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Malayan Law Journal Reports/1994/Volume 1/ESSO MALAYSIA B! " ILLS A#E$%Y &M' S!$
B! ( ORS ) *1994+ 1 MLJ ,4- ) 1. O/to0er 1991
12 pa2es
*1994] 1 MLJ 740
ESSO MALAYSIA BHD v HILLS AGENCY (M) SDN BHD & ORS
HIGH COURT (KOTA BHARU)
IDRIS YUSOFF J
ORIGINATING SUMMONS NO
1! O"#$%&' 199(
Landlord and Tenant -- Tenancy or licence -- Defendants enjoyed exclusive possession and
made monthly payment -- Agreement stated licence conferred on defendants -- Intention of
parties of paramount importance -- Exclusive possession not a decisive test
Land Law -- Licence -- Mutual termination to facilitate new arrangement -- ew arrangement not
entered into -- !hether defendants could continue to occupy premises
Land Law -- Trespass -- Termination of licence -- "ontinued occupation
Land Law -- Licence -- Termination -- #ecovery of possession of premises -- $ummary procedure
-- Licence to enter premises terminated -- Application for recovery of possession of premises did
not mention recovery of land -- !hether % &' procedure availa(le -- #ules of the )igh "ourt
*'&+ % &'
Land Law -- Land and fixtures -- ,lant on land -- !hether formed part of land -- "onsiderations to
(e ta-en into account
34e pla5nt566s appl5e7 0y way o6 or525nat5n2 summons pursuant to O .9 o6 t4e Rules o6 t4e 524
%ourt 19.- &8t4e R%8' 6or an or7er to re/o"er possess5on o6 /erta5n lan7 0elon25n2 to t4em on
t4e 2roun7 t4at t4e 7e6en7ants were o//upy5n2 t4e lan7 w5t4out t4e l5/en/e or /onsent o6 t4e
pla5nt566s9 34e pla5nt566s an7 7e6en7ants 4a7 en:oye7 a 2oo7 0us5ness relat5ons45p an7 4a7
entere7 5nto se"eral a2reements; 5n/lu75n2 t4e a2reement relat5n2 to t4e lan7 5n 75spute &8t4e
<BB= A2reement8'9 A6ter t4e 0us5ness relat5ons45p turne7 sour; t4e pla5nt566s term5nate7 t4e
a2reements w5t4 t4e e>/ept5on o6 t4e <BB= A2reement w45/4 was alle2e7ly mutually term5nate7
to 6a/5l5tate t4e e>e/ut5on o6 a 6res4 a2reement9 34e 7e6en7ants /onten7e7 t4at 4a7 5t not 0een
6or t4e pla5nt566s8 prom5ses; t4e 7e6en7ants woul7 not 4a"e a2ree7 to t4e mutual term5nat5on9
34e 7e6en7ants ma5nta5ne7 t4at t4e <BB= A2reement was a tenan/y a2reement an7/or /reate7 a
tenan/y at law 6or a /ons57erat5on9 34e 7e6en7ants /onten7e7 t4at summary pro/ee75n2s un7er
O .9 were 5nappropr5ate 0e/ause? &5' t4e not5/e o6 term5nat5on o6 t4e <BB= A2reement only
re6erre7 to t4e r524t to use t4e plant on t4e lan7 an7 not t4e lan7 5tsel6 an7 t4ere6ore 757 not /ome
w5t45n t4e am05t o6 O .9@ an7 &55' t4e Auest5on o6 "ar5ous 5mpro"ements w45/4 t4ey 4a7 0rou24t to
t4e s5te /oul7 only 0e resol"e7 t4rou24 a proper 4ear5n29 Brom t4e a6657a"5t e"57en/e; t4ree
5ssues arose 6or t4e 7eterm5nat5on o6 t4e /ourt? &5' w4et4er a tenan/y or a l5/en/e 4a7 0een
/reate7@ &55' 56 a l5/en/e was /reate7; w4et4er t4ere was a proper 7eterm5nat5on o6 su/4 l5/en/e@
1
an7 &555' /ons57er5n2 t4e 6a/ts an7 /5r/umstan/es o6 t4e /ase; w4et4er t4e appl5/at5on un7er O .9
was proper9
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0.*
H&)*; allow5n2 t4e pla5nt5668s appl5/at5on?
1) 34e most 5mportant 6a/tor 5n 7eterm5n5n2 w4et4er t4ere 5s a tenan/y 5s t4e 5ntent5on
o6 t4e part5es9 C45le e>/lus5"e possess5on 5s an essent5al reAu5rement o6 a tenan/y;
5t 5s also not t4e sole an7 only /r5ter5on@ t4ere may 0e ot4er /5r/umstan/es
ne2at5"5n2 an 5ntent5on to /reate a tenan/y9 a"5n2 re2ar7 to all t4e /5r/umstan/es
o6 t4e /ase; t4e relat5ons45p o6 t4e part5es was only t4at o6 l5/ensor an7 l5/ensee9
Ju725n2 6rom t4e terms o6 t4e <BB= A2reement an7 t4e /5r/umstan/es an7 /on7u/t
o6 t4e part5es; all t4at was 5nten7e7 was t4at t4e 7e6en7ants woul7 only 4a"e t4e
pr5"5le2e o6 maD5n2 use o6 t4e plant w5t4 no 5nterest 5n t4e lan7 at all9 In t4e a0sen/e
o6 su665/5ent 5nterest 0e5n2 /on6erre7 upon t4em; t4e 7e6en7ants /oul7 not /la5m t4at
a tenan/y 4a7 0een /reate79
1) Alt4ou24 t4e term5nat5on o6 t4e <BB= A2reement was a/tuate7 0y t4e proposal to
8worD out a new an7 7566erent arran2ement8 w45/4 ne"er mater5al5Ee7; t4e
term5nat5on 4a7 0een mutually a2ree7 to 0y 0ot4 part5es an7 was "al57 an7 proper9
owe"er; t4e 7e6en7ants were at l50erty to 65le an a/t5on seeD5n2 appropr5ate
reme75es 6or t4e new arran2ements w45/4 ne"er mater5al5Ee79
1) I6 t4e 7e6en7ants 5ns5ste7 on enter5n2 or rema5n5n2 on t4e lan7 or 5n ot4erw5se
e>er/5s5n2 5ts l5/en/e; notw5t4stan75n2 t4e re"o/at5on o6 5ts l5/en/e &e"en 56 5t was
wron26ul'; 5t 0e/ame a trespasser an7 l5a0le 5n an a/t5on at t4e su5t o6 t4e pla5nt566s9
1) 34e mere 6a/t o6 p4ys5/al atta/4ment 5s not /on/lus5"e to 7eem an art5/le a 65>ture@
w4at 5s o6 2reater 5mportan/e 5s t4e o0:e/t o6 anne>at5on rat4er t4an t4e mo7e9
%ons57er5n2 t4e purposes 6or w45/4 t4e "ar5ous types o6 eAu5pment were 5nten7e7
to 0e use7; t4ey /learly s4owe7 t4at t4e plant was a permanent atta/4ment to t4e
lan7; t4ere0y 6orm5n2 part o6 t4e lan79
1) 34e 7e6en7ants8 o//upat5on o6 t4e lan7 was 0y "5rtue o6 t4e l5/en/e to enter t4e
plant an7; as a /orollary t4e term5nat5on o6 su/4 l5/en/e; went w5t4 5t t4e r524t to
re/o"er possess5on o6 t4e lan79 34ere6ore; t4ere was no 5mpe75ment to t4e use o6 O
.9 6or t4e re/o"ery o6 t4e lan7 or; as an alternat5"e; t4e pla5nt566s /oul7 2o 0y way o6
normal l5t52at5on 6or t4e re/o"ery o6 t4e plant w45/4 woul7 lea7 to t4e su0seAuent
re/o"ery o6 t4e lan79
1) $o t5me 6rame 5s 5mpose7 on O .9 pro/ee75n2s9 34ere6ore; la/4es ou24t not
present any 5mpe75ment to t4e use o6 O .9 6or t4e re/o"ery o6 lan79
2) C4ere a /ase 5s to 0e 7e/57e7 on a6657a"5t e"57en/e; t4e a6657a"5t must reply
spe/565/ally to t4e alle2at5ons ra5se7; ot4erw5se t4e alle2at5ons must 0e taDen to
4a"e 0een a//epte79
2) A7m5ss5ons are t4e stron2est e"57en/e poss50le an7 e"en a wron2 /onstru/t5on o6 a
7o/ument w5ll 0e assume7 to 0e /orre/t 5n "5ew o6 t4e a7m5ss5on9
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0.1
* B+,+-+ M+)+.-/+ -011+'.
=la5nt56 tela4 memo4on melalu5 satu saman pemula menurut A .9 <ae7a4)<ae7a4 Ma4Dama4
35n225 19.- &8<M38' untuD satu per5nta4 men7apat 0al5D pem5l5Dan tana4)tana4 tertentu
Depunyaan mereDa atas alasan 0a4awa 7e6en7an tela4 men7u7uD5 tana4 5tu tanpa lesen atau
persetu:uan pla5nt569 =la5nt56 7an 7e6en7an tela4 men:al5n satu 4u0un2an pern5a2aan yan2 0a5D
7an tela4 men25Dat 0e0erapa per:an:5an; termasuD per:an:5an 0erDenaan 7en2an tana4 yan2
4
75pert5Da5Dan &8=er:an:5an <BB=8'9 Selepas 4u0un2an pern5a2aan 5tu 0eransur 0uruD; pla5nt56 tela4
menamatDan per:an:5an)per:an:5an 5tu De/ual5 =er:an:5an <BB= 5tu yan2 757aDwa tela4 75tamatDan
7en2an persetu:uan 0ersama untuD memu7a4Dan penyempurnaan suatu per:an:5an yan2 0aru9
!e6en7an mene2asDan 0a4awa Dalaula4 0uDan Derana :an:5):an:5 pla5nt56; 7e6en7an t57aD aDan
0ersetu:u menamatDan =er:an:5an <BB= melalu5 persetu:uan 0ersama9 !e6en7an mene2asDan
0a4awa =er:an:5an <BB= 5tu a7ala4 suatu per:an:5an penyewaan 7an/atau mem0entuD suatu
penyewaan 75 s5s5 un7an2)un7an2 untuD pem0alasan9
!e6en7an 0er4u:a4 0a4awa pros575n2 terus 75 0awa4 A .9 t57aD sesua5 Derana? &5' not5s
penamatan =er:an:5an <BB= 5tu /uma meru:uD Depa7a 4aD men22unaDan lo:5 yan2 terletaD 75
tana4 5tu 7an 0uDan tana4 5tu sen75r5 7an lantaran 5tu t57aD termasuD 7alam 0atasan A .9@ 7an &55'
soalan men2ena5 0er0a2a5 per0a5Dan yan2 tela4 mereDa 0awa Depa7a tapaD 5tu 4anya 0ole4
75selesa5Dan melalu5 suatu per05/araan penu49 !ar5 Deteran2an a657a"5t; t52a 5su t5m0ul untuD
penentuan ma4Dama4? &5' sama a7a suatu penyewaan atau suatu lesen tela4 750entuD@ &55' :5Da
suatu lesen tela4 750entuD; sama a7a ter7apat penamatan lesen 5tu yan2 0etul@ 7an &555'
meman7an2Dan 6aDta)6aDta 7an Dea7aan Des 5tu; sama a7a permo4onan 75 0awa4 A .9 a7ala4
0erpatutan9
D/20#0-3+4; mem0enarDan permo4onan pla5nt56 5tu?
3) BaDtor yan2 pal5n2 pent5n2 7alam menentuDan sama a7a ter7apat suatu
penyewaan a7ala4 n5at p54aD)p54aD yan2 0erDenaan9 Se7an2Dan pem5l5Dan
eDsDlus56 a7ala4 suatu De4en7aD yan2 wa:50 0a25 satu penyewaan; 5anya :u2a
0uDan uDuran yan2 tun22al@ mun2D5n ter7apat Dea7aan la5n yan2 men57aDDan n5at
mem0entuD suatu penyewaan9 Meman7an2Dan Desemua Dea7aan Des; 4u0un2an
75 antara p54aD)p54aD 5tu /uma setaDat pem0er5 lesen 7an peme2an2 lesen9
Mempert5m0an2Dan terma)terma =er:an:5an <BB= 7an Dea7aan Des serta DelaDuan
p54aD)p54aD 5tu; apa yan2 754asratDan a7ala4 7e6en7an aDan /uma men7apat 4aD
5st5mewa men22unaDan lo:5 5tu tanpa men7apat Depent5n2an 75 7alam tana4 5tu
sama seDal59 3anpa Depent5n2an yan2 men/uDup5 yan2 750er5Dan Depa7a mereDa;
7e6en7an t57aD 0ole4 menuntut 0a4awa suatu penyewaan tela4 750entuD9
3) Calaupun penamatan =er:an:5an <BB= 5tu 75se0a0Dan ole4 /a7an2an untuD
8meran/an2 suatu penyusunan yan2 0aru 7an 0erla5nan8 &8worD out a new an7
7566erent arran2ement8' yan2 t57aD perna4 0erlaDu; penamatan 5tu tela4 75persetu:u5
0ersama ole4 De7ua)7ua p54aD 5tu 7an a7ala4 sa4 7an 0etul9 $amun
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0.2
7em5D5an; 7e6en7an t57aD 754alan2 7ar5pa7a memulaDan t5n7aDan untuD menuntut
reme75 yan2 sesua5 untuD penyusunan 0aru yan2 t57aD perna4 0erlaDu 5tu9
2) J5Da 7e6en7an 0erDeras 4en7aD memasuD5 atau terus men7u7uD5 tana4 5tu atau
sela5nnya men:alanDan lesen 5tu; mesD5pun pem0atalan lesennya &05arpun 5anya
sala4'; 5a men:a75 seoran2 pen/ero0o4 7an 0ertan22un2an 75 7alam suatu t5n7aDan
yan2 75mulaDan ole4 pla5nt569
2) aD5Dat semata)mata pemasan2an 65E5Dal 0uDanla4 6aDta muDtama7 untuD
meny56atDan sesuatu 0en7a se0a2a5 leDapan@ apa yan2 le054 pent5n2 a7ala4 tu:uan
aneDsas5 7an 0uDannya /ara aneDsas59 Meman7an2Dan 0a2a5mana 0er0a2a5 :en5s
:entera 5tu 752unaDan; :elas 75tun:uDDan 0a4awa lo:5 5tu a7ala4 suatu pemasan2an
tetap Depa7a tana4 5tu; 7an ole4 5tu mem0entuD se0a4a25an 7ar5pa7a tana4 5tu9
2) =en7u7uDan tana4 5tu ole4 7e6en7an a7ala4 menurut lesen untuD memasuD5 lo:5 5tu
7an; 0ersama 7en2an penamatan lesen terse0ut; turut men25Dut a7ala4 4aD untuD
men7apat 0al5D pem5l5Dan tana4 5tu9 Ja75; t57aD ter7apat 4alan2an ter4a7ap
pen22unaan A .9 untuD men7apat 0al5D tana4 5tu; atau se0a2a5 p5l54an la5n; pla5nt56
F
0ole4 men25Dut :alan 2uaman yan2 05asa untuD men7apat 0al5D lo:5 5tu yan2 aDan
mem0awa Depa7a pen2am05lan 0al5D tana4 5tu9
2) 357aD a7a tempo4 masa yan2 75DenaDan atas pros575n2 75 0awa4 A .99 Ole4 5tu;
Delen2a4an &la/4es' t57aD patut men75r5Dan se0aran2 4alan2an Depa7a
pen22unaan A .9 untuD men7apat 0al5D tana49
5&' "0'/+1
4) Apa05la sesuatu Des 0aDal 75tentuDan 0er7asarDan Deteran2an a657a"5t; a657a"5t 5tu
semest5nya men:awa0 se/ara terper5n/5 Depa7a 7aDwaan)7aDwaan yan2
75DetaraDan; :5Da t57aD 7aDwaan)7aDwaan 5tu aDan 75D5ra se0a2a5 tela4 75ter5ma9
4) =en2aDuan a7ala4 Deteran2an yan2 pal5n2 Duat yan2 mun2D5n 75perole45; 0a4Dan
satu penta6s5ran sesuatu surat/ara yan2 sala4 aDan 75s56atDan se0a2a5 0etul
meman7an2Dan pen2aDuan 5tu9+
* Editorial ote? 34e 7e6en7ants 4a"e appeale7 to t4e Supreme %ourt9+
N$#&-
Bor /ases on trespass upon term5nat5on o6 a l5/en/e; see . Mallal3s Digest &4t4 E7' paras 2112)
21119
Bor /ases on lan7 an7 65>tures; see 9 Mallal3s Digest &4t4 E7' paras 1419)144-9
5&' "0'/+1

C+-&- '&6&''&* #$
Mc,hail v ,ersons4 ames 5n-nown *19,1+ %4 44,@ *19,1+ 1 All ER 191@ *19,1+ 1 CLR ,1
6ristol "orp v ,ersons 5n-nown *19,4+ 1 All ER F91@ *19,4+ 1 CLR 1GF
7reater London "ouncil v /en-ins *19,F+ 1 All ER 1F4@ *19,F+ 1 CLR 1FF
8uppu v 6rown 9 Anor *19G-+ MLJ F9
7oh 7in "hye 9 Anor v ,ec- Tec- 8ian #ealty ,te Ltd 9 Anor *19.,+ 2 MLJ 11.
Mohamed Mustafa v 8andasami *19,9+ 2 MLJ 1-9
Tee Than $ong v "altex %il Malaysia Ltd *19,-+ 1 MLJ G.
Leigh 9 %rs v Taylor 9 %rs *19-2+ A% 1F,
8haw /oo /eang 9 %rs v 8oay $eng "hye 9 %rs *19G-+ MLJ 2-1
$hell "ompany of the :ederation of Malaya Ltd v "ommissioner of the :ederal "apital of 8uala
Lumpur *19G4+ MLJ 1-2
Material Trading ,te Ltd ;in li<uidation= v D6$ :inance Ltd *19..+ 2 MLJ 1G2
Alloy Automotive $dn 6hd v ,erusahaan Ironfield $dn 6hd *19.G+ 1 MLJ 1.2
Australian !idows3 :und Life Assurance $ociety Ltd v ational Mutual Life Association of
Australasia Ltd *1914+ A% G14@ &1914' 1, %LR GF,@ *1914+ VLR 144
Teoh >oo- )uwah v Menteri )al Ehwal Dalam egeri 9 %rs *1991+ 1 AMR 2,9@ *1991+ 1 MLJ 12
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0..
L&7/-)+#/$4 '&6&''&* #$
G
Rules o6 t4e 524 %ourt 19.- O .9
M #ajase-aran ;:oo $ay 7hee with him= ;#aja4 Darryl 9 Loh= 6or t4e pla5nt566s9
M$ ayagam ;Ahmad #astom 9 ayagam= 6or t4e 7e6en7ants9
IDRIS YUSOFF J
Esso Malays5a S7n B47; t4e pla5nt566s 4ere5n; apply 0y way o6 or525nat5n2 summons 6or an or7er
t4at t4ey 7o re/o"er possess5on o6 t4e lan7s 4el7 un7er #rant $o ,4.F Lot $o 211 an7 #rant $o
,4.G Lot $o 211 0ot4 5n Se/t5on 11 <ota B4aru; <elantan or ot4erw5se Dnown as Se/t5on 11
Loron2 M5nyaD #as <ota B4aru; <elantan &8t4e sa57 lan7s8' on t4e 2roun7 t4at t4e pla5nt566s are
ent5tle7 to possess5on o6 t4e sa57 lan7s as t4e person or persons 5n o//upat5on t4ereo6 are
o//upy5n2 w5t4out l5/en/e or /onsent o6 t4e pla5nt566s9 It 5s to 0e note7 t4at t4e appl5/at5on 5s 6or
re/o"ery o6 t4e lan7s only an7 7oes not 5n/lu7e t4e plant as 5s ma7e out to 0e 5n t4e En2l5s4
translate7 "ers5on o6 t4e or525nat5n2 summons9
34e sa57 appl5/at5on 5s ma7e pursuant to O .9 o6 t4e Rules o6 t4e 524 %ourt 19.- &8t4e R%8'
w45/4 pro"57es 6or summary pro/ee75n2s 6or re/o"er5n2 possess5on o6 lan7 5n /5r/umstan/es set
out t4ere5n9 34e or525nat5n2 summons 5s supporte7 0y t4e a6657a"5ts o6 En/5D Mo47 S4a4 05n a:5
amEa4; t4e plant an7 term5nal mana2er o6 t4e pla5nt566s9 An a6657a"5t sworn 0y t4e se/on7
7e6en7ant on 0e4al6 o6 all t4e 7e6en7ants; stron2ly res5st5n2 t4e pla5nt566s8 sa57 appl5/at5on; 4as
also 0een 65le79
34e 0a/D2roun7 6a/ts as /an 0e 2at4ere7 6rom t4e a6657a"5ts an7 t4e "ar5ous a2reements
e>4505te7 are t4at s5n/e t4e early 19.-s t4e part5es 4a7 esta0l5s4e7 2oo7 0us5ness relat5ons45p;
an7 as a result t4ey 4a7 entere7 5nto se"eral a2reements; namely?
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0.?
&a' t4e Derosene w4olesalers45p a2reement 7ate7 1F July 19.1 &MS)1'@
&0' t4e sale/pur/4ase a2reement o6 petroleum pro7u/ts 7ate7 1 May 19.1 &$S)4'@
&/' t4e Esso2as 7ealer a2reement 7ate7 1- January 19.4 &MS)F'@
&7' t4e 4aula2e a2reement 7ate7 2 $o"em0er 19.F &MS)9'@ an7
&e' 34e <ota B4aru 0ulD plant /ontra/t operat5on a2reement 7ate7 1 !e/em0er 19.G )
8t4e <BB= A2reement8 &MS)1-'9
34e part5es seeme7 to /ont5nue en:oy5n2 a 2oo7 relat5ons45p unt5l t4e later part o6 19.. w4en
apparently t4e5r 0us5ness relat5ons45p turne7 sour w45/4 resulte7 5n t4e term5nat5on o6 t4e
a6oresa57 a2reements 0y t4e pla5nt566s pursuant to t4e powers reser"e7 to t4em 5n t4e "ar5ous
a2reements w5t4 t4e e>/ept5on o6 t4e <BB= A2reement w45/4 term5nat5on 5s /la5me7 to 4a"e
0een mutually a2ree7 on9 34e "ar5ous not5/es ser"e7 on t4e 7e6en7ants 0y t4e pla5nt566s are?
&a' 6or t4e Derosene w4olesalers45p a2reement; t4e not5/e o6 term5nat5on o6 w45/4 was
7ate7 1- Be0ruary 19.9 &MS)G'@
&0' 6or t4e sale/pur/4ase a2reement o6 petroleum pro7u/ts; t4e not5/e o6 term5nat5on o6
w45/4 was 7ate7 11 January 19.9@
&/' 6or t4e Esso2as 7ealer a2reement; t4e not5/e o6 term5nat5on o6 w45/4 was 7ate7 11
January 19.9@
,
&7' 6or t4e 4aula2e a2reement; t4e not5/e o6 term5nat5on o6 w45/4 was 7ate7 22
Septem0er 19..@
&e' 6or t4e <BB= A2reement; t4e not5/e o6 a//eptan/e 0y t4e 7e6en7ants to t4e mutual
term5nat5on o6 t4e a2reement o6 w45/4 was 7ate7 2 O/to0er 19.. &MS)12'9
Be t4at as 5t may; t4e 7e6en7ants 75spute t4e le2al e66e/t o6 t4e "ar5ous not5/es an7 more
part5/ularly; 5n re2ar7 to t4e a//eptan/e o6 mutual term5nat5on o6 t4e <BB= A2reement 5n w45/4
t4e 7e6en7ants alle2e t4at t4e reason 0e45n7 t4e term5nat5on was purely an7 s5mply 6or t4e
purpose o6 6a/5l5tat5n2 a 6res4 a2reement to 0e entere7 5nto 0etween t4e part5es9 34e 7e6en7ants
6urt4er /onten7 t4at 4a7 5t not 0een 6or t4e pla5nt566s8 prom5ses an7 representat5ons; t4e
7e6en7ants woul7 not 4a"e a2ree7 to t4e mutual term5nat5on o6 t4e sa57 a2reement9 It 5s t4ere6ore
5n respe/t o6 an7 pursuant to t4e term5nat5on o6 t4e <BB= A2reement t4at t4e su0stratum o6 t4e
present a/t5on 5s 6orme79
C45lst 5t 5s not 75spute7 t4at t4e sa57 lan7s are re25stere7 5n t4e name o6 t4e pla5nt566s; t4e
7e6en7ants 4owe"er 75sa2ree t4at t4e <BB= A2reement only /on6ers upon t4em a l5/en/e merely
as a personal pr5"5le2e /reat5n2 no 5nterest 5n t4e pla5nt566s8 sa57 lan7s9 34e 7e6en7ants ma5nta5n
t4at t4e <BB= A2reement 5s 5n7ee7 a tenan/y a2reement an7/or /reates a tenan/y at law 6or a
/ons57erat5on9 34e sa57 a2reement purports to 2rant t4e 7e6en7ants t4e r524t to enter t4e plant; 5e
t4e pla5nt566s8 <ota B4aru 0ulD plant; an7 to maDe use o6 t4e plant an7 eAu5pment as set out 5n
e>4s A an7 B to t4e sa57 a2reement9
%onseAuent upon t4e term5nat5on o6 t4e <BB= A2reement; t4e pla5nt566s; rely5n2 on t4e5r r524t to
possess5on o6 t4e lan7s an7 t4e plant t4ereon; 7eman7e7 7el5"ery o6 "a/ant possess5on o6 t4e
same 6rom t4e 7e6en7ants as
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0.@
e"57en/e7 5n t4e ser5es o6 letters o6 "ar5ous 7ates9 See5n2 no response 6rom t4e 7e6en7ants; t4e
pla5nt566s 65nally 2ot t4e5r sol5/5tors to 25"e a not5/e to t4e 7e6en7ants; re5terat5n2 t4at any l5/en/e
t4e 7e6en7ants may 4a"e a/Au5re7 o"er t4e sa57 lan7s an7 t4e plant 4a7 0een 7eterm5ne7 an7
a//or75n2ly 7eman7e7 7el5"ery o6 "a/ant possess5on o6 t4e same &MS)19'9 !esp5te t4e sa57
letter; t4e 7e6en7ants st5ll re6use7 an7 /ont5nue7 to rema5n 5n o//upat5on9
34e 7e6en7ants; apart 6rom alle25n2 t4at a tenan/y 4as 0een /reate7; also ra5se t4e Auest5on o6
"ar5ous 5mpro"ements t4ey 4a7 0rou24t to t4e s5te 5n/lu75n2 t4e 5nstallat5on o6 /erta5n ma/45nery;
motors an7 p5pel5nes ot4er t4an t4e usual o0l52at5on o6 /ont5nuously ma5nta5n5n2 t4e plant; w45/4
Auest5on t4ey say /an only 0e resol"e7 t4rou24 a proper 4ear5n2 an7 not 0y resort5n2 to t4e
summary pro/ee75n2s en"5sa2e7 5n O .99
Or7er .9 r 1 pro"57es?
C4ere a person /la5ms possess5on o6 lan7 w45/4 4e alle2es 5s o//up5e7 solely 0y a person or persons
&not 0e5n2 a tenant or tenants 4ol75n2 o"er a6ter t4e term5nat5on o6 t4e tenan/y' w4o entere7 5nto or
rema5ne7 5n o//upat5on w5t4out 45s l5/en/e or /onsent or t4at o6 any pre7e/essor 5n t5tle o6 45s; t4e
pro/ee75n2s may 0e 0rou24t 0y or525nat5n2 summons 5n a//or7an/e w5t4 t4e pro"5s5ons o6 t45s Or7er9
34e law 5s settle7 t4at t4e summary pro/ee75n2s 6or possess5on o6 lan7 /an 0e employe7 5n a
s5tuat5on w4ere a person ent5tle7 to possess5on o6 t4e lan7 /la5ms possess5on o6 su/4 lan7
o//up5e7 0y anot4er person w5t4out 45s l5/en/e or /onsent or t4e l5/en/e or /onsent o6 any o6 45s
pre7e/essor)5n)t5tle or 5n anot4er s5tuat5on w4ere a person w4o 4as entere7 5nto o//upat5on o6 t4e
lan7 w5t4 t4e l5/en/e or /onsent o6 t4e person ent5tle7 to possess5on o6 t4e lan7 or any o6 45s
pre7e/essor)5n)t5tle 0ut rema5ns 5n su/4 o//upat5on w5t4out l5/en/e or /onsent o6 t4e person
ent5tle7 to possess5on or any pre7e/essor)5n)t5tle o6 45s9 See Mc,hail v ,ersons4 ames
5n-nown 1@ 6ristol "orp v ,ersons 5n-nown 2 an7 7reater London "ouncil v /en-ins 19 In t4e
5nstant /ase; w4at t4e pla5nt566s /la5m 5s t4at no 7ou0t t4e 7e6en7ants entere7 5nto o//upat5on o6
.
t4e lan7s w5t4 t4e5r l5/en/e or /onsent 0ut t4at l5/en/e or /onsent 4a7 alrea7y 0een w5t47rawn
an7 term5nate79 Su/4 0e5n2 t4e s5tuat5on; 5t 5s alle2e7 t4at t4e 7e6en7ants 4a"e no 6urt4er r524t to
/ont5nue rema5n5n2 on t4e lan7s an7 t4e /onseAuent use o6 t4e plant9
Brom t4e a6657a"5t e"57en/e; t4ere seems to 0e t4ree 5ssues t4at reAu5re 7eterm5nat5on 0y t4e
/ourt; namely?
&1' w4et4er t4ere was /reate7 a tenan/y or a l5/en/e@
&2' 56 a l5/en/e was /reate7 w4et4er t4ere was a proper 7eterm5nat5on o6 su/4 l5/en/e@
an7
&1' /ons57er5n2 t4e 6a/ts an7 /5r/umstan/es o6 t4e /ase; w4et4er t4e appl5/at5on un7er
O .9 o6 t4e Rules o6 t4e 524 %ourt 5s proper9
As re2ar7s t4e 65rst 5ssue; t4e pla5nt566s ma5nta5n t4at t4e <BB= A2reement 5s e>pl5/5t 5n t4at 5t
/on6ers on t4e 7e6en7ants only 8a l5/en/e to enter t4e plant an7 maDe use o6 t4e /ompany8s plant
eAu5pment t4ereon 9998 an7 not to any 5nterest 5n t4e lan79 34ere 5s spelt out 5n t4e a2reement t4at
8t4e /ompany *pla5nt566s+ 4ere0y 2rant to t4e /ontra/tor *7e6en7ants+ a l5/en/e as a personal
pr5"5le2e /reat5n2 no 5nterest 5n t4e lan7 to enter t4e plant 6or t4e purpose o6 99989 A2a5n; 5t 5s
stresse7 5n /l 12&55' t4at t4e a2reement s4all
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0.0
not operate or 0e /onstrue7 as a tenan/y a2reement or an a2reement to /reate a tenan/y o"er
t4e plant an7 t4e eAu5pment t4ere5n9 Bor t4e 7e6en7ants; as state7 earl5er; 5t 5s ar2ue7 t4at t4e
<BB= A2reement /reates a tenan/y an7 5n real5ty t4e RM2-- paya0le 0y t4e 7e6en7ants 5s a
mont4ly rent9 In ot4er wor7s; t4e e>/lus5"e possess5on en:oye7 0y t4e 7e6en7ants /ouple7 w5t4
payment o6 RM2-- per mont4 are all t4e 5n75/5a o6 tenan/y9 C45lst 5t may 0e true t4at t4ese
6a/tors may /arry some we524t; w4at 5s /ons57ere7 to 0e o6 paramount 5mportan/e 5s t4e 5ntent5on
o6 t4e part5es9
In 8uppu v 6rown 9 Anor 4 t4e %ourt o6 Appeal 5n a ma:or5ty 7e/5s5on 4el7?
&1' t4e Auest5on o6 w4et4er a person 5s a tenant or a l5/ensee 5s a Auest5on 7epen75n2 upon t4e 5ntent5on
o6 t4e part5es an7 t4e law 7oes not 5mpute 5ntent5on to enter 5nto le2al relat5ons45ps w4en t4e
/5r/umstan/es an7 /on7u/t o6 t4e part5es ne2at5"e any su/4 5ntent5on@ 999
In 7oh 7in "hye 9 Anor v ,ec- Tec- 8ian #ealty ,te Ltd F; t4e S5n2apore %ourt o6 Appeal 4el7?
&1' t4e 5ntent5on o6 t4e part5es 5s an 5mportant /ons57erat5on 5n 7eterm5n5n2 t4e
relat5ons45p o6 lan7lor7 an7 tenant as 5n all ot4er /ontra/tual relat5ons45ps; 0ut 5n e"ery
/ase t4e 5ntent5on 8must 0e sou24t not 6rom t4e mere wor7s o6 t4e a2reement 0ut 6rom
5ts su0stan/e an7 6rom t4e /on7u/t o6 t4e part5es an7 t4e surroun75n2 /5r/umstan/es89
C4at t4e part5es sa57 or pro6esse7 5n t4e a2reement alone 5s not enou24@ 5t 7oes not
alter w4at 5s; 5n e66e/t; a tenan/y 5nto a l5/en/e; an7 "5/e "ersa@
&2' t4e relat5ons45p o6 t4e part5es 5s 7eterm5ne7 0y law; 4a"5n2 re2ar7 to all t4e rele"ant
/5r/umstan/es an7 not 0y t4e la0el t4ey /4ose to put on t4e a2reement@
&1' a mater5al /5r/umstan/e 5n t4e /ons57erat5on o6 t4e relat5ons45p o6 lan7lor7 an7
tenant 5s e>/lus5"e possess5on o6 t4e property en:oye7 0y t4e o//up5er an7 e>/lus5"e
possess5on 5s an essent5al reAu5rement o6 a tenan/y9 owe"er; e>/lus5"e possess5on 5s
also not t4e sole an7 only /r5ter5on@ t4ere may 0e ot4er /5r/umstan/es ne2at5"5n2 an
5ntent5on to /reate a tenan/y@ 999
In anot4er Malays5an /ase; Mohamed Mustafa v 8andasami G; t4e Be7eral %ourt 4el7 at p 11.?
9
345s /ourt 4as; 5n Be7eral %ourt %5"5l Appeal $o G4 o6 19,.; 0etween !oo >ew "hee an7 >ong >ong
)oo *19,9+ 1 MLJ 111 7e/57e7 t4at e>/lus5"e possess5on 5s no lon2er a 7e/5s5"e test to 7eterm5ne t4at a
tenan/y 4as 0een /reate79 )ill and #edman3s Law of Landlord and Tenant &1Ft4 E7' at p 1, puts 5t t45s
way? 65rstly; 56 t4ere 5s no r524t o6 e>/lus5"e possess5on t4e transa/t5on /annot 0e a lease9 Se/on7ly; 56
t4ere 5s a r524t o6 e>/lus5"e possess5on t4e transa/t5on may 0e e5t4er a lease or a l5/en/e 7epen75n2 on
all t4e rele"ant /5r/umstan/es9 34e test t4at t45s /ourt 5n !oo >ew "hee8s /ase; supra; appl5e7 5s 8t4e
nature an7 Aual5ty o6 t4e o//upan/y? w4et4er 5t 5s 5nten7e7 t4at t4e o//up5er s4oul7 4a"e a staDe 5n t4e
prem5ses su0)let or w4et4er 4e s4oul7 4a"e only a personal pr5"5le2e8 an7 apply5n2 t45s test; 5t /ame to
t4e /on/lus5on t4at t4e respon7ent Yon2 Yon2 oo8s 5nterest 5n a 4al6)port5on o6 t4e 2roun7 6loor was a
tenan/y9 34e same /on/lus5on was rea/4e7 5n Addiscom(e 7arden Estates Ltd v "ra((e *19F.+ 1 HB
F119 Ea/4 /ase must o6 /ourse 0e /ons57ere7 on t4e 6a/ts pert5nent to 5t9
a"5n2 re2ar7 to all /5r/umstan/es o6 t4e /ase; I am o6 op5n5on t4at t4e relat5ons45p o6 t4e part5es
5s t4at only o6 l5/ensor an7 l5/ensee9 Ju725n2 6rom t4e terms o6 t4e <BB= A2reement an7 t4e
/5r/umstan/es an7 /on7u/t o6
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0.&
t4e part5es t4ey /learly s4ow t4at all t4at was 5nten7e7 was t4at t4e 7e6en7ants woul7 only 4a"e
t4e pr5"5le2e o6 maD5n2 use o6 t4e plant w5t4 no 5nterest 5n t4e lan7 at all9 In t4e a0sen/e o6
su665/5ent 5nterest 0e5n2 /on6erre7 upon t4em; t4e 7e6en7ants /annot /la5m t4at a tenan/y 4as
0een /reate7 t4ou24 un7en5a0ly t4ey 4a"e possess5on o6 t4e plant9
%om5n2 to t4e se/on7 5ssue; 5t 5s /onten7e7 0y t4e 7e6en7ants t4at t4ere was no term5nat5on o6
t4e tenan/y/l5/en/e to o//upy t4e lan7s9 C4at 5s en"5sa2e7 an7 5n7ee7 to 0e /ons57ere7 5s t4e
term5nat5on o6 o//upat5on o6 t4e 0ulD plant9 345s l5ne o6 ar2ument 5s pursue7 5n "5ew o6 t4e letter
7ate7 21 $o"em0er 19.9 6rom t4e pla5nt566s8 sol5/5tors to t4e 65rst 7e6en7ant; e>4 MS)199 %ounsel
6or t4e 7e6en7ants ar2ues t4at e>4 MS)19 superse7es t4e earl5er letter o6 mutual term5nat5on
e>4505te7 as MS)129 e po5nts out t4at w4at /an 0e 2at4ere7 6rom MS)19 5s t4e term5nat5on o6 t4e
l5/en/e to o//upy t4e 0ulD plant an7 t4e 7eman7 6or 5ts "a/ant possess5on ) t4ere 5s no ment5on o6
re/o"ery o6 t4e lan7s9
Re6err5n2 to e>4 MS)12 &t4ere are two letters w45/4 /ompr5se MS)12'; /ounsel 6or t4e 7e6en7ants
says 6rom 5ts tone 5t 7oes not /onst5tute 8a 65nal term5nat5on 0ut a prelu7e to an arran2ement
0etween t4e part5es 999 MS)12 en"5sa2es a su0seAuent 6ormal a2reement9 It 7oes not mutually
term5nate t4e alle2e7 l5/en/e to o//upy t4e lan7s98 %ounsel ma5nta5ns t4at t4e mutual term5nat5on
o6 t4e <BB= A2reement was t4e result o6 /erta5n representat5ons ma7e 0y t4e pla5nt566s w45/4
5n7u/e7 t4e 7e6en7ants 5nto a2ree5n2 to t4e term5nat5on9
Bor t4e pla5nt566s; 5t 5s ar2ue7 t4at s5n/e t4e l5/en/e 2rante7 to 7e6en7ants 4as 0een term5nate7;
t4e5r /ont5nue7 o//upat5on o6 t4e 0ulD plant an7 t4e sa57 lan7s 5s unlaw6ul9 34e e>4 MS)19
/annot; on any a//ount; 0e sa57 to 4a"e superse7e7 MS)129
On perusal o6 MS)12; 5t 5s /lear to me t4at t4e term5nat5on o6 <BB= A2reement 4as 0een mutually
a2ree7 to 0y 0ot4 part5es9 34e 6a/t t4at t4e term5nat5on may 0e a/tuate7 0y t4e proposal to 8worD
out a new an7 7566erent arran2ement8 or ot4erw5se; matters not9 34e term5nat5on 5s "al57 an7
proper9
A2a5n looD5n2 at MS)19; I 7o not /ons57er 5t to 4a"e superse7e7 MS)129 It 5s 5n 6a/t a 65nal not5/e
6rom t4e pla5nt566s8 sol5/5tors t4at /ourt pro/ee75n2s woul7 0e 5nst5tute7 5n t4e e"ent o6 t4e
7e6en7ants re6us5n2 to 25"e up possess5on o6 t4e 0ulD plant an7 t4e sa57 lan7s9 =ara2rap4 2 o6
MS)19 alle2es t4at t4e 7e6en7ants are unlaw6ully o//upy5n2 t4e 0ulD plant9 In t45s respe/t; 5t 5s
o0"5ous t4at t4e alle2e7 o//upat5on woul7 not 0e unlaw6ul 0ut 6or t4e term5nat5on o6 t4e l5/en/e
s5n/e t4e 7e6en7ants 4a7 law6ully entere7 t4e 0ulD plant9 =ara2rap4 1 o6 MS)19 re6ers to t4e
pla5nt566s8 earl5er letters to t4e 7e6en7ants an7 t4e5r repeate7 7eman7s w45/4 un6ortunately appear
to 4a"e 0een 52nore79 =ara2rap4 4 /learly 5n75/ates t4at t4e l5/en/e pre"5ously 25"en to t4e
7e6en7ants 4a7 0een 7eterm5ne7 an7 t4e su0seAuent para2rap4s 7eman7 7el5"ery o6 "a/ant
possess5on o6 t4e 0ulD plant; t4e sD57 tanD an7 t4e an/5llary eAu5pment w5t45n a /erta5n per5o7 o6
t5me9 On t4e stren2t4 o6 t4e 6a/t a6oresa57; t4e ar2ument o6 supersess5on o6 MS)12 0y MS)19
7oes not seem to me to 4ol7 any water9
1-
I6 t4e 7e6en7ants are m5n76ul o6 t4e5r r524ts to a new arran2ement w45/4 un6ortunately ne"er
mater5al5Ee7; t4ey are o6 /ourse at l50erty to 65le an a/t5on seeD5n2 appropr5ate reme75es9
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0.'
3o allow t4e 7e6en7ants 5n t4e /5r/umstan/es to 0rus4 as57e t4e mutual term5nat5on o6 <BB=
A2reement rely5n2 on 6rau7; /4eat5n2 an7 m5srepresentat5on alle2e7ly perpetrate7 0y t4e pla5nt566s
seems to 0e 5n 75re/t /on6l5/t w5t4 t4e pr5n/5ple enun/5ate7 0y t4e Be7eral %ourt 5n Tee Than $ong
v "altex %il Malaysia Ltd , w4ere On2 %J &Malaya' &as 4e t4en was' sa57 at p G9?
A /ase /losely parallel to t45s 5s Thompson v ,ar- *1944+ 1 <B 4-.; w4ere t4e owner o6 prem5ses 4a7
re"oDe7 a l5/en/e to use t4em 2rante7 to anot4er person an7 an 5nter5m 5n:un/t5on was 2rante7 to
restra5n t4e 6ormer l5/ensee 6rom trespass5n2 on t4e prem5ses; e"en t4ou24 4e m524t 4a"e a /la5m 6or
7ama2es 6or 0rea/4 o6 /ontra/t a2a5nst t4e owner o6 t4e prem5ses 5n respe/t o6 t4e re"o/at5on o6 t4e
l5/en/e9 In my "5ew t4e :u72ment o6 #o77ar7 LJ 5s so pe/ul5arly appropr5ate t4at I woul7 Auote 5t 5n
e>tenso?
8It 5s a stran2e ar2ument to a77ress to a /ourt o6 law t4at we ou24t to 4elp t4e 7e6en7ant
w4o 4as trespasse7 an7 2ot 45msel6 5nto t4ese prem5ses 5n t4e way 5n w45/4 4e 4as
7one an7 to say t4at t4at woul7 0e preser"5n2 t4e status Auo an7 a 2oo7 reason 6or not
2rant5n2 an 5n:un/t5on9 34e stren2t4 o6 t4e ar2ument w45/4 was put 6orwar7 on t4e
7e6en7ant8s 0e4al6 was t4at; assum5n2 t4at t4ere 4a7 0een a 0rea/4 o6 /ontra/t on t4e
part o6 t4e pla5nt566; t4e 7e6en7ant 4a7 a r524t to 0e w4ere 4e was9 34at 5s an ent5re
m5s/on/ept5on o6 t4e le2al pos5t5on; w45/4 was t4at t4e 7e6en7ant was a l5/ensee on t4e
prem5ses9 34at l5/en/e 4as 0een w5t47rawn9 C4et4er 5t 4as 0een r524tly w5t47rawn or
wron2ly w5t47rawn matters not45n2 6or t45s purpose9 34e l5/ensee on/e 45s l5/en/e 5s
w5t47rawn; 4as no r524t to re)enter on t4e lan79 I6 4e 7oes; 4e 5s a /ommon trespasser9
34e law 5s properly la57 7own 5n t4e 6ollow5n2 passa2e 5n $almond on Torts &9t4 E7' at p
2F.? Ie w4o 5s e:e/te7 6rom lan7 0y t4e l5/ensor 5n 0rea/4 o6 45s l5/en/e; or 5s
ot4erw5se 75stur0e7 0y t4e l5/ensor 5n t4e e>er/5se o6 5t; 4as e"en at /ommon law; an7
notw5t4stan75n2 !ood v Lead(itter &1.4F' 11 M ( C .1.; a 2oo7 /ause o6 a/t5on 5n
/ontra/tI ) see 8errison v $mith *1.9,+ 2 HB 44F ) II6 4owe"er; t4e l5/ensee 5ns5sts;
notw5t4stan75n2 t4e re"o/at5on o6 45s l5/en/e &e"en t4ou24 5t 5s t4us premature an7
wron26ul' 5n enter5n2 or rema5n5n2 on t4e lan7 or 5n ot4erw5se e>er/5s5n2 45s l5/en/e; 4e
0e/omes at /ommon law a trespasser or ot4er wron27oer; an7 l5a0le 5n an a/t5on
a//or75n2ly at t4e su5t o6 t4e l5/ensor9 34e rule 5s an 5llustrat5on o6 t4e 7566eren/e 0etween
a le2al power to 7o a t45n2 e66e/t5"ely an7 a le2al r524t or l50erty to 7o 5t law6ully9 A
l5/ensor 4as at /ommon law t4e power to re"oDe t4e l5/en/e at any t5me; 0ut 4e 4as no
r524t to re"oDe 5t 0e6ore t4e e>p5rat5on o6 t4e term9I As t45s 5s an 5nterlo/utory pro/ee75n2
5t 5s /on"en5ent; 5nstea7 o6 2o5n2 t4rou24 a lar2e num0er o6 /ases; s5mply to state t4e
op5n5on o6 a lea75n2 te>t0ooD wr5ter o6 2reat aut4or5ty w5t4 w45/4 I ent5rely a2ree98
34e last 5ssue to /ons57er 5s w4et4er 5n t4e /5r/umstan/es; t4e employment o6 O .9 o6 t4e R% 5s
proper9 %ounsel 6or t4e 7e6en7ants /la5ms t4at w4at 4as 0een t4e su0:e/t)matter 5n t4e not5/e 5s
t4e term5nat5on o6 t4e r524t to enter t4e 0ulD plant an7 5t 7oes not /ome w5t45n t4e am05t o6 O .9
w45/4 spe/565/ally 7eals w5t4 summary pro/ee75n2s 6or possess5on o6 lan79 e ma5nta5ns t4at
a6657a"5t e"57en/e 5s not su665/5ent to resol"e t4e status o6 t4e 0ulD plant ) w4et4er 5t 5s 7eeme7 a
65>ture or st5ll reta5ns t4e /4attel /4ara/ter9 e says t4at e"en assum5n2 t4at t4e 0ulD plant 5s a
65>ture; a re6eren/e to t4e 0ulD plant 7oes not 5n/lu7e lan7 t4ou24 a re6eren/e to lan7 5n/lu7es
65>tures9
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0?+
It 5s tr5te law t4at lan7 5n/lu7es 65>tures9 But on t4e /ontrary 5t /annot 0e 75sm5sse7 t4at 65>tures 7o
6orm part o6 t4e lan7 ) t45s 5s espe/5ally so w4en t4ere 5s a permanent atta/4ment to t4e lan79 345s
pr5n/5ple 5s 0ase7 on a 2eneral rule o6 2reat ant5Au5ty t4at 8w4ate"er 5s a665>e7 to t4e so5l 0elon2s
t4ereto8 as t4e ma>5m 2oes 8Au5/Au57 plantator solo; solo /e75t89 owe"er 5t must 0e o0ser"e7 t4at
t4e mere 6a/t o6 p4ys5/al atta/4ment 5s ne"ert4eless not /on/lus5"e to 7eem an art5/le or a /4attel
a 65>ture@ w4at 5s o6 2reater 5mportan/e 5s t4e o0:e/t o6 anne>at5on rat4er t4an t4e mo7e9 E"en
w4en a /4attel 5s a/tually a665>e7 to t4e lan7 0ut /an 0e remo"e7 w5t4out 7ama2e to 5t or t4e
11
prem5ses to w45/4 5t 5s atta/4e7 an7 t4e anne>at5on 5s merely 6or a temporary purpose an7 6or t4e
more /omplete en:oyment an7 use o6 5t as a /4attel; 5t w5ll not 5n t4e /5r/umstan/es lose 5ts /4attel
/4ara/ter an7 w5ll not 0e/ome part o6 t4e lan7 ) see Leigh 9 %rs v Taylor 9 %rs .9 One o6 t4e
lo/al /ases on t45s aspe/t o6 t4e law 5s 8haw /oo /eang 9 %rs v 8oay $eng "hye 9 %rs 9 5n
w45/4 5t was 4el7?
C4et4er a 80u5l75n28 4as 0een so atta/4e7 to t4e lan7 as to 0e/ome a 65>ture; an7 so 6orm part o6 t4e lan7
5s a Auest5on o6 6a/t; or o6 m5>e7 law an7 6a/t9 It 5s /ommon Dnowle72e 5n t45s /ountry ) an7 4as 0een
repeate7ly a//epte7 0y t4e /ourts as su/4 ) t4at /erta5n types o6 4ouses are mo"a0le property9 In t4e
/ase o6 6illing v ,ill *19F1+ 2 All ER 1-G1 at p 1-G1; Lor7 #o77ar7 999 Auote7 w5t4 appro"al t4e 6ollow5n2
passa2e 6rom )als(ury3s Laws of England as a test 6or 7eterm5n5n2 w4et4er a property was 999to 0e
re2ar7e7 as 6orm5n2 part o6 t4e lan7 as a 65>ture?
8C4et4er a /4attel 4as 0een so a665>e7 to t4e lan7 or 0u5l75n2 as to 0e/ome a 65>ture 7epen7s on t4e
o0:e/t an7 purpose o6 t4e anne>at5on; an7 56 t4e /4attel /an 0e remo"e7 w5t4out 7o5n2 5rrepara0le
7ama2e to t4e prem5ses; ne5t4er t4e met4o7 nor t4e 7e2ree o6 anne>at5on; nor t4e Auantum o6 7ama2e
t4at woul7 0e 7one to t4e /4attel or to t4e prem5ses 0y t4e remo"al; a66e/t t4e Auest5on sa"e 5n so 6ar as
t4ey t4row a l524t upon t4e o0:e/t an7 purpose o6 t4e anne>at5on9 I6 t4e o0:e/t an7 purpose was 6or t4e
permanent an7 su0stant5al 5mpro"ement o6 t4e lan7 or 0u5l75n2; t4e art5/le w5ll 0e 7eeme7 to 0e a 65>ture;
0ut 56 5t was atta/4e7 to t4e prem5ses merely 6or a temporary purpose or 6or t4e more /omplete
en:oyment an7 use o6 5t as a /4attel; t4en 5t w5ll not lose 5ts /4attel /4ara/ter an7 5t 7oes not 0e/ome part
o6 t4e realty98
34e ot4er lo/al /ase 5s $hell "ompany of the :ederation of Malaya Ltd v "ommissioner of the
:ederal "apital of 8uala Lumpur 1-; 5n w45/4 5t was 4el7 t4at t4e un7er2roun7 tanDs 0ur5e7 two
6eet 0elow t4e 2roun7 le"el an7 were tur6e7 o"er or /o"ere7 w5t4 /on/rete or ma/a7am were lan7
w5t45n t4e 7e65n5t5on o6 8lan78 5n t4e Lan7 %o7e &%ap 11.'9 See also a S5n2apore /ase Material
Trading ,te Ltd ;in li<uidation= v D6$ :inance Ltd119
It 5s to 0e note7 t4at on looD5n2 at t4e <BB= A2reement; t4e 0ulD plant /ons5sts o6 t4e eAu5pment
set out 5n e>4s A an7 B atta/4e7 to t4e sa57 a2reement an7 /ons57er5n2 t4e purposes 6or w45/4
t4e "ar5ous types o6 eAu5pment are 5nten7e7 to 0e use7; t4ey /learly s4ow t4at t4e plant 5s a
permanent atta/4ment to t4e lan7; t4ere0y 6orm5n2 part o6 t4e lan7 ) para , o6 t4e 7e6en7ants8
a6657a"5t seems to support t45s9 Burt4er; t4e 7e6en7ants8 o//upat5on o6 t4e lan7 5s 0y "5rtue o6 t4e
l5/en/e 25"en to t4em to enter t4e 0ulD plant an7 as a /orollary; t4e term5nat5on o6 su/4 l5/en/e
2oes w5t4 5t t4e r524t to re/o"er possess5on o6 t4e sa57 lan7s ) more so w4en t4ere 5s a
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0?*
/essat5on o6 0us5ness relat5ons45p 0etween 0ot4 part5es9 %ounsel 6or t4e 7e6en7ants also ra5ses
t4e Auest5on o6 la/4es; t4ou24 5t 5s not a /omplete 0ar to t4e pla5nt566s8 /la5m 0ut 4e says 5t 5s a
4ea"y 5mpe75ment an7/or a 0ar to summary :u72ment pro/ee75n2s s5n/e no plaus50le reason
0e5n2 a7"an/e7 6or t4e 7elay9 I 7o not a2ree w5t4 45s su0m5ss5on; part5/ularly w4en t4ere 5s no
t5me 6rame 5mpose7 on pro/ee75n2s o6 t45s nature9 In t4e e"ent; I 4ol7 t4at t4ere ou24t not to
present any 5mpe75ment to maDe use o6 O .9 6or t4e re/o"ery o6 t4e sa57 lan7s or as an
alternat5"e t4e pla5nt566s /an 2o 0y way o6 normal l5t52at5on 6or t4e re/o"ery o6 t4e 0ulD plant w45/4
lea7s to t4e su0seAuent re/o"ery o6 t4e lan7 t4ou24 t4e pro/e7ure m524t 0e t5me)/onsum5n29 34e
opt5on 5s le6t ent5rely to t4e pla5nt566s9
C45lst st5ll on t4e <BB= A2reement I /annot 4elp o0ser"5n2 t4at t4ere seems to ar5se a /erta5n
po5nt w45/4 5s un7ou0te7ly /ru/5al an7 ent5tle7 to some we524ty /ons57erat5on9 As /an 0e seen t4e
/ause o6 a/t5on ar5ses pr5n/5pally 6rom t4e term5nat5on o6 t4e <BB= A2reement; w45/4 a2reement
a//or75n2; to 5ts pream0le; states t4at? 834e /ompany 5s possesse7 o6 t4e 0ulD plant lo/ate7 at Lot
$o 21-; Loron2 M5nyaD #as; <ota B4aru; <elantan; as set out 5n t4e plan atta/4e7 4ereto an7
marDe7 e>4 A &4ere5na6ter to 0e re6erre7 to as t4e 8=lant8'89
owe"er 5n t4e or525nat5n2 summons; t4e pla5nt566s apply 6or an or7er t4at t4ey 7o re/o"er
possess5on o6 t4e sa57 lan7s; 5e Lot $os 211 an7 2119 In t4e a6657a"5t 5n support t4ereo6; 5t 5s
a"erre7 0y En/5D Mo47 S4a4 05n a:5 amEa4; t4e plant an7 term5nal mana2er o6 t4e pla5nt566s8;
t4at t4e pla5nt566s are t4e re25stere7 owners o6 t4e two lan7s w45/4 are :o5ntly re6erre7 to as t4e
12
8sa57 lan7s8 ) see para 19 In para 4 o6 t4e sa57 a6657a"5t; 5t 5s a"erre7 t4at on t4e sa57 lan7s 5s s5te7
t4e pla5nt566s8 plant Dnown as t4e Esso <ota B4aru BulD =lant &8t4e plant8'9 At a 2lan/e t4ere seems
to 0e a sl524t /on6us5on o"er t4e lot num0ers on w45/4 t4e plant 5s s5tuate7 an7 or75nar5ly t45s
woul7 /all 6or a /erta5n e>planat5on to re/on/5le t4e 7566eren/e 0ut 5t seems t4at 7esp5te t45s
/on6us5on; 5t 4as 0een put to rest 0y t4e a7m5ss5on ma7e 0y t4e 7e6en7ants 5n t4e5r a6657a"5t)5n)
reply w4en t4e 7eponent says at para F t4ereo6; 8Su0stant5ally; I 7o not 75spute t4e 6a/t 5n paras 1;
2; 1; 4; F an7 G o6 t4e Esso a6657a"5t 99989
owe"er; /ontrary to w4at 4as 0een a7m5tte7; /ounsel 6or t4e 7e6en7ants 5n 45s su0m5ss5on
maDes a 6ee0le attempt to 7eny t4e or7er sou24t 0y s4ow5n2 t4e 7566eren/e 5n t4e lot num0ers;
0ut t4e Auest5on 5s; /an t4e su0m5ss5on pre"a5l o"er t4e a6657a"5t e"57en/eJ 34e answer 5s /learly
no9
It 5s settle7 law t4at w4ere a /ase 5s to 0e 7e/57e7 on a6657a"5t e"57en/e t4e a6657a"5t must reply
spe/565/ally to t4e alle2at5ons ra5se7; ot4erw5se t4e alle2at5ons must 0e taDen to 4a"e 0een
a//epte79 In Alloy Automotive $dn 6hd v ,erusahaan Ironfield $dn 6hd 12; t4e Supreme %ourt at
p 1.F */ol 2)I' sa57?
34ere 5s 6or/e 5n t4e appellant8s /ontent5on t4at an a6657a"5t must reply spe/565/ally to alle2at5ons; an7 56 5t
7oes not; t4en t4ose alle2at5ons not repl5e7 to must 0e taDen to 4a"e 0een a//epte79 In Daw-ins v
,rince Edward of $axe !eimar Bla/D0urn J state7?
8$ow; upon t4at 56 t4at; 5s t4e true state o6 t4e /ase; we are o6 op5n5on t4at no /ause o6
a/t5on /an 0e s4ewn9 %olonel !awD5ns 7oes not meet t4at 5n t4e a6657a"5t)5n)reply 99989
*''. * ML/ 0.+ at 0?1
C4at 5s more 7ama25n2 5n t45s /ase 5s t4at t4e 7e6en7ants 2o to t4e e>tent o6 a7m5tt5n2 paras 1
an7 4 o6 t4e pla5nt566s8 a6657a"5t ) t4ere0y o0"5at5n2 t4e ne/ess5ty 6or t4e pla5nt566s to pro"57e 6urt4er
proo6 to su0stant5ate t4e5r a"erment9
A7m5ss5ons are t4e stron2est e"57en/e poss50le an7 e"en a wron2 /onstru/t5on o6 a 7o/ument
w5ll 0e assume7 to 0e /orre/t 5n "5ew o6 t4e a7m5ss5on9 In t4e =r5"y %oun/5l /ase o6 Australian
!idows3 :und Life Assurance $ociety Ltd v ational Mutual Life Association of Australasia Ltd 11;
Lor7 =arDer o6 Ca775n2ton 7el5"er5n2 t4e :u72ment o6 t4e Boar7 at p G41 sa57?
I# 8+- +*1/##&* %. #,& +22&))+4# -$"/&#. /4 #,& 2)&+*/47-9 +4* +--01&* #,'$07,$0# #,&
2'$"&&*/47- /4 #,& "$0'#- %&)$8 +4* /4 #,& +'701&4#- %&6$'& #,&/' L$'*-,/2-: B$+'*9 #,+#
#,& &66&"# $6 #,/- '&"/#+) 8+- #$ /4"$'2$'+#& /4 #,& 2$)/". +)) #,& #&'1- $6 #,& 2'$2$-+) 6$'
'&/4-0'+4"& *+#&* J+40+'. 190!; T,&/' L$'*-,/2- +'& 4$# -+#/-6/&* #,+# #,& '&"/#+) ,+-
+4. -0", &66&"#; T,& '&"/#+) 1+. v&'. 8&)) 1&+4 #,+# #,& */'&"#$'- $6 #,& -$"/&#. ,+v&
*&#&'1/4&* #$ +""&*& #$ #,& +22)/"+#/$4 $6 #,& '&-2$4*&4# -$"/&#. 6$' + 2$)/". $6
'&/4-0'+4"&9 )&+v/47 #,& #&'1- $4 8,/", -0", 2$)/". 8+- 7'+4#&* #$ %& -2&"/6/&* /4 #,&
$'*/4+'. 8+. /4 #,& 2$)/". /#-&)6; A""$'*/47 #$ #,& 2'&"&*/47 '&"/#+) #,& 2$)/". /- #$
/4"$'2$'+#& #,& -#+#&1&4#- "$4#+/4&* /4 #,& 2'$2$-+) +4* 4$# #,& 2'$2$-+) /#-&)6; H+v/47
'&7+'*9 ,$8&v&'9 #$ #,& +*1/--/$4 /4 #,& 2)&+*/47-9 #,&/' L$'*-,/2- 8/)) +--01& #,+# #,&
'&"/#+) ,+- #,& &66&"# $6 /4"$'2$'+#/47 /4 #,& "$4#'+"# #,& #&'1- +4* "$4*/#/$4- $6 #,&
*$"01&4# $6 J+40+'. 190!; (E12,+-/- +**&*;)
In rely5n2 on t4e =r5"y %oun/5l 7e/5s5on; I am aware o6 t4e Supreme %ourt 7e/5s5on 5n Teoh >oo-
)uwah v Menteri )al Ehwal Dalam egeri 9 %rs 14 w45/4 4el7?
34e alle2at5on o6 assault 0y t4e appellant8s s5ster; w5t4out anyt45n2 more; was 4earsay as 5t was w4olly
unsupporte7 0y any e"57en/e9 34ere6ore; t4ere was no nee7 6or an a6657a"5t o6 7en5al to 0e 65le7 0y t4e
prose/ut5on as t4ere was not45n2 to re0ut an7 the concession (y the prosecution that the assault was
common ground was erroneous4 and was not (inding on the court9 &Emp4as5s a77e79'
11
345s /ase 5s; 4owe"er; 75st5n2u5s4a0le 5n t4at t4e /on/ess5on 0y t4e respon7ent8s /ounsel
tou/45n2 upon t4e Auest5on o6 assault was m5staDenly ma7e s5n/e t4e alle2at5on o6 assault was
wort4less as t4e e"57en/e 4a7 0een ent5rely 4earsay9
Coul7 5t 0e t4at t4e a7m5ss5on 5n t45s /ase was un5ntent5onally or erroneously ma7eJ In t4e
a665rmat5"e I woul7 4a"e t4ou24t t4at 5t 5s 5n/um0ent upon t4e 7e6en7ants to w5t47raw 5t; 6or 5n a
spe/565/ /ase; a party w4o 4as unwar5ly ma7e an a7m5ss5on w5ll 0e allowe7 to re/all 5t ) see para
1./11/2 o6 t4e C45te BooD9 I 65n7 no appl5/at5on 6or a re/all9
S5n/e 5t appears /learly 0y t4e a7m5ss5on o6 6a/t as to t4e lot num0ers on w45/4 t4e 0ulD plant 5s
lo/ate7; I /annot 7o ot4erw5se t4an to /on/lu7e t4at t4e proper approa/4; 4owe"er /aut5ous 5t 4as
to 0e; 5s to 2rant t4e or7er 5n terms o6 t4e appl5/at5on9
I t4ere6ore maDe an or7er t4at t4e pla5nt566s 7o re/o"er possess5on o6 t4e sa57 lan7s 0ear5n2 Lot
$os 211 an7 211; Se/t5on 11 Ban7ar <ota B4aru 5n a//or7an/e w5t4 O .9 r G o6 t4e R%9
Application allowedA
Reporte7 0y <e"5n Oo5