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Repair of Fire Damage

Structure
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 2
Contents
Introduction
Effects of fire on material
Repair to fire damage structure involves
evaluation or the assessment of the fire
damage structure
Selection of repair material
Method of placing the repair material
Case Study
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 3
Introduction
The assessment of fire history and the
residual strength of a structure, is complex
and requires skill and experience to
achieve. The normal purpose of a repair is
to restore in the required structure the
performance it had before the fire, both in
respect of strength and of fire resistance in a
future fire.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 4
Introduction cont.
The decision whether the fire damaged
structure could be repaired and reused
depends on :
The temperature and duration of fire
Properties of concrete and steel used
Residual strength of concrete element
affected by fire

SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 5
Recommendations for efficient planning
of repair
1. To assess the damage
2. Determine the feasibility of repair
3. Decide the best method to be used
for repair
4. Prepare a scheme for reconstruction
5. Consult with the local authority
6. Schedule the sequence of operations
7. Prepare a scheme for propping and
bracing including a schedule of prop loads
8. Specify the extent of repair work in detail.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 6
Assessment of Damage
For proper assessment of the structure we need to
consider the effect of fire on material as well as
structural member.
Change in Compressive strength of concrete:
In most of the cases strength loss is pronounced
when subjected to above 300 C temperature.
Colour changes in concrete:
Concrete on heating undergoes colour changes.
Observation made on concrete after heat, can give
information about heat penetration into concrete
mass. Which can be seen from the table given
below.

SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 7
Colour changes in concrete with
temperature
TEMPERATURE
IN CONCRETE
COLOUR
0 TO 300 NORMAL
300 TO 600
PINK, RED OR
REDDISH BROWN
600 TO 900 WHITISH GREY
900 TO 1000 BUFF
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 8
Depth of Heat penetration into Concrete during Exposure to Fire Test
Test Period
(hour)
Surface
Temper
ature at
end of
Test
('C)
Distance from surface of colour change Position
corresponding to temperature
300 'C 650 'C 1000 'C
mm mm mm
1 950 57 18 -
2 1050 79 25 6
3 1150 120 44 3
Depth of Heat penetration into
Concrete
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 9
Cycle of effects of fire on reinforced
concrete structure
Stage on heating
1. Rise in surface
temperature

2. Heat transfer to interior
surface

3. Heat transfer to
reinforcement
(accelerated if spalling
occurs)
Probable effects
Surface cracking


Loss of concrete strength,
cracking and spalling

Reduction of yield strength,
possible buckling and/or
increase in deflection
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 10
Cycle of effects cont
On cooling
4. Reinforcement
cools


5. Concrete cools



6. After concrete cools
Recovery of yield strength to
practically original value, any
buckled bars remained buckled

Cracks close up; further
reduction in strength; Deflection
recovery incomplete for severe
fire
Very dry concrete absorbs
moisture from atmosphere
results in further deformations
and cracking

SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 11
Collection of data (Diagnosis)
1. Debris
Examine relevant debris to determine the duration
of fire or temperature reached.
2. Concrete colour
Estimate the equivalent exposure from the depth
of pink coloration.
3. Visual classification
There should be detailed examination and
classification of damage for each structural
member. We should use clearly stated description
for each classification
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 12
Class of damage Description of damage (Column)
Class 1 Undamaged except for some peeling of plaster finish, smoke deposit
Class 2
Substantial loss of plaster finish - Concrete surface having extensive
micro cracking and pink buff colour - minor spalling only
Class 3
Plaster finish almost entirely removed. Concrete surface buff coloured
and elsewhere locally spalled to reveal reinforcement -Separation of
concrete cover- concrete may give hollow sound.
Class 4
Sever damage including extensive spalling revealing considerable
areas of steel reinforcement. One or more bars buckled and column
may show sign of distortion.
Damage classification for a typical
reinforced concrete framed structure
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 13
Damage classification for a typical
reinforced concrete framed structure
Class of
damage
Description of damage (Floor Panels)
Class 1
Suspended ceiling extensively damaged but some panels may still
be in place; few hollow tiles damaged but reinforced concrete ribs
intact except for smoke soot.
Class 2
Substantial damage to hollow tiles - concrete ribs spalled with
reinforcement revealed over small areas
Class 3
Reinforced Concrete ribs - extensively spalled of, but
reinforcement generally still adhering to concrete; concrete
seems smoke covered or pink; No severe Deflection.
Class 4
Sever damage including extensive spalling revealing considerable
areas of steel reinforcement. Deflection may be severe.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 14
Damage classification for a typical
reinforced concrete framed structure
Class of damage Description of damage (Beams)
Class 1 Smoke deposit; minor spalling only and no exposed reinforcement
Class 2
Substantial spalling along adjacent planes revealing main
reinforcement of outer surface of corner bars, micro cracking of
surface, cover concrete to soffit may have "hollow" ring. Concrete
colour - Black/Pink
Class 3
Substantial spalling revealing reinforcement; concrete colour buff,
cracks several millimeters in width. No severe Deflection.

Sever damage including extensive spalling revealing considerable areas
of steel reinforcement. Deflection may be severe and/or Fractures;
Main reinforcement buckled. Concrete buff/grey coloured.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 15


Prognosis (Feasibility of repair )
Classification of repair
Class of repair Description
Class 1 Superficial gunite repair of slight damage not required fabric reinforcement.
Class 2
Non structural repair over a large area, e.g. restoring cover to reinforcement where
this has been partly lost. The gunite will be reinforced with a nominal light fabric.
Class 3
Principal strengthening repair reinforced in accordance with the load carrying
requirement of the member. Concrete and reinforcement strength may be
significantly reduced.
Class 4
Strengthening repair with original concrete and reinforcement written down to zero
strength or complete demolition according to the following factors.
(a) If member is badly distorted and or there is loss of tension in prestressing
tendons or concrete is weakened throughout - demolish and replace.
(b) If member is unsound structurally but removal would cause inconvenient
disruption of adjoining member add new materials to support original
design load.

SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 16
Schedule for damage classification
Typical Section of schedule for damage classification
Ground floor columns and first floor beams and slabs
Columns Beams Slabs
Class of damage 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Member
reference
no.
2 5 3 14 111 21 131 31 101 102 104
11 12 4 211 121 231 41 201 202 204
21 23 13 311 331 141 301 203
31 33 23 112 152 221 401 302
41 35 24 212 452 241 303
42 43 33 312 321 304
44 412 132 403
45 404




SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 17
Plot of Fire Damage v/s Temperature
Fire Damage factor v/s Temp
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Temperature 'c
F
i
r
e

D
a
m
a
g
e

F
a
c
t
o
r
w/c ratio 0.40
w/c ratio 0.65
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 18
Damage classification: Typical
assessments and decision
Damage Classification: Typical summary of assessments and decisions
Memb
er no.
Class
of
Damag
e
Fire damage
factors
Quality of
original
construction
Feasibility
of repair
Effect
of
adjoin
ing
memb
ers
Time
for
repair:
Cost of
repair
Decision Remarks
Concrete Steel
203 2 1 1 1 1 0 NA
Demolish and
Reconstruct
Adjoining beams and
staircase too badly
damaged for
repaired
141 3
Compres
sion -
0.93
Shear -
0.92
Main
bars -
0.77
Links -
1
1 1 1 1
Repair as
redesign

13 3 0.85
Main
bars -
0.60
Links -
1
1 1 1 1
Repair as
redesign
Note that redesign
would be same if
column had been
classed 4B
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 19
Repair Material
The basic principle of repair is that the repair
medium should be as close as possible in all
physical characteristics (Elastic modulus,
Coefficient of expansion, Strength) to the base
material or/and the properties of the new and old
work are similar to facilitate maintaining a good
bond by limiting the boundary stresses.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 20
Repair material contd.
A good repair material should have the best
combination of following properties. (It should be
compatible with the old material)
1. Mechanical properties as close to the base
material.
2. Good adhesion in dry, damp or wet condition.
3. Low shrinkage (during curing and long term)
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 21
Method of placing the repair material
This can be done by:
1. Recasting in formwork
2. Spraying (Guniting)
3. Hand applied mortars.
Each method will give satisfactory results, providing
the specification, material and techniques are
appropriate and the work competently done by
experienced operatives.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 22
1. Repair by recasting in formwork
This method is particularly used when
Larger volume of material is to be placed.
Repetition of use of formwork
The whole length of beam and column required
repair
2. Repairs by spraying (Guniting)
A mixture of cement, aggregate and water is
projected into a place with high velocity.

Method of placing contd.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 23
Typically the materials used are coarse sand
and Portland cement, the aggregate less than
10 mm size maximum
Compaction to produce a dense homogeneous
mass is achieved by its own velocity, with as
little subsequent working as possible being
done.
The material can be placed on vertical as well
overhead surfaces with limiting thickness.
Typical characteristics are good density, low
permeability, high strength and good bond.
Method of placing contd.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 24
3. Repaired by hand applied mortars
Technique used will be similar to good rendering
practice, but using a slurry bond coat. A polymer
latex admixture is frequently added, to both
bond coat and repair mortar.
This act as water reducing agent allowing a
lower water cement ratio to be used.
Method of placing contd.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 25
CASE STUDY
A shopping cum school complex in the western part of
Bangalore city was considerably damaged due to fire by some
miscreants.
The building comprises of
Basement Floor
Used as boys hostel
Ground Floor
Co-optex a handloom fabric show room
First Floor
Used as Library and Classrooms
The fire spread very fast and last for more than Eight
hours.
The entire fabric in the showroom caught fire.

SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 26
Building at the time of Investigation
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 27
Columns & Beams Layout
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 28
Effects of Fire on Structure
The fire had reached every part of the building
namely walls, columns, beams and roof ceiling.
Walls had cracked everywhere
Plaster of walls, ceiling of roof, beams
and
columns had spalled off.
Reinforcement in most parts of slab and
few
beams was exposed considerably.
Cracks had developed in slabs and
beams.
width of the cracks being more than
acceptable limits.
Some beams and slabs had even
deflected.

SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 29
Schematic representation of damages
on Ground Floor
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 30
Schematic representation of damages
on First Floor
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 31
Reinforcement were exposed in
Ground Floor slab
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 32
Reinforcement were exposed in
Ground Floor slab
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 33
Reinforcement were exposed due to
spalling of concrete cover (beam FB2)
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 34
Typical Distress in Column
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 35
Distress walls (115mm thick) of
cupboard on First Floor
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 36
Investigation
In order to assess the existing strength of
hardened concrete of different structural
members and to detect any cracks the
investigation was done.
Investigation was carried out in three steps:
1. Physical Examination
2. Non-Destructive Testing of Structural
element
(a) Rebound Hammer Test
(b) Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test
3. Load Test on First Floor slabs and Beams


SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 37
Loading of slab using sand
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 38
Checking of deflection of slab
Dial gauges are mounted at midspan to measure the deflection
Reading were taken immediate after the loading
After 24 hour of loading
After 24 hour from removal of load to measure the recovery
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 39
Rectification scheme
Investigation revealed that the structure was not
structurally sound and all structural damages required
to be repaired.
Following repaired were done;
1. Encasement of Column by concreting
2. Guniting of First Floor Beam and Slab
3. Post Grouting of Columns and beams
4. Treatment to brick masonry walls
5. Restoring rotating canopy
6. Other non structural repair



SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 40
Encasement of column by Concreting
Encasement of entire column was done in view of
structural stability, though they were disintegrated
on the ground floor only.
1. Unloading of Columns
2. Surface Preparation
All loose materials were removed by chipping and
cleaned by Sand Blasting

SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 41
Encasement of column cont
3. Use of Bonding agent
A coating of NITO-BOND or its equivalent was
applied on the clean surface as per manufacturers
specifications.
4. Shear connectors of 12 mm dia at 1000 mm c/c
were inserted in drilled holes of 16 mm dia.
5.The gap around shear connectors were sealed by
appropriate non-swing sealing compound.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 42
Encasement of column cont
6. The new reinforcement cage was positioned around
the column as per requirement.
7. The twin U-ties were inserted around the new
reinforcement and welded to form a rectangular
type.
8. After the formwork has been completed M25 grade
concrete with good workability possessing high
slump is poured and well compacted.

SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 43
Encasement of column cont
9. At beam column junction slab was punctured for
150 mm square and concrete was poured from top
of the slab into the formwork to ensure good
concreting at joints.
10. Encasement concrete is cured for a minimum
period of 14 days.
11. The column formwork is stripped only 24 hrs after
concreting.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 44
Grouting of columns
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 45
A
A
1000
Existing Footing
Existing Column
100 mm thk concrete
with M20, 12.5 mm
down size aggregates
Existing beam
8 Dia ties at 200 c/c
12 Dia Bars
12 Dia connectors at
1000 c/c with 16 Dia
holes (Staggered)
Single layer epoxy coat
over roughened and
cleaned surface of column.
Grouting of columns
12 Dia 8 nos
Epoxy silica putty 1:6 or Rendroc
8 Dia ties at 200 c/c
Sectional plan AA
Epoxy silica putty 1:6 or Rendroc
12 Dia connectors at 1000 c/c
staggered
100
All dimensions are in mm
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 46
Grouting of columns
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 47
Guniting of Slabs and Beams
Large scale distress was observed in slabs and
beams with spalling of concrete cover exposing the
reinforcement. Cracks were also of common sight
everywhere.
Repair methodology adopted is as follows:
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 48
Guniting of Slabs and Beams cont
1. Slab/beam was supported wherever necessary.
2. Concrete cover was chipped off and all loose
materials were removed by sand blasting.
3. A thin layer of NITO-BOND was applied on the
cleaned surface.
4. Shear connector of 12 mm dia at 1000 mm c/c
were inserted in drilled hole of 16 mm dia in a
zigzag manner.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 49
Guniting of Slabs and Beams cont
5. The gap around shear connectors was sealed by an
appropriate non shrink sealing component.
6. Weld-mesh of 75x75x3 mm was wrapped on to the
exposed surface of rib of beam and to slab bottom
and tack welded to the exposed reinforcement at
close intervals and to shear connectors.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 50
Guniting of Slabs and Beams cont
7. Gunite mortar mixed with gunite aiding admixture
of 40 mm thick around rib of beam and of 25 mm
thick for roof slabs was applied under an operating
pressure of around 0.6 N/sq.mm
8. The gunited surface was cured for a minimum
period of seven days
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 51
Typical c/s of beam and slab
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 52
Post grouting of columns and beams
It is always possible that some cracks, cavities and
voids are unfilled. Post grouting fulfill this task. In
addition it ensures homogeneity of encasement
concrete/gunite with old concrete.
The different steps followed are as follows:
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 53
Post grouting of columns contd
1. 16 mm dia holes were drilled to a depth of 100 to
200 mm at 1000 mm c/c in a zigzag manner on all
the vertical surface of column and beams.
2. 12 mm dia PVC nozzle was inserted into each hole
and the gap around the nozzle was sealed using
sealing agent.
3. Pressure grout was applied through every nozzle
with a free flowing neat cement grout mixed with
the expansive agents (CONBEX-100)
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 54
Post grouting of columns contd
4. The operating pressure for post grouting was
around 1 N/sq.mm
5. Grouting of every hole was continued until refusal.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 55
Grouting of beams
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 56
Conclusion
The distressed building was thoroughly
investigated through physical examination
along with NDT and Load Test.
The deficiencies and distress were identified
and documented to best of ones ability. A
feasible restoration scheme was proposed
and executed carefully and efficiently.
Thereafter a building was put into normal
service as it was certified as structurally
sound.
SD0107 Repair of Fire Damage Concrete Structure 57
References
A book of Structural Failure by R. Jagdish.
FIRE SAFETY IN BUILDING by
Mr. V.K. Jain.
Concrete Society Technical Report no. 15,
May 1978
CONCRETE, volume 18 number, 5 May
1984

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