn coour7 num8er7 si:e and shape5
They understand right and wrong5
They earn new voca8uary7 primariy from their teacher5
They are no onger E)<AE/TR(A 9 they can now see things from
someone eseGs point of view5
They sti need to see and touch things to understand 9 they cannot use
their imagination very we to wor& things out5
More compicated emotions depend on other aspects of deveopment7
e5g5 they can now fee guity as they &now the difference 8etween right
and wrong5
As they get oder they get 8etter at controing their emotions depending
on different situations5
Ahidren sti depend on their parents and carers and how they are
treated is important for their @E6B"A</AEPT5
Their sef"concept is aso affected 8y /E; RE6AT(</@?(P@ outside
the home7 e5g5 if they are popuar in schoo and have ots of friends5
*eing unpopuar or 8uied can have a negative effect5
?aving emotiona @TA*(6(T3 is important as it infuences the chidGs
attitudes and actions throughout their ives5
*y the age of four chidren need others to pay with5
They understand how to ta&e turns and can 8e separated from their
main carer without distress5
*y five they are meeting new friends at schoo and cooperate with others
in games and understand rues and fairness5
*y seven they are aware of sexua differences 8etween 8oys and girs
and prefer to pay with those of the same sex5
Adoescents go through *UBERT/2
They go through a growth spurt causes 8y ?<RM</E@ and
@EA</0AR3 @EH#A6 A?ARAATER(@T(A@ deveop5
Changes That Take Place in Adolescence:
P?3@(AA6 0E=E6<PME/T (/
P?3@(AA6 0E=E6<PME/T (/
0eveop 8reasts5 Penis and testes grows arger5
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Pu8ic and underarm hair5 )row pu8ic7 facia and underarm
?ips widen5 Musces deveop7 chest and
shouders 8roaden5
@tart to menstruate +start periods.5 May have wet dreams which show
they can eEacuate sperm5
6arynx grows7 voice 8rea&s5
This is a time when adoescents can thin& in different ways5
They earn to @3/T?E@(@E information 9 to 8end a information
together from different sources5
They can use their imagination to sove pro8ems without having to see
;ithin a *EER !ROU* an adoescent who can thin& independenty can
exercise power over other mem8ers of the group5
The hormone changes can aso affect emotions5
They have mood swings and can get angry very easiy5
They aso oo& for a sense of persona identity and sometimes this
invoves them reacting against their parents ideas and vaues5
These may 8e ideas a8out reigion7 smo&ing or drin&ing5
They need to deveop independence from their parents.
Their parentGs opinions 8ecome ess important to them5
(t 8ecomes very important to fit in with the peer group and they tend to
do things together in groups5
;ith increasing sexua maturity they 8egin to oo& for a partner and
experiment with sexua reationships5
There is itte growth in aduthood5
They tend to gain weight as they ageI this is due to a more
@E0E/TAR3 ifestye5
Physica 0EA6(/E starts 4uite eary and one of the main areas of
deveopment is the +ENO*.USE for women which usuay occurs
8etween '1 and 115 This is caused 8y ?<RM</A6 A?A/)E@ in the
8ody and periods stop7 meaning it is no onger possi8e to have chidren5
13 | P a g e
@ome women woud fee a sense of oss7 others fee a sense of freedom
as they do not have to worry a8out 8ecoming pregnant anymore5
This continues throughout aduthood7 e5g5 earning new s&is for a new
Eo8 and 6(BE6</) 6EAR/(/) is important for peope who want to
progress we in their career5
Many s&is are aso needed when a person eaves home and they need
to &now how to ive independenty 9 coo&ing7 ceaning7 managing a
home and a 8udget are a essentia5
As aduts age they do REAAT M<RE @6<;63 and find things more
difficut to remem8er under pressure5
?owever7 they have experience and are 8etter at soving pro8ems and
ma&ing decisions5
;hen we eave home we have to 8e independent and sef"reiant in
order to cope5
6iving with a ong"term partner ta&es a ot of emotiona maturity if the
reationship is not to 8rea& down when there are pro8ems5
Peope have to understand their own emotions and those of a partner5
The arriva of A?(60RE/ can mean additiona responsi8iities5 Aduts
have to 8e EM<T(</A663 MAT#RE in order to cope5
The Eo8s peope do are important and can infuence @E6B"A</AEPT7
e5g5 if they enEoy their Eo8 they wi fee proud or if someone does not
have a Eo8 they may fee i&e they are a faiure5
;hen chidren eave home7 parents can deveop E+*T/ NEST
Reationships once we eave home change with our parents and aduts
tend to deveop new types of reationships7 e5g5 with a partner5
3oung aduts tend to rate their parents as more as e4uas5
@tarting a Eo8 means new ;<RK(/) RE6AT(</@?(P@ with peope5
;e sometimes distinguish reationships 8etween B<RMA6 A/0
(/B<RMA67 e5g5 wor&ing reationships tend to 8e forma as there are
rues to 8e foowed 9 some peope at wor& can te you what to do5
@etting down with a partner can mean that peope mix with other
coupes and marriage 8rings a new set of reatives5
As aduts get oder their parents decine physicay and come to depend
on them more5
14 | P a g e
The physica decine 8ecomes more o8vious7 especiay after 71>
Peope get shorter due to the posture 8eing ess upright5
?air thins5
*ones are more fragie and more 8ritte7 especiay in women5
@ight worsens are the eyeGs ens stiffens and is ess a8e to focus5
?earing deteriorates5
Mo8iity is affected as Eoint stiffen5
The nervous system aters the sense of taste and oder peope are
more sensitive to the cod5 *aance is aso poor5
KEEP(/) B(T AA/ ?E6P T< MA(/TA(/ T?E ?EA6T? A/0
;E66"*E(/) <B @<ME</E (/ 6ATER A0#6T?<<07 E5)5
@;(MM(/) A/0 ,<))(/)5
0ue to the deterioration of the nervous system7 oder peope have
difficuty remem8ering things 4uic&y5
Their reaction times are aso sower5
They may ma&e 8etter decisions though as they have ife experience
compared to a young adut5
@ome oder peope 8ecome too confused to manage their own affairs7
e5g5 dementia causes 8rain ces to stop functioning5
The officia retirement age is C1 8ut this wi change with time5
As ifespan increases and peope 8ecome increasingy heathy and
active they wi spend more time in retirement uness the age is changed5
@ome oder peope M(@@ RE)#6AR A</TAAT with wor&mates5
<thers enEoy having M<RE T(ME T< @<A(A6(@E5
@ome peope who have retired are comforta8e financiay as they have
good pensions7 others strugge to ma&e ends meet5
@ometime an oder adut can fee isoated as their chidren ive a ong
way away5
<ther can have the peasures of spending time with their grandchidren5
As peope get oder they suffer more BERE.)E+ENT 9 of friends7 cose
reatives or perhaps their partner5
1. What is the diffeence !et"een go"th and development#
$. %ame the & life stages and the age ange fo each.
'. What is a efle(#
). What*s the diffeence !et"een goss and fine moto skills#
15 | P a g e
&. When can an infant get to thei feet alone#
+. When can an infant say a fe" "ods and undestand many moe#
,. %ame t"o "ays infants develop emotionally.
-. What ae the main stages of play#
.. %ame thee "ays a child develops physically.
1/. Why is emotional sta!ility impotant in childhood#
11. Why do you think !oys and gils tend to play "ith othes of the
same se( in childhood#
1$. %ame t"o seconday se(ual chaacteistics that occu in gils.
1'. %ame t"o that occu in !oys.
1). 0o" can a pee goup influence an adolescent#
1&. Why do adolescents e(peience mood s"ings#
1+. Why do adults tend to gain "eight#
1,. Why is leaning ne" skills impotant fo an adult#
1-. Why is matuity impotant in adult elationships#
1.. %ame t"o physical featues of late adulthood.
$/. What ae the main intellectual featues of late adulthood#
$1. 0o" can etiement affect olde adults#
Unit 1- Human Lifespan Development
-a4to"s .ffe4tin, !"o#t$ an% Development
N.TURE 9 Those things that affect us *(<6<)(AA6637 e5g5 inheriting our eye
and hair coour5
NURTURE 9 Those things that infuence us from our surroundings7 e5g5 our
famiy7 friends7 the media5
<ur deveopment can 8e infuence 8y 8oth N.TURE .ND NURTURE and
there is some overap7 e5g5 do we inherit our inteigence or is it to do with our
education and the way we are 8rought upJ
1. | P a g e
*$&si4al -a4to"s5
)enetic inheritance5
(ness and disease5
!eneti4 'n$e"itan4e
)enes are found in every ce in our 8odies5
)E/ET(A 0(@<R0ER@ cause a variety of diseases which can resut in
physica and earning disa8iities and sometimes eary death5
@ome disorders can 8e ?ERE0(TAR37 e5g5 0ownGs syndrome5
;hat we need for a 8aanced diet is dependent on our age7 si:e7 gender7
the amount of exercise we ta&e and factors such as pregnancy and
?aving a 8aanced diet can ead to a good sef"concept and sef"image5
?aving a poor7 un8aanced diet can ead to sef"esteem issues and
diseases such as o8esity and heart disease5 (t can aso ead to anorexia
and 8uimia5
Exercise and recreation can have emotiona and socia effects7 e5g5
reducing stress and reieving depression5
More chidren are 8ecoming unfit or o8ese7 and the reasons incude
more parents having cars7 their ho88ies have changed to ess active
ones such as computer games and watching teevision5
Bewer peope aso wor& in Eo8s which re4uire physica activity5
'llness an% Disease
@ome inesses have short"term effects7 e5g5 a common cod5
(nesses and disease can 8e in&ed to our diet7 e5g5 ac& of iron can
cause tiredness and 8acteria in our food can cause food poisoning5
@ome common chidhood inesses can have ong"term effects 8ut
vaccinations can hep prevent us getting some diseases7 e5g5 meningitis5
Physica iness and disease can affect our emotiona7 inteectua and
socia deveopment7 e5g5 if a chid misses a ot of schoo they miss
earning opportunities s we as sociaising with others5
@erious iness in aduthood can mean they miss wor& and socia
contact5 This coud ead to depression and ow sef"esteem5
1= | P a g e
(n ater aduthood they may have DE!ENER.T')E diseases such as
arthritis5 A:heimerGs can ead to memory oss and confusion7 affecting
the person inteectuay5
?appy and contented peope are ess i&ey to 8e i5
A 8aanced diet can contri8ute to good heath5
Physica activity can contri8ute to the a8sence of iness and
So4ial an% Emotional -a4to"s5
Bamiy reationships5
Educationa experiences5
Empoyment and unempoyment5
Ethnicity and reigion5
6ife experiences incuding 8irth7 marriage and death5
)ender isnGt the same as @EH " sex refers to the 8ioogica differences
and !ENDER refers to the expectations society has of maes and
Maes and femaes have traditionay 8een divided in terms of Fsuita8eG
Eo8s7 toys7 cothes7 etc5 Bor exampe7 8oys dressed in 8ue and girs in
pin&7 maes tending to 8e empoyed in manua Eo8s such as 8uiding and
femaes in the more caring roes such as nursing and teaching5
(nteectua and socia deveopment normay occurs through pay and
young chidren can 8e taught STEREOT/*ES through the toys they pay
(n the past girs were expected to do 8etter at su8Eects such as
anguages and Engish whereas 8oys were expected to do 8etter as
su8Eects such as @cience5
Athough this shoud not happen now7 peope can do this without
reaising it 8ased on a gender 8ias5
There are aws in empoyment against discrimination on the grounds of
@ome peope coud sti 8e put off from appying for Eo8s though if they
see them as not appropriate for their gender5
-amil& Relations$ips
1> | P a g e
A chidGs socia cass is dependent on their parentGs income and
empoyment and it can infuence deveopment7 e5g5 a )P may
encourage their chidren to go to university as they are aware of the
8enefits it can 8ring5 @omeone who eft themseves at $C may not
encourage their chid to stay on and they may not have the financia
security to support them through university5
<ur position in the famiy can affect us too7 e5g5 if you are the youngest
then 8rothers-sisters can protect you or on the other hand you coud 8e
8amed for things they do wrong5
Many peope adopt their famiyGs views on poitics and reigion7 aw and
;e can foow famiy tradition5
Briends give us good emotiona support7 e5g5 isten when we have a
pro8em7 share our good times and share our activities and interests5
@ometimes friends can 8e a *A0 (/B6#E/AE7 e5g5 we are ed 8y our
friends and sometimes it is hard to say no to them even if we &now
something is wrong5
Any way our friends infuence us7 whether )<<0 <R *A07 can
infuence our growth and deveopment and sef"concept5
E%u4ational E6pe"ien4es
Educationa achievement affects Eo8 opportunities 9 the higher the eve
of education the greater choice of Eo8 opportunities5
Research has shown that peope with a higher eve of education oo&
after their heath and the heath of their chidren 8etter5
Education aso widens our group of friends7 some of which are ifeong
friends5 This supports our emotiona and socia deveopment5
Emplo&ment an% Unemplo&ment
A Eo8 provides an income and some Eo8s invove physica activity5
6earning new tas&s provides inteectua stimuation5
A Eo8 infuences someoneGs @E6B"A</AEPT5
There are socia contacts with wor&mates5
@omeone who is unempoyed does not have these things and it can
affect their sef"esteem and they may fee sociay isoated5
Et$ni4it& an% Reli,ion
1? | P a g e
ET?/(A(T3 9 our cutura 8ac&ground7 through our nationaity7 reigion
and anguage5
Reigion and ethnicity can affect our deveopment as they determine our
8eiefs7 the food we eat7 the choices we ma&e7 etc5
;hen peope are mem8ers of ET?/(A M(/<R(T3 )R<#P@ their
growth and deveopment can 8e affected 8y D'SCR'+'N.T'ON7 e5g5
access to education7 empoyment and heath and socia care services5
Bor exampe 9 peope may have ow expectations of peope in education
from an ethnic minority group or information a8out services may not 8e
in any anguage other than Engish5
Life E6pe"ien4es
A successfu marriage or partnership can hep promote the deveopment
of 8oth partners5
?owever7 other reationships are a8usive and can 8e negative and affect
someoneGs sef"esteem and sef"worth5
Peope passing away can infuence someone in a aspects of their
deveopment7 e5g5 emotionay feeing depressed7 inteectuay missing
schoo or wor& and sociay 8ecoming isoated5
?owever7 sometimes peope can fee i&e they want to ma&e the person
they have ost proud and try to achieve in the 8est way possi8e5
E4onomi4 -a4to"s5
Materia possessions5
#suay from wages or private pensions or state 8enefits such as chid
8enefit or income support5
@omeone with a high income can 8orrow money from a 8an& to 8uy a
house or can afford high rent5 They have a A?<(AE a8out the type of
house they ive in and where it is5
@omeone with a ow income may have to ive in poor 4uaity housing as
they can ony afford a ow rent5
@omeone with a high income can pro8a8y afford a AAR and 8e a8e to
get to supermar&ets where they can afford )<<0 K#A6(T3 B<<05
Peope with a high income aso do not have to worry a8out fue 8is and
they can meet their own physica needs and the peope dependent on
20 | P a g e
@ome peope may not use their income ;(@E635 They may put things
i&e drin& and cigarettes first 8efore paying their fue 8is5
(f a person is i and there is a waiting ist on the /?@ they can afford to
go privatey if they have a good income5
@avings hep peope to meet their needs 9 with some money saved they
have some for emergencies5
;ithout savings peope on a ow income woud have to 8orrow money5
0e8ts have to 8e paid5 This means that ess of our income is avaia8e
for things we need to 8uy now5
+ate"ial *ossessions
These are important for meeting physica needs7 e5g5 ife is easier with
appiances such as washers and coo&ers5 6ess essentia things can add
to the 4uaity of peopeGs ives7 e5g5 teevisions and A0 payers5
Envi"onmental -a4to"s5
?ousing Aonditions5
Access to ?eath and ;efare @ervices5
Housin, Con%itions
)ood 4uaity housing usuay has a good effect on deveopment and
poor 4uaity housing is i&ey to have a negative effect5
E5g5 a high rise fat may not 8e suita8e for a famiy with young chidren
and a high crime rate in an area can affect peope emotionay and
/oise can 8e distur8ing from neigh8ours and the surrounding area
where a person ives5
6iving in a pouted area can cause iness and disease5
.44ess to Healt$ an% (elfa"e Se"vi4es
21 | P a g e
(f peope have access then they are more i&ey to use preventative
services which wi ower their chances of getting i5
(f peope do get i they are more i&ey to get 4uic& treatment and recover
1. What*s the diffeence !et"een natue and nutue#
$. 0o" can ou fiends influence ou development#
'. 0o" can ou diet affect us#
). What ae the main types of family#
&. What diseases could !e genetically inheited#
+. 1(plain ho" income can affect a peson*s development.
,. 0o" could pollution affect someone*s physical development#
-. 0o" can !eing in de!t affect someone emotionally#
Unit 1- Human Lifespan Development
Effe4ts of Relations$ips on *e"sonal Development
-amil& Relations$ips
The types of famiy>
/#A6EAR 9 Parents and chidren contained in singe househod5
6</E"PARE/T 9 <ne parent 8ringing up chidren on their own5
@TEP 9 Remarriage after a divorce or death of a parent5
22 | P a g e
EHTE/0E0 9 6arge famiy that incudes parents7 chidren7 aunts7
grandparents7 etc5
B<@TER 9 Provide famiy ife for chidren who cannot ive with their own
Positive features of famiy reationships>
Mutua support
/egative famiy reationships can deveop through>
Binancia pro8ems 9 ac& of money putting a strain on reationships5
Partners no onger ove each other5
0eath of a chid 9 can 8e very hard to cope with5
Ahidren putting a strain on the reationship5
;e need friends for companionship to 8oost our sef"esteem5
Types of friendships>
Aose friends 9 peope you trust and share secrets with5
<ther friends 9 peope you meet 4uite often 8ut you donGt share secrets5
Associates 9 peope you meet from time to time7 e5g5 at schoo5
Ac4uaintances 9 peope you say heo to when you see them 8ut woud
not spend ong periods of time with5
Beatures of friendships>
Mutua support
23 | P a g e
Ma&ing each other fee vaued
'ntimate an% Se6ual Relations$ips
The ove we fee for a 8oyfriend or girfriend is different to the ove we fee for
our famiy5 This is 8ecause there is sexua attraction5
(ntimate reationships invove us 8eing very cose to someone5
<ur parents are often our roe modes on which we 8ase our own reationships5
Aduts earn to 8e sensitive to the needs of others and thatGs why reationships
tend to ast onger as we get oder and move out of adoescence5
(o"in, Relations$ips
These can incude>
@tudent and teacher
Empoyer and empoyee
Beatures of good wor&ing reationships>
Mutua support
(f these are present it eads to>
?igher sef"esteem
Positive sef"image
@hared s&is
@ense of sef"worth
@trong sense of identity
?aving someone to share an
/o respect for others5
24 | P a g e
Knowing that you are oved and
,oining in with things that arenGt
good for you5
?aving someone to support you in
times of stress5
6oss of Eo85
A feeing of sef"respect5 /ot getting on with peers or
)iving and receiving emotiona
/o sef"respect5
Beeing good a8out yoursef5 /ot feeing vaued5
*eing sensitive to others5 6oneiness5
T$e effe4t of a8use9 ne,le4t an% pe"sonal suppo"t
Types of a8use>
*eing a8used in any way can ead to very negative feeings and a poor opinion
of ourseves5 (t is i&ey that we wi not 8e a8e to form positive reationships as
we might 8ecome withdrawn7 4uiet7 unsocia8e and angry5 ;e may start
8uying peope who are wea&er than ourseves5
1. What is mutual suppot and "hy is it impotant in "oking elationships#
$. 0o" can a!use affect someone*s emotional development#
'. %ame t"o positive featues of family elationships.
). %ame t"o easons "hy family elationships can !eak do"n.
&. %ame t"o featues of fiendships.
+. What do negative elationships lead to#
Unit 1- Human Lifespan Development
($at %oes t$e te"m mean:
@ef"concept means understanding ourseves5 ;e do this 8y using the
feed8ac& we receive from others and having a good sef"awareness of
The view we have of ourseves changes with ife events and over time5
@ef"concept is made up of>
25 | P a g e
@E6B"(MA)E +how we7 and how we thin& others7 see ourseves.
@E6B"E@TEEM +how we fee a8out ourseves7 our confidence.
The main factors which can affect our sef"concept are>
A)E <ur age determines our sef"
concept7 e5g5 in adoescence
thereGs a need for good sef"
awareness7 peope entering ater
aduthood coud fee a ow sef"
APPEARA/AE <ur 8ody shape infuences our
sef"concept7 as does our gender5
A#6T#RE This incudes things a8out
modesty and moraity which can
infuence how we thin& a8out
ourseves and what we do5
EM<T(</A6 0E=E6<PME/T This determines how we thin&
a8out ourseves7 e5g5 discipining
chidren and the way this occurs
can infuence their sef"concept5
E0#AAT(</ The way chidren are treated 8y
teachers can infuence chidren in
a positive or negative way5
Educationa achievement can
ma&e us fee good a8out
RE6AT(</@?(P@ ;(T? <T?ER@ ;hat others may thin& of us7 e5g5
our friends and famiy 9 if they
have honest and trusting
reationships then this can affect
sef"concept in a positive way5
@EH#A6 <R(E/TAT(</ ;hether we are attracted to the
same or opposite sex5
6(BE EHPER(E/AE@ The reationships we ma&e with
others7 8ecoming independent7
having chidren7 experience of
discrimination7 etc5
1. Why is a peson "ho has had poo family elationships moe likely to
have a poo self2concept#
2. | P a g e
$. 1(plain "hat could conti!ute to a lo" self2concept in late adulthood.
'. 0o" can gende affect self2concept#
). 0o" can educational e(peiences affect a peson*s self2concept#
&. 3ive e(amples of ho" lo" self2esteem and lo" self2image could occu.
Unit 1- Human Lifespan Development
T$e Effe4ts of Life Events on *e"sonal Development
These are the things that occur that we generay EHPEAT to happen in ife7
e5g5 marriage7 empoyment7 eaving schoo7 pu8erty5
These are the things that we generay 0< /<T EHPEAT T< ?APPE/7 e5g5
redundancy7 divorce7 unpanned pregnancy5
Relations$ip 4$an,es5
2= | P a g e
6iving with a partner
*irth in the famiy
0eath of a friend or reative
*$&si4al 4$an,es5
Accident or inEury
The menopause
C$an,es in life 4i"4umstan4es5
Moving house or away from home
@tarting schoo
@tarting wor&
Redundancy or unempoyment
Support Definition
Formal A#,!3e1 'e*p a-# g(!#a-3e $"& pe"p*e 0'" ae p"pe*) %a!-e# a-# @(a*!$!e# e+g+ #"3%"/
Informal A#,!3e1 'e*p a-# /(pp"% $"& pe"p*e 0'" ae 3*"/e %" )"( e+g+ $!e-#/:$a&!*)
Emotional He*p %" #ea* 0!%' )"( $ee*!-g/ a-# &e-%a* /%a%e+ T'!/ 3a- 6e "$$ee# %'"(g' 3"(-/e**!-g %"
*e% pe"p*e %a*8 %'"(g' %'e! $ee*!-g/ " $!e-#/:$a&!*) g!,!-g *",e a-# /(pp"%+
Physical He*p %" #ea* 0!%' a-) 'ea*%' !//(e/ #(e %" !**-e// " 6e!-g (-e#(3a%e# "- '"0 %" *""8 a$%e
Informal support )iven 8y partners7 friends and reatives7 e5g5 hus8and7
parents7 friends5
Formal support Professiona care wor&ers and services7 e5g5 )P7 home
care assistant7 socia wor&er5
1. What*s the diffeence !et"een e(pected and une(pected life events#
$. 0o" can divoce affect someone*s development#
'. 0o" can the death of a fiend o elative impact someone*s
). 0o" can fomal suppot help someone "ho has a long2tem illness#
&. %ame t"o voluntay4faith !ased souces of suppot.
+. What is the impact of etiement on someone*s development#
,. Why might a "oman feel a sense of loss "hen the menopause occus#
-. 0o" can divoce have a positive effect on development5
.. Why can !ith !e !oth e(pected and une(pected#
2> | P a g e
1/. 0o" can infomal suppot help someone come to tems "ith
Case study
Annie and Joe have been married
for 45 years and are in their early seventies
. They live in a small
village close to a large town. Their daughter athy
and her family live in the town and visit them
. Although Annie and Joe are now retired they still lead an active life
. They both wor! as
with their local Age oncern. Joe still en"oys watching the town#s football team on a
$aturday afternoon
. Annie was recently diagnosed with diabetes
. %er doctor has recommended a
s&ecial diet
and given her medication
to hel& her co&e with the diabetes.
Exam technique
Underine a the !ey facts in the case study that te you the person"s a#e$ ife sta#e$ %o&s$
iness$ ife e'ents()
*ou are then &e#innin# to form ideas a&out the person and +or!in# out !ey ideas for the
on#er questions
For exampe,
A ' benefits (PIE$) of marriage' &ositive and negative
* + life stage , later adulthood
+ daughter' love- high self'esteem having a child- su&&ort in later adulthood
. + social needs being met as regular visits from daughter' su&&ort
E + both &hysically fit' PIE$
F + wor!' PIE$- high self'esteem as hel&ing others
/ + Joe has a hobby- meets friends- en"oys0
2? | P a g e
% + illness- may lead to low self'esteem- de&ression
I + if diet is !e&t under control- o!. If not may lead to &hysical and mental illness
J + medication is needed' may lead to low self'esteem
Exam technique
-Identify and expain t+o exampes from the &ac!#round information that sho+ ho+ Annie and
Joe sti ead an acti'e ife.
Identify means / ta!e the ans+er from the text
Expain0 #i'e a reason 1in! to 2IES if you can3
a# Identifi$ation%
&# '()lanation%
aA ,"*(-%ee/ $" %'e *"3a* Age C"-3e-
6A B!A a**"0/ %'e& %" &!2 0!%' "%'e/: /"3!a*!/e
6A B!!A a**"0/ %'e& %" $ee* g""# a6"(% %'e&/e*,e/: !-3ea/e/ %'e!
a# Identifi$ation%
&# '()lanation%
aA J"e a%%e-#/ $""%6a** &a%3'e/
6A B!A a**"0/ '!& %" 8eep a3%!,e1 $!% a-# 'ea*%')
6A B!!A 8eep/ J"e &e-%a**) a*e% a-# a3%!,e
'(am )ra$ti$e
Case study
James is 45 years od and is the edest of Cathy and Da'id"s three chidren) He is currenty
studyin# for his GCSEs and he en%oys schoo) He +ishes to continue his studies at A0e'e
&efore #oin# to uni'ersity) He +oud i!e to ta!e out a year and tra'e +ith his #irfriend Jenny
firsty) James i!es foot&a and re#uary meets his #randfather to +atch the oca foot&a team)
6hen James +as ei#ht he &ro!e his e# and needed to ha'e an operation on it) He has suffered
no on# term medica pro&ems)
'(am te$hni*ue% Have you underlined all the key information in the $ase study+
ife e'ent ife sta#e
changes from mil! to solid food
s!in loses its elasticity
starts school and ma!es friends
&eo&le marry and start a family 14
b) Identify James# current life stage 14 mar!3
c) Identify James# &revious life stage 14 mar!3
d) Identify three &hysical changes James boys are li!ely to e2&erience in his current life stage 17
e) Identify which relationshi& is li!ely to be im&ortant to James in his current life stage. 14 mar!3
f) E2&lain why this relationshi& may be so im&ortant 18 mar!s3
g) Identify one other relationshi& which may im&ortant to James. 14 mar!3
h) 3hen James was eight he bro!e his leg. Identify and e2&lain T34 sources of su&&ort which could
have hel&ed James through this event. 19 mar!s3
Identification Identification
E2&lanation E2&lanation
i) At school James is currently finishing his science coursewor! on how environmental factors such as
noise- &ollution- crime and &oor living conditions can affect intellectual develo&ment. .iscuss how
these factors might affect intellectual develo&ment. 19 mar!s3
") E2&lain how your social and emotional develo&ment may be affected by the environment in which
you live. 1: mar!s3
!) James has a &ositive self'conce&t. Identify and e2&lain 45E factor from the bac!ground information
which might account for this. 17 mar!s3
l) .iscuss why a high self'esteem is im&ortant for James# &ersonal develo&ment. (6 mar!s)
m) James has e2&erienced many e2&ected and une2&ected life events. .ecide if each life event is
e2&ected or une2&ected. 17 mar!s3
i) James brea!ing his leg
ii) James starting school
30 | P a g e
: 41
iii) James going through &uberty
a" Life event life stage
changes from milk to solid food Infancy
skin loses its elasticity Later adulthood
starts school and makes friends #arly childhood
people marry and start a family &dulthood
,- &dolescence (( mark" c- 7hildhood (( mark"
d- grow tallerC voice breaksC pubic hair growsC shoulders broadenC testes produce spermC penis
grows Cgain weight ($ marks"
e- friends2 peers (( mark"
f- Dames is an adolescentC helps him identify with his own age groupC social acceptance with peer
group helps his self6esteem2 feel good factorC share problems6 friends can sympathise. (2
g- ;irlfriendC youth club leaderC employerC churchC family (( mark"
!dentification: formal2 doctor !dentification: informal2 family
=octor would have looked at DamesA E6ray of leg and
treated him. /rescribed medication for pain. 9reat
8amily could take Dames out to keep his spirits
up. 8amily could help bathe him1 cheer him up1
thus meeting his emotional needs.
(, marks"
i- (62 marks0 will simply describe how it affects them negatively. ( or 2 factors identified (e.g.
Foise G cannot sleep so may be tired for school1 so cannot concentrate and therefore not do so
well in school. /oor living conditions G cramped home and nowhere <uiet to study. If lots of people
live in confined dwelling1 more risk of illness and therefore more time off school."
$6) marks0 concentrates on the negative effects only of factors in relation to intellectual
development and school performance6 does poorly at school1 drop out
*6, marks0 full discussion of how it affects the individualAs intellectual development ,ut also
other aspects of their health and well being in the long6term. (e.g. if not do so well in school1 less
chance of getting a good >ob and therefore less money etcH. 5elf6esteem may be lower if one is
not successful in school"
.- (62 marks0 general description of how it affects them positively or negatively
$6) marks0 fuller explanation of how it can affect the individual self6esteem and self6concept
positively or negatively.
(e.g. if you live in a nice area2house1 you may have a higher self6esteem1 feel happier. +ore likely
to invite friends around (social needs met"1 less chance of falling ill as donAt live in confined area.
#asier to study as <uieter1 and better areas have more libraries etcH If one lives in a cramped
flat and one does not like the flat1 one may be hesitant to invite friends aroundH. etc.. () marks"
/- identify0 he en>oys school6 he will do well intellectually and have more chance to be
successful in life
identify0 he wants to go to university6 he has plans for the future1 ambition
identify0 he has a girlfriend6 he feels loved and may have high self6esteem ($
l-. (62 marks0 very general description given6 feels good1 confident
$6) marks0 discussion focuses on DamesA self6esteem at the moment6 it is high and focuses on
the factors (happy in school1 ambitions for university1 travelling1 girlfriendH" 7oncentrates on
31 | P a g e
the positive effects6will value himself1 confident1 make friends1 does well at school2university1
good for relationship with his girlfriend.
*6, marks0 discussion will focus on DamesA self6esteem but identify how it can affect other
aspects of his life and other relationships in his life. @ill make links between each area and also
look further to future developments or outlines the effects if his self6esteem were low (make a
comparison" e.g. wouldnAt be able to accomplish the same. (, marks"
m- i" unexpected ii" expected iii" expected ($ marks"
E6am e& te"ms e6plaine%
32 | P a g e
: 41
.nal&se (dentify separate factors7 say how they are reated and how each one
contri8utes to the topic5
.pp"aise Aonsider the positive and negative points and give a reasoned Eudgement5
.ssess )ive carefu consideration to a the factors or events that appy and identify
which are the most important or reevantI to determine the importance7 si:e7 or vaue of
Comment )ive your view after you have considered a the evidence5 (n particuar
decide the importance of a the reevant positive and negative aspects5
Compa"e (dentify the main factors that appy in two or more situations and expain the
simiarities and differences or advantages and disadvantages5
Cont"ast @how differences
C"iti4ise Review a topic or issue o8Eectivey and weigh up 8oth positive and negative
points 8efore ma&ing a decision5
Define Aeary expain what a particuar term means and give an exampe7 if
appropriate7 to show what you mean5
Demonst"ate Provide severa reevant exampes or reated evidence which ceary
support the arguments you are ma&ing5 This may incude showing practica s&is5
Des4"i8e )ive a cear description that incudes a the reevant features " thin& of it as
Fpainting a picture with wordsG5 A detaied account
Desi,n Areate a pan7 proposa or outine to iustrate a straightforward concept or idea
D"a# Con4lusions #se the evidence you have provided to reach a reasoned
E6plain @et out in detai the meaning of something7 with reasons5 More difficut than
descri8e or istI it can hep to give an exampe to show what you mean5 @tart 8y
introducing the topic then give the FhowG or FwhyG OR provide detais and give reasons
and-or evidence to ceary support the argument you are ma&ing
Evaluate Review the information then 8ring it together to form a concusion5 )ive
evidence for each of your views or statements
Evaluate Ma&e cearI inteigi8eI a definite and precise account for 4"iti4all&
'%entif& Point out or choose the right one - give a ist of the main features
'llust"ate (ncude exampes or a diagram to show what you mean
'nte"p"et 0efine or expain the meaning of something +words7 actions7 etc.
'nvesti,ate ;E6plo"e< (n4uire intoI examineI investigate 8y going through it
List Provide the information in a ist7 rather than in continuous writing
Outline ;rite a cear descriptionI give a summary of - a genera pan showing
essentia features 8ut no detai
*lan ;or& out and pan how you woud carry out a tas& or activity
Summa"ise ;rite down or articuate 8riefy the main points or essentia features
State Provide a cear and fu account in speech or writing
33 | P a g e
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