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Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.



SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF PROBLEMS
ASSOCIATED WITH CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN ILORIN, NIGERIA.
Department of Arts and Social Sciences,
Abstract
This study investigated the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by secondary
schools students in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara
sampling technique. At stage one; the four local governments were purposively selected. Stratified
sampling procedure was used at stage two to stratify respondents into desired characteristics of age,
gender, religion, class level and school type. At stage three, simple random technique was employed to
select 50 students in each of the four local governments making a total of 200 respondents from the
four Local Government Area in Ilorin Metropolis. The ou
school students in Ilorin have similar views on the perceived problems associated with corporal
punishment on the basis of age, gender, religion and class level. A significant difference was found on
the basis school type. The problems of indiscipline among students cannot be handled by teachers
alone as such it was recommended that principals should employ the services of school counsellors.
The government should also discourage the use of corporal punishment in Sc




Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com



SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF PROBLEMS
ASSOCIATED WITH CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN ILORIN, NIGERIA.
By

BOLU-STEVE F.N
Department of Counsellor Education,
University of Ilorin, Ilorin. Nigeria.
bolusteve2002@yahoo.com

ONIYE. M. I.
Department of Arts and Social Sciences,
University of Ilorin, Ilorin. Nigeria.
oniyemasud@unilorin.edu.ng

&

ABEJIRIN, M. A.
Department of Counsellor Education
University of Ilorin, Ilorin. Nigeria.

This study investigated the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by secondary
schools students in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. The study was carried out using a multi
sampling technique. At stage one; the four local governments were purposively selected. Stratified
sampling procedure was used at stage two to stratify respondents into desired characteristics of age,
nder, religion, class level and school type. At stage three, simple random technique was employed to
select 50 students in each of the four local governments making a total of 200 respondents from the
four Local Government Area in Ilorin Metropolis. The outcome of this study showed that secondary
school students in Ilorin have similar views on the perceived problems associated with corporal
punishment on the basis of age, gender, religion and class level. A significant difference was found on
ol type. The problems of indiscipline among students cannot be handled by teachers
alone as such it was recommended that principals should employ the services of school counsellors.
The government should also discourage the use of corporal punishment in School.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
1
SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF PROBLEMS
ASSOCIATED WITH CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN ILORIN, NIGERIA.
This study investigated the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by secondary
state. The study was carried out using a multi-stage
sampling technique. At stage one; the four local governments were purposively selected. Stratified
sampling procedure was used at stage two to stratify respondents into desired characteristics of age,
nder, religion, class level and school type. At stage three, simple random technique was employed to
select 50 students in each of the four local governments making a total of 200 respondents from the
tcome of this study showed that secondary
school students in Ilorin have similar views on the perceived problems associated with corporal
punishment on the basis of age, gender, religion and class level. A significant difference was found on
ol type. The problems of indiscipline among students cannot be handled by teachers
alone as such it was recommended that principals should employ the services of school counsellors.
hool.
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
In Nigeria today, acts of indiscipline among secondary school students have become a major problem in
school and the society at large (Korb, 2011). These problems are manifested in the form of destruction
of school and public properties, cheating in examinations, alcoholism, drug addiction, sexual offences,
stealing, truancy, rudeness, fighting and bullying. Effective discipline techniques are needed to curb such
negative tendencies so as to maintain discipline in schools. As such,
employed the use of corporal punishment as a tool for maintaining discipline. Oftentimes, over
punishment may trigger physical or emotional problems in the affected students (Jaiyeoba & Akintepede,
2002).

Corporal punishment is defined as the intentional infliction of physical punishment on the body
(Benatar, 2001). School corporal punishment covers the official punishments of students for misbehavior
that involves striking the student a given number of times (Gould,
used to inflict punishment on the offender which includes the rod, cane, horse whip (
the use of hand. In modern times, moral and psychological considerations have brought about radical
changes in the use of corporal punishment as a disciplinary instrument. There has been evidence to show
that corporal punishment is detrimental. In 1979, Sweden protected children against corporal punishment
by banning parents from using it in any way on children as a
The use of corporal punishment in Nigerian secondary schools has always been a contentious
issue. In 1977, at the height of indiscipline in the Nigerian secondary schools, the Military Government
under General Yakubu Gowon deployed military personnel to secondary schools in order to restore
discipline. Subsequent governments after the General Gowon regime, with the exception of the General
Buhari-led government, had lukewarm attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment
secondary schools (Olajide, 2012). In addition, there are other non
are also cruel and degrading, these include punishment which belittle humiliates and threatens the child
(Cast, Schweingruber and Berns, 2006).
Corporal punishment is lawful in Nigerian schools under Article 295(4) of the criminal code
(Southern Nigeria). Corporal punishment is explicitly permitted in Nigerian schools for students under
the age of 18, under article 55 of the Penal code (North). Th
be carried out only on the authority of a head teacher. Corporal punishment is one disciplinary technique.
However, there are many other disciplinary techniques that adults can employ, such as:
appropriate supervision, making rules (appropriate to the child's age and stage of development), setting
and enforcing boundaries, firmly saying "no",
consequences, withdrawing privileges; and
punishment.
Statement of the Problem
Corporal punishment has become a contentious issue among schol
reported that physical punishment teaches aggressive behaviour, and hinders the development of
important problem-solving skills. The analysis revealed that individuals who were physically punished
during their childhood are more likely to engage in
Fayyad (2005) reported that corporal punishment can cause disorders such as Post Traumatic
Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depression Disorder (MDD) and Separation Anxiety Disorder
(SAD).White and Smith (2004) observed that c
could trigger sexually coercive behaviours. The purpose of this study was to identify the problems
associated with corporal punishment as perceived by secondary schools students in Ilorin metropolis.
Research Hypotheses
1. There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of age.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
In Nigeria today, acts of indiscipline among secondary school students have become a major problem in
school and the society at large (Korb, 2011). These problems are manifested in the form of destruction
rties, cheating in examinations, alcoholism, drug addiction, sexual offences,
stealing, truancy, rudeness, fighting and bullying. Effective discipline techniques are needed to curb such
negative tendencies so as to maintain discipline in schools. As such, Nigerian secondary schools have
employed the use of corporal punishment as a tool for maintaining discipline. Oftentimes, over
punishment may trigger physical or emotional problems in the affected students (Jaiyeoba & Akintepede,
nishment is defined as the intentional infliction of physical punishment on the body
(Benatar, 2001). School corporal punishment covers the official punishments of students for misbehavior
that involves striking the student a given number of times (Gould, 2007). A variety of implements may be
used to inflict punishment on the offender which includes the rod, cane, horse whip (
the use of hand. In modern times, moral and psychological considerations have brought about radical
e use of corporal punishment as a disciplinary instrument. There has been evidence to show
that corporal punishment is detrimental. In 1979, Sweden protected children against corporal punishment
by banning parents from using it in any way on children as a disciplinary tool (Couture, 2001).
The use of corporal punishment in Nigerian secondary schools has always been a contentious
issue. In 1977, at the height of indiscipline in the Nigerian secondary schools, the Military Government
n deployed military personnel to secondary schools in order to restore
discipline. Subsequent governments after the General Gowon regime, with the exception of the General
led government, had lukewarm attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment
secondary schools (Olajide, 2012). In addition, there are other non-physical forms of punishment which
are also cruel and degrading, these include punishment which belittle humiliates and threatens the child
2006).
Corporal punishment is lawful in Nigerian schools under Article 295(4) of the criminal code
(Southern Nigeria). Corporal punishment is explicitly permitted in Nigerian schools for students under
the age of 18, under article 55 of the Penal code (North). The Federal Government of Nigeria says it may
be carried out only on the authority of a head teacher. Corporal punishment is one disciplinary technique.
However, there are many other disciplinary techniques that adults can employ, such as:
ate supervision, making rules (appropriate to the child's age and stage of development), setting
firmly saying "no", explaining why certain behaviour is inappropriate,
consequences, withdrawing privileges; and using "time out", or quiet time as an alternative to corporal
Corporal punishment has become a contentious issue among scholars in recent times. Cast
reported that physical punishment teaches aggressive behaviour, and hinders the development of
solving skills. The analysis revealed that individuals who were physically punished
during their childhood are more likely to engage in physical and verbal aggression.
Fayyad (2005) reported that corporal punishment can cause disorders such as Post Traumatic
Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depression Disorder (MDD) and Separation Anxiety Disorder
(SAD).White and Smith (2004) observed that corporal punishment, when used as a disciplinary tool,
could trigger sexually coercive behaviours. The purpose of this study was to identify the problems
associated with corporal punishment as perceived by secondary schools students in Ilorin metropolis.
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of age.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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2
In Nigeria today, acts of indiscipline among secondary school students have become a major problem in
school and the society at large (Korb, 2011). These problems are manifested in the form of destruction
rties, cheating in examinations, alcoholism, drug addiction, sexual offences,
stealing, truancy, rudeness, fighting and bullying. Effective discipline techniques are needed to curb such
Nigerian secondary schools have
employed the use of corporal punishment as a tool for maintaining discipline. Oftentimes, over-use of
punishment may trigger physical or emotional problems in the affected students (Jaiyeoba & Akintepede,
nishment is defined as the intentional infliction of physical punishment on the body
(Benatar, 2001). School corporal punishment covers the official punishments of students for misbehavior
2007). A variety of implements may be
used to inflict punishment on the offender which includes the rod, cane, horse whip (koboko), broom, and
the use of hand. In modern times, moral and psychological considerations have brought about radical
e use of corporal punishment as a disciplinary instrument. There has been evidence to show
that corporal punishment is detrimental. In 1979, Sweden protected children against corporal punishment
disciplinary tool (Couture, 2001).
The use of corporal punishment in Nigerian secondary schools has always been a contentious
issue. In 1977, at the height of indiscipline in the Nigerian secondary schools, the Military Government
n deployed military personnel to secondary schools in order to restore
discipline. Subsequent governments after the General Gowon regime, with the exception of the General
led government, had lukewarm attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment in the Nigerian
physical forms of punishment which
are also cruel and degrading, these include punishment which belittle humiliates and threatens the child
Corporal punishment is lawful in Nigerian schools under Article 295(4) of the criminal code
(Southern Nigeria). Corporal punishment is explicitly permitted in Nigerian schools for students under
e Federal Government of Nigeria says it may
be carried out only on the authority of a head teacher. Corporal punishment is one disciplinary technique.
However, there are many other disciplinary techniques that adults can employ, such as: providing
ate supervision, making rules (appropriate to the child's age and stage of development), setting
explaining why certain behaviour is inappropriate, giving
out", or quiet time as an alternative to corporal
ars in recent times. Cast et al (2006)
reported that physical punishment teaches aggressive behaviour, and hinders the development of
solving skills. The analysis revealed that individuals who were physically punished
Fayyad (2005) reported that corporal punishment can cause disorders such as Post Traumatic
Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depression Disorder (MDD) and Separation Anxiety Disorder
orporal punishment, when used as a disciplinary tool,
could trigger sexually coercive behaviours. The purpose of this study was to identify the problems
associated with corporal punishment as perceived by secondary schools students in Ilorin metropolis.
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

2. There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment a
by secondary school students on the basis of gender.
3. There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of religion.
4. There is no significant difference i
by secondary school students on the basis of class level.
5. There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on th

Research Design
The descriptive method was adopted for this. Bogdan and Biklen (2004) says descriptive survey describes
variables in a given situations and established relationship between variables. Yates, Starnes and Moore
(2008) pointed out that this method is preferred because it captures the complexity of everyday
behaviour.
Sample and Sampling Procedure
A total of 200 students in Ilorin metropolis were used. For administrative convenience and adequate
representation of the students across Ilorin metropolis, the study was carried out using a multi
sampling technique. At stage one; the four local governments were purposively selected and this includes
Ilorin East, Ilorin west, Ilorin South and Ilorin Central. Stratified sam
two to stratify the respondents into desired characteristics of gender, age, religion, class level and school
type. At stage three, simple random technique was employed to select 50 students in each of the four
local governments making a total of 200 respondents from the Local Government Area of Ilorin
metropolis.
Instrumentation
The main instrument of this study is a questionnaire titled Problems Associated with Corporal
Punishment Questionnaire (PACPQ). The questionna
the demographic data of the respondents while Section B consisted of 20 items which the respondents
were required to respond to on a Four
points, D- Disagree 2 points, and SD Strongly Disagree 1 point. In order to establish the validity of this
instrument, copies of the questionnaire were given to three (3) Lecturers in the department of Counsellor
Education, University of Ilorin. There correc
of the items on the questionnaire. Reliability of the questionnaire was established using the Cronbach
Alpha reliability Coefficient. A reliability coefficient of 0.70 was obtained
Data Analysis
The data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and mean ranking of mean values. The t
and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tools were employed to test the research null hypothesis at
0.05 alpha level of significance.

Results

Table 1: Mean and Rank Order on the Respondents Perception on the Problems Associated with
Corporal Punishment
Item No. As far as Im concerned,
12 makes me angry
11 causes physical injury
4 can lead to depression
1 promote stubbornness
14 causes truancy
16 creates unacceptable barrier between the teacher and student
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment a
by secondary school students on the basis of gender.
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of religion.
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of class level.
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of school type.
The descriptive method was adopted for this. Bogdan and Biklen (2004) says descriptive survey describes
variables in a given situations and established relationship between variables. Yates, Starnes and Moore
pointed out that this method is preferred because it captures the complexity of everyday
Sample and Sampling Procedure
A total of 200 students in Ilorin metropolis were used. For administrative convenience and adequate
dents across Ilorin metropolis, the study was carried out using a multi
sampling technique. At stage one; the four local governments were purposively selected and this includes
Ilorin East, Ilorin west, Ilorin South and Ilorin Central. Stratified sampling procedure was used at stage
two to stratify the respondents into desired characteristics of gender, age, religion, class level and school
type. At stage three, simple random technique was employed to select 50 students in each of the four
nments making a total of 200 respondents from the Local Government Area of Ilorin
The main instrument of this study is a questionnaire titled Problems Associated with Corporal
Punishment Questionnaire (PACPQ). The questionnaire had two (2) sections. The Section A contained
the demographic data of the respondents while Section B consisted of 20 items which the respondents
were required to respond to on a Four-Point Likert Scale of SA Strongly Agree 4 points, A
Disagree 2 points, and SD Strongly Disagree 1 point. In order to establish the validity of this
instrument, copies of the questionnaire were given to three (3) Lecturers in the department of Counsellor
Education, University of Ilorin. There corrections and suggestions were considered in the final selection
of the items on the questionnaire. Reliability of the questionnaire was established using the Cronbach
Alpha reliability Coefficient. A reliability coefficient of 0.70 was obtained
The data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and mean ranking of mean values. The t
and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tools were employed to test the research null hypothesis at
Mean and Rank Order on the Respondents Perception on the Problems Associated with

concerned, corporal punishment
causes physical injury
to depression
promote stubbornness
creates unacceptable barrier between the teacher and student
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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3
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
n the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
The descriptive method was adopted for this. Bogdan and Biklen (2004) says descriptive survey describes
variables in a given situations and established relationship between variables. Yates, Starnes and Moore
pointed out that this method is preferred because it captures the complexity of everyday
A total of 200 students in Ilorin metropolis were used. For administrative convenience and adequate
dents across Ilorin metropolis, the study was carried out using a multi-stage
sampling technique. At stage one; the four local governments were purposively selected and this includes
pling procedure was used at stage
two to stratify the respondents into desired characteristics of gender, age, religion, class level and school
type. At stage three, simple random technique was employed to select 50 students in each of the four
nments making a total of 200 respondents from the Local Government Area of Ilorin
The main instrument of this study is a questionnaire titled Problems Associated with Corporal
ire had two (2) sections. The Section A contained
the demographic data of the respondents while Section B consisted of 20 items which the respondents
Strongly Agree 4 points, A- Agree3
Disagree 2 points, and SD Strongly Disagree 1 point. In order to establish the validity of this
instrument, copies of the questionnaire were given to three (3) Lecturers in the department of Counsellor
tions and suggestions were considered in the final selection
of the items on the questionnaire. Reliability of the questionnaire was established using the Cronbach
The data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and mean ranking of mean values. The t-test
and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tools were employed to test the research null hypothesis at
Mean and Rank Order on the Respondents Perception on the Problems Associated with
Mean Rank
3.29 1
st

3.22 2
nd

3.15 3
rd

3.06 4
rd

3.04 5
th

3.03 6
th

Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

5 create anxiety and fear in students
15 leads to child abuse
13 encourages bully behavour
10 promotes violent behavior
8 can lead to poor academic performance
18 can create low self
3 can be ineffective when constantly used
6 lead to inferiority complex
17 can cause psychological damage
19 causes the students to dislike their teachers
20 can be humiliating
2 makes students to develop aggressive behavior
7 causes students to disrespect the school rules
9 can lead to drug addiction

Table 1 showed that item 12 ranked 1
concerned, corporal punishment makes me angry. Ranked 2
which states that As far as Im concerned, corporal punishment causes physical injury Ranked 20
item 9 with a mean score of 2.25 and it states that As far as Im concerned corporal punishment can lead
to drug addiction.
Hypotheses
Hypothesis One: There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of age
Table 2: Mean, Standard Deviation and t
Associated with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on
the Basis of Age
Age N
7 -17 years 174
18 years and above 26
Table 2 shows that the calculated t
accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal
punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of ag
Hypothesis Two: There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by
secondary school students on the basis of gender
Table 3: Mean, Standard Deviation and t
with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on the Basis of
Gender
Gender N Mean
Male 110 60.44
Female 90 59.08
Table 3 shows a Calculated t-value of 1.35 is
hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal
punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of gender.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
create anxiety and fear in students
leads to child abuse
encourages bully behavour
promotes violent behavior
can lead to poor academic performance
can create low self-esteem in students
can be ineffective when constantly used
lead to inferiority complex
can cause psychological damage
causes the students to dislike their teachers
can be humiliating
makes students to develop aggressive behavior
students to disrespect the school rules
can lead to drug addiction
Table 1 showed that item 12 ranked 1
st
with a mean score of 3.29 and it states that As far as Im
concerned, corporal punishment makes me angry. Ranked 2
nd
is item 11 with a mean a score of 3.22,
which states that As far as Im concerned, corporal punishment causes physical injury Ranked 20
item 9 with a mean score of 2.25 and it states that As far as Im concerned corporal punishment can lead
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of age
Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value showing the Difference in Problems
Associated with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on
Mean SD Df Cal. t-value
59.64 7.20
198 0.98
61.11 6.42
that the calculated t-value is less than the Critical t-value as such the hypothesis is
accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal
punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of age.
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by
secondary school students on the basis of gender
Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value showing the Difference in Problems
with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on the Basis of
Mean SD df Cal. t-value Crit. t
60.44 6.96
198 1.35 1.96
59.08 7.25
value of 1.35 is less than the Critical t-value of 1.96. Thus the null
hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal
punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of gender.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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4
3.01 7
th

2.96 8
th

2.95 9
th

2.94 10
th

2.69 11
th

2.38 12
th

2.37 13
th

2.31 14
th

2.30 15
th

2.29 16
th

2.28 17
th

2.27 18
th

2.26 19
th

2.25 20
th

with a mean score of 3.29 and it states that As far as Im
is item 11 with a mean a score of 3.22,
which states that As far as Im concerned, corporal punishment causes physical injury Ranked 20
th
is
item 9 with a mean score of 2.25 and it states that As far as Im concerned corporal punishment can lead
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
erence in Problems
Associated with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on
Crit. t-value
1.96
value as such the hypothesis is
accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by
wing the Difference in Problems Associated
with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on the Basis of
Crit. t-value
1.96
value of 1.96. Thus the null
hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Hypothesis Three: There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by
secondary school students on the basis of religion
Table 4: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showing
Corporal Punishment as
Religion
Source Df
Between Groups 2
Within Groups 197
Total 199
Table 4 shows a Calculated F-value of 0.46 and a Critical value of 3.00. The calculated F
the critical F-value, therefore the hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant difference in the
problems associated with corporal punishment as percei
religion.
Hypothesis Four: There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of class level
Table 5: Mean, Standard Deviation and t
with Corporal Punishment as P
Class Level
Level N Mean
J.S.S 83 60.38
S.S.S 117 59.44
The t-test result on table 5 reveals that a calculated t
Therefore the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference in the problems
associated with corporal punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of class level
is accepted.
Hypothesis Five: There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the
Table 6: Mean, Standard Deviation and t
Associated with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on
the Basis of School Type
Table 6 shows the Calculated t-value of 3.52 is greater than the Critical t
hypothesis is rejected; hence there is a significant
punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of school type.
School Type N Mean
Private 129 58.56
Public 71 62.15
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by
secondary school students on the basis of religion
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showing the Difference in Problems Associated
nishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on the Basis of
Df SS Mean
Square
Cal. f-value
2 46.712 23.35
0.46
197 10016.843 50.84
199 10063.555
value of 0.46 and a Critical value of 3.00. The calculated F
value, therefore the hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant difference in the
problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of class level
Standard Deviation and t-value showing the Difference in Problems Associated
with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on the Basis of
Mean SD Df Cal. t-value
60.38 6.40
198 0.92
59.44 7.57
test result on table 5 reveals that a calculated t-value of 0.92 is less than the Critical t
Therefore the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference in the problems
corporal punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of class level
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students on the basis of school type
Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value showing the Difference in Problems
Associated with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on
the Basis of School Type
*Significant, p<0.05
value of 3.52 is greater than the Critical t-value of 1.96. As such, the
hypothesis is rejected; hence there is a significant difference in the problems associated with corporal
punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of school type.
Mean SD df Cal. t-value
58.56 7.80
198 3.52*
62.15 4.89
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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5
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by
the Difference in Problems Associated with
Students on the Basis of
Crit. f-
value
3.00
value of 0.46 and a Critical value of 3.00. The calculated F-value is less than
value, therefore the hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant difference in the
ved by secondary school students on the basis of
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
value showing the Difference in Problems Associated
Students on the Basis of
Crit. t-value
1.96
value of 0.92 is less than the Critical t-value of 1.96.
Therefore the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference in the problems
corporal punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of class level
There is no significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
Problems
Associated with Corporal Punishment as Perceived by Secondary School Students on
value of 1.96. As such, the
difference in the problems associated with corporal
Crit. t-value
1.96
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Discussion
Most secondary school students of different age groups in Ilorin metropolis perceive the problems
associated with corporal punishment the same way. This observation disagrees with the report of
Adeyemo (1999) that secondary school students differ in their perception of corporal punishment on the
basis of age. This locational disparity might be due to the dynamic

That corporal punishment is viewed in the same way across the gender divide this further supports
the report of Gershoff, (2002) that most students hate corporal punishment because they believe that
such form of punishment can predispose aggressive behavior. On the basis of religion, no significant
difference was found in the students perception. Robert (2000) in his studies found that most religion
prescribed the use of punishment as a means of correcting wrong doers. Henc
to perceive corporal punishment the same way. In Nigeria for example, majority of the religion endorse
the use corporal punishment as a disciplinary measure when and where necessary.

There is no disparity in the problems associate
secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of class level. This is in agreement with
Greydanus (2010) whose finding indicated that students have the same attitude towards corporal
punishment, regardless of class or level. This means that students are likely to attribute similar problems
to corporal punishment.
There is a significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students in Ilorin
students in public schools are frequently punished than those who attend private schools. The finding
reveals that students who attend private schools tend to be better behaved than those wh
schools. It is clear that students can be influenced by their immediate environment, that is, what
constitutes schooling may vary form place
place. It is therefore no surprise that t
Conclusion

Generally, the findings reveal that there is no significant difference in the problems associated with
corporal punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of ag
differences on the basis of gender, religion, class level and school type.

Implications for Counselling Practice

The findings of this study have colossal implications for counselling. The disadvantages of corporal
punishment clearly outweigh the advantages. During Parents Teachers Association meetings, the school
counsellor can give enlightenment talks, encourage teachers and parents to use disciplinary measures
which are non-violent and that they should avoid subjecting student
any form. Through group counselling, the counsellor can teach the children how to be assertive without
being aggressive. They should be taught how to express anger and frustration without violence.

Recommendations
The problems of indiscipline among students cannot be handled by teachers alone as such
principals should employ the services of school counsellors.
The government should discourage the use of corporal punishment in School. Parents should be
encouraged to give moral education to their wards at home.
Teachers should be exposed to behaviourial modification techniques such as assertive training,
positive reinforcement as an alternative to corporal punishment.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Most secondary school students of different age groups in Ilorin metropolis perceive the problems
with corporal punishment the same way. This observation disagrees with the report of
Adeyemo (1999) that secondary school students differ in their perception of corporal punishment on the
basis of age. This locational disparity might be due to the dynamic nature of each of the society.
That corporal punishment is viewed in the same way across the gender divide this further supports
the report of Gershoff, (2002) that most students hate corporal punishment because they believe that
can predispose aggressive behavior. On the basis of religion, no significant
difference was found in the students perception. Robert (2000) in his studies found that most religion
prescribed the use of punishment as a means of correcting wrong doers. Hence, respondents are bound
to perceive corporal punishment the same way. In Nigeria for example, majority of the religion endorse
the use corporal punishment as a disciplinary measure when and where necessary.
There is no disparity in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived by
secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of class level. This is in agreement with
Greydanus (2010) whose finding indicated that students have the same attitude towards corporal
gardless of class or level. This means that students are likely to attribute similar problems
There is a significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
by secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of school type. Wasef (2011) found that
students in public schools are frequently punished than those who attend private schools. The finding
reveals that students who attend private schools tend to be better behaved than those wh
schools. It is clear that students can be influenced by their immediate environment, that is, what
constitutes schooling may vary form place-to-place, depending on the environment and culture of the
place. It is therefore no surprise that there are disparities between the public and private schools.
Generally, the findings reveal that there is no significant difference in the problems associated with
corporal punishment as perceived by secondary school students on the basis of age. Also, no significant
differences on the basis of gender, religion, class level and school type.
Implications for Counselling Practice
The findings of this study have colossal implications for counselling. The disadvantages of corporal
ly outweigh the advantages. During Parents Teachers Association meetings, the school
counsellor can give enlightenment talks, encourage teachers and parents to use disciplinary measures
violent and that they should avoid subjecting students to harsh physical punishments of
any form. Through group counselling, the counsellor can teach the children how to be assertive without
being aggressive. They should be taught how to express anger and frustration without violence.
problems of indiscipline among students cannot be handled by teachers alone as such
principals should employ the services of school counsellors.
The government should discourage the use of corporal punishment in School. Parents should be
moral education to their wards at home.
Teachers should be exposed to behaviourial modification techniques such as assertive training,
positive reinforcement as an alternative to corporal punishment.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
6
Most secondary school students of different age groups in Ilorin metropolis perceive the problems
with corporal punishment the same way. This observation disagrees with the report of
Adeyemo (1999) that secondary school students differ in their perception of corporal punishment on the
nature of each of the society.
That corporal punishment is viewed in the same way across the gender divide this further supports
the report of Gershoff, (2002) that most students hate corporal punishment because they believe that
can predispose aggressive behavior. On the basis of religion, no significant
difference was found in the students perception. Robert (2000) in his studies found that most religion
e, respondents are bound
to perceive corporal punishment the same way. In Nigeria for example, majority of the religion endorse
d with corporal punishment as perceived by
secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of class level. This is in agreement with
Greydanus (2010) whose finding indicated that students have the same attitude towards corporal
gardless of class or level. This means that students are likely to attribute similar problems
There is a significant difference in the problems associated with corporal punishment as perceived
metropolis on the basis of school type. Wasef (2011) found that
students in public schools are frequently punished than those who attend private schools. The finding
reveals that students who attend private schools tend to be better behaved than those who attend public
schools. It is clear that students can be influenced by their immediate environment, that is, what
place, depending on the environment and culture of the
here are disparities between the public and private schools.
Generally, the findings reveal that there is no significant difference in the problems associated with
e. Also, no significant
The findings of this study have colossal implications for counselling. The disadvantages of corporal
ly outweigh the advantages. During Parents Teachers Association meetings, the school
counsellor can give enlightenment talks, encourage teachers and parents to use disciplinary measures
s to harsh physical punishments of
any form. Through group counselling, the counsellor can teach the children how to be assertive without
being aggressive. They should be taught how to express anger and frustration without violence.
problems of indiscipline among students cannot be handled by teachers alone as such
The government should discourage the use of corporal punishment in School. Parents should be
Teachers should be exposed to behaviourial modification techniques such as assertive training,
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


References
Adeyemo, A.I. (1999). Attitude of Secondary
Government Area of Osun State.
Aucoin, K.J., Frick, P.J. & Bodin, S.D. (2006). Corporal punishment and child
Applied Developmental Psychology,
Benatar, D. (2001). Corporal Punishment: Philosophical Study
http://www.corpum.com/benatar.htm
Bogdan R.C., Biklen S.K. (2004).
Methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Cast, A., Schweingruber, D., and Berns, N. (2006). Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving
in Marriage. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
Couture, L.A. (2001). Corporal Punishment: Societys Remaining Ac
April, 14 2012 from http://www.childadvocate.org/
Fayyad, J. (2005). Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
(IDRAC).
Gershoff, E.T. (2002). Corporal Punishm
Experiences. A Meta-analytic Review,
Gould, M. (2007). Sparing the Rod.
Greydanus, D. E. (2010). Corporal Punishment in School and
U.S. Committee on Education and Labour.
Jaiyeoba, A.A, and Akintepede, E.O. (2002). The Influence of Corporal Punishment on the Academic
Performance of Secondary School Students in Ogun State.
177-187.
Korb, K. A. (in press). Restorative Discipline as an Alternative to Beating in Nigerian Schools.
Nigerian Educational Psychologist:
Olajide, F. (2012). My Culture: Yoruba
Robert, M.W. (2000). A Study of Attitudes Towards Corporal Punishment as an Educational Procedure From Earliest
Times to the Present.Nijmejen:
Wasef H.N. (2011). Corporal Punishment in Schools.
Unpublished Thesis, University of Cairo.
White, J. and Smith, P. (2004). Sexual assault perpetration and reperpetration: From adolescence to young
adulthood. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 31
Yates, D.S., Starnes, D.S., and Moore D.S.
Method Approaches. The Practice of Statistics.






Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Attitude of Secondary School Students Towards Corporal Punishment in Osogbo Local
Government Area of Osun State. An Unpublished B.Ed. Thesis, University of Ilorin.
Aucoin, K.J., Frick, P.J. & Bodin, S.D. (2006). Corporal punishment and child
lopmental Psychology, 27(6), 527541.
Benatar, D. (2001). Corporal Punishment: Philosophical Study. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from
http://www.corpum.com/benatar.htm
Bogdan R.C., Biklen S.K. (2004). Quantitative Research for Education. An Introduction to The
Methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Cast, A., Schweingruber, D., and Berns, N. (2006). Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving
Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
Couture, L.A. (2001). Corporal Punishment: Societys Remaining Acceptable Violence. Retrieved on
http://www.childadvocate.org/AcceptableViolence.htm
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Institute for Development Research and Applied Care
Gershoff, E.T. (2002). Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associated Child Behaviours and
analytic Review, Psychological Bulletin, vol.128, no.4, pp.539
London: The Guardian.
Corporal Punishment in School and its Effect on Academic Success.
U.S. Committee on Education and Labour.
Jaiyeoba, A.A, and Akintepede, E.O. (2002). The Influence of Corporal Punishment on the Academic
Performance of Secondary School Students in Ogun State. Nigerian Journal of Applied Psychology,
Korb, K. A. (in press). Restorative Discipline as an Alternative to Beating in Nigerian Schools.
Nigerian Educational Psychologist: pp. 4-9.
My Culture: Yoruba. Lagos: Matador Press.
A Study of Attitudes Towards Corporal Punishment as an Educational Procedure From Earliest
.Nijmejen: Nijmegen University Press.
Corporal Punishment in Schools. School of Global Affairs and Public Policy
Unpublished Thesis, University of Cairo.
White, J. and Smith, P. (2004). Sexual assault perpetration and reperpetration: From adolescence to young
Criminal Justice and Behavior, 31, 2, pp.182-202.
Yates, D.S., Starnes, D.S., and Moore D.S. (2008). Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed
The Practice of Statistics.


Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
7
School Students Towards Corporal Punishment in Osogbo Local
An Unpublished B.Ed. Thesis, University of Ilorin.
Aucoin, K.J., Frick, P.J. & Bodin, S.D. (2006). Corporal punishment and child adjustment. Journal of
Retrieved April 13, 2012 from
An Introduction to Theory and
Cast, A., Schweingruber, D., and Berns, N. (2006). Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving
ceptable Violence. Retrieved on
Institute for Development Research and Applied Care
ent by Parents and Associated Child Behaviours and
, vol.128, no.4, pp.539-579.
its Effect on Academic Success. Testimony to the
Jaiyeoba, A.A, and Akintepede, E.O. (2002). The Influence of Corporal Punishment on the Academic
nal of Applied Psychology, 7(1),
Korb, K. A. (in press). Restorative Discipline as an Alternative to Beating in Nigerian Schools. The
A Study of Attitudes Towards Corporal Punishment as an Educational Procedure From Earliest
School of Global Affairs and Public Policy. An
White, J. and Smith, P. (2004). Sexual assault perpetration and reperpetration: From adolescence to young
(2008). Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

MATERIAL RESOURCES AS PREDICTORS OF SPORTS DELIVERY SERVICES
IN SPORTS COUNCILS AND RECREATION CENTRES IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA
OMOLAWON KAYODE OMOTAYO,
Department of Human Kinetics & Health Education

Abstract
Material resources are integral and
availability of facilities and equipment are some of the constraints confronting sports and recreational
administration. Moreover, the cost and maintenances of efficient system for the purchase an
of supplies may be lost if proper care are not given to the material resources before, during and after
use. Therefore, the researcher examines material resources as predictors of sports service delivery in
the sports councils and recreational ce
design was used in this study. A total of 2,385 respondents were sampled using purposive sampling
technique of proportionate distribution from Southwest sports council and recreational centres i
Nigeria. Two hypotheses were tested, while two instruments were used, named: Material Resources
Questionnaire (MRQ) and Sports Delivery Questionnaire (SDQ). These were structured in 4 point
Likert scale format of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Stro
yielded a reliability coefficient of r=0.78 for MRQ and SDQ (r=0.85) respectively. The data collected
through questionnaire was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The hypotheses were tested at
0.05 alpha level. The results showed that there was significant determinants exit in the variables. It
was recommended that, land properties should be free for sports and recreational centres in strategic
places. Moreover, the government monopoly of sports and recreational spo
to allow corporate and individual sponsors encouragement to assist for effective sports delivery
services.
Keywords: Material resources, Sports delivery services, Recreation centres









Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com




MATERIAL RESOURCES AS PREDICTORS OF SPORTS DELIVERY SERVICES
IN SPORTS COUNCILS AND RECREATION CENTRES IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA
By
OMOLAWON KAYODE OMOTAYO, Ph.D
Department of Human Kinetics & Health Education
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Tel: +2348055133706
e-mail: kayodesport@gmail.com
Material resources are integral and necessary parts of recreation and sports programme. The non
availability of facilities and equipment are some of the constraints confronting sports and recreational
administration. Moreover, the cost and maintenances of efficient system for the purchase an
of supplies may be lost if proper care are not given to the material resources before, during and after
use. Therefore, the researcher examines material resources as predictors of sports service delivery in
the sports councils and recreational centers in Southwest, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research
design was used in this study. A total of 2,385 respondents were sampled using purposive sampling
technique of proportionate distribution from Southwest sports council and recreational centres i
Nigeria. Two hypotheses were tested, while two instruments were used, named: Material Resources
Questionnaire (MRQ) and Sports Delivery Questionnaire (SDQ). These were structured in 4 point
Likert scale format of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. The instruments
yielded a reliability coefficient of r=0.78 for MRQ and SDQ (r=0.85) respectively. The data collected
through questionnaire was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The hypotheses were tested at
results showed that there was significant determinants exit in the variables. It
was recommended that, land properties should be free for sports and recreational centres in strategic
places. Moreover, the government monopoly of sports and recreational sponsorship should be reduced
to allow corporate and individual sponsors encouragement to assist for effective sports delivery
Material resources, Sports delivery services, Recreation centres
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
8
MATERIAL RESOURCES AS PREDICTORS OF SPORTS DELIVERY SERVICES
IN SPORTS COUNCILS AND RECREATION CENTRES IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA
necessary parts of recreation and sports programme. The non-
availability of facilities and equipment are some of the constraints confronting sports and recreational
administration. Moreover, the cost and maintenances of efficient system for the purchase and issuing
of supplies may be lost if proper care are not given to the material resources before, during and after
use. Therefore, the researcher examines material resources as predictors of sports service delivery in
nters in Southwest, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research
design was used in this study. A total of 2,385 respondents were sampled using purposive sampling
technique of proportionate distribution from Southwest sports council and recreational centres in
Nigeria. Two hypotheses were tested, while two instruments were used, named: Material Resources
Questionnaire (MRQ) and Sports Delivery Questionnaire (SDQ). These were structured in 4 point
ngly Disagree. The instruments
yielded a reliability coefficient of r=0.78 for MRQ and SDQ (r=0.85) respectively. The data collected
through questionnaire was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The hypotheses were tested at
results showed that there was significant determinants exit in the variables. It
was recommended that, land properties should be free for sports and recreational centres in strategic
nsorship should be reduced
to allow corporate and individual sponsors encouragement to assist for effective sports delivery
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
Sports resources are physically important to the sports development, of which material resources are
prerequisite part of the basic conditions in sports activities.
facilities have grown significantly in recent years t
physical activities. (Garca-Ferrando, 2006). The same trend is occurring internationally (Bayle, 2005;
Mahony & Howard, 2001). Therefore, effective management of these sporting facilities constitut
particularly important challenge within the sports and physical activity sector. It is hardly surprising that,
interest in professional management of sports and recreational facilities which are growing rapidly, with
increasing demands for training and
field are now confronted with a job that requires knowledge and understanding of numerous areas,
including sports legislation, economics, human resources, facility maintenance, and equ
installation management, and others.

Material resources are integral and necessary part of recreation and sports programme. The non
availability of facilities and equipment are some of the constraints confronting sports and recreationa
administration. Moreover, the cost and maintenances of efficient system for the purchase and issuing of
supplies may be lost if proper care is not given to the equipment before, during and after use. Over the
last two decades, demands on the provision of
in the demand for provision of facilities in sports and recreation centres. Eze (2010) stated that, the quest
for effectiveness and efficiency is imperative and facility managers have knowledge o
would contribute to the success of facilities, even from the time when its construction is first considered.

However, the difficulty of fulfilling this potential is that, they have inadequate or inexperienced
management. In relation to new facilities, the development of suitable management plans should
commence before the decision is made to construct the materia
facility management plans must be prepared in conjunction with the design plans; because once the
facility has been erected, many management options may be lost. However, the success of any facility is
often aligned to the design not just its management. It is important therefore to have knowledge of the
planning and the design process for material resources. Fenker (2004) opined that, material resources
should be readily and directly accessible for the individuals

Sporting organizations are not immune from environmental influences and have had to adjust to a
more demanding consumer environment (Doherty, 1999, Dorado, 2006). Municipal sports services, for
example, have had to adapt to ensure that, they offer the qual
Martelaer et al., 2002). Many of the problems encountered by sports managers exist, due to lack of
understanding of the specific requirements, specifications and characteristics that apply to management of
sporting installations. The issue is complicated further by the fact that, the task included management of,
not only sporting areas, but also non sport
facility maintenance, food services, emergen
users.

In addition, the employee force is a particularly important resource to manage effectively as they
are the depository of most of the knowledge that, a business handles and they are di
imitate (Barney, 1991, 1995; Lado & Wilson, 1994). Organizations which aspire to improve their internal
management procedures must have the capacity to specifically address the needs, motivations and
interests of both clients and employees. Improvements in service quality will increase customer loyalty
and satisfaction, resulting in greater use of the service (Ahire & Dreyfus, 2000; Choi & Eboch, 1998;
Hendricks & Singhal, 1997) and a more competitive position within the sports and
market (Aaker & Jacobson, 1994; Fornell et al., 1996).

Similarly, Mason (2000) maintained that, sport facilities provider should consider the site or venue
for the construction of sports and recreation complex. This he stated, should be
accessibility, which should be well
are not available in their right quantity and quality, there will be a continuous lack of social and
infrastructural services which are the major threat to its development. These problems point to a number
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Sports resources are physically important to the sports development, of which material resources are
prerequisite part of the basic conditions in sports activities. The numbers of sport and recreational
facilities have grown significantly in recent years through increased interest in both sporting activities and
Ferrando, 2006). The same trend is occurring internationally (Bayle, 2005;
Mahony & Howard, 2001). Therefore, effective management of these sporting facilities constitut
particularly important challenge within the sports and physical activity sector. It is hardly surprising that,
interest in professional management of sports and recreational facilities which are growing rapidly, with
increasing demands for training and technological support at various levels. New professionals within this
field are now confronted with a job that requires knowledge and understanding of numerous areas,
including sports legislation, economics, human resources, facility maintenance, and equ
installation management, and others.
Material resources are integral and necessary part of recreation and sports programme. The non
availability of facilities and equipment are some of the constraints confronting sports and recreationa
administration. Moreover, the cost and maintenances of efficient system for the purchase and issuing of
supplies may be lost if proper care is not given to the equipment before, during and after use. Over the
last two decades, demands on the provision of leisure services have increased with a consequent increase
in the demand for provision of facilities in sports and recreation centres. Eze (2010) stated that, the quest
for effectiveness and efficiency is imperative and facility managers have knowledge o
would contribute to the success of facilities, even from the time when its construction is first considered.
However, the difficulty of fulfilling this potential is that, they have inadequate or inexperienced
management. In relation to new facilities, the development of suitable management plans should
commence before the decision is made to construct the material resources. Mason (2000) postulated that,
facility management plans must be prepared in conjunction with the design plans; because once the
facility has been erected, many management options may be lost. However, the success of any facility is
ed to the design not just its management. It is important therefore to have knowledge of the
planning and the design process for material resources. Fenker (2004) opined that, material resources
should be readily and directly accessible for the individuals who will be using them.
Sporting organizations are not immune from environmental influences and have had to adjust to a
more demanding consumer environment (Doherty, 1999, Dorado, 2006). Municipal sports services, for
example, have had to adapt to ensure that, they offer the quality of service that is now being expected (De
Martelaer et al., 2002). Many of the problems encountered by sports managers exist, due to lack of
understanding of the specific requirements, specifications and characteristics that apply to management of
ting installations. The issue is complicated further by the fact that, the task included management of,
not only sporting areas, but also non sport-related auxiliary areas as well as elements, such as equipment,
facility maintenance, food services, emergency response, contractor services, the employee force and
In addition, the employee force is a particularly important resource to manage effectively as they
are the depository of most of the knowledge that, a business handles and they are di
imitate (Barney, 1991, 1995; Lado & Wilson, 1994). Organizations which aspire to improve their internal
management procedures must have the capacity to specifically address the needs, motivations and
mployees. Improvements in service quality will increase customer loyalty
and satisfaction, resulting in greater use of the service (Ahire & Dreyfus, 2000; Choi & Eboch, 1998;
Hendricks & Singhal, 1997) and a more competitive position within the sports and
market (Aaker & Jacobson, 1994; Fornell et al., 1996).
Similarly, Mason (2000) maintained that, sport facilities provider should consider the site or venue
for the construction of sports and recreation complex. This he stated, should be in terms of safety and
accessibility, which should be well-located. Ezugwu (2005) lamented that, when facilities and equipment
are not available in their right quantity and quality, there will be a continuous lack of social and
ich are the major threat to its development. These problems point to a number
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
9
Sports resources are physically important to the sports development, of which material resources are
The numbers of sport and recreational
hrough increased interest in both sporting activities and
Ferrando, 2006). The same trend is occurring internationally (Bayle, 2005;
Mahony & Howard, 2001). Therefore, effective management of these sporting facilities constitute a
particularly important challenge within the sports and physical activity sector. It is hardly surprising that,
interest in professional management of sports and recreational facilities which are growing rapidly, with
technological support at various levels. New professionals within this
field are now confronted with a job that requires knowledge and understanding of numerous areas,
including sports legislation, economics, human resources, facility maintenance, and equipment and
Material resources are integral and necessary part of recreation and sports programme. The non-
availability of facilities and equipment are some of the constraints confronting sports and recreational
administration. Moreover, the cost and maintenances of efficient system for the purchase and issuing of
supplies may be lost if proper care is not given to the equipment before, during and after use. Over the
leisure services have increased with a consequent increase
in the demand for provision of facilities in sports and recreation centres. Eze (2010) stated that, the quest
for effectiveness and efficiency is imperative and facility managers have knowledge of the factors that
would contribute to the success of facilities, even from the time when its construction is first considered.
However, the difficulty of fulfilling this potential is that, they have inadequate or inexperienced
management. In relation to new facilities, the development of suitable management plans should
l resources. Mason (2000) postulated that,
facility management plans must be prepared in conjunction with the design plans; because once the
facility has been erected, many management options may be lost. However, the success of any facility is
ed to the design not just its management. It is important therefore to have knowledge of the
planning and the design process for material resources. Fenker (2004) opined that, material resources

Sporting organizations are not immune from environmental influences and have had to adjust to a
more demanding consumer environment (Doherty, 1999, Dorado, 2006). Municipal sports services, for
ity of service that is now being expected (De
Martelaer et al., 2002). Many of the problems encountered by sports managers exist, due to lack of
understanding of the specific requirements, specifications and characteristics that apply to management of
ting installations. The issue is complicated further by the fact that, the task included management of,
related auxiliary areas as well as elements, such as equipment,
cy response, contractor services, the employee force and
In addition, the employee force is a particularly important resource to manage effectively as they
fficult to substitute or
imitate (Barney, 1991, 1995; Lado & Wilson, 1994). Organizations which aspire to improve their internal
management procedures must have the capacity to specifically address the needs, motivations and
mployees. Improvements in service quality will increase customer loyalty
and satisfaction, resulting in greater use of the service (Ahire & Dreyfus, 2000; Choi & Eboch, 1998;
Hendricks & Singhal, 1997) and a more competitive position within the sports and physical activity
Similarly, Mason (2000) maintained that, sport facilities provider should consider the site or venue
in terms of safety and
located. Ezugwu (2005) lamented that, when facilities and equipment
are not available in their right quantity and quality, there will be a continuous lack of social and
ich are the major threat to its development. These problems point to a number
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

of challenges facing material resources, hence the study examines material resources as predictors of
sports delivery services in sports councils and recreation centres in Southw

Hypotheses
Two hypotheses were tested in this study.
1. There is no significant relative effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery
services in the selected sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.
2. There is no significant composite effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery
services in the selected sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.

Methodology
The descriptive survey research design was used in this study.
elicit information from the respondents. This is because it reveals current conditions that exist between
specific events, through basic analytical interpretation, appropriate collection, and situational facts and
information concerning the study. A total of 2,385 respondents were sampled, using purposive sampling
technique of proportionate distribution from Southwest, Nigeria.

Instruments
The instruments used for this study were the structured validated questionn
Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) and Sports Delivery Questionnaire (SDQ). These were structured in 4
point Likert scale format of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. The instruments
yielded a reliability coefficient of r=0.78 for MRQ and SDQ (r=0.85) respectively.

Procedure for Data Analysis
The completed questionnaire forms were collated, coded and analyzed using multiple regression analysis.
The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level.
Results
Ho1: There is no significant relative effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery services in
the selected sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.

Table 1: Result of relative contribution showing independent variabl
Variables) on sports services delivery.
Variables
Funding 1.652
Availability of
Facilities
1.555
Provision of
Equipment
1.618
Acquisition of Land 1.779
Sponsorship 1.935

The result above shows relative contribution of each of the independent variables on the dependent:
Funding ( = .057, p <.05), Availability of
p<.05), Acquisition of Land ( = .058, p<.05) and Sponsorship ( = .058, p<.05) respectively. This
showed that acquisition of land, sponsorship, provision of equipment; funding and availabili
facilities were all significant. Whereby sponsorship contributed about 60% to the variance than the other
variables of study.

Ho2: There is no significant joint effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery services in
the selected sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
of challenges facing material resources, hence the study examines material resources as predictors of
sports delivery services in sports councils and recreation centres in Southwest, Nigeria.
Two hypotheses were tested in this study.
There is no significant relative effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery
services in the selected sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.
e is no significant composite effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery
services in the selected sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.
The descriptive survey research design was used in this study. This involved the use of questionnaire to
elicit information from the respondents. This is because it reveals current conditions that exist between
specific events, through basic analytical interpretation, appropriate collection, and situational facts and
information concerning the study. A total of 2,385 respondents were sampled, using purposive sampling
technique of proportionate distribution from Southwest, Nigeria.
The instruments used for this study were the structured validated questionnaire, named: Material
Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) and Sports Delivery Questionnaire (SDQ). These were structured in 4
point Likert scale format of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. The instruments
f r=0.78 for MRQ and SDQ (r=0.85) respectively.
The completed questionnaire forms were collated, coded and analyzed using multiple regression analysis.
The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level.
: There is no significant relative effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery services in
the selected sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.
Table 1: Result of relative contribution showing independent variables (Material Resources
Variables) on sports services delivery.
Standard error Beta t-value
1.652 0.057 0.541 28.745
1.555 0.057 0.522 27.366
1.618 0.051 0.515 31.447
1.779 0.058 0.566 30.690
1.935 0.058 0.595 33.140
The result above shows relative contribution of each of the independent variables on the dependent:
Funding ( = .057, p <.05), Availability of Facilities ( = .057, p <.05), Provision of Equipment ( = .051,
p<.05), Acquisition of Land ( = .058, p<.05) and Sponsorship ( = .058, p<.05) respectively. This
showed that acquisition of land, sponsorship, provision of equipment; funding and availabili
facilities were all significant. Whereby sponsorship contributed about 60% to the variance than the other
There is no significant joint effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery services in
sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
10
of challenges facing material resources, hence the study examines material resources as predictors of
est, Nigeria.
There is no significant relative effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery
services in the selected sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.
e is no significant composite effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery
services in the selected sports councils and recreational centres in Southwest, Nigeria.
This involved the use of questionnaire to
elicit information from the respondents. This is because it reveals current conditions that exist between
specific events, through basic analytical interpretation, appropriate collection, and situational facts and
information concerning the study. A total of 2,385 respondents were sampled, using purposive sampling
aire, named: Material
Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) and Sports Delivery Questionnaire (SDQ). These were structured in 4
point Likert scale format of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. The instruments
The completed questionnaire forms were collated, coded and analyzed using multiple regression analysis.
: There is no significant relative effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery services in
es (Material Resources
value Sig.
28.745 0.000
27.366 0.000
31.447 0.000
30.690 0.000
33.140 0.000
The result above shows relative contribution of each of the independent variables on the dependent:
Facilities ( = .057, p <.05), Provision of Equipment ( = .051,
p<.05), Acquisition of Land ( = .058, p<.05) and Sponsorship ( = .058, p<.05) respectively. This
showed that acquisition of land, sponsorship, provision of equipment; funding and availabilities of
facilities were all significant. Whereby sponsorship contributed about 60% to the variance than the other
There is no significant joint effect of material resources as predictors of sports delivery services in
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Table 2: Showing Analysis of Variance on the joint effect of independent variables on dependent
variable.
Sources of
Variance
Sum of Square
Regression
Residual
Total
2356.933
5678.854
120085.008
R = .734; R
2
= .538; adjusted R
2
The result showed that, there is significant relationship between the independent variables (Material
resources) on sports delivery service (F
rejected. The result also indicated that R = .734; R
joint effect variables accounted for about 54% of the variance.
Discussion
The relative contribution of the result revealed that, all the variables positively contributed to sports
delivery services. This corroborates Obiyemi, Adesoye and Ojo (2006) assertion that, such methods as
renovating existing plants, retrofitting and converting
present facilities are methods that will in no small measure see to the conduct of quality sporting
programmes. This also supports Jewels (2002) view that, sports facilities are essentially not new con
developed and utilized for the health and well

The study examines material resources as predictors of sports delivery services. The result of the
joint effect revealed that, there was significant relationship.
facilities management is a process that ensures other technical systems that support the operations of an
organization. Also consistent with the International Facilities Management Association (2002) that,
facilities management as the practice of co
work of the organization; it integrates the principles of business administration, architecture and the
behavioural as well as engineering sciences. Furth
quest for effectiveness and efficiency is imperative that, facility managers have knowledge of the factors
that would contribute to the success of a facility from the time of planning and construct

Conclusion
In the material resources category, the most important needs are for installation, maintenance protocols,
the standards and criteria for safety evaluation of facilities, and identification of quality parameters for
sports facilities, to establish sound quality control plans.
the availability of quality material resources for both sports councils and recreational centres. This is due
to the nature of services rendered to the society. It is ther
be adequately and properly taken into consideration when setting such venue. Moreover, the technical
skills and important areas concerning the human resource functioning should also be well taken care of,
for sports delivery services. Finally, in relation to users/clients, the most important needs identified were
the control of suggestions and complaints, the use of technological tools for reservations, the
development of satisfaction questionnaire, specific t
user access in the sporting installations.

Recommendations
In view of the outcomes of the findings, the following recommendations were made:
1. Land properties should be free for sports and recreational centres in strategic places.
2. The era of government monopoly of sports and recreational sponsorship should be reduced to allow
corporate and individual sponsors encouragement to assist for effectiv
3. Provision of standard, modern and up to date facilities at the sports and recreational centres for use,
to enhance good sports delivery services should be made available.
4. Clients individuals and organizations must cultivate the
facilities and equipment at the sports and recreational centres.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Showing Analysis of Variance on the joint effect of independent variables on dependent
Sum of Square Df Mean Square F

5
2379
2384
635.235
5.546
75.625
2
= .537
The result showed that, there is significant relationship between the independent variables (Material
resources) on sports delivery service (F (5, 2384) = 75.625; p<.0.05). Therefore, the hypothesis raised was
rejected. The result also indicated that R = .734; R
2
= .538; adjusted R
2
= .537. This revealed that, the
joint effect variables accounted for about 54% of the variance.
lative contribution of the result revealed that, all the variables positively contributed to sports
delivery services. This corroborates Obiyemi, Adesoye and Ojo (2006) assertion that, such methods as
renovating existing plants, retrofitting and converting existing structures and instituting multiple uses of
present facilities are methods that will in no small measure see to the conduct of quality sporting
programmes. This also supports Jewels (2002) view that, sports facilities are essentially not new con
developed and utilized for the health and well-being of the people who utilized it.
The study examines material resources as predictors of sports delivery services. The result of the
joint effect revealed that, there was significant relationship. This agrees with Fenker (2004) assertion that,
facilities management is a process that ensures other technical systems that support the operations of an
organization. Also consistent with the International Facilities Management Association (2002) that,
ilities management as the practice of co-ordination of the physical workplace with the people and the
work of the organization; it integrates the principles of business administration, architecture and the
behavioural as well as engineering sciences. Furthermore, the result is consistent with Eze (2010) that, the
quest for effectiveness and efficiency is imperative that, facility managers have knowledge of the factors
that would contribute to the success of a facility from the time of planning and construct
In the material resources category, the most important needs are for installation, maintenance protocols,
the standards and criteria for safety evaluation of facilities, and identification of quality parameters for
establish sound quality control plans. Emphasis worldwide has always been placed on
the availability of quality material resources for both sports councils and recreational centres. This is due
to the nature of services rendered to the society. It is therefore concluded that, material resources should
be adequately and properly taken into consideration when setting such venue. Moreover, the technical
skills and important areas concerning the human resource functioning should also be well taken care of,
Finally, in relation to users/clients, the most important needs identified were
the control of suggestions and complaints, the use of technological tools for reservations, the
development of satisfaction questionnaire, specific to activities and to sports facilities, and the control of
user access in the sporting installations.
In view of the outcomes of the findings, the following recommendations were made:
Land properties should be free for sports and recreational centres in strategic places.
The era of government monopoly of sports and recreational sponsorship should be reduced to allow
corporate and individual sponsors encouragement to assist for effective sports delivery services.
Provision of standard, modern and up to date facilities at the sports and recreational centres for use,
to enhance good sports delivery services should be made available.
Clients individuals and organizations must cultivate the habit of good maintenance culture of
facilities and equipment at the sports and recreational centres.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
11
Showing Analysis of Variance on the joint effect of independent variables on dependent
Sig.
0.000
The result showed that, there is significant relationship between the independent variables (Material
= 75.625; p<.0.05). Therefore, the hypothesis raised was
= .537. This revealed that, the
lative contribution of the result revealed that, all the variables positively contributed to sports
delivery services. This corroborates Obiyemi, Adesoye and Ojo (2006) assertion that, such methods as
existing structures and instituting multiple uses of
present facilities are methods that will in no small measure see to the conduct of quality sporting
programmes. This also supports Jewels (2002) view that, sports facilities are essentially not new concepts
The study examines material resources as predictors of sports delivery services. The result of the
This agrees with Fenker (2004) assertion that,
facilities management is a process that ensures other technical systems that support the operations of an
organization. Also consistent with the International Facilities Management Association (2002) that,
ordination of the physical workplace with the people and the
work of the organization; it integrates the principles of business administration, architecture and the
ermore, the result is consistent with Eze (2010) that, the
quest for effectiveness and efficiency is imperative that, facility managers have knowledge of the factors
that would contribute to the success of a facility from the time of planning and construction.
In the material resources category, the most important needs are for installation, maintenance protocols,
the standards and criteria for safety evaluation of facilities, and identification of quality parameters for
Emphasis worldwide has always been placed on
the availability of quality material resources for both sports councils and recreational centres. This is due
efore concluded that, material resources should
be adequately and properly taken into consideration when setting such venue. Moreover, the technical
skills and important areas concerning the human resource functioning should also be well taken care of,
Finally, in relation to users/clients, the most important needs identified were
the control of suggestions and complaints, the use of technological tools for reservations, the
o activities and to sports facilities, and the control of
In view of the outcomes of the findings, the following recommendations were made:
Land properties should be free for sports and recreational centres in strategic places.
The era of government monopoly of sports and recreational sponsorship should be reduced to allow
e sports delivery services.
Provision of standard, modern and up to date facilities at the sports and recreational centres for use,
habit of good maintenance culture of
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

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De Martelaer, K., Van Hoecke, J., De Knop, P., Van Heddegem, L. and Theeboom, M. (2002). Marketing
in Organised Sport: Participation, Expectations and Experiences of Children. European Sport
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Consejo Econmico y Social de Castilla
economic impact of sports facility use in the sports council of Oyo State. An
Unpublished Master Project in Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University
Fenker, M. (2004). Organizational Change, Representations and Facilities. In Facilities Management:
Fornell, C., Johnson, M. D., Anderson, E. W., Cha, J. and Bryant, B. E. (1996). The American customer
-18.
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driven change and its effects on financial
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improve operating performance? Empirical evidences from firms that have won quality awards.
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Lado, A. and Wilson, M. C. (1994). Human resource system and sustained competitive advantage: a
Mahony, D. F. and Howard, D. R. (2001). Sport business in the next decade: A general overview of
Mason, D.S. (2000). What is it the sports product and who buys it? The marketing of professional sports
lities and equipment management practice
Physical Education and
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR
LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Department of Curriculum and Instructional
School of Education, Emmanu
Abstract
WebQuest, an inquiry method that uses web resources for teaching and learning, is an effecti
approach that has been proven
framework for WebQuest development to support learning with technology in higher educati
application promotes student-centred learning environment, where students are motivated and
increased in developing thinking skills and cooperative learning. The framework for the development
is anchored on grounded constructivist, cognitive and
integration in learning. Evaluation in the development also anchored on the Kirkpatrick evaluation
model which comprised the foremost evaluation methodology in the world. Among the stated
recommendations was that educators should endeavour to see the endowed benefits of WebQuest in
teaching and learning, since the application serves as a motivator which encourages students to have
positive attitude towards their programme.
Keywords: Conceptual Framework,
Higher Education







Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com




CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR WEBQUEST DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT
LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY IN HIGHER EDUCATION
By
BADMUS, AYODEJI MUIDEEN, Ph.D
Department of Curriculum and Instructional
School of Education, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education
Oyo, Oyo State

method that uses web resources for teaching and learning, is an effecti
approach that has been proven to benefit students globally. This paper developed a conceptual
framework for WebQuest development to support learning with technology in higher educati
centred learning environment, where students are motivated and
increased in developing thinking skills and cooperative learning. The framework for the development
is anchored on grounded constructivist, cognitive and connectivist theories as they relate to media
integration in learning. Evaluation in the development also anchored on the Kirkpatrick evaluation
model which comprised the foremost evaluation methodology in the world. Among the stated
at educators should endeavour to see the endowed benefits of WebQuest in
teaching and learning, since the application serves as a motivator which encourages students to have
positive attitude towards their programme.
Conceptual Framework, WebQuest Development, Learning,
Higher Education
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
13
DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT
LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY IN HIGHER EDUCATION
el Alayande College of Education,
method that uses web resources for teaching and learning, is an effective
This paper developed a conceptual
framework for WebQuest development to support learning with technology in higher education. This
centred learning environment, where students are motivated and
increased in developing thinking skills and cooperative learning. The framework for the development
connectivist theories as they relate to media
integration in learning. Evaluation in the development also anchored on the Kirkpatrick evaluation
model which comprised the foremost evaluation methodology in the world. Among the stated
at educators should endeavour to see the endowed benefits of WebQuest in
teaching and learning, since the application serves as a motivator which encourages students to have
earning, Technology and
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
The instructional effects of media have provided a platform for diverse opinions. On one hand, Clark
(1994) maintained that media do not influence learning in any condition. In c
argued that technologies such as ICTs influence learning by interacting with an individuals cognitive and
social processes in constructing knowledge. Most importantly, recent studies have shown that ICTs (e.
Web, video, computers etc.) can influence the learners psychological factor (Swan, Mitrani, Guerrero,
Cheung, & Schoener, 1990).
The impact of ICT on learning is currently discussed almost entirely in relation to the use of digital
media and the Internet (Thorpe, 2010). Educat
data and reference materials, researching information, displaying projects, delivering in
programmes, posting news, participating in continuing education and talking with colleagues (Ekok
Ekoko, 2004). The Internet has become an indispensable tool in the twenty first century (Ibrahim, John
& Michael, 2006).
As an increasingly powerful, interactive, and dynamic medium for delivering information, the
World Wide Web (www) in combinati
Wide-Area Network (WAN), Internet, etc. have
educational use which includes W
an educational tool has provided learners and educators with a wider range of new and interesting
learning experiences and teaching environments not possible in traditional class education (Khan, 1997).
The World Wide Web is the second major w
the personal computer in the 1980s. Like many technologies, the web brings into being the ideas of early
innovators which brings the ideas about hypertext and universal sharing of documents and te
A Web-based lesson is simply a lesson that incorporates a web site or many web sites
(Badmus, 2013). A Web-based lesson can be conducted entirely online or it can be a traditional classroom
lesson with an online component. A web site
limited to research, reading, writing, publishing, communication and collaboration with teachers and
learners around the world (Mendoza, 2006). Aremu and Morakinyo (20
based lessons are Cyber Guide, Filamentality and WebQuests. WebQuest is an activity of guided inquiry
that requires Internet access to complete a given task (Eugene, 2004).
Vidoni, and Maddux (2002)
task or solve a problem, elicit higher
These tasks should involve problem solving, judgment, synthesis, and analysis of information (Kathy,
2009). Perkins and McKnight (2005) ex
of problem solving, students learn skills in an interactive, involved manner rather than in isolation (p.
124). In addition, Abu-Elwan (2007) adds
authentic, technology-rich environment for problem solving.
Web-based Instructional strategy such as WebQuest is one of the new teaching approaches that
has been proven to be effective in its ability to teach students. This approach
central stage of the learning process, where they are responsible for their own advances in the knowledge
acquisition (Hafizoah & Zuranina, 2007). The present teaching strategy in our institution does not
encourage stakeholders to develop strategies to improve students learning, whereas the introduction of
WebQuest will challenge developers, academics, and students into various innovative approaches that
could enhance teaching effectiveness and encourage students to learning. Tsai
impacts of using the WebQuest model in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program. In his study, the
students who completed the WebQuest activities were rated higher on measures of vocabulary
performance and story reading performa
Learning with technology means to use the technologies as cognitive tools to create constructivist
learning environments. Moreover, researches have shown that the learning process might be changed as
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The instructional effects of media have provided a platform for diverse opinions. On one hand, Clark
(1994) maintained that media do not influence learning in any condition. In contrast, Kozma (1994)
argued that technologies such as ICTs influence learning by interacting with an individuals cognitive and
social processes in constructing knowledge. Most importantly, recent studies have shown that ICTs (e.
tc.) can influence the learners psychological factor (Swan, Mitrani, Guerrero,
The impact of ICT on learning is currently discussed almost entirely in relation to the use of digital
media and the Internet (Thorpe, 2010). Educators see the internet as a medium for locating and retrieving
data and reference materials, researching information, displaying projects, delivering in
programmes, posting news, participating in continuing education and talking with colleagues (Ekok
Ekoko, 2004). The Internet has become an indispensable tool in the twenty first century (Ibrahim, John
As an increasingly powerful, interactive, and dynamic medium for delivering information, the
World Wide Web (www) in combination with information technology e.g. Local Area Network (
), Internet, etc. have many applications. One popular application ha
educational use which includes Web-based, distance, distributed or online learning. The use o
an educational tool has provided learners and educators with a wider range of new and interesting
learning experiences and teaching environments not possible in traditional class education (Khan, 1997).
The World Wide Web is the second major wave of the digital revolution that began with the advent of
the personal computer in the 1980s. Like many technologies, the web brings into being the ideas of early
innovators which brings the ideas about hypertext and universal sharing of documents and te
based lesson is simply a lesson that incorporates a web site or many web sites
based lesson can be conducted entirely online or it can be a traditional classroom
lesson with an online component. A web site can be used in education for a variety of purposes
research, reading, writing, publishing, communication and collaboration with teachers and
learners around the world (Mendoza, 2006). Aremu and Morakinyo (2008) assert
d lessons are Cyber Guide, Filamentality and WebQuests. WebQuest is an activity of guided inquiry
that requires Internet access to complete a given task (Eugene, 2004).
Vidoni, and Maddux (2002) explain that WebQuest makes students access the web to
task or solve a problem, elicit higher-order thinking rather than simple information searching and recall.
These tasks should involve problem solving, judgment, synthesis, and analysis of information (Kathy,
ns and McKnight (2005) explain one of the benefits in the following words: In the process
of problem solving, students learn skills in an interactive, involved manner rather than in isolation (p.
Elwan (2007) adds that, in order to develop students skills, WebQuests provide an
rich environment for problem solving.
based Instructional strategy such as WebQuest is one of the new teaching approaches that
has been proven to be effective in its ability to teach students. This approach positions students at the
central stage of the learning process, where they are responsible for their own advances in the knowledge
acquisition (Hafizoah & Zuranina, 2007). The present teaching strategy in our institution does not
develop strategies to improve students learning, whereas the introduction of
WebQuest will challenge developers, academics, and students into various innovative approaches that
could enhance teaching effectiveness and encourage students to learning. Tsai (2006) investigated the
impacts of using the WebQuest model in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program. In his study, the
students who completed the WebQuest activities were rated higher on measures of vocabulary
performance and story reading performance.
Learning with technology means to use the technologies as cognitive tools to create constructivist
learning environments. Moreover, researches have shown that the learning process might be changed as
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
14
The instructional effects of media have provided a platform for diverse opinions. On one hand, Clark
ontrast, Kozma (1994)
argued that technologies such as ICTs influence learning by interacting with an individuals cognitive and
social processes in constructing knowledge. Most importantly, recent studies have shown that ICTs (e.g.
tc.) can influence the learners psychological factor (Swan, Mitrani, Guerrero,
The impact of ICT on learning is currently discussed almost entirely in relation to the use of digital
ors see the internet as a medium for locating and retrieving
data and reference materials, researching information, displaying projects, delivering in-service
programmes, posting news, participating in continuing education and talking with colleagues (Ekoko &
Ekoko, 2004). The Internet has become an indispensable tool in the twenty first century (Ibrahim, John
As an increasingly powerful, interactive, and dynamic medium for delivering information, the
Local Area Network (LAN),
many applications. One popular application has been for
based, distance, distributed or online learning. The use of the Web as
an educational tool has provided learners and educators with a wider range of new and interesting
learning experiences and teaching environments not possible in traditional class education (Khan, 1997).
ave of the digital revolution that began with the advent of
the personal computer in the 1980s. Like many technologies, the web brings into being the ideas of early
innovators which brings the ideas about hypertext and universal sharing of documents and texts.
based lesson is simply a lesson that incorporates a web site or many web sites in its delivery
based lesson can be conducted entirely online or it can be a traditional classroom
can be used in education for a variety of purposes, not
research, reading, writing, publishing, communication and collaboration with teachers and
08) assert that the main Web-
d lessons are Cyber Guide, Filamentality and WebQuests. WebQuest is an activity of guided inquiry
WebQuest makes students access the web to complete a
order thinking rather than simple information searching and recall.
These tasks should involve problem solving, judgment, synthesis, and analysis of information (Kathy,
one of the benefits in the following words: In the process
of problem solving, students learn skills in an interactive, involved manner rather than in isolation (p.
, WebQuests provide an
based Instructional strategy such as WebQuest is one of the new teaching approaches that
positions students at the
central stage of the learning process, where they are responsible for their own advances in the knowledge
acquisition (Hafizoah & Zuranina, 2007). The present teaching strategy in our institution does not
develop strategies to improve students learning, whereas the introduction of
WebQuest will challenge developers, academics, and students into various innovative approaches that
(2006) investigated the
impacts of using the WebQuest model in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) program. In his study, the
students who completed the WebQuest activities were rated higher on measures of vocabulary
Learning with technology means to use the technologies as cognitive tools to create constructivist
learning environments. Moreover, researches have shown that the learning process might be changed as
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

an effect of predominant media being used, technolo
of cognitive mina tool (Kenny, 2001). With all these advantages of WebQuest and other ICT
Instructional strategies, it is necessary to integrate them into teaching and learning for students at all l
of education most particularly in higher education. The techniques and skills required to develop any
WebQuest is highly imperative for the students, teachers as well as instructional designers.

Constructivism, Cognitive, Connectivism
This paper is based on the theoretical foundations of constructivist, cognitive and connectivism learning
theory. The web can also be a vehicle for realizing the vision of educational thinkers like Dewey, Piaget,
and Vygotsky, who long ago advocated a con
currently the most structured, accessible and promising application of constructivist thought in online
education because students use information on Internet to solve problem on their own.
describes web as information highway, digital library, cyber space and global village. All are compatible
with learners constructing meaning through self
participation. Constructivism refers
learner individually (and socially) constructing meaning as he or she learns (George, 1991). Consequences
of this view are two folds viz: focus on the learner in thinking about learning and
of the meaning attributed to experience (constructed) by the learner or community of learners.
Constructivists view learning as the result of mental construction. Students learn by fitting new
information together with what they alre
own understanding. A central point in constructivism is that learning is always a unique product
constructed as each individual learner combines new information with existing knowledge and
experiences. It is important to note that constructivism is not a particular pedagogy. Constructivism is a
theory describing how learning happens, regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to
understand a lecture or following the instruction
Cognitive theorists see learning as an internal process, and contend that the amount learned
depends on the processing capacity of the learner, the amount of effort expended during the learning
process, the depth of the processing and the learners existing knowledge structure (Ausubel, 1974).
Cognitive learning theory influenced the development of learning materials with the introduction of
computer-based instruction. Cognitive theory was influenced by information proces
proposes that learners use different types of memory during learning.
Web-Based learning materials should include activities for the different styles, so that learners can
select appropriate activities based on their preferred learning s
which they can be involved, and they relate to peers more than to people in authority (Ally, 2008).
Learners like group work and peer feedback, and they see the instructor as a coach or helper. These
learners prefer support methods that allow them to interact with peers and obtain coaching from the
instructor (Ally, & Fahy, 2002). They prefer that all the information be available for learning, and see the
instructor as the expert. Like active
and participating in group discussions (Ally & Fah
establish their own criteria for evaluating situations while adequate supports should be provided for
students with different learning styles.
Connectivism is a learning theory which is based on the premise that knowledge exists in the world
rather than simply in the head of an individual (Wikipedia, 2010). According to Siemens (2004),
connectivist theory is for the digital age, where individuals learn and work in a networked environment.
As a result, we do not have control over what we learn since others in the network continually change
information, and that requires new learning, unlearning old informatio
information (Ally, 2008).
Siemens (2004) proposes some guidelines for designing learning materials for the learner, based on
connectivist theory. Below is an elaboration of these guidelines for the development of Web
learning materials.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
an effect of predominant media being used, technology or media as being successfully evaluated as type
of cognitive mina tool (Kenny, 2001). With all these advantages of WebQuest and other ICT
Instructional strategies, it is necessary to integrate them into teaching and learning for students at all l
of education most particularly in higher education. The techniques and skills required to develop any
WebQuest is highly imperative for the students, teachers as well as instructional designers.
Connectivism and Web Design
This paper is based on the theoretical foundations of constructivist, cognitive and connectivism learning
theory. The web can also be a vehicle for realizing the vision of educational thinkers like Dewey, Piaget,
and Vygotsky, who long ago advocated a constructivist approach to learning and teaching. WebQuests are
currently the most structured, accessible and promising application of constructivist thought in online
education because students use information on Internet to solve problem on their own.
web as information highway, digital library, cyber space and global village. All are compatible
with learners constructing meaning through self-directed inquiry, guided activity, or community
participation. Constructivism refers to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves, each
learner individually (and socially) constructing meaning as he or she learns (George, 1991). Consequences
of this view are two folds viz: focus on the learner in thinking about learning and knowledge independent
of the meaning attributed to experience (constructed) by the learner or community of learners.
Constructivists view learning as the result of mental construction. Students learn by fitting new
information together with what they already know. People learn best when they actively construct their
own understanding. A central point in constructivism is that learning is always a unique product
constructed as each individual learner combines new information with existing knowledge and
periences. It is important to note that constructivism is not a particular pedagogy. Constructivism is a
theory describing how learning happens, regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to
understand a lecture or following the instruction to a task (Leslie & Jerry, n.d).
Cognitive theorists see learning as an internal process, and contend that the amount learned
depends on the processing capacity of the learner, the amount of effort expended during the learning
processing and the learners existing knowledge structure (Ausubel, 1974).
Cognitive learning theory influenced the development of learning materials with the introduction of
based instruction. Cognitive theory was influenced by information proces
proposes that learners use different types of memory during learning.
Based learning materials should include activities for the different styles, so that learners can
select appropriate activities based on their preferred learning style. Learners prefer specific examples in
which they can be involved, and they relate to peers more than to people in authority (Ally, 2008).
Learners like group work and peer feedback, and they see the instructor as a coach or helper. These
er support methods that allow them to interact with peers and obtain coaching from the
instructor (Ally, & Fahy, 2002). They prefer that all the information be available for learning, and see the
instructor as the expert. Like active-experimentation, learners prefer to learn by doing practical projects
and participating in group discussions (Ally & Fahy, 2002). Cooper (1993) depicts
establish their own criteria for evaluating situations while adequate supports should be provided for
udents with different learning styles.
is a learning theory which is based on the premise that knowledge exists in the world
rather than simply in the head of an individual (Wikipedia, 2010). According to Siemens (2004),
s for the digital age, where individuals learn and work in a networked environment.
As a result, we do not have control over what we learn since others in the network continually change
information, and that requires new learning, unlearning old information, and/or learning current
some guidelines for designing learning materials for the learner, based on
connectivist theory. Below is an elaboration of these guidelines for the development of Web
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
15
gy or media as being successfully evaluated as type
of cognitive mina tool (Kenny, 2001). With all these advantages of WebQuest and other ICT-based
Instructional strategies, it is necessary to integrate them into teaching and learning for students at all levels
of education most particularly in higher education. The techniques and skills required to develop any
WebQuest is highly imperative for the students, teachers as well as instructional designers.
This paper is based on the theoretical foundations of constructivist, cognitive and connectivism learning
theory. The web can also be a vehicle for realizing the vision of educational thinkers like Dewey, Piaget,
structivist approach to learning and teaching. WebQuests are
currently the most structured, accessible and promising application of constructivist thought in online
education because students use information on Internet to solve problem on their own. Brown (2000)
web as information highway, digital library, cyber space and global village. All are compatible
directed inquiry, guided activity, or community-based co-
to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves, each
learner individually (and socially) constructing meaning as he or she learns (George, 1991). Consequences
knowledge independent
of the meaning attributed to experience (constructed) by the learner or community of learners.
Constructivists view learning as the result of mental construction. Students learn by fitting new
ady know. People learn best when they actively construct their
own understanding. A central point in constructivism is that learning is always a unique product
constructed as each individual learner combines new information with existing knowledge and
periences. It is important to note that constructivism is not a particular pedagogy. Constructivism is a
theory describing how learning happens, regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to
Cognitive theorists see learning as an internal process, and contend that the amount learned
depends on the processing capacity of the learner, the amount of effort expended during the learning
processing and the learners existing knowledge structure (Ausubel, 1974).
Cognitive learning theory influenced the development of learning materials with the introduction of
based instruction. Cognitive theory was influenced by information processing theory, which
Based learning materials should include activities for the different styles, so that learners can
tyle. Learners prefer specific examples in
which they can be involved, and they relate to peers more than to people in authority (Ally, 2008).
Learners like group work and peer feedback, and they see the instructor as a coach or helper. These
er support methods that allow them to interact with peers and obtain coaching from the
instructor (Ally, & Fahy, 2002). They prefer that all the information be available for learning, and see the
ers prefer to learn by doing practical projects
that students tend to
establish their own criteria for evaluating situations while adequate supports should be provided for
is a learning theory which is based on the premise that knowledge exists in the world
rather than simply in the head of an individual (Wikipedia, 2010). According to Siemens (2004),
s for the digital age, where individuals learn and work in a networked environment.
As a result, we do not have control over what we learn since others in the network continually change
n, and/or learning current
some guidelines for designing learning materials for the learner, based on
connectivist theory. Below is an elaboration of these guidelines for the development of Web-Based
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

1. Because of the information explosion, learners should be allowed to explore and research current
information. Learners of the future need to be autonomous and independent learners so that they
can acquire current information to build a v
Internet is an ideal learning strategy in a networked world.
2. Some information and procedures become obsolete because of changes in the field and innovation;
learners must therefore be able to unl
information and mental models. The information that is valid today may not be valid tomorrow.
3. The rapid increase of information available from a variety of sources means that some information is
not as important or genuine as other information. As a result, the learner must be able to identify
important information from unimportant information.
4. Learners must have the ability to recognize what knowledge is no longer valid so they can acquire
the new knowledge for a discipline. This requires that learners keep up
active participants in the network of learning.
5. Because of globalization, information is not location
telecommunication, technologies experts and learners from around the world can share and review
information. Learning and knowledge rests in a diversity of opinions. As a result, learners must be
allowed to connect with others around the world to examine others opi
thinking with the world. Mobile learning promises to help learners function in a networked world
where they can learn at any time and from anywhere (Ally, 2005, pp. 5).
As technology emerged, there was more emphasis on student
the use of constructivist theory in the development of learning materials. Constructivists claimed that
learners interpret information and the world according to their personal reality and that they learn by
observation, processing and interpretation and then personalize the information into their own
worldview. Also, learners learn best when they can contextualize what they learn for immediate
application and to acquire personal meaning. The student
problem-solving skills and learn by doing rather than by being told (Ally, 2008).
Conceptual Framework for WebQuest Development
The framework shown in Figure 1 explains the process by which WebQuest can be developed. This
covered some factors that need to be considered when developing a WebQuest such as technical
usability, product development, and product evaluation.

Figure 1: A Conceptual Framework for a
Technical
Usability
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Because of the information explosion, learners should be allowed to explore and research current
information. Learners of the future need to be autonomous and independent learners so that they
can acquire current information to build a valid and accurate knowledge base. Appropriate use of the
Internet is an ideal learning strategy in a networked world.
Some information and procedures become obsolete because of changes in the field and innovation;
learners must therefore be able to unlearn old information and mental models and learn current
information and mental models. The information that is valid today may not be valid tomorrow.
The rapid increase of information available from a variety of sources means that some information is
not as important or genuine as other information. As a result, the learner must be able to identify
important information from unimportant information.
Learners must have the ability to recognize what knowledge is no longer valid so they can acquire
e new knowledge for a discipline. This requires that learners keep up-to-date in the field and be
active participants in the network of learning.
Because of globalization, information is not location-specific, and with the increasing use of
ication, technologies experts and learners from around the world can share and review
information. Learning and knowledge rests in a diversity of opinions. As a result, learners must be
allowed to connect with others around the world to examine others opinions and to share their
thinking with the world. Mobile learning promises to help learners function in a networked world
where they can learn at any time and from anywhere (Ally, 2005, pp. 5).
As technology emerged, there was more emphasis on student-centred education which promotes
the use of constructivist theory in the development of learning materials. Constructivists claimed that
learners interpret information and the world according to their personal reality and that they learn by
ssing and interpretation and then personalize the information into their own
worldview. Also, learners learn best when they can contextualize what they learn for immediate
application and to acquire personal meaning. The student-centred approach allows lea
solving skills and learn by doing rather than by being told (Ally, 2008).
Conceptual Framework for WebQuest Development
The framework shown in Figure 1 explains the process by which WebQuest can be developed. This
covered some factors that need to be considered when developing a WebQuest such as technical
usability, product development, and product evaluation.

A Conceptual Framework for a WebQuest Development
Product
Development

WebQuest Application
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
16
Because of the information explosion, learners should be allowed to explore and research current
information. Learners of the future need to be autonomous and independent learners so that they
alid and accurate knowledge base. Appropriate use of the
Some information and procedures become obsolete because of changes in the field and innovation;
earn old information and mental models and learn current
information and mental models. The information that is valid today may not be valid tomorrow.
The rapid increase of information available from a variety of sources means that some information is
not as important or genuine as other information. As a result, the learner must be able to identify
Learners must have the ability to recognize what knowledge is no longer valid so they can acquire
date in the field and be
specific, and with the increasing use of
ication, technologies experts and learners from around the world can share and review
information. Learning and knowledge rests in a diversity of opinions. As a result, learners must be
nions and to share their
thinking with the world. Mobile learning promises to help learners function in a networked world
tred education which promotes
the use of constructivist theory in the development of learning materials. Constructivists claimed that
learners interpret information and the world according to their personal reality and that they learn by
ssing and interpretation and then personalize the information into their own
worldview. Also, learners learn best when they can contextualize what they learn for immediate
centred approach allows learners to develop
The framework shown in Figure 1 explains the process by which WebQuest can be developed. This
covered some factors that need to be considered when developing a WebQuest such as technical
Product
Evaluation
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Technical Usability: The use of web
rather than teachers, educators and learners (Nam & Smith
education had made the use of computers more
involved. Usability of web refers to the organi
the learner is able to move through the sections of websites and effective web use (Al
Technical usability of web develop is important to minimise the cognitive load and helps to
resources for the learning process. It enables learners to easily focus on learning process. It enables
learners to easily focus on learning materials without having to make an effort to figure how to access
them. Technical usability involves te
(Al-Badi & Naqvi, n.d). Technical usability in the WebQuest development is relates to how web
learning is convenient, practicable, and usable for the students. Nielsen (2000) signifie
usability as content, page, and site design. Page design indicates how easy it is to read the content of the
web-based learning and related to cross platform, speed of page access and page linking. Content design
depends on writing, importing files and medium use. Site design is about linking and navigation.
Product Development: These are the activities or processes that bring about WebQuest. The product
development utilized ADDIE model and WebQuest design components. Computer programmes such as
Macromedia Dreamweaver, JPEG, Microsoft PowerPoint and Word, and many other computer
were made use of in the development of WebQuest. The figure 2 illustrated the chain of WebQuest
development








The procedures of WebQuest development as shown in Figure 2 are in three phases. Phase I
which is referred to as Development Phase, involved Analysis, Design, and Development; phase II
(Validation Phase) involved Implementation and formative evaluation, and phase III (Product Evaluation
Phase) involved summative evaluation.
The analysis stage in phase I is a stage of
developing any instructional multimedia package or material, several questions that are relating to the
target audience, the nature of instructional package, the learning styles, the conditions under w
be utilised, the purpose for the package and the nature of the content need to be answered
(Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia, CEMCA, n.d). The analysis stage
WebQuest involves a process of determining the need asses
of the students that are expected to use the instructional package, whether the students possess the
required skills as well as desire to work with the package. It also considered choosing instructional
contents; instructional resources and establishing what must be learnt. These analyses provided important
inputs into design, development, implementation and assessment considerations.
Analysis
Task Introduction
Design
Phase I
Figure 2: Model of WebETC Development
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The use of web-based learning is still the domain of technical and software
rather than teachers, educators and learners (Nam & Smith-Jackson, 2007). The influx of ICT tools in
education had made the use of computers more-easier and lesser the technical difficulties that are
involved. Usability of web refers to the organization of information on the site and the method by which
the learner is able to move through the sections of websites and effective web use (Al
Technical usability of web develop is important to minimise the cognitive load and helps to
resources for the learning process. It enables learners to easily focus on learning process. It enables
learners to easily focus on learning materials without having to make an effort to figure how to access
them. Technical usability involves techniques for ensuring a trouble-free interaction with the software
Badi & Naqvi, n.d). Technical usability in the WebQuest development is relates to how web
learning is convenient, practicable, and usable for the students. Nielsen (2000) signifie
usability as content, page, and site design. Page design indicates how easy it is to read the content of the
based learning and related to cross platform, speed of page access and page linking. Content design
ing files and medium use. Site design is about linking and navigation.
These are the activities or processes that bring about WebQuest. The product
development utilized ADDIE model and WebQuest design components. Computer programmes such as
Macromedia Dreamweaver, JPEG, Microsoft PowerPoint and Word, and many other computer
were made use of in the development of WebQuest. The figure 2 illustrated the chain of WebQuest
The procedures of WebQuest development as shown in Figure 2 are in three phases. Phase I
Development Phase, involved Analysis, Design, and Development; phase II
(Validation Phase) involved Implementation and formative evaluation, and phase III (Product Evaluation
Phase) involved summative evaluation.
The analysis stage in phase I is a stage of capturing requirements and set expectations. Prior to
developing any instructional multimedia package or material, several questions that are relating to the
target audience, the nature of instructional package, the learning styles, the conditions under w
be utilised, the purpose for the package and the nature of the content need to be answered
(Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia, CEMCA, n.d). The analysis stage
a process of determining the need assessment of the WebQuest application, the type
of the students that are expected to use the instructional package, whether the students possess the
required skills as well as desire to work with the package. It also considered choosing instructional
instructional resources and establishing what must be learnt. These analyses provided important
inputs into design, development, implementation and assessment considerations.
Development
Conclusion Process &
Resources
Formative
Evaluation
Implementation
Phase II
Model of WebETC Development
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
17
based learning is still the domain of technical and software experts
Jackson, 2007). The influx of ICT tools in
easier and lesser the technical difficulties that are
zation of information on the site and the method by which
the learner is able to move through the sections of websites and effective web use (Al-Badi & Naqvi, n.d).
Technical usability of web develop is important to minimise the cognitive load and helps to free more
resources for the learning process. It enables learners to easily focus on learning process. It enables
learners to easily focus on learning materials without having to make an effort to figure how to access
free interaction with the software
Badi & Naqvi, n.d). Technical usability in the WebQuest development is relates to how web-based
learning is convenient, practicable, and usable for the students. Nielsen (2000) signified factors of web
usability as content, page, and site design. Page design indicates how easy it is to read the content of the
based learning and related to cross platform, speed of page access and page linking. Content design
ing files and medium use. Site design is about linking and navigation.
These are the activities or processes that bring about WebQuest. The product
development utilized ADDIE model and WebQuest design components. Computer programmes such as
Macromedia Dreamweaver, JPEG, Microsoft PowerPoint and Word, and many other computer tools
were made use of in the development of WebQuest. The figure 2 illustrated the chain of WebQuest
The procedures of WebQuest development as shown in Figure 2 are in three phases. Phase I
Development Phase, involved Analysis, Design, and Development; phase II
(Validation Phase) involved Implementation and formative evaluation, and phase III (Product Evaluation
capturing requirements and set expectations. Prior to
developing any instructional multimedia package or material, several questions that are relating to the
target audience, the nature of instructional package, the learning styles, the conditions under which it can
be utilised, the purpose for the package and the nature of the content need to be answered
(Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia, CEMCA, n.d). The analysis stage in developing
sment of the WebQuest application, the type
of the students that are expected to use the instructional package, whether the students possess the
required skills as well as desire to work with the package. It also considered choosing instructional
instructional resources and establishing what must be learnt. These analyses provided important
Summative
Evaluation
Phase III
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

The design stage of phase I involved identification of the instructional objecti
strategy that will be employed to achieve the objectives, and instructional media that are most effective to
achieve the objectives. The design stage considered three sub
design strategy, visual design and technical design. At the development stage of phase I, the output of the
analysis and design stages with the WebQuest design components will be transformed into WebQuest
application (an Internet-Based instructional strategy) which is the final prod
component involved Introduction, Task, Process and Resources, Conclusion and Evaluation. The
Introductory part of the WebQuest development will contain information that give the students the
background about the instructional conce
selected concepts. The Task contextualized the adventures. It is motivating and challenging, as it implied
that the students assume the role of self
and giving their solution about the questions. The Process shows all the steps and useful websites that
students will have to follow and use in order to solve the Task. The Resources consist of the list of the
Web sites that the students needed to complete the given task in the WebQuest. The Conclusion part
contains satisfactory remark on the completion of the task. The developed WebQuest will be subjected to
validation in phase II involving implementation and formative stage.
Phase II of the WebQuest development. It involved implementation and formative evaluation
stages as shown in Figure 2. The implementation provided the raison detre of WebQuest, this is where
the product will be put into action and takes a holistic view of pres
learning problem. During the implementation stage, the developed WebQuest will be used as a medium
of instruction to teach students for field testing and usability testing. The usability testing referred to the
quality of the website or resources that allow the students to use developed WebQuest with satisfaction,
efficacy and efficiency (Carvalho, 2001). The formative is for the determination of the feasibility of using
the WebQuest to teach students in higher institu
as validation of the product.
Phase III of the development involved summation evaluation, which referred to as product
evaluation. This phase required instructional designer to expose the WebQuest
technology experts as well as students for final evaluation.
Rationale for Evaluation in Web Design
Every instructional designer wants to have assurance that his topic, or course, or total system of
instruction is valuable for learning in the schools. This means that designer wishes to at least know
whether his newly designed instructional product works in the sense of achieving its objectives. The
indications of how well an instructional product or system performs are best ob
gathered evidence (Gagne & Briggs, 1979). The means of gathering, analysing, and interpreting such
evidences are collectively called methods of evaluation. In most general sense, evaluation in education is
to assess the worth of a variety of states or events, from small to large, from the specific to the very
general.
Evaluation is the systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of a learning process
by using criteria against a set of standards (Badmus, 2013). Evalu
actually meet the new performance standards once they have completed their training and returned to
their jobs as well as ensuring that the teaching and learning process or instructional goal is actually being
met. Evaluation is the process of examining a program or process to determine whats working, whats
not and why. Microsoft Encarta Dictionary (2009)
examining something in order to judge its value, quality, importan
systematic, rigorous, and meticulous application of scientific methods to assess the design,
implementation, improvement or outcomes of a program (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, 2004).
Bramley and Newby (1984) identif
1. Feedback Linking learning outcome to objectives and providing a form of quality control.
2. Control Making links from training to organizational activities and to consider cost effectiveness.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The design stage of phase I involved identification of the instructional objecti
strategy that will be employed to achieve the objectives, and instructional media that are most effective to
achieve the objectives. The design stage considered three sub-processes. These include instructional
ign and technical design. At the development stage of phase I, the output of the
analysis and design stages with the WebQuest design components will be transformed into WebQuest
Based instructional strategy) which is the final product. The WebQuest design
component involved Introduction, Task, Process and Resources, Conclusion and Evaluation. The
Introductory part of the WebQuest development will contain information that give the students the
background about the instructional concepts and involved the pictures that are relevant or related to the
selected concepts. The Task contextualized the adventures. It is motivating and challenging, as it implied
that the students assume the role of self-learning, inquiring for information to solve the given questions,
and giving their solution about the questions. The Process shows all the steps and useful websites that
students will have to follow and use in order to solve the Task. The Resources consist of the list of the
udents needed to complete the given task in the WebQuest. The Conclusion part
contains satisfactory remark on the completion of the task. The developed WebQuest will be subjected to
validation in phase II involving implementation and formative stage.
II of the WebQuest development. It involved implementation and formative evaluation
stages as shown in Figure 2. The implementation provided the raison detre of WebQuest, this is where
the product will be put into action and takes a holistic view of presenting the WebQuest as a solution to a
learning problem. During the implementation stage, the developed WebQuest will be used as a medium
of instruction to teach students for field testing and usability testing. The usability testing referred to the
y of the website or resources that allow the students to use developed WebQuest with satisfaction,
efficacy and efficiency (Carvalho, 2001). The formative is for the determination of the feasibility of using
the WebQuest to teach students in higher institutions. The results obtained from this phase will be used
Phase III of the development involved summation evaluation, which referred to as product
evaluation. This phase required instructional designer to expose the WebQuest package to educational
technology experts as well as students for final evaluation.
Rationale for Evaluation in Web Design
Every instructional designer wants to have assurance that his topic, or course, or total system of
learning in the schools. This means that designer wishes to at least know
whether his newly designed instructional product works in the sense of achieving its objectives. The
indications of how well an instructional product or system performs are best obtained from systematically
gathered evidence (Gagne & Briggs, 1979). The means of gathering, analysing, and interpreting such
evidences are collectively called methods of evaluation. In most general sense, evaluation in education is
a variety of states or events, from small to large, from the specific to the very
Evaluation is the systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of a learning process
by using criteria against a set of standards (Badmus, 2013). Evaluation process ensures the learners are
actually meet the new performance standards once they have completed their training and returned to
their jobs as well as ensuring that the teaching and learning process or instructional goal is actually being
aluation is the process of examining a program or process to determine whats working, whats
Microsoft Encarta Dictionary (2009) defined evaluation as an act of considering or
examining something in order to judge its value, quality, importance, extent, or condition.
systematic, rigorous, and meticulous application of scientific methods to assess the design,
implementation, improvement or outcomes of a program (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, 2004).
Bramley and Newby (1984) identified five main purposes of evaluation, these include:
Linking learning outcome to objectives and providing a form of quality control.
Making links from training to organizational activities and to consider cost effectiveness.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
18
The design stage of phase I involved identification of the instructional objectives, instructional
strategy that will be employed to achieve the objectives, and instructional media that are most effective to
processes. These include instructional
ign and technical design. At the development stage of phase I, the output of the
analysis and design stages with the WebQuest design components will be transformed into WebQuest
uct. The WebQuest design
component involved Introduction, Task, Process and Resources, Conclusion and Evaluation. The
Introductory part of the WebQuest development will contain information that give the students the
pts and involved the pictures that are relevant or related to the
selected concepts. The Task contextualized the adventures. It is motivating and challenging, as it implied
lve the given questions,
and giving their solution about the questions. The Process shows all the steps and useful websites that
students will have to follow and use in order to solve the Task. The Resources consist of the list of the
udents needed to complete the given task in the WebQuest. The Conclusion part
contains satisfactory remark on the completion of the task. The developed WebQuest will be subjected to
II of the WebQuest development. It involved implementation and formative evaluation
stages as shown in Figure 2. The implementation provided the raison detre of WebQuest, this is where
enting the WebQuest as a solution to a
learning problem. During the implementation stage, the developed WebQuest will be used as a medium
of instruction to teach students for field testing and usability testing. The usability testing referred to the
y of the website or resources that allow the students to use developed WebQuest with satisfaction,
efficacy and efficiency (Carvalho, 2001). The formative is for the determination of the feasibility of using
tions. The results obtained from this phase will be used
Phase III of the development involved summation evaluation, which referred to as product
package to educational
Every instructional designer wants to have assurance that his topic, or course, or total system of
learning in the schools. This means that designer wishes to at least know
whether his newly designed instructional product works in the sense of achieving its objectives. The
tained from systematically
gathered evidence (Gagne & Briggs, 1979). The means of gathering, analysing, and interpreting such
evidences are collectively called methods of evaluation. In most general sense, evaluation in education is
a variety of states or events, from small to large, from the specific to the very
Evaluation is the systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of a learning process
ation process ensures the learners are
actually meet the new performance standards once they have completed their training and returned to
their jobs as well as ensuring that the teaching and learning process or instructional goal is actually being
aluation is the process of examining a program or process to determine whats working, whats
evaluation as an act of considering or
ce, extent, or condition. Evaluation is a
systematic, rigorous, and meticulous application of scientific methods to assess the design,
implementation, improvement or outcomes of a program (Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, 2004).
ive main purposes of evaluation, these include:
Linking learning outcome to objectives and providing a form of quality control.
Making links from training to organizational activities and to consider cost effectiveness.
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

3. Research - Determining the relationships between learning, training, and the transfer of training to
the job.
4. Intervention - The results of the evaluation influence the context in which it is occurring.
5. Power games - Manipulating evaluative data for organizational p

Evaluation describes how to assess the nature, impact and value of an activity through the
systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of information with a view to making an informed
decision (Saiful, n.d.). Evaluations are normally divided into two broad categories:
summative (Clark, 2008).
Methods of evaluation are applicable to many different aspects of educational systems and
products. Among these include Scrivens evaluation procedures, St
Kirkpatricks four-Level-Evaluation model. This paper discussed only on Kirkpatricks four
Evaluation model because it has been best known as evaluating methodology for judging learning
processes. It is also the most used evaluating method of instructional product in the field of educational
technology.
Donald Kirkpatrick is Professor Emeritus of the University of Wisconsin in the United States and
he was known for originating the 'four level' model for training cour
first published in 1959 in the US Training and Development Journal. It became well
he published in 1975 entitled, "Evaluating Training Programs". Kirkpatricks four levels are designed as a
sequence of ways to evaluate training programmes or instructional product. Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick
(2006) noted that none of the levels should be bypassed simply to get to level that the students consider
the most important. The four levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluat
1. Reaction How well did learners like the learning process?
2. Learning what did they learn?
3. Behaviour what changes in learning performance resulted from the learning process?
4. Results What are the tangible results of the
quality, increased production, efficiency, etc.?

The Kirkpatricks model comprises the foremost evaluation methodology in the world and its
concept is quite important as it makes an excellent planning, e
(Badmus, 2013).

Conclusion and Recommendations
The Internet is expanding education into a global classroom, with learners, teachers, and experts from
around the world. As a result, learners must network with other st
they are continually learning and updating their knowledge. Information for learning should not be taken
from one source but should be assembled from many sources to reflect the networked world and the
diversity of thinking. Learning should be delivered in a multi
communication technologies are used to deliver the learning materials to facilitate optimal learning.
Because of the information explosion, learners of the future must be willing
an ongoing basis. Online teaching strategies must give learners the opportunity to research and locate new
information in a discipline so that they can keep up
to deliver flexibility, instruction must be designed for experiential and authentic learning. The following
recommendations suggest that
1. teachers in higher education should work hand
developers to develop and come out with
use in the school;
2. teachers should endeavour to develop and utilise WebQuests for teaching and learning in higher
education. This will further increase teachers knowledge on new innovations in ICT
instructional strategies;
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Determining the relationships between learning, training, and the transfer of training to
The results of the evaluation influence the context in which it is occurring.
Manipulating evaluative data for organizational politics.
Evaluation describes how to assess the nature, impact and value of an activity through the
systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of information with a view to making an informed
Evaluations are normally divided into two broad categories:
Methods of evaluation are applicable to many different aspects of educational systems and
products. Among these include Scrivens evaluation procedures, Stufflebeams evaluation methods and
Evaluation model. This paper discussed only on Kirkpatricks four
Evaluation model because it has been best known as evaluating methodology for judging learning
t used evaluating method of instructional product in the field of educational
Donald Kirkpatrick is Professor Emeritus of the University of Wisconsin in the United States and
he was known for originating the 'four level' model for training course evaluation and these ideas were
first published in 1959 in the US Training and Development Journal. It became well
he published in 1975 entitled, "Evaluating Training Programs". Kirkpatricks four levels are designed as a
ays to evaluate training programmes or instructional product. Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick
(2006) noted that none of the levels should be bypassed simply to get to level that the students consider
the most important. The four levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation model essentially measure:
How well did learners like the learning process?
what did they learn?
what changes in learning performance resulted from the learning process?
What are the tangible results of the learning process in terms of reduced cost, improved
quality, increased production, efficiency, etc.?
The Kirkpatricks model comprises the foremost evaluation methodology in the world and its
concept is quite important as it makes an excellent planning, evaluating, and troubling
Conclusion and Recommendations
The Internet is expanding education into a global classroom, with learners, teachers, and experts from
around the world. As a result, learners must network with other students and experts to make sure that
they are continually learning and updating their knowledge. Information for learning should not be taken
from one source but should be assembled from many sources to reflect the networked world and the
king. Learning should be delivered in a multi-channel system where different
communication technologies are used to deliver the learning materials to facilitate optimal learning.
Because of the information explosion, learners of the future must be willing to acquire new knowledge on
an ongoing basis. Online teaching strategies must give learners the opportunity to research and locate new
information in a discipline so that they can keep up-to-date in the field. In addition to using the Internet
lexibility, instruction must be designed for experiential and authentic learning. The following
teachers in higher education should work hand-in-hand with computer programmers or software
developers to develop and come out with relevant ICT-based instructional tools like WebQuest for
teachers should endeavour to develop and utilise WebQuests for teaching and learning in higher
education. This will further increase teachers knowledge on new innovations in ICT
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
19
Determining the relationships between learning, training, and the transfer of training to
The results of the evaluation influence the context in which it is occurring.
Evaluation describes how to assess the nature, impact and value of an activity through the
systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of information with a view to making an informed
Evaluations are normally divided into two broad categories: formative and
Methods of evaluation are applicable to many different aspects of educational systems and
ufflebeams evaluation methods and
Evaluation model. This paper discussed only on Kirkpatricks four-Level-
Evaluation model because it has been best known as evaluating methodology for judging learning
t used evaluating method of instructional product in the field of educational
Donald Kirkpatrick is Professor Emeritus of the University of Wisconsin in the United States and
se evaluation and these ideas were
first published in 1959 in the US Training and Development Journal. It became well-known from a book
he published in 1975 entitled, "Evaluating Training Programs". Kirkpatricks four levels are designed as a
ays to evaluate training programmes or instructional product. Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick
(2006) noted that none of the levels should be bypassed simply to get to level that the students consider
ion model essentially measure:
what changes in learning performance resulted from the learning process?
learning process in terms of reduced cost, improved
The Kirkpatricks model comprises the foremost evaluation methodology in the world and its
valuating, and troubling-shooting tool
The Internet is expanding education into a global classroom, with learners, teachers, and experts from
udents and experts to make sure that
they are continually learning and updating their knowledge. Information for learning should not be taken
from one source but should be assembled from many sources to reflect the networked world and the
channel system where different
communication technologies are used to deliver the learning materials to facilitate optimal learning.
to acquire new knowledge on
an ongoing basis. Online teaching strategies must give learners the opportunity to research and locate new
date in the field. In addition to using the Internet
lexibility, instruction must be designed for experiential and authentic learning. The following
hand with computer programmers or software
based instructional tools like WebQuest for
teachers should endeavour to develop and utilise WebQuests for teaching and learning in higher
education. This will further increase teachers knowledge on new innovations in ICT-Based
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

3. educational technology teachers should expose the students to ICT
like WebQuest to promote students autonomy to knowledge acquisition, discovery learning and
student-centred instructional app
4. educators should endeavour to see the endowed benefits of WebQuest in teaching and learning,
since the application of WebQuest serves as a motivator which encourages students to have
positive attitude towards their programme.
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Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). San
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medical schools. Retrieved on
October 17, 2012, from
http://saifulbahri.com/Medical_education/Medical_Education_Notes/models_of_curriculum_ev
Retrieved on May 18, 2009, from
Perceived locus of control and computer-
. (2002). WebQuests: Can they be used to improve critical-thinking skills
. Retrieved on September 10, 2011, from
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

PLANNING STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY
CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
Department of Education
Abstract
The study addresses the educational and social relevance of early childhood education, especially the
strategic planning in respect to
Education is widely recognized to impact positively on the later years
though Nigeria is seen to have embarked on policies aimed at pedagogical renewal through its UBE
programme. It is observed that no specific plann
of any aspects of the programme on early childhood development. In view of its societal relevance, the
study advocates for a desirable and necessary educational process which are desirable and necessary
for ensuring the successful implementation of early childhood education policy in Nigeria. This paper
provides justification for the planning of early childhood Education and recommends the formulation
of appropriate policy framework; the inaugur
appropriate curriculum and establishment of appropriate data bank as effective planning strategies for
a sustainable early childhood Education Programme in Nigeria.











Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com




PLANNING STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY
CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
By
MRS. ODIGIE, V.O., Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundations
Faculty of Education,
University of Port Harcourt
The study addresses the educational and social relevance of early childhood education, especially the
strategic planning in respect to childs cognitive, emotional and social development. Early Ch
Education is widely recognized to impact positively on the later years learning abilities of children;
hough Nigeria is seen to have embarked on policies aimed at pedagogical renewal through its UBE
programme. It is observed that no specific planning strategy has been adopted for the implementation
of any aspects of the programme on early childhood development. In view of its societal relevance, the
study advocates for a desirable and necessary educational process which are desirable and necessary
for ensuring the successful implementation of early childhood education policy in Nigeria. This paper
provides justification for the planning of early childhood Education and recommends the formulation
of appropriate policy framework; the inauguration of a functional planning agency; development of
appropriate curriculum and establishment of appropriate data bank as effective planning strategies for
a sustainable early childhood Education Programme in Nigeria.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
22
PLANNING STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY
The study addresses the educational and social relevance of early childhood education, especially the
cognitive, emotional and social development. Early Childhood
learning abilities of children;
hough Nigeria is seen to have embarked on policies aimed at pedagogical renewal through its UBE
ing strategy has been adopted for the implementation
of any aspects of the programme on early childhood development. In view of its societal relevance, the
study advocates for a desirable and necessary educational process which are desirable and necessary
for ensuring the successful implementation of early childhood education policy in Nigeria. This paper
provides justification for the planning of early childhood Education and recommends the formulation
gency; development of
appropriate curriculum and establishment of appropriate data bank as effective planning strategies for
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
The importance of children in any national planning and development is acclaimed worldwide. This is
why the slogan that children are
Significantly too, education is also central to the growth an
development to be witnessed, education at the foundation level is crucial, specifically the early childhood
period. Early Childhood Education has been defined as the systematic and sustained exposure to and
transmission of knowledge for early Childhood development in formal learning situations where the
teacher performs quasi parental functions (Odigie 2003). While it is true that development in the global
world order (such as globalization) have intended to precipi
nations education policies and that in order to be part of that convergence
effect reform in her education policy and system. By position, it is meant that a policy is a composite of
wishes, goals, objectives and implementation strategies set forth for accomplishment of agreed plans.
Amaeles submission perfectly agrees with this position
into documents which are in turn translated into re
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004:11) defines early childhood pre
children between ages of 2 to 5 years. It includes the crche, the nursery and the kindergarten.
In this regard, evidence from the fields of psychology and physiology indicate
conception to about eight years, the childs attitude towards learning is developed through doing,
experimenting, manipulating and exploring. It therefore follows tha
in early years of life influences the childs later years learning ability and that children will develop to their
full potentials if at the early childhood stages, their need for learning, interaction and affectio
fulfilled and their need for protection, nutrition and health care are satisfied.
than any other factor led to the concept fostering and furthering early childhood care and development
which was articulated at the World
Jomtiem Declaration and Dakar Framework for A
children enter schools and gave international recognition and sanction to early children educat
Following the 1990 World Conference and the d
framework for action, a number of developing nations have produce
blueprint aimed at pedagogical renewal
country had demonstrated serious commitment in pursuing the goals of the Jomtiem
implementing the Universal Basic Education programme which has been applauded for its inclusiveness.
While reforms are still ongoing and the search for
the numerous problems facing basic e
strategies for planning effective and sustainable
Justification for Planning Early Childhood Education
The initial insight for the planning of early childhood e
philosophy, psychology and health. Evidence from these fields indicates that the early years of a
crucial in the childs life when his mind and body are
intelligence, motivation self image and his ability to relate
substantial portion of future school achievement is determined before the statutory school age. If this is
the case, it is rational then we plan early childhood education in order to give the child the right start and
ensure solid foundation for his future educational achievement.
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human R
to basic education that the least capable person can attain. This will be made possible through the
instrumentality of government machinery. Since government has to at
needs such as health, security, welfare etc, there is the need to optimize resource allocation and use and
since early childhood education is to compete for resources and government attention with other levels of
education, it will only be rational to plan it in order to maximize the resources that will be allocated to it
and give proper direction to its goal attainment.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The importance of children in any national planning and development is acclaimed worldwide. This is
why the slogan that children are the leaders of tomorrow remains an unquestionable
Significantly too, education is also central to the growth and development of any society. For the
development to be witnessed, education at the foundation level is crucial, specifically the early childhood
Early Childhood Education has been defined as the systematic and sustained exposure to and
ion of knowledge for early Childhood development in formal learning situations where the
teacher performs quasi parental functions (Odigie 2003). While it is true that development in the global
world order (such as globalization) have intended to precipitate a convergence of many a sovereign
nations education policies and that in order to be part of that convergence, an individual nation must
effect reform in her education policy and system. By position, it is meant that a policy is a composite of
hes, goals, objectives and implementation strategies set forth for accomplishment of agreed plans.
tly agrees with this position, when he describes policies as visions translated
into documents which are in turn translated into reality via disparate strategies (Amaele, 2005). The
(2004:11) defines early childhood pre-primary education as learning given to
children between ages of 2 to 5 years. It includes the crche, the nursery and the kindergarten.
vidence from the fields of psychology and physiology indicate
conception to about eight years, the childs attitude towards learning is developed through doing,
experimenting, manipulating and exploring. It therefore follows that the experiences a child is exposed to
in early years of life influences the childs later years learning ability and that children will develop to their
full potentials if at the early childhood stages, their need for learning, interaction and affectio
fulfilled and their need for protection, nutrition and health care are satisfied. Perhaps
than any other factor led to the concept fostering and furthering early childhood care and development
the World Conference on Education held in Jomtiem, Thailand in 1990. The
Dakar Framework for Action acknowledged that learning begins long before
children enter schools and gave international recognition and sanction to early children educat
1990 World Conference and the declaration of Education for All (EFA) as a
framework for action, a number of developing nations have produced comprehensive and innovative
nt aimed at pedagogical renewal. Within the Nigeria context of Education for All (EFA),
had demonstrated serious commitment in pursuing the goals of the Jomtiem
implementing the Universal Basic Education programme which has been applauded for its inclusiveness.
going and the search for innovative strategies in tackling and surmounting
ing basic education in Nigeria, this paper seeks to develop appropriate
effective and sustainable early childhood education.
or Planning Early Childhood Education
he planning of early childhood education was provided by studies in the fields of
philosophy, psychology and health. Evidence from these fields indicates that the early years of a
s life when his mind and body are growing which will influence his later health, his
intelligence, motivation self image and his ability to relate with other human beings. It then follows that
hool achievement is determined before the statutory school age. If this is
the case, it is rational then we plan early childhood education in order to give the child the right start and
ensure solid foundation for his future educational achievement.
ited Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights confers on every individual the right
to basic education that the least capable person can attain. This will be made possible through the
instrumentality of government machinery. Since government has to attend to other equally important
needs such as health, security, welfare etc, there is the need to optimize resource allocation and use and
since early childhood education is to compete for resources and government attention with other levels of
it will only be rational to plan it in order to maximize the resources that will be allocated to it
and give proper direction to its goal attainment.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
23
The importance of children in any national planning and development is acclaimed worldwide. This is
leaders of tomorrow remains an unquestionable standpoint.
d development of any society. For the
development to be witnessed, education at the foundation level is crucial, specifically the early childhood
Early Childhood Education has been defined as the systematic and sustained exposure to and
ion of knowledge for early Childhood development in formal learning situations where the
teacher performs quasi parental functions (Odigie 2003). While it is true that development in the global
tate a convergence of many a sovereign
, an individual nation must
effect reform in her education policy and system. By position, it is meant that a policy is a composite of
hes, goals, objectives and implementation strategies set forth for accomplishment of agreed plans.
when he describes policies as visions translated
ality via disparate strategies (Amaele, 2005). The
primary education as learning given to
children between ages of 2 to 5 years. It includes the crche, the nursery and the kindergarten.
vidence from the fields of psychology and physiology indicates that from
conception to about eight years, the childs attitude towards learning is developed through doing,
t the experiences a child is exposed to
in early years of life influences the childs later years learning ability and that children will develop to their
full potentials if at the early childhood stages, their need for learning, interaction and affection are
Perhaps, these reasons more
than any other factor led to the concept fostering and furthering early childhood care and development
held in Jomtiem, Thailand in 1990. The
that learning begins long before
children enter schools and gave international recognition and sanction to early children education.
eclaration of Education for All (EFA) as a
comprehensive and innovative
of Education for All (EFA), the
had demonstrated serious commitment in pursuing the goals of the Jomtiems conference by
implementing the Universal Basic Education programme which has been applauded for its inclusiveness.
tackling and surmounting
his paper seeks to develop appropriate
ducation was provided by studies in the fields of
philosophy, psychology and health. Evidence from these fields indicates that the early years of a child are
will influence his later health, his
other human beings. It then follows that
hool achievement is determined before the statutory school age. If this is
the case, it is rational then we plan early childhood education in order to give the child the right start and
confers on every individual the right
to basic education that the least capable person can attain. This will be made possible through the
tend to other equally important
needs such as health, security, welfare etc, there is the need to optimize resource allocation and use and
since early childhood education is to compete for resources and government attention with other levels of
it will only be rational to plan it in order to maximize the resources that will be allocated to it
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

It is an established fact that industrialization and innovation brought about by modern science and
technology brought with it changes in the structure and role
wage earnings systems which are the features of
home for the most part of the day. This phenomenon ha
nursery schools. The high demand for this category of schools only suggest
actions that will bring about a more realistic early childhood education programme for its citizens. This
can only be possible through a rational planning process. Besides, if government is serious and desirous
to provide early childhood care and socialization as contained in the implementation guideline for the
UBE programme, a more sense of urgency deman
so that children of all socio-economic background
The proliferation of day care centres and nursery schools
Childhood Education should be pla
care centres and nursery schools have been found to exist in homes, churches and other such
establishment designated as day care centres. These are expected to ca
environment for the children. Presently
exorbitant fees. While some of them are re
of Education or Social Welfare supervising
Besides, there is no unified and defined curriculum for nursery education. In a study by
Onuchukwu and Ifeanacho reported in the Association for the Development of Education in Africa
(ADEA) Newsletter (2003:15), it was revealed that 32% to 80% of the
were of western origin; poems, nursery rhymes and play were completely American or European; English
was the predominant language followed by French while no Nigerian language was used; and in some
schools there was prolonged electronic bombardment via CNN on television, computers and computer
games. This situations call for urgent government intervention and provide justifications for the planning
of early childhood education in Nigeria.
Research evidence shows that investment
welfare in terms of health care, nutrition
basic education. It is equally proven that early childhood education helps in reducing repetition a
dropout rates and therefore increases the effectiveness of Primary education (ADEA 2002:2). For this
reason it is important that we plan early childhood education and tailor it towards the attainment of
sustainable interest of children in schooling.
A planned early childhood education programme will promote social and economic equality and
help to redress the socio- economic inequality created by private investors, which made early childhood
education very expensive and an exclu
childhood education programme will therefore eliminate unequal opportunities and the disadvantages of
poor mental development and readiness for school that is mostly experienced by children from low
income group. This will help reduce juvenile delinquency and drug abuse, which is also prevalent among
these groups of children.
Strategies for Planning Early Childhood Education i
The Nigerian Education system as presently constituted is in serious crisis. The diff
education suffer from poor conditions of learning, high students
classrooms, preponderance of unqualified teachers etc. These collapsed, have resulted in the poor
attainment of educational objectives in the co
challenges facing government renewed interest and initiatives in early childhood education in Nigeria.
Some of these strategies include;
(a) Formulating Appropriate Policy Frame Work for Early
The policy provisions for early childhood Education in Nigeria can best described as regulatory and show
no real government interest to goal attainment in early childhood development. Government merely
outlined the fundamental policy ob
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
It is an established fact that industrialization and innovation brought about by modern science and
logy brought with it changes in the structure and roles of the family. The white colla
the features of modern society are known to keep parents away from the
home for the most part of the day. This phenomenon has resulted in high demand for care centres and
nursery schools. The high demand for this category of schools only suggests that government initiate
actions that will bring about a more realistic early childhood education programme for its citizens. This
an only be possible through a rational planning process. Besides, if government is serious and desirous
to provide early childhood care and socialization as contained in the implementation guideline for the
UBE programme, a more sense of urgency demands that adequate planning arrangement be put in place
economic backgrounds will be catered for.
The proliferation of day care centres and nursery schools is also another major reason why Early
Childhood Education should be planned for. Their establishments have been most uncoordinated. Day
care centres and nursery schools have been found to exist in homes, churches and other such
establishment designated as day care centres. These are expected to care for and provide socializi
environment for the children. Presently, these centres are uncoordinated, unregulated and charging
exorbitant fees. While some of them are registered and controlled by the Ministry of
of Education or Social Welfare supervising others.
Besides, there is no unified and defined curriculum for nursery education. In a study by
Onuchukwu and Ifeanacho reported in the Association for the Development of Education in Africa
Newsletter (2003:15), it was revealed that 32% to 80% of the books used in nursery schools
were of western origin; poems, nursery rhymes and play were completely American or European; English
was the predominant language followed by French while no Nigerian language was used; and in some
electronic bombardment via CNN on television, computers and computer
games. This situations call for urgent government intervention and provide justifications for the planning
of early childhood education in Nigeria.
Research evidence shows that investment in early childhood development contributes to child
welfare in terms of health care, nutrition, psychological balance; helping more children complete their
basic education. It is equally proven that early childhood education helps in reducing repetition a
dropout rates and therefore increases the effectiveness of Primary education (ADEA 2002:2). For this
reason it is important that we plan early childhood education and tailor it towards the attainment of
sustainable interest of children in schooling.
lanned early childhood education programme will promote social and economic equality and
economic inequality created by private investors, which made early childhood
education very expensive and an exclusive preserve of certain socio-economic class. A planned early
childhood education programme will therefore eliminate unequal opportunities and the disadvantages of
poor mental development and readiness for school that is mostly experienced by children from low
will help reduce juvenile delinquency and drug abuse, which is also prevalent among
ning Early Childhood Education in Nigeria
The Nigerian Education system as presently constituted is in serious crisis. The diff
education suffer from poor conditions of learning, high students teachers ratio, overcrowded
classrooms, preponderance of unqualified teachers etc. These collapsed, have resulted in the poor
attainment of educational objectives in the country. The above scenario constitute some of the major
challenges facing government renewed interest and initiatives in early childhood education in Nigeria.

Formulating Appropriate Policy Frame Work for Early Childhood Education
The policy provisions for early childhood Education in Nigeria can best described as regulatory and show
no real government interest to goal attainment in early childhood development. Government merely
outlined the fundamental policy objectives of early childhood education and for goal attainment the
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
24
It is an established fact that industrialization and innovation brought about by modern science and
s of the family. The white collar job and the
modern society are known to keep parents away from the
s resulted in high demand for care centres and
that government initiates
actions that will bring about a more realistic early childhood education programme for its citizens. This
an only be possible through a rational planning process. Besides, if government is serious and desirous
to provide early childhood care and socialization as contained in the implementation guideline for the
ds that adequate planning arrangement be put in place
another major reason why Early
been most uncoordinated. Day-
care centres and nursery schools have been found to exist in homes, churches and other such
re for and provide socializing
rdinated, unregulated and charging
inistry of Health, the Ministry
Besides, there is no unified and defined curriculum for nursery education. In a study by
Onuchukwu and Ifeanacho reported in the Association for the Development of Education in Africa
books used in nursery schools
were of western origin; poems, nursery rhymes and play were completely American or European; English
was the predominant language followed by French while no Nigerian language was used; and in some
electronic bombardment via CNN on television, computers and computer
games. This situations call for urgent government intervention and provide justifications for the planning
in early childhood development contributes to child
more children complete their
basic education. It is equally proven that early childhood education helps in reducing repetition and
dropout rates and therefore increases the effectiveness of Primary education (ADEA 2002:2). For this
reason it is important that we plan early childhood education and tailor it towards the attainment of
lanned early childhood education programme will promote social and economic equality and
economic inequality created by private investors, which made early childhood
economic class. A planned early
childhood education programme will therefore eliminate unequal opportunities and the disadvantages of
poor mental development and readiness for school that is mostly experienced by children from low-
will help reduce juvenile delinquency and drug abuse, which is also prevalent among
The Nigerian Education system as presently constituted is in serious crisis. The different levels of
teachers ratio, overcrowded
classrooms, preponderance of unqualified teachers etc. These collapsed, have resulted in the poor
untry. The above scenario constitute some of the major
challenges facing government renewed interest and initiatives in early childhood education in Nigeria.
Childhood Education
The policy provisions for early childhood Education in Nigeria can best described as regulatory and show
no real government interest to goal attainment in early childhood development. Government merely
jectives of early childhood education and for goal attainment the
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

policy states; The responsibilities of government for pre
training of qualified pre- primary school teachers in adequate number , contribute to the
suitable curriculum, supervise and control the quality of such institutions and establish pre
sections in existing public schools (NPE 2004:11)
The above policy only indicated supervisory role and not real commitment from government
development of early childhood education. A more pragmatic approach needs to be adopted. The first
step in this direction will be the formulation of appropriate policy for Early Childhood Education should
define the role of government in terms of fu
of involvement of the private sector, parents and communities, the support from the education system
and the provision of learning materials and facilities.
(b) Developing a Functional Framework
Planning is fundamental to the success of any educational programme. For any realistic achievement to be
made in the area of early childhood education there is the need to establish a functional framework for
the development of short and long range plans for the attainment of the goals of early childhood
education . This calls for the establishment of inter
education in Nigeria. The agency should be compris
Education , Finance , Health, Educational policy making organs, NGOS, the organized private sectors
etc.
The agency should have the legal status to co
childhood education programme and related activities in Nigeria. They should co
micro planning activities between ministries, the private sector, NGOs and international organizations
and harmonize the planning objectives with the overall socio
Development, set priorities, device means and procedures for obtaining resources and distribution as well
as develop technical plan forecast and projections.
(c) Development Appropriate Curriculum for Early Childhoo
The need to develop appropriate curriculum for early childhood education programme in Nigeria is long
overdue. An appropriate curriculum will be tailored towards the need of the children between ages 0
Presently what is offered as curricul
childhood development. In most schools, which pose as day
merely hospitalized and treated with food, drink and sleep. This practice will in
childrens psychic development. In this circumstance, existing curriculum need to be reviewed and new
ones developed to reflect the Nigeria background and the development needs of our children. This calls
for a holistic approach in early children education curriculum development to cater for the emotional,
physical, social and mental development needs of the child.
(d) Developing Appropriate Funding Frame Work for Early Childhood Education
Planning for fund should form a vital aspect of
Before now, governments have not been directly involved in the funding of early childhood in Nigeria.
This was left in the hands of private investors and non governmental organization (NGOs) and
International donor Agencies. There is the need to revise this trend. Modalities for funding early
childhood education should be worked out to include government, the organized private sector, NGOs,
International Agencies, parents and communities. However, gov
funding arrangement and make budgetary allocations for early childhood education. This should cover
capital and recurrent expenditure on early childhood education programmes.
(e) Developing Appropriate Data Base f
Most of the educational programmes initiated in Nigeria are known to have failed because of wrong
statistical data. Published figures are known to be marred by imperfections and great deal of irregularities
that they cannot be of good use in planning. For the programme/ initiatives for early childhood
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The responsibilities of government for pre-primary education shall be to promote the
primary school teachers in adequate number , contribute to the
suitable curriculum, supervise and control the quality of such institutions and establish pre
sections in existing public schools (NPE 2004:11)
The above policy only indicated supervisory role and not real commitment from government
development of early childhood education. A more pragmatic approach needs to be adopted. The first
step in this direction will be the formulation of appropriate policy for Early Childhood Education should
define the role of government in terms of funding, management of schools, teacher recruitment, the level
of involvement of the private sector, parents and communities, the support from the education system
and the provision of learning materials and facilities.
Developing a Functional Framework for the Planning of Early Childhood Education
Planning is fundamental to the success of any educational programme. For any realistic achievement to be
made in the area of early childhood education there is the need to establish a functional framework for
the development of short and long range plans for the attainment of the goals of early childhood
education . This calls for the establishment of inter-ministerial agency for the planning of early childhood
education in Nigeria. The agency should be comprised of representation drawn from Ministry of
Education , Finance , Health, Educational policy making organs, NGOS, the organized private sectors
The agency should have the legal status to co-ordinate, regulate, monitor and supervise early
cation programme and related activities in Nigeria. They should co-
micro planning activities between ministries, the private sector, NGOs and international organizations
and harmonize the planning objectives with the overall socio - economic objectives of Early Childhood
Development, set priorities, device means and procedures for obtaining resources and distribution as well
as develop technical plan forecast and projections.
Development Appropriate Curriculum for Early Childhood Education
The need to develop appropriate curriculum for early childhood education programme in Nigeria is long
overdue. An appropriate curriculum will be tailored towards the need of the children between ages 0
Presently what is offered as curriculum content by private investors lack the basic ingredients for early
childhood development. In most schools, which pose as day care, nursery or kindergarten, children are
merely hospitalized and treated with food, drink and sleep. This practice will in
childrens psychic development. In this circumstance, existing curriculum need to be reviewed and new
ones developed to reflect the Nigeria background and the development needs of our children. This calls
y children education curriculum development to cater for the emotional,
physical, social and mental development needs of the child.
Developing Appropriate Funding Frame Work for Early Childhood Education
Planning for fund should form a vital aspect of the activities for early childhood education provision.
Before now, governments have not been directly involved in the funding of early childhood in Nigeria.
This was left in the hands of private investors and non governmental organization (NGOs) and
rnational donor Agencies. There is the need to revise this trend. Modalities for funding early
childhood education should be worked out to include government, the organized private sector, NGOs,
International Agencies, parents and communities. However, government has to play a leading role in the
funding arrangement and make budgetary allocations for early childhood education. This should cover
capital and recurrent expenditure on early childhood education programmes.
Developing Appropriate Data Base for Planning Early Childhood Education
Most of the educational programmes initiated in Nigeria are known to have failed because of wrong
statistical data. Published figures are known to be marred by imperfections and great deal of irregularities
annot be of good use in planning. For the programme/ initiatives for early childhood
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
25
primary education shall be to promote the
primary school teachers in adequate number , contribute to the development of
suitable curriculum, supervise and control the quality of such institutions and establish pre-primary
The above policy only indicated supervisory role and not real commitment from government in the
development of early childhood education. A more pragmatic approach needs to be adopted. The first
step in this direction will be the formulation of appropriate policy for Early Childhood Education should
nding, management of schools, teacher recruitment, the level
of involvement of the private sector, parents and communities, the support from the education system
for the Planning of Early Childhood Education
Planning is fundamental to the success of any educational programme. For any realistic achievement to be
made in the area of early childhood education there is the need to establish a functional framework for
the development of short and long range plans for the attainment of the goals of early childhood
ministerial agency for the planning of early childhood
ed of representation drawn from Ministry of
Education , Finance , Health, Educational policy making organs, NGOS, the organized private sectors
ordinate, regulate, monitor and supervise early
-ordinate macro and
micro planning activities between ministries, the private sector, NGOs and international organizations
nomic objectives of Early Childhood
Development, set priorities, device means and procedures for obtaining resources and distribution as well
The need to develop appropriate curriculum for early childhood education programme in Nigeria is long
overdue. An appropriate curriculum will be tailored towards the need of the children between ages 0 -5.
um content by private investors lack the basic ingredients for early
care, nursery or kindergarten, children are
merely hospitalized and treated with food, drink and sleep. This practice will invariably retard the
childrens psychic development. In this circumstance, existing curriculum need to be reviewed and new
ones developed to reflect the Nigeria background and the development needs of our children. This calls
y children education curriculum development to cater for the emotional,
Developing Appropriate Funding Frame Work for Early Childhood Education
the activities for early childhood education provision.
Before now, governments have not been directly involved in the funding of early childhood in Nigeria.
This was left in the hands of private investors and non governmental organization (NGOs) and
rnational donor Agencies. There is the need to revise this trend. Modalities for funding early
childhood education should be worked out to include government, the organized private sector, NGOs,
ernment has to play a leading role in the
funding arrangement and make budgetary allocations for early childhood education. This should cover
or Planning Early Childhood Education
Most of the educational programmes initiated in Nigeria are known to have failed because of wrong
statistical data. Published figures are known to be marred by imperfections and great deal of irregularities
annot be of good use in planning. For the programme/ initiatives for early childhood
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

education to make any head start, there is the need to develop the technical for data collection and
analysis in terms of equipment and technical manpower. There is import
making. There will be need to extrapolate the popula
population. This will help in the projection of teachers that would be required for the programme, assess
facilities, needs and equipment supplies. This is important because the success or failure of the early
childhood education programme will largely depend on their accuracy.
(f) Developing Appropriate School Mapping Strategy for Early Childhood Education
Presently early childhood educational provisions tend to be concentrated in urban centres. This does not
provide equal access to early childhood education for children resident in the rural communities and does
not reflect the social framework on which the society is esta
education programme which should satisfy the early childhood educational needs of Nigerian children,
there must be in place a machinery capable of evolving a dynamic process of identifying logically and
systematically sites where early childhood education facilities are to be located. In this regard, there is the
need to take inventory of already existing institutional facilities to ascertain their adequacy or otherwise of
accommodating early childhood programme. In a
reflect the socio economic distribution of the population and should seek to provide equality in access to
every child between ages 0 5.
Conclusion
Early Childhood Education has been proven to form
years of the childs development. Early exposure to learning has multiple benefits to children, Parents and
society and therefore should be a major concern of all. However, government should play a vital
its provision by developing appropriate national policies and plan of action for early childhood care and
development. There should be a broad multi
education as we must take advantage of the f
Childhood education, as portrayed in Abdulrahman (2013)
the implementation of the UBE programme as the overall success of the UBE scheme depends on the
early foundation laid for those entering into the primary segment of the programme.
Recommendations
Government, through the ministry of education
charged with the running of early childhood education.
Since early childhood education appears to lack family support services in less literate homes,
NGOs and youth bodies need to engage in mass enlightenment programmes to educate them on
the needs to send their children to pre
Pre early childhood education centres have to be evenly established in all the communities and
properly staffed with qualified teacher.
There is need for effective school policies to achieve pre
emphasized. One problem conf
educational policies.
Meal programmes should also be included in the programme. It will not only motivate children
towards embracing the early education, it will also help to cater for the n
and children of poor parents. Poor diet stunts potential abilities.
There should be provision of portable water and implement measures that would deter both
teachers and pupils from bullying children.
The importance of training and retraining of teachers can be emphasized.
There a need for government to set up a task force to control and prosecute both parents and
children who engage in economic activities thereby denying children the accessibility to both pre
primary and primary education.
Curriculum planners should produce a unified curriculum and recommend textbooks appropriate
for the children at this level. In addition the textbook should be writing according the nature of the
environment.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
education to make any head start, there is the need to develop the technical for data collection and
analysis in terms of equipment and technical manpower. There is importance for planning and decision
making. There will be need to extrapolate the population of children between ages 0
population. This will help in the projection of teachers that would be required for the programme, assess
s and equipment supplies. This is important because the success or failure of the early
childhood education programme will largely depend on their accuracy.
Developing Appropriate School Mapping Strategy for Early Childhood Education
childhood educational provisions tend to be concentrated in urban centres. This does not
provide equal access to early childhood education for children resident in the rural communities and does
not reflect the social framework on which the society is established. For a viable early childhood
education programme which should satisfy the early childhood educational needs of Nigerian children,
there must be in place a machinery capable of evolving a dynamic process of identifying logically and
y sites where early childhood education facilities are to be located. In this regard, there is the
need to take inventory of already existing institutional facilities to ascertain their adequacy or otherwise of
accommodating early childhood programme. In all cases, early childhood institutional provisions must
reflect the socio economic distribution of the population and should seek to provide equality in access to
Early Childhood Education has been proven to form the foundation for effective learning in the later
years of the childs development. Early exposure to learning has multiple benefits to children, Parents and
society and therefore should be a major concern of all. However, government should play a vital
its provision by developing appropriate national policies and plan of action for early childhood care and
development. There should be a broad multi- structural approach to the funding of early childhood
education as we must take advantage of the financial assistance offered by donor agencies. Early
, as portrayed in Abdulrahman (2013) must be considered as a vital component in
the implementation of the UBE programme as the overall success of the UBE scheme depends on the
undation laid for those entering into the primary segment of the programme.
Government, through the ministry of education should establish a board that would be solely
the running of early childhood education.
Since early childhood education appears to lack family support services in less literate homes,
NGOs and youth bodies need to engage in mass enlightenment programmes to educate them on
the needs to send their children to pre-school education.
re early childhood education centres have to be evenly established in all the communities and
staffed with qualified teacher.
There is need for effective school policies to achieve pre-primary objectives cannot be over
emphasized. One problem confronting early child education in Nigeria is the issue of managing
Meal programmes should also be included in the programme. It will not only motivate children
towards embracing the early education, it will also help to cater for the nutritional needs of rural,
and children of poor parents. Poor diet stunts potential abilities.
There should be provision of portable water and implement measures that would deter both
teachers and pupils from bullying children.
training and retraining of teachers can be emphasized.
There a need for government to set up a task force to control and prosecute both parents and
children who engage in economic activities thereby denying children the accessibility to both pre
nd primary education.
Curriculum planners should produce a unified curriculum and recommend textbooks appropriate
for the children at this level. In addition the textbook should be writing according the nature of the
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
26
education to make any head start, there is the need to develop the technical for data collection and
ance for planning and decision
tion of children between ages 05 from the overall
population. This will help in the projection of teachers that would be required for the programme, assess
s and equipment supplies. This is important because the success or failure of the early
Developing Appropriate School Mapping Strategy for Early Childhood Education
childhood educational provisions tend to be concentrated in urban centres. This does not
provide equal access to early childhood education for children resident in the rural communities and does
blished. For a viable early childhood
education programme which should satisfy the early childhood educational needs of Nigerian children,
there must be in place a machinery capable of evolving a dynamic process of identifying logically and
y sites where early childhood education facilities are to be located. In this regard, there is the
need to take inventory of already existing institutional facilities to ascertain their adequacy or otherwise of
ll cases, early childhood institutional provisions must
reflect the socio economic distribution of the population and should seek to provide equality in access to
the foundation for effective learning in the later
years of the childs development. Early exposure to learning has multiple benefits to children, Parents and
society and therefore should be a major concern of all. However, government should play a vital role in
its provision by developing appropriate national policies and plan of action for early childhood care and
structural approach to the funding of early childhood
inancial assistance offered by donor agencies. Early
must be considered as a vital component in
the implementation of the UBE programme as the overall success of the UBE scheme depends on the
undation laid for those entering into the primary segment of the programme.
establish a board that would be solely
Since early childhood education appears to lack family support services in less literate homes,
NGOs and youth bodies need to engage in mass enlightenment programmes to educate them on
re early childhood education centres have to be evenly established in all the communities and
primary objectives cannot be over
ronting early child education in Nigeria is the issue of managing
Meal programmes should also be included in the programme. It will not only motivate children
utritional needs of rural,
There should be provision of portable water and implement measures that would deter both
There a need for government to set up a task force to control and prosecute both parents and
children who engage in economic activities thereby denying children the accessibility to both pre-
Curriculum planners should produce a unified curriculum and recommend textbooks appropriate
for the children at this level. In addition the textbook should be writing according the nature of the
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Language of the environmen
concepts taught.
References
Abdulrahman Yusuf M. (2011) Early Childhood Care Education and Development (ECCDE): A Silent,
but Significant Component of Universal Basic Education (UBE)
Education, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State. 3
153-160
Anero, N. (2005). Funding pre-primary education in Nigeria.
Studies. 1 & 2 (1), 280-286.
Association for the Development of Education in Africa(2003) Emerging Trends in Research on the
Quality of Education; A synthesis of education reviews from 1992
west and central Africa. Mauritius: ADEA.
Amaele, s. (2005) Understanding the Philosophy of Education. Ibadan Bounty Press Ltd.
Odigie V. O (2003) Philosophical Perspective of Nursery and Primary Schools
Publishers.


















Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Language of the environment (mother tongue) will help in conceptualization and understanding of
Abdulrahman Yusuf M. (2011) Early Childhood Care Education and Development (ECCDE): A Silent,
but Significant Component of Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Nigeria. Niger Delta Journal of
Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State. 3 (1&2), December, 2012.
primary education in Nigeria. African Journal of Education and Development

Association for the Development of Education in Africa(2003) Emerging Trends in Research on the
Quality of Education; A synthesis of education reviews from 1992 2003 in eleven countries of
west and central Africa. Mauritius: ADEA.
maele, s. (2005) Understanding the Philosophy of Education. Ibadan Bounty Press Ltd.
Odigie V. O (2003) Philosophical Perspective of Nursery and Primary Schools. Port Harcourt: Pearl
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
27
t (mother tongue) will help in conceptualization and understanding of
Abdulrahman Yusuf M. (2011) Early Childhood Care Education and Development (ECCDE): A Silent,
Niger Delta Journal of
(1&2), December, 2012.
African Journal of Education and Development
Association for the Development of Education in Africa(2003) Emerging Trends in Research on the
2003 in eleven countries of
maele, s. (2005) Understanding the Philosophy of Education. Ibadan Bounty Press Ltd.
. Port Harcourt: Pearl
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.





ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION: A
Department of Educational Foundations

Department of Educational
Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology
Abstract
This paper presents entrepreneurial education as a possible way of addressing the problem of
unemployment. It has been identified that entrepreneurial education has enormous potentials to solve
the problem of unemployment on the teeming population of the unemployed persons b
entrepreneurs with knowledge to establish and efficiently manage small businesses. The paper holds
that a successful entrepreneur would not only become self
employer of labour. Based on the poten
recommended that the successful self
expansion and for creating opportunities.


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION: A PANACEA TO UNEMPLOYMENT IN
NIGERIA

By

SUNDAY D. OSAAT, Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundations
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt
osaatsundan@yahoo.com
GSM: 08036731057


DINAH SUNDAY OSAAT, Ph.D
Department of Educational Management
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt

&

ONYINYECHI O. OCHUBA
Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt


entrepreneurial education as a possible way of addressing the problem of
unemployment. It has been identified that entrepreneurial education has enormous potentials to solve
the problem of unemployment on the teeming population of the unemployed persons b
entrepreneurs with knowledge to establish and efficiently manage small businesses. The paper holds
that a successful entrepreneur would not only become self-reliant and gainfully self
employer of labour. Based on the potentials of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial education, it is
recommended that the successful self-employed persons should form relevant associations for
expansion and for creating opportunities.


Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
28
PANACEA TO UNEMPLOYMENT IN
Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology
entrepreneurial education as a possible way of addressing the problem of
unemployment. It has been identified that entrepreneurial education has enormous potentials to solve
the problem of unemployment on the teeming population of the unemployed persons by providing the
entrepreneurs with knowledge to establish and efficiently manage small businesses. The paper holds
reliant and gainfully self-employed but also
tials of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial education, it is
employed persons should form relevant associations for
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
Every nation has the responsibility of
ensure excellent and possible adult roles for the development of individual and collective well
the society. The potential contribution of individuals to the collective well
opportunity or its alternative must be provided by the society to the individual. The young adult who has
transited from childhood stage is in most cases full of energy to undertake and accomplish a task
expected of him/her. This developmen
Adeboye (1999) claims that psychological development, social transition and changes in status are closely
related while to Olaleye (2012) young people are expected to establish a sense of p
become progressively more independent of parents.
On the contrary, unemployment and underemployment bring perpetual dependent on others such
as family members or friends. In this vein the growing sense of autonomy, self responsibility
independence become a mirage in the young adults and other unemployed persons. Obviously, access to
a good job and earning of at least a living wage enables one assumes feelings of self
actualization and sense of being socially and financ
majorly the young adults (youths) who are active, diligent, creative, innovative and energetic. According to
Chapman, Weatherburn, Chilvers and Roussel (2002) the youths can prove more productive and
constructive in any field of life. It is, therefore, unfortunate that youths in Nigeria are unemployed. It is
for this study to show that entrepreneurial education to an extent can be a solution or an alternative to
unemployment among the youths
Entrepreneurial Education
The definition of concepts becomes mandatory here for someone to have a proper understanding of this
study. The entrepreneur according to Hornby, Gatenby and Wakefield (1971) is a person, controlling a
commercial undertaking while for Webster and Mckechnie (1979) entrepreneur is one who organizes and
directs a business undertaking, assuming the risk for the sake of the profit, also the originator or manager
of public entertainments. Meredith, Nelson and
to see and evaluate business opportunities gathers the necessary resources to take advantage of them and
initiate appropriate action to ensure success. Another direct definition of entrepreneur may
made by Collings, et al in Nwachukwu (2009) as a risk taker, a man who braves uncertainty, strikes out on
his own, and through native wit, devotion to duty and singleness of purpose, somehow creates a business
and industrial activity where none
Education: Education as a popular and an important concept is defined as what the receiver is capable
of doing in consequences or as a result of what has been received/experienced in the process of
educating ( Osaat 2012:155). This is very
fact that entrepreneurial education becomes worthwhile.
Entrepreneurial Education: This is education that deals with the process of undertaking a business
initiative as an application of kn
sustenance and for the overall individual and societys development , (Osaat 2012: 155). According to
Okebukola (2011:2) entrepreneurial education is an offering which tools learners with
and attitudes to be an entrepreneur
market, or a new means of production. He further explains entrepreneurial education as all activities
aiming to foster entrepreneurial mindse
generation, start-up growth and innovation.
Approaches to Entrepreneurial Education
In National Agency for Enterprise and Construction (2004) two main approaches of entrepreneurial
education have been identified. They are the Focused Approach and the Unified Approach. The focused
approach addresses the students and staff in academic business area while the unified approach considers
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Every nation has the responsibility of creating the best possible opportunities to its young people to
ensure excellent and possible adult roles for the development of individual and collective well
the society. The potential contribution of individuals to the collective well-being thr
opportunity or its alternative must be provided by the society to the individual. The young adult who has
transited from childhood stage is in most cases full of energy to undertake and accomplish a task
expected of him/her. This developmental stage needs perhaps a corresponding change in status. To this,
Adeboye (1999) claims that psychological development, social transition and changes in status are closely
related while to Olaleye (2012) young people are expected to establish a sense of p
become progressively more independent of parents.
On the contrary, unemployment and underemployment bring perpetual dependent on others such
as family members or friends. In this vein the growing sense of autonomy, self responsibility
independence become a mirage in the young adults and other unemployed persons. Obviously, access to
a good job and earning of at least a living wage enables one assumes feelings of self
actualization and sense of being socially and financially relevant. The unemployed population constitutes
majorly the young adults (youths) who are active, diligent, creative, innovative and energetic. According to
Chapman, Weatherburn, Chilvers and Roussel (2002) the youths can prove more productive and
nstructive in any field of life. It is, therefore, unfortunate that youths in Nigeria are unemployed. It is
for this study to show that entrepreneurial education to an extent can be a solution or an alternative to
unemployment among the youths young adults and the existing adults.
The definition of concepts becomes mandatory here for someone to have a proper understanding of this
study. The entrepreneur according to Hornby, Gatenby and Wakefield (1971) is a person, controlling a
commercial undertaking while for Webster and Mckechnie (1979) entrepreneur is one who organizes and
directs a business undertaking, assuming the risk for the sake of the profit, also the originator or manager
of public entertainments. Meredith, Nelson and Neck (1983) see an entrepreneur as one having the ability
to see and evaluate business opportunities gathers the necessary resources to take advantage of them and
initiate appropriate action to ensure success. Another direct definition of entrepreneur may
made by Collings, et al in Nwachukwu (2009) as a risk taker, a man who braves uncertainty, strikes out on
his own, and through native wit, devotion to duty and singleness of purpose, somehow creates a business
and industrial activity where none existed before.
Education as a popular and an important concept is defined as what the receiver is capable
of doing in consequences or as a result of what has been received/experienced in the process of
educating ( Osaat 2012:155). This is very likely referring to productive/functional education. It is on this
fact that entrepreneurial education becomes worthwhile.
This is education that deals with the process of undertaking a business
initiative as an application of knowledge acquired competently for the purpose of self
sustenance and for the overall individual and societys development , (Osaat 2012: 155). According to
Okebukola (2011:2) entrepreneurial education is an offering which tools learners with
and attitudes to be an entrepreneur an innovator, the person who develops a new product, a new
market, or a new means of production. He further explains entrepreneurial education as all activities
aiming to foster entrepreneurial mindsets, attitudes and skills and covering a range of aspects such as idea
up growth and innovation.
Approaches to Entrepreneurial Education
In National Agency for Enterprise and Construction (2004) two main approaches of entrepreneurial
tion have been identified. They are the Focused Approach and the Unified Approach. The focused
approach addresses the students and staff in academic business area while the unified approach considers
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
29
creating the best possible opportunities to its young people to
ensure excellent and possible adult roles for the development of individual and collective well-being of
being through employment
opportunity or its alternative must be provided by the society to the individual. The young adult who has
transited from childhood stage is in most cases full of energy to undertake and accomplish a task
tal stage needs perhaps a corresponding change in status. To this,
Adeboye (1999) claims that psychological development, social transition and changes in status are closely
related while to Olaleye (2012) young people are expected to establish a sense of personal identity and
On the contrary, unemployment and underemployment bring perpetual dependent on others such
as family members or friends. In this vein the growing sense of autonomy, self responsibility and
independence become a mirage in the young adults and other unemployed persons. Obviously, access to
a good job and earning of at least a living wage enables one assumes feelings of self-esteem, self-
ially relevant. The unemployed population constitutes
majorly the young adults (youths) who are active, diligent, creative, innovative and energetic. According to
Chapman, Weatherburn, Chilvers and Roussel (2002) the youths can prove more productive and
nstructive in any field of life. It is, therefore, unfortunate that youths in Nigeria are unemployed. It is
for this study to show that entrepreneurial education to an extent can be a solution or an alternative to
The definition of concepts becomes mandatory here for someone to have a proper understanding of this
study. The entrepreneur according to Hornby, Gatenby and Wakefield (1971) is a person, controlling a
commercial undertaking while for Webster and Mckechnie (1979) entrepreneur is one who organizes and
directs a business undertaking, assuming the risk for the sake of the profit, also the originator or manager
Neck (1983) see an entrepreneur as one having the ability
to see and evaluate business opportunities gathers the necessary resources to take advantage of them and
initiate appropriate action to ensure success. Another direct definition of entrepreneur may be the one
made by Collings, et al in Nwachukwu (2009) as a risk taker, a man who braves uncertainty, strikes out on
his own, and through native wit, devotion to duty and singleness of purpose, somehow creates a business
Education as a popular and an important concept is defined as what the receiver is capable
of doing in consequences or as a result of what has been received/experienced in the process of
likely referring to productive/functional education. It is on this
This is education that deals with the process of undertaking a business
owledge acquired competently for the purpose of self-reliance, self-
sustenance and for the overall individual and societys development , (Osaat 2012: 155). According to
Okebukola (2011:2) entrepreneurial education is an offering which tools learners with knowledge, skills
an innovator, the person who develops a new product, a new
market, or a new means of production. He further explains entrepreneurial education as all activities
ts, attitudes and skills and covering a range of aspects such as idea
In National Agency for Enterprise and Construction (2004) two main approaches of entrepreneurial
tion have been identified. They are the Focused Approach and the Unified Approach. The focused
approach addresses the students and staff in academic business area while the unified approach considers
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

non-business students and staff outside business, school
is no longer considered as a discipline for Business School or Technical Department of Colleges of
Education or University only. The approach being used in Nigeria today can be described as
comprehensive approach. In this approach the illiterates/literates, graduates and non
given orientation to embrace entrepreneurial education with passion. When a nation embraces
entrepreneurial education with diligence and passion giving proper orienta
the belief is that unemployment within the economic system of that nation would to an extent be
eliminated or minimized.
What is Unemployment?
Unemployment has become an issue of global concern because of its devastating e
economically, politically and psychologically. At a certain period in life, one begins to feel sense of
independence and responsibility; he needs to establish a sense of personal identity. This is mostly among
the youths-young adults and other unemployed persons whose desire is to move from different levels of
training/education into work-force. This desire can be hampered in the absence of gainful employment
opportunities. Consequently, young people and adults with the expectation to estab
identity and progressively become independent and acquire change of status as a mark of psychological
development and assume social/political transactions as well as becoming economically independent may
be able to do so. Unemployment th
It can also be defined as the unavailability of employment opportunities to those who are active, energetic
and qualified to be gainfully employed into an existing work
Reasons for Unemployment
There are a lot of reasons/causes of unemployment especially among the youths in the developing
countries. Some of the reasons include:
1. Incessant search for the unavailable jobs: A good number of young gradu
for jobs instead of creating them.
2. Rapid population increase/growth: Population is growing at a rate several times beyond job
creation.
3. Underdevelopment: The development of third world countries are mostly in the Urban not
including the Rural areas so jobs are unevenly created/distributed for the right persons.
4. Mal-functional or inefficiency of education system: Education system that is not properly
channeled towards the needs of the people and the existing companies may lead to
unemployment.
5. Inadequate school curriculum: The school curriculum that cannot holistically empower the
graduates but result in half
solving the problem.
6. Lack of career guidance and counseling.
7. Late retirement age: This is an obstacle for the employment of the youths who may stay for too
long a time for their turn to come.
8. Technological advancement: Job for many young people can now be performed by a single
industrial machine creating more problem of
problem.
9. Lack of suitable job training and qualification: Sometimes where there are job opportunities the
suitably qualified graduates are not available; and
10. Government policy on minimum wage sometimes leads
Effects of Unemployment
Unemployment can grievously affect individual lives and entire society. It affects the people socially,
economically, politically, psychologically and health wise adversely. These effects cover all aspects of the
society including individuals, families, communities and running of business outfits and political activities.
It is pertinent to identify the effects of unemployment on the populace so as to proffer solution and
strategies to forestall future occurrence. T
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
business students and staff outside business, schools and discipline. Today entrepreneurial education
is no longer considered as a discipline for Business School or Technical Department of Colleges of
Education or University only. The approach being used in Nigeria today can be described as
proach. In this approach the illiterates/literates, graduates and non
given orientation to embrace entrepreneurial education with passion. When a nation embraces
entrepreneurial education with diligence and passion giving proper orientation at every level of education,
the belief is that unemployment within the economic system of that nation would to an extent be
Unemployment has become an issue of global concern because of its devastating e
economically, politically and psychologically. At a certain period in life, one begins to feel sense of
independence and responsibility; he needs to establish a sense of personal identity. This is mostly among
ther unemployed persons whose desire is to move from different levels of
force. This desire can be hampered in the absence of gainful employment
opportunities. Consequently, young people and adults with the expectation to estab
identity and progressively become independent and acquire change of status as a mark of psychological
development and assume social/political transactions as well as becoming economically independent may
be able to do so. Unemployment therefore is simply the difference between supply and demand of labour.
It can also be defined as the unavailability of employment opportunities to those who are active, energetic
and qualified to be gainfully employed into an existing work-force for at least a sustainable salary.
There are a lot of reasons/causes of unemployment especially among the youths in the developing
countries. Some of the reasons include:
Incessant search for the unavailable jobs: A good number of young graduates continue searching
for jobs instead of creating them.
Rapid population increase/growth: Population is growing at a rate several times beyond job
Underdevelopment: The development of third world countries are mostly in the Urban not
the Rural areas so jobs are unevenly created/distributed for the right persons.
functional or inefficiency of education system: Education system that is not properly
channeled towards the needs of the people and the existing companies may lead to
Inadequate school curriculum: The school curriculum that cannot holistically empower the
graduates but result in half-baked employees open ways to more unemployment instead of
Lack of career guidance and counseling.
rement age: This is an obstacle for the employment of the youths who may stay for too
long a time for their turn to come.
Technological advancement: Job for many young people can now be performed by a single
industrial machine creating more problem of unemployment instead of actually solving the
Lack of suitable job training and qualification: Sometimes where there are job opportunities the
suitably qualified graduates are not available; and
10. Government policy on minimum wage sometimes leads to retrenchment.
Unemployment can grievously affect individual lives and entire society. It affects the people socially,
economically, politically, psychologically and health wise adversely. These effects cover all aspects of the
ociety including individuals, families, communities and running of business outfits and political activities.
It is pertinent to identify the effects of unemployment on the populace so as to proffer solution and
strategies to forestall future occurrence. The following effects can also be identified:
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
30
s and discipline. Today entrepreneurial education
is no longer considered as a discipline for Business School or Technical Department of Colleges of
Education or University only. The approach being used in Nigeria today can be described as
proach. In this approach the illiterates/literates, graduates and non-graduates should be
given orientation to embrace entrepreneurial education with passion. When a nation embraces
tion at every level of education,
the belief is that unemployment within the economic system of that nation would to an extent be
Unemployment has become an issue of global concern because of its devastating effects socially,
economically, politically and psychologically. At a certain period in life, one begins to feel sense of
independence and responsibility; he needs to establish a sense of personal identity. This is mostly among
ther unemployed persons whose desire is to move from different levels of
force. This desire can be hampered in the absence of gainful employment
opportunities. Consequently, young people and adults with the expectation to establish personal self-
identity and progressively become independent and acquire change of status as a mark of psychological
development and assume social/political transactions as well as becoming economically independent may
erefore is simply the difference between supply and demand of labour.
It can also be defined as the unavailability of employment opportunities to those who are active, energetic
t a sustainable salary.
There are a lot of reasons/causes of unemployment especially among the youths in the developing
ates continue searching
Rapid population increase/growth: Population is growing at a rate several times beyond job
Underdevelopment: The development of third world countries are mostly in the Urban not
the Rural areas so jobs are unevenly created/distributed for the right persons.
functional or inefficiency of education system: Education system that is not properly
channeled towards the needs of the people and the existing companies may lead to
Inadequate school curriculum: The school curriculum that cannot holistically empower the
baked employees open ways to more unemployment instead of
rement age: This is an obstacle for the employment of the youths who may stay for too
Technological advancement: Job for many young people can now be performed by a single
unemployment instead of actually solving the
Lack of suitable job training and qualification: Sometimes where there are job opportunities the
Unemployment can grievously affect individual lives and entire society. It affects the people socially,
economically, politically, psychologically and health wise adversely. These effects cover all aspects of the
ociety including individuals, families, communities and running of business outfits and political activities.
It is pertinent to identify the effects of unemployment on the populace so as to proffer solution and

Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Frustration and Low Self-esteem:
individual at this level of unemployment will lose self
cannot provide for him/herself.
Poverty: Unemployment has been the greatest generator of poverty among the world population. It leads
to greater risk of lower future wages. Low wages can in turn force some workers out of employment.
Over-Dependence: Unemployment and lack
members, relatives, friends and state. The growing sense of autonomy, independence and responsibility
are halted by unemployment.
Marriage/Family Problem: To Blakere (1992) unemployment makes marriag
more of a dream than a reality for some people. These unemployed youths find it difficult to marry and
raise children.
Financial problem: A very serious problem emanating from unemployment is a financial problem where
a grown-up (youth adult) cannot maintain his/herself. These unemployment girls/boys wallow in abject
poverty with the high cost of living.
Increase Criminal Tendencies:
burglary, vandalism, illegal activiti
suicide (Papps, 1999).
Dwindling Health Conditions:
According to World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) health is a state of co
and social well being and not only the absence of disease/infirmity. This is the case in Nigeria. In this
situation tension can easily rise over every little provocation. Many things that would have improved the
well-being of unemployed persons are lacking as a result of lack of money. This in turn adversely affects
their health physically, mentally, socially and otherwise.
Entrepreneurial Education as a Remedy to Unemployment Problem:
or reduces the scourge of unemployment is entrepreneurial education. The provision of entrepreneurial
and value added oriented education is required as a panacea for unemployment. This education makes the
recipients to be self-reliant, job creators and innovative. It attempt
innovation, character development, skills, competence and knowledge into the individuals. For
entrepreneurial education to successfully solve the problem of unemployment two approaches should be
applied namely: First, entrepreneurial education should be made to train the potential recipients to be able
to have alternative job to salary white collar job and secondly to deal with sources that generate
unemployment.
Entrepreneurial education among others promotes scientific an
therefore pertinent to develop the entrepreneurial education which creates and provides the potential
recipients with the following, according to Ebirim (2008) in Osaat (2009:36):
More access to employment opportunities.
Adequate physical assets such as land and capital and access by the poor (especially women) to
credit, even on a small scale should be made available to them.
Development should be made evenly to both the Urban and Rural areas by enhancing the means
of supporting rural development.
More effort should be made towards the improvement of rural roads to the markets where the
poor can sell their goods and services.
Investment on human capital should be improved upon for sustainable economic development.
Destruction of natural resources leading to environmental degradation and reduced productivity
should be seriously controlled or eradicated.
Provision of assistance for those living in the margin and those victimized by disasters should be
of paramount importance
Those living in the rural areas should participate in designing, implementing and monitoring
development programmes concerning them, etc.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
esteem: Unemployment generates frustration and low self
individual at this level of unemployment will lose self-confidence and hope in life as long as he/she
Unemployment has been the greatest generator of poverty among the world population. It leads
to greater risk of lower future wages. Low wages can in turn force some workers out of employment.
Unemployment and lack of an adequate income lead to over-dependence on family
members, relatives, friends and state. The growing sense of autonomy, independence and responsibility
To Blakere (1992) unemployment makes marriage and having children
more of a dream than a reality for some people. These unemployed youths find it difficult to marry and
A very serious problem emanating from unemployment is a financial problem where
h adult) cannot maintain his/herself. These unemployment girls/boys wallow in abject
poverty with the high cost of living.
Increase Criminal Tendencies: Unemployment leads to increase rate of crimes from armed
burglary, vandalism, illegal activities to violent crimes (Bushway 2002). It also links up with murder and
Dwindling Health Conditions: The unemployed youths are often not in good frame of mind.
According to World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) health is a state of complete physical, mental
and social well being and not only the absence of disease/infirmity. This is the case in Nigeria. In this
situation tension can easily rise over every little provocation. Many things that would have improved the
oyed persons are lacking as a result of lack of money. This in turn adversely affects
their health physically, mentally, socially and otherwise.
Entrepreneurial Education as a Remedy to Unemployment Problem: The education that evaluates
rge of unemployment is entrepreneurial education. The provision of entrepreneurial
and value added oriented education is required as a panacea for unemployment. This education makes the
reliant, job creators and innovative. It attempts to inject values of creativity,
innovation, character development, skills, competence and knowledge into the individuals. For
entrepreneurial education to successfully solve the problem of unemployment two approaches should be
epreneurial education should be made to train the potential recipients to be able
to have alternative job to salary white collar job and secondly to deal with sources that generate
Entrepreneurial education among others promotes scientific and technological development. It is
therefore pertinent to develop the entrepreneurial education which creates and provides the potential
recipients with the following, according to Ebirim (2008) in Osaat (2009:36):
More access to employment opportunities.
Adequate physical assets such as land and capital and access by the poor (especially women) to
credit, even on a small scale should be made available to them.
Development should be made evenly to both the Urban and Rural areas by enhancing the means
porting rural development.
More effort should be made towards the improvement of rural roads to the markets where the
poor can sell their goods and services.
Investment on human capital should be improved upon for sustainable economic development.
tion of natural resources leading to environmental degradation and reduced productivity
should be seriously controlled or eradicated.
Provision of assistance for those living in the margin and those victimized by disasters should be
of paramount importance.
Those living in the rural areas should participate in designing, implementing and monitoring
development programmes concerning them, etc.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
31
Unemployment generates frustration and low self-esteem. The
confidence and hope in life as long as he/she
Unemployment has been the greatest generator of poverty among the world population. It leads
to greater risk of lower future wages. Low wages can in turn force some workers out of employment.
dependence on family
members, relatives, friends and state. The growing sense of autonomy, independence and responsibility
e and having children
more of a dream than a reality for some people. These unemployed youths find it difficult to marry and
A very serious problem emanating from unemployment is a financial problem where
h adult) cannot maintain his/herself. These unemployment girls/boys wallow in abject
Unemployment leads to increase rate of crimes from armed-robbery,
es to violent crimes (Bushway 2002). It also links up with murder and
The unemployed youths are often not in good frame of mind.
mplete physical, mental
and social well being and not only the absence of disease/infirmity. This is the case in Nigeria. In this
situation tension can easily rise over every little provocation. Many things that would have improved the
oyed persons are lacking as a result of lack of money. This in turn adversely affects
The education that evaluates
rge of unemployment is entrepreneurial education. The provision of entrepreneurial
and value added oriented education is required as a panacea for unemployment. This education makes the
s to inject values of creativity,
innovation, character development, skills, competence and knowledge into the individuals. For
entrepreneurial education to successfully solve the problem of unemployment two approaches should be
epreneurial education should be made to train the potential recipients to be able
to have alternative job to salary white collar job and secondly to deal with sources that generate
d technological development. It is
therefore pertinent to develop the entrepreneurial education which creates and provides the potential
Adequate physical assets such as land and capital and access by the poor (especially women) to
Development should be made evenly to both the Urban and Rural areas by enhancing the means
More effort should be made towards the improvement of rural roads to the markets where the
Investment on human capital should be improved upon for sustainable economic development.
tion of natural resources leading to environmental degradation and reduced productivity
Provision of assistance for those living in the margin and those victimized by disasters should be
Those living in the rural areas should participate in designing, implementing and monitoring
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

From the above views, the potential recipients of entrepreneurial education can appropriately be
provided with enabling environment and good business conditions that to an extent can eradicate or
minimize unemployment.
The entrepreneurial education as a solution to unemployment: As shown above under remedy,
unemployment is a problem but not an insurmountable one. A coun
methods/approaches to solve the problem of unemployment to include entrepreneurial education among
others. This method identified above can be used to find suitable jobs or skill acquisition for the teeming
unemployed persons. Today in Nigeria the unemployment of educated persons is assuming an alarming
dimension that prompted the application of entrepreneurial education. Consequently, the emerging
entrepreneurs are not only gainfully self
In serving as a solution to unemployment/alleviate poverty Ikpefan and Sholarin (2008:566) maintain that
entrepreneurship/entrepreneurial education
Leads to creation of more jobs thereby reducing the rate of unemployment in the country.
Boosts the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross National Product (GNP) of a country.
Leads to an improvement in social wellbeing and standard of living of the people in a
community or country.
Leads to the availability of more goods and services at an affor
Boosts the level of economic growth and development in a country.
In a different study, Osaat (2009:38) argues that entrepreneurial education can serve as alternative
to the scarce employment opportunities as it:
1. Provides specific competencies
occupational morbidity.
2. Improves the ability of individual to take part in diversified models of employment.
3. Promotes partnership between employers and employees.
4. Acquires knowledge and skills tha
5. Addresses the needs of self
6. Promotes workplace literacy especially for unskilled workers.
7. Provides skill development and provides employment for people at the
The above proffered solutions or views can equally deal with the sources that contribute to
unemployment problem.
Conclusion
Entrepreneurial education has the potentials to bring about creativity as well as innovation in the
entrepreneur who undertakes business initiative, bears the risk and provides the needed leadership
prowess for the business. The entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial education create the opportunity of
establishing and managing new small business drives by th
becomes competent in applying the knowledge acquired for the purposes of self
and self-actualization for the overall individual and societys growth.
Recommendations
To get rid of the unemployment syndrome in Nigeria the unemployed persons need to be self
instead of waiting for salary paid white collar jobs that cannot be enough to the teeming population in
search of it. Entrepreneurial education in Nigeria should be accorded prior
management given to experts. For further improvement, all self
association for expansion, profit motive and affiliation with educational institutions and non
governmental organizations, soft lo
entrepreneurs.


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
From the above views, the potential recipients of entrepreneurial education can appropriately be
ing environment and good business conditions that to an extent can eradicate or
The entrepreneurial education as a solution to unemployment: As shown above under remedy,
unemployment is a problem but not an insurmountable one. A country can device various
methods/approaches to solve the problem of unemployment to include entrepreneurial education among
others. This method identified above can be used to find suitable jobs or skill acquisition for the teeming
in Nigeria the unemployment of educated persons is assuming an alarming
dimension that prompted the application of entrepreneurial education. Consequently, the emerging
entrepreneurs are not only gainfully self-employed but have also become potential emplo
In serving as a solution to unemployment/alleviate poverty Ikpefan and Sholarin (2008:566) maintain that
entrepreneurship/entrepreneurial education
Leads to creation of more jobs thereby reducing the rate of unemployment in the country.
sts the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross National Product (GNP) of a country.
Leads to an improvement in social wellbeing and standard of living of the people in a

Leads to the availability of more goods and services at an affordable rate.
Boosts the level of economic growth and development in a country.
In a different study, Osaat (2009:38) argues that entrepreneurial education can serve as alternative
to the scarce employment opportunities as it:
Provides specific competencies and skills that can serve as entrance into labour force and
Improves the ability of individual to take part in diversified models of employment.
Promotes partnership between employers and employees.
Acquires knowledge and skills that should be recognized to an extent.
Addresses the needs of self-employed worker and others in the informal sector.
Promotes workplace literacy especially for unskilled workers.
Provides skill development and provides employment for people at the grassroots/rural settings.
The above proffered solutions or views can equally deal with the sources that contribute to
Entrepreneurial education has the potentials to bring about creativity as well as innovation in the
repreneur who undertakes business initiative, bears the risk and provides the needed leadership
prowess for the business. The entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial education create the opportunity of
establishing and managing new small business drives by the desire to make profit. The entrepreneur
becomes competent in applying the knowledge acquired for the purposes of self-reliance, self
actualization for the overall individual and societys growth.
ployment syndrome in Nigeria the unemployed persons need to be self
instead of waiting for salary paid white collar jobs that cannot be enough to the teeming population in
search of it. Entrepreneurial education in Nigeria should be accorded priority and its teaching and
management given to experts. For further improvement, all self-employed persons should form relevant
association for expansion, profit motive and affiliation with educational institutions and non
governmental organizations, soft loans and every necessary assistance should be provided to the
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
32
From the above views, the potential recipients of entrepreneurial education can appropriately be
ing environment and good business conditions that to an extent can eradicate or
The entrepreneurial education as a solution to unemployment: As shown above under remedy,
try can device various
methods/approaches to solve the problem of unemployment to include entrepreneurial education among
others. This method identified above can be used to find suitable jobs or skill acquisition for the teeming
in Nigeria the unemployment of educated persons is assuming an alarming
dimension that prompted the application of entrepreneurial education. Consequently, the emerging
employed but have also become potential employers of labour.
In serving as a solution to unemployment/alleviate poverty Ikpefan and Sholarin (2008:566) maintain that
Leads to creation of more jobs thereby reducing the rate of unemployment in the country.
sts the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross National Product (GNP) of a country.
Leads to an improvement in social wellbeing and standard of living of the people in a
In a different study, Osaat (2009:38) argues that entrepreneurial education can serve as alternative
and skills that can serve as entrance into labour force and
Improves the ability of individual to take part in diversified models of employment.
employed worker and others in the informal sector.
grassroots/rural settings.
The above proffered solutions or views can equally deal with the sources that contribute to
Entrepreneurial education has the potentials to bring about creativity as well as innovation in the
repreneur who undertakes business initiative, bears the risk and provides the needed leadership
prowess for the business. The entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial education create the opportunity of
e desire to make profit. The entrepreneur
reliance, self-sustenance
ployment syndrome in Nigeria the unemployed persons need to be self-employed
instead of waiting for salary paid white collar jobs that cannot be enough to the teeming population in
ity and its teaching and
employed persons should form relevant
association for expansion, profit motive and affiliation with educational institutions and non-
ans and every necessary assistance should be provided to the
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

References
Adebayo, A. (1999). Youth unemployment and national directorate of employment programmes.
Journal of Economics and Social Studies
Blakere, E. (1992). Is anyone listening? Young people speak about work and unemployment.
monograph, Australian Council for Educational Research,
Bushway, S.D. (2002). Labour markets and crime risk factors: Evidence based
books.google.com
Chapman, B.D., Weatherburn, C.A., Chilvers, M. & Roussel, S. (2002). Unemployment duration,
schooling and property crime. Discussion, paper 447. Australian N
Economics Research. Camberra.
Hornby, A.S., Gatenby, E.V. & Wakefield, H. (1971). The advance learners dictionary of current
English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ikpefan, O.A. & Sholarin, M.A. (2008). The future of Niger Delta: Alternative economic activities and
entrepreneurship strategies
the Nigeria State Oil Industry and ND
Harvey Publications Company.
Meredith, G. Nelson, R. & Neck, P. (1983). The en
index 2004.
Nwachukwu, C.C. (2009). The practice of entrepreneurship in Nigeria
Ltd.
Okebukola, P.A.O. (2011). Entrepreneurship in University Education:
lecture, University of Port Harcourt.
Olaleye, Y. L. (2002). Capacity building and its effects on reduction of youth unemployment in Nigeria.
African journal of Historical Sciences in Education 8(1).
Osaat, S. D. (2009). Entrepreneurship Education for poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Theoretical
framework. African Journal of Educational Research and Development
Osaat, S. D (2012). The concept and policy of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria: A the
approach (1962 2008). African Journal of Historical Sciences in Education
Papps, K.L. (1999). Unemployment and crime: New evidence for an old wuention
of Wellington.
Webster, N. & Mckechnie, J. E. (1979). Websters
Simon and Schuster a Division of Gulf and Western Corporation.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2011). Mental Health
from the net on the 18
th
July, 2011







Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
A. (1999). Youth unemployment and national directorate of employment programmes.
Journal of Economics and Social Studies 4(1)
Blakere, E. (1992). Is anyone listening? Young people speak about work and unemployment.
monograph, Australian Council for Educational Research, Melbourne.
Bushway, S.D. (2002). Labour markets and crime risk factors: Evidence based crime preventio
Chapman, B.D., Weatherburn, C.A., Chilvers, M. & Roussel, S. (2002). Unemployment duration,
schooling and property crime. Discussion, paper 447. Australian National University.
Camberra.
., Gatenby, E.V. & Wakefield, H. (1971). The advance learners dictionary of current
English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ikpefan, O.A. & Sholarin, M.A. (2008). The future of Niger Delta: Alternative economic activities and
for peace and security. Conference proceedings: International conference on
the Nigeria State Oil Industry and ND on 11-13 March 2008 in Yenagoa, Bayelsa S
Harvey Publications Company.
Meredith, G. Nelson, R. & Neck, P. (1983). The entrepreneur at Universities: Background report for enterprises
The practice of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Port Harcourt: Davidstones Publishers
Okebukola, P.A.O. (2011). Entrepreneurship in University Education: Beyond Talk. 27the Convocation
lecture, University of Port Harcourt.
L. (2002). Capacity building and its effects on reduction of youth unemployment in Nigeria.
African journal of Historical Sciences in Education 8(1).
epreneurship Education for poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Theoretical
African Journal of Educational Research and Development 3(2), Conference edition.
D (2012). The concept and policy of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria: A the
African Journal of Historical Sciences in Education.
Unemployment and crime: New evidence for an old wuention. Wellington: Victoria university
E. (1979). Websters deluxe unabridged dictionary (2
nd
Simon and Schuster a Division of Gulf and Western Corporation.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2011). Mental Health Bulletin: World Health Organization.
July, 2011.
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A. (1999). Youth unemployment and national directorate of employment programmes. Nigeria
Blakere, E. (1992). Is anyone listening? Young people speak about work and unemployment. Research
crime prevention, 2002
Chapman, B.D., Weatherburn, C.A., Chilvers, M. & Roussel, S. (2002). Unemployment duration,
ational University. Centre for
., Gatenby, E.V. & Wakefield, H. (1971). The advance learners dictionary of current
Ikpefan, O.A. & Sholarin, M.A. (2008). The future of Niger Delta: Alternative economic activities and
International conference on
March 2008 in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State. Port Harcourt:
Background report for enterprises
. Port Harcourt: Davidstones Publishers
Beyond Talk. 27the Convocation
L. (2002). Capacity building and its effects on reduction of youth unemployment in Nigeria.
epreneurship Education for poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Theoretical
3(2), Conference edition.
D (2012). The concept and policy of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria: A thematic
. Wellington: Victoria university
nd
edition). New York:
World Health Organization. Retrieved
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.





AN ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF ABANDONMENT OF COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS BY LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCILS IN
ETIGBAMO ESUEFIENI JUBILEE,
Department of Educational Foundations
Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education
Abstract
This paper examined the causes of abandonment of community development projects by local
government councils in Bayelsa State. The study was carried out in thirty nine communities
randomly sampled from the six local government areas of Bayelsa State namely; Yenagoa, Ogbia,
Sagbama, Southern Ijaw, Nembe and Kolokuma/Opokuma. Two thousand questionnaire were
distributed to the sampled respondents in the thirty nine communities. One thousand nine
and ninety five were successfully retrieved and used for the study. The test
to ascertain the reliability of the instrument and a correlation co
the Pearson Product Moment correlation. D
a criterion mean of 2.5 used in taking decision. Findings from the study shows that
mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds, interference in the funds of local
government by the state government as well as lack of community participation among others were
identified as factors that causes abandonment of community development projects by local
government. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that anti
as EFCC and ICPC as well as the Auditor
local government regularly so as to check the high rate of mismanagement/embezzlement of local
government funds by local government officials, local government
the operation of State-Local government joint account be abolished in order to reduce the level of
interference of state government in the funds of local government, community development projects
should not be imposed on the people rather the people should be consulted to know their felt needs in
order to evoke community participation and ownership of projects.

Keywords: community, development, community development, project, project
abandonment





Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
AN ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF ABANDONMENT OF COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS BY LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCILS IN
BAYELSA STATE.

By

ETIGBAMO ESUEFIENI JUBILEE, Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundations
Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education
Sagbama, Bayelsa State
E-mail: dretigbamoej@g-mail.com

This paper examined the causes of abandonment of community development projects by local
government councils in Bayelsa State. The study was carried out in thirty nine communities
mpled from the six local government areas of Bayelsa State namely; Yenagoa, Ogbia,
Sagbama, Southern Ijaw, Nembe and Kolokuma/Opokuma. Two thousand questionnaire were
distributed to the sampled respondents in the thirty nine communities. One thousand nine
and ninety five were successfully retrieved and used for the study. The test retest method was used
to ascertain the reliability of the instrument and a correlation co-efficient of 0.92 was obtained using
the Pearson Product Moment correlation. Data collected were analysed using the weighted mean with
a criterion mean of 2.5 used in taking decision. Findings from the study shows that
mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds, interference in the funds of local
vernment as well as lack of community participation among others were
identified as factors that causes abandonment of community development projects by local
government. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that anti
as EFCC and ICPC as well as the Auditor-General of local government should check the account of
local government regularly so as to check the high rate of mismanagement/embezzlement of local
government funds by local government officials, local government should be made autonomous and
Local government joint account be abolished in order to reduce the level of
interference of state government in the funds of local government, community development projects
people rather the people should be consulted to know their felt needs in
order to evoke community participation and ownership of projects.
community, development, community development, project, project
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
34
AN ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF ABANDONMENT OF COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS BY LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCILS IN
This paper examined the causes of abandonment of community development projects by local
government councils in Bayelsa State. The study was carried out in thirty nine communities
mpled from the six local government areas of Bayelsa State namely; Yenagoa, Ogbia,
Sagbama, Southern Ijaw, Nembe and Kolokuma/Opokuma. Two thousand questionnaire were
distributed to the sampled respondents in the thirty nine communities. One thousand nine hundred
retest method was used
efficient of 0.92 was obtained using
ata collected were analysed using the weighted mean with
a criterion mean of 2.5 used in taking decision. Findings from the study shows that
mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds, interference in the funds of local
vernment as well as lack of community participation among others were
identified as factors that causes abandonment of community development projects by local
government. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that anti-graft agencies such
General of local government should check the account of
local government regularly so as to check the high rate of mismanagement/embezzlement of local
should be made autonomous and
Local government joint account be abolished in order to reduce the level of
interference of state government in the funds of local government, community development projects
people rather the people should be consulted to know their felt needs in
community, development, community development, project, project
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
One major developmental challenge especially in the third world is the issue of project abandonment.
Projects are basic elements in the assessment of the development of a country. The aim of any
developmental project is to improve the living s
project(s) are sited. Regrettably, most projects embarked upon by individuals, communities, government,
corporate bodies and even donor agencies do not see the light of the day as they are abandoned at one
completion stage or the other. Every level of government have been affected by this scourge to the extent
that it is now a common feature in the hand

The situation is pathetic as most rural communities are littered
electricity projects, classroom blocks and staff quarters, health centres, feeder roads, markets, pipe
water e.t.c most of them embarked upon by local government councils. Indeed, it is catastrophic to
evaluate the quantum of human and material resources that have been recklessly sunk, wasted and
forgotten by government, corporate bodies and even individuals. The Presidential Project Assessment
Committee (2011) estimated that over 11,886 Federal Government projects valu
abandoned after government had spent
them. This figure according to the Federal Ministry of Finance (2013) has climbed to 20,000 by 2013.

The situation is not different in Bayelsa State as most projects embarked upon by the state or local
government councils are abandoned at one stage or the other. Noticeable projects abandoned include; the
Umaro Musa Yaradua International Cargo Airport, the tower hotel and resort,
Okaka water project, Akaba health centre, Gloryland Drive dual carriage road, Ayama water project,
Agbura market stall, Emeyal water project among others.
The 1976 local government reform bestowed on local government, the power to in
provision of services as well as to determine and implement projects so as to complement the activities of
the State and Federal governments in their areas. This responsibility has not been fully adhered to as most
projects embarked upon by local government councils are still begging for completion or remain
uncompleted or abandoned.

The effects of these catalogs of shamelessly abandoned projects are very disturbing because of its
untold negative impact on the economic and social w
are sited. When community development projects are abandoned, the effects are felt by individuals,
communities and government. No wonder Thompson (1983) affirm that when community development
projects are abandoned, community members are automatically robbed of the expected changes and
consequently leave them worse than they were before the project. The negative effects of project
abandonment are very devastating. Hence, the need for this study so that so
be proffered.

Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are as follows:
1. To investigate the causes of abandonment of community development projects by local government
councils in Bayelsa State.
2. To proffer solutions to the problem of project abandonment by local government councils in
Bayelsa State.

Research Question
This study is based on one research question which is intended to achieve the objectives of the study.
What are the causes of abandonment of commun
in Bayelsa State?

Literature Review
This work reviewed the following concepts; community development,
The concept of community development has its root and strength in
development. Hence the proper understanding of the concept of community development requires a
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
One major developmental challenge especially in the third world is the issue of project abandonment.
Projects are basic elements in the assessment of the development of a country. The aim of any
developmental project is to improve the living standard of the members of the community where the
project(s) are sited. Regrettably, most projects embarked upon by individuals, communities, government,
corporate bodies and even donor agencies do not see the light of the day as they are abandoned at one
completion stage or the other. Every level of government have been affected by this scourge to the extent
that it is now a common feature in the hand-over note of successive administration.
The situation is pathetic as most rural communities are littered with abandoned projects such as
electricity projects, classroom blocks and staff quarters, health centres, feeder roads, markets, pipe
water e.t.c most of them embarked upon by local government councils. Indeed, it is catastrophic to
ntum of human and material resources that have been recklessly sunk, wasted and
forgotten by government, corporate bodies and even individuals. The Presidential Project Assessment
Committee (2011) estimated that over 11,886 Federal Government projects valued at
abandoned after government had spent N2.2 trillion on them, and N9.0 trillion is required to complete
them. This figure according to the Federal Ministry of Finance (2013) has climbed to 20,000 by 2013.
erent in Bayelsa State as most projects embarked upon by the state or local
government councils are abandoned at one stage or the other. Noticeable projects abandoned include; the
Umaro Musa Yaradua International Cargo Airport, the tower hotel and resort, Kpansia health centre,
Okaka water project, Akaba health centre, Gloryland Drive dual carriage road, Ayama water project,
Agbura market stall, Emeyal water project among others.
The 1976 local government reform bestowed on local government, the power to in
provision of services as well as to determine and implement projects so as to complement the activities of
the State and Federal governments in their areas. This responsibility has not been fully adhered to as most
upon by local government councils are still begging for completion or remain
The effects of these catalogs of shamelessly abandoned projects are very disturbing because of its
untold negative impact on the economic and social well-being of the people in the localities where they
are sited. When community development projects are abandoned, the effects are felt by individuals,
communities and government. No wonder Thompson (1983) affirm that when community development
e abandoned, community members are automatically robbed of the expected changes and
consequently leave them worse than they were before the project. The negative effects of project
abandonment are very devastating. Hence, the need for this study so that solutions to this menace could
The objectives of the study are as follows:
To investigate the causes of abandonment of community development projects by local government
ions to the problem of project abandonment by local government councils in
This study is based on one research question which is intended to achieve the objectives of the study.
What are the causes of abandonment of community development projects by local government councils
This work reviewed the following concepts; community development, project and project abandonment.
The concept of community development has its root and strength in the term community and
development. Hence the proper understanding of the concept of community development requires a
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
35
One major developmental challenge especially in the third world is the issue of project abandonment.
Projects are basic elements in the assessment of the development of a country. The aim of any
tandard of the members of the community where the
project(s) are sited. Regrettably, most projects embarked upon by individuals, communities, government,
corporate bodies and even donor agencies do not see the light of the day as they are abandoned at one
completion stage or the other. Every level of government have been affected by this scourge to the extent

with abandoned projects such as
electricity projects, classroom blocks and staff quarters, health centres, feeder roads, markets, pipe-borne
water e.t.c most of them embarked upon by local government councils. Indeed, it is catastrophic to
ntum of human and material resources that have been recklessly sunk, wasted and
forgotten by government, corporate bodies and even individuals. The Presidential Project Assessment
ed at N7.7 trillion were
9.0 trillion is required to complete
them. This figure according to the Federal Ministry of Finance (2013) has climbed to 20,000 by 2013.
erent in Bayelsa State as most projects embarked upon by the state or local
government councils are abandoned at one stage or the other. Noticeable projects abandoned include; the
Kpansia health centre,
Okaka water project, Akaba health centre, Gloryland Drive dual carriage road, Ayama water project,
The 1976 local government reform bestowed on local government, the power to initiate and direct the
provision of services as well as to determine and implement projects so as to complement the activities of
the State and Federal governments in their areas. This responsibility has not been fully adhered to as most
upon by local government councils are still begging for completion or remain
The effects of these catalogs of shamelessly abandoned projects are very disturbing because of its
being of the people in the localities where they
are sited. When community development projects are abandoned, the effects are felt by individuals,
communities and government. No wonder Thompson (1983) affirm that when community development
e abandoned, community members are automatically robbed of the expected changes and
consequently leave them worse than they were before the project. The negative effects of project
lutions to this menace could
To investigate the causes of abandonment of community development projects by local government
ions to the problem of project abandonment by local government councils in
This study is based on one research question which is intended to achieve the objectives of the study.
ity development projects by local government councils
project and project abandonment.
the term community and
development. Hence the proper understanding of the concept of community development requires a
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

survey into the meaning of the term community and development. It is after these terms have been
explained that one can then clearly and

What is a Community?
Osuji (1984) opined that a careful review of the literature on this subject would reveal that the term
community is not static. It entails the interaction of several elements w
clear functions of time, place and the context or issue under consideration. Hence there is no universally
acceptable definition of the term community thus different scholars sees the term community from
different perspectives.

Anyanwu (1981) defined community from a six
i) Shared territory which gives them recognizable identity and unique features.
ii) Shared beliefs which give them common ideals, objectives, attitudes, values, traditions which they
cherish and nurture.
iii) Shared bonds of fellowship which distinguished them from other people or groups.
iv) Shared set of standards and pattern of behavior which gives rise to common values or norms by
which they are identified.
v) Common culture- the sum total of their cheris
they jealously protect and pass on to individuals from generation to generation.
vi) Common administration which helps them in the preservation of their culture and civilization
through effective regulations of

According to Bola and Bello (1987) the term community means a territorially bounded social
system within which people live in harmony, love, intimacy and share common social, economic and
cultural characteristics.

They also see a community as a population living within a legally established city limits where the
people have some social and economic features in common which enable them to pursue common goals.

They opined that the most important characteristics of a co
i. Population which could be large or small
ii. Geographical limits which could be large or small
iii. Common socio-economic problems or characteristics such as poverty or affluence, hi
industrialized or agricultural, lack of infrastructures or availability of facilities, highly socialized or
every apathetic and
iv. A feeling of oneness and sense of belonging which enable them to pursue common goals such as the
development of the people and


Considering the various definitions and descriptions of the concept of community, it is clear that
the following elements constitute what a community is,
Group of people
Shared territory that has geographical boundaries
Common goals or interest, and
Common ways of life

What is Development?
The term development is blessed with avalanche of definitions. Different scholars conceptualize
development in different ways. Development can be viewed from economical, social, cultural, p
technological, agricultural perspectives and so on.

Kidd (1989) associates development with the ability of the people to solve their own problems
with their own wisdom, experience and resources such that they are able to eliminate poverty, pesti
and starvation in their midst.

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
survey into the meaning of the term community and development. It is after these terms have been
explained that one can then clearly and meaningfully say what community development is all about.
Osuji (1984) opined that a careful review of the literature on this subject would reveal that the term
community is not static. It entails the interaction of several elements whose geographical boundaries are
clear functions of time, place and the context or issue under consideration. Hence there is no universally
acceptable definition of the term community thus different scholars sees the term community from
Anyanwu (1981) defined community from a six-fold approach.
Shared territory which gives them recognizable identity and unique features.
Shared beliefs which give them common ideals, objectives, attitudes, values, traditions which they
Shared bonds of fellowship which distinguished them from other people or groups.
Shared set of standards and pattern of behavior which gives rise to common values or norms by
the sum total of their cherish custom, beliefs and usages as a community which
they jealously protect and pass on to individuals from generation to generation.
Common administration which helps them in the preservation of their culture and civilization
through effective regulations of community operations and processes.
According to Bola and Bello (1987) the term community means a territorially bounded social
system within which people live in harmony, love, intimacy and share common social, economic and
y also see a community as a population living within a legally established city limits where the
people have some social and economic features in common which enable them to pursue common goals.
They opined that the most important characteristics of a community include:
Population which could be large or small
Geographical limits which could be large or small
economic problems or characteristics such as poverty or affluence, hi
industrialized or agricultural, lack of infrastructures or availability of facilities, highly socialized or
A feeling of oneness and sense of belonging which enable them to pursue common goals such as the
development of the people and their physical environment.
Considering the various definitions and descriptions of the concept of community, it is clear that
the following elements constitute what a community is,
Shared territory that has geographical boundaries
goals or interest, and
The term development is blessed with avalanche of definitions. Different scholars conceptualize
development in different ways. Development can be viewed from economical, social, cultural, p
technological, agricultural perspectives and so on.
Kidd (1989) associates development with the ability of the people to solve their own problems
with their own wisdom, experience and resources such that they are able to eliminate poverty, pesti
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
36
survey into the meaning of the term community and development. It is after these terms have been
meaningfully say what community development is all about.
Osuji (1984) opined that a careful review of the literature on this subject would reveal that the term
hose geographical boundaries are
clear functions of time, place and the context or issue under consideration. Hence there is no universally
acceptable definition of the term community thus different scholars sees the term community from
Shared beliefs which give them common ideals, objectives, attitudes, values, traditions which they
Shared bonds of fellowship which distinguished them from other people or groups.
Shared set of standards and pattern of behavior which gives rise to common values or norms by
h custom, beliefs and usages as a community which

Common administration which helps them in the preservation of their culture and civilization
According to Bola and Bello (1987) the term community means a territorially bounded social
system within which people live in harmony, love, intimacy and share common social, economic and
y also see a community as a population living within a legally established city limits where the
people have some social and economic features in common which enable them to pursue common goals.
economic problems or characteristics such as poverty or affluence, highly
industrialized or agricultural, lack of infrastructures or availability of facilities, highly socialized or
A feeling of oneness and sense of belonging which enable them to pursue common goals such as the
Considering the various definitions and descriptions of the concept of community, it is clear that
The term development is blessed with avalanche of definitions. Different scholars conceptualize
development in different ways. Development can be viewed from economical, social, cultural, political,
Kidd (1989) associates development with the ability of the people to solve their own problems
with their own wisdom, experience and resources such that they are able to eliminate poverty, pestilence
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Adesina (1984) viewed development as involving the development of man, the unfolding and
realization of his creative potentials exalting him to improve his material conditions of living through the
use of resources available to him.
The preview of the concepts of community and development no doubt throw some light on the meaning
of community development. At least it is clear that community development is a people oriented
programme geared toward the improvement of the

According to the Great Britain Colonial Office (1955) the term community development was first
mentioned internationally at the 1948 Cambridge Conference on Africa administration organized by the
British Colonial Office. There it was agreed that the compound word community development should be
used in place of mass education and defined it as a movement designed to promote better living for the
whole community with the active participation and if possible on the initiati
this is not forth coming spontaneous, by the use of techniques for arousing and stimulating it, in order to
secure its active and enthusiastic response to the movement. Since then the concept has undergone
some form of semantic metamorphosis and has therefore been used in different context to refer to
mutually related development activities and situations. Accordingly, varieties of meaning are ascribed to
community development by different scholars and practitioners.

Okujagu (2000) opined that community development is the getting together of the people of a
particular community, to bring about the progress of the people, through self
projects organized by the people for the social, political, health, cultur
people of the community. Barikor (1984) sees community development by contemporary standard as an
amalgam of many dynamic and complementary factors including educational, economic, social, political
and cultural transformation of the community and their subsequent emancipation from regressive
tradition, poverty, ignorance and diseases.

Community development can be seen as a deliberate plan of action undertaken by an individual or
group of persons, government or non
members of the community or by the community themselves with or without the support of external
agencies in order to bring about economic, social, political, technological and cultural improvement in t
overall living conditions of the people of the community.

From a broad point of view, community development is aimed at promoting better material and
non-material living conditions for the entire community relying on their resources, initiatives and
participation. Their initiatives and participation can be aroused by specialist as well as support from
government and non-governmental organizations. This is where the role of local government councils in
community development becomes very important being t
people especially rural dwellers.

Concepts of Project and Project Abandonment
The term project is conceived differently by different scholars depending on the perspective of the
scholar. However, this work is focused on tangible projects that is, the execution of infrastructural or
physical projects which are geared toward the improvement of the general living conditions of the people
including their physical environment. Based on this, Amirinze (2005) conceived
deliberate programme of activities which can provide the support base, to complement efforts of
individuals to enhance their well-
project as an instrument of change
resource combination and level so as to contribute to the realization of a countrys development
objectives.

Project abandonment on the other hand
contract such as refusal or failure to complete a contract before practical completion. To Olapade and
Anthony (2012) project abandonment refers to structures on which taxes and mortgages are no longer
paid, and for which services are n
boarded-up, deteriorated or those which have unmaintained grounds. Longman Dictionary defines
abandonment as the act of given up an action on something completely, with no certain inten
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Adesina (1984) viewed development as involving the development of man, the unfolding and
realization of his creative potentials exalting him to improve his material conditions of living through the

The preview of the concepts of community and development no doubt throw some light on the meaning
of community development. At least it is clear that community development is a people oriented
programme geared toward the improvement of the living standard of the populace.
According to the Great Britain Colonial Office (1955) the term community development was first
mentioned internationally at the 1948 Cambridge Conference on Africa administration organized by the
There it was agreed that the compound word community development should be
used in place of mass education and defined it as a movement designed to promote better living for the
whole community with the active participation and if possible on the initiative of the community, but if
this is not forth coming spontaneous, by the use of techniques for arousing and stimulating it, in order to
secure its active and enthusiastic response to the movement. Since then the concept has undergone
metamorphosis and has therefore been used in different context to refer to
mutually related development activities and situations. Accordingly, varieties of meaning are ascribed to
community development by different scholars and practitioners.
(2000) opined that community development is the getting together of the people of a
particular community, to bring about the progress of the people, through self-help programmes and
projects organized by the people for the social, political, health, cultural and educational wellbeing of the
people of the community. Barikor (1984) sees community development by contemporary standard as an
amalgam of many dynamic and complementary factors including educational, economic, social, political
mation of the community and their subsequent emancipation from regressive
tradition, poverty, ignorance and diseases.
Community development can be seen as a deliberate plan of action undertaken by an individual or
group of persons, government or non-governmental organizations with the active participation of
members of the community or by the community themselves with or without the support of external
agencies in order to bring about economic, social, political, technological and cultural improvement in t
overall living conditions of the people of the community.
From a broad point of view, community development is aimed at promoting better material and
material living conditions for the entire community relying on their resources, initiatives and
rticipation. Their initiatives and participation can be aroused by specialist as well as support from
governmental organizations. This is where the role of local government councils in
community development becomes very important being the tier of government that is closest to the
Concepts of Project and Project Abandonment
The term project is conceived differently by different scholars depending on the perspective of the
scholar. However, this work is focused on tangible projects that is, the execution of infrastructural or
physical projects which are geared toward the improvement of the general living conditions of the people
including their physical environment. Based on this, Amirinze (2005) conceived project as any plan or
deliberate programme of activities which can provide the support base, to complement efforts of
-being and solve their peculiar problems. Tamuno and Otto (2000) saw
project as an instrument of change, a coordinated series of action resulting from policy decision to change
resource combination and level so as to contribute to the realization of a countrys development
Project abandonment on the other hand and according to Ntamere (1995) is
contract such as refusal or failure to complete a contract before practical completion. To Olapade and
Anthony (2012) project abandonment refers to structures on which taxes and mortgages are no longer
paid, and for which services are neither paid for nor provided. They are unoccupied, vandalized, unused,
up, deteriorated or those which have unmaintained grounds. Longman Dictionary defines
abandonment as the act of given up an action on something completely, with no certain inten
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
37
Adesina (1984) viewed development as involving the development of man, the unfolding and
realization of his creative potentials exalting him to improve his material conditions of living through the
The preview of the concepts of community and development no doubt throw some light on the meaning
of community development. At least it is clear that community development is a people oriented

According to the Great Britain Colonial Office (1955) the term community development was first
mentioned internationally at the 1948 Cambridge Conference on Africa administration organized by the
There it was agreed that the compound word community development should be
used in place of mass education and defined it as a movement designed to promote better living for the
ve of the community, but if
this is not forth coming spontaneous, by the use of techniques for arousing and stimulating it, in order to
secure its active and enthusiastic response to the movement. Since then the concept has undergone
metamorphosis and has therefore been used in different context to refer to
mutually related development activities and situations. Accordingly, varieties of meaning are ascribed to
(2000) opined that community development is the getting together of the people of a
help programmes and
al and educational wellbeing of the
people of the community. Barikor (1984) sees community development by contemporary standard as an
amalgam of many dynamic and complementary factors including educational, economic, social, political
mation of the community and their subsequent emancipation from regressive
Community development can be seen as a deliberate plan of action undertaken by an individual or
nmental organizations with the active participation of
members of the community or by the community themselves with or without the support of external
agencies in order to bring about economic, social, political, technological and cultural improvement in the
From a broad point of view, community development is aimed at promoting better material and
material living conditions for the entire community relying on their resources, initiatives and
rticipation. Their initiatives and participation can be aroused by specialist as well as support from
governmental organizations. This is where the role of local government councils in
he tier of government that is closest to the
The term project is conceived differently by different scholars depending on the perspective of the
ocused on tangible projects that is, the execution of infrastructural or
physical projects which are geared toward the improvement of the general living conditions of the people
project as any plan or
deliberate programme of activities which can provide the support base, to complement efforts of
being and solve their peculiar problems. Tamuno and Otto (2000) saw
, a coordinated series of action resulting from policy decision to change
resource combination and level so as to contribute to the realization of a countrys development
according to Ntamere (1995) is the abandonment of
contract such as refusal or failure to complete a contract before practical completion. To Olapade and
Anthony (2012) project abandonment refers to structures on which taxes and mortgages are no longer
either paid for nor provided. They are unoccupied, vandalized, unused,
up, deteriorated or those which have unmaintained grounds. Longman Dictionary defines
abandonment as the act of given up an action on something completely, with no certain intention of
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

when to resume. When actions and activities on development projects are suspended without any stated
time of resumption, the project is said to be abandoned.
In a nutshell, an abandoned project is an uncompleted project in time frame of the contrac
construction activities are totally suspended.

Causes of Project Abandonment
The list of possible causes of project abandonment is endless. Osas (2012), Transparency (2001) and
Ayadongha (2012) among other scholars attributed the abandonment
embezzlement of funds especially at the local government level because of the low demand for
accountability. STAND (2010) and Etigbamo (2012) added the overbearing interference by state
government in the funds of local gove
government councils in Nigeria especially in the Niger Delta region.

Others, such as Onyeozu (2007) and Jones (1980) identified ineffective planning, lack of
community participation, poor leadership
Nigeria. Etigbamo (2012) and Dagana (2005) also identified diversion of funds from one project to
another, inadequate funds, dearth of manpower in the local government system especially community
development officers among others as factors that causes abandonment of community development
projects.

Hanachor (2012) identified choice of project site, embarking on projects without needs analysis,
project imposition, lack of social analysis of projects,
projects and lack of technical analysis as causes of project abandonment. Furthermore, Bello and Bola
(1989) and Etigbamo (2006) observed that leadership choice of project rather than the felt
people will automatically leads to under
identified ineffective and uncoordinated mobilization of community members as a factor that causes
project abandonment. To Olapade and Anthony (2012), t
projects include; incorrect estimation, lack of available skilled personnel, inadequate planning, poor risk
management, misunderstanding of work requirement, poor quality control by regulatory agencies,
corruption and communication gap among the personnel, cost, inability of clients to engage contractors
or designers capable to do the work, failure on the part of the contractor to obtain vital inputs such as
materials, manpower and machines among others.

Methodology
The survey design was adopted for the study. The population of this study is made up of the population
of six local government areas of Bayelsa State used for the study viz; Yenagoa, Ogbia, Nembe, Sagbama,
Souther Ijaw and Kolokuma/Opokuma. The adult
hundred and ninety two thousand and sixty one (492,061) persons. Below is the population distribution
of the local government areas.

Table 1: Population of the Study
S/N Names of LGA
1 Yenagoa
2. Ogbia
3. Nembe
4. Sagbama
5. Southern Ijaw
6. Kolokuma/Opokuma
Total
Source: Independent electoral commission INEC 2011

A total of two thousand (2000) respondents were drawn from thirty
government areas used for the study as show below.



Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
when to resume. When actions and activities on development projects are suspended without any stated
time of resumption, the project is said to be abandoned.
In a nutshell, an abandoned project is an uncompleted project in time frame of the contrac
construction activities are totally suspended.
Causes of Project Abandonment
The list of possible causes of project abandonment is endless. Osas (2012), Transparency (2001) and
Ayadongha (2012) among other scholars attributed the abandonment of projects to mismanagement and
embezzlement of funds especially at the local government level because of the low demand for
accountability. STAND (2010) and Etigbamo (2012) added the overbearing interference by state
government in the funds of local government as possible cause of project abandonment by local
government councils in Nigeria especially in the Niger Delta region.
yeozu (2007) and Jones (1980) identified ineffective planning, lack of
community participation, poor leadership among others as major causes of project abandonment in
Nigeria. Etigbamo (2012) and Dagana (2005) also identified diversion of funds from one project to
another, inadequate funds, dearth of manpower in the local government system especially community
velopment officers among others as factors that causes abandonment of community development
Hanachor (2012) identified choice of project site, embarking on projects without needs analysis,
project imposition, lack of social analysis of projects, improper financial analysis, under bidding of
projects and lack of technical analysis as causes of project abandonment. Furthermore, Bello and Bola
(1989) and Etigbamo (2006) observed that leadership choice of project rather than the felt
ple will automatically leads to under-utilization or abandonment of projects. Similarly, Oduaran (1994)
identified ineffective and uncoordinated mobilization of community members as a factor that causes
project abandonment. To Olapade and Anthony (2012), the reasons advanced for abandonment of
projects include; incorrect estimation, lack of available skilled personnel, inadequate planning, poor risk
management, misunderstanding of work requirement, poor quality control by regulatory agencies,
nd communication gap among the personnel, cost, inability of clients to engage contractors
or designers capable to do the work, failure on the part of the contractor to obtain vital inputs such as
materials, manpower and machines among others.
The survey design was adopted for the study. The population of this study is made up of the population
of six local government areas of Bayelsa State used for the study viz; Yenagoa, Ogbia, Nembe, Sagbama,
Souther Ijaw and Kolokuma/Opokuma. The adult population of these local government areas is four
hundred and ninety two thousand and sixty one (492,061) persons. Below is the population distribution

Population
127,309
72,753
70,188
68,290
127,973
25,548
492,061
Independent electoral commission INEC 2011
A total of two thousand (2000) respondents were drawn from thirty-nine communities in the six local
government areas used for the study as show below.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
38
when to resume. When actions and activities on development projects are suspended without any stated
In a nutshell, an abandoned project is an uncompleted project in time frame of the contract which all
The list of possible causes of project abandonment is endless. Osas (2012), Transparency (2001) and
of projects to mismanagement and
embezzlement of funds especially at the local government level because of the low demand for
accountability. STAND (2010) and Etigbamo (2012) added the overbearing interference by state
rnment as possible cause of project abandonment by local
yeozu (2007) and Jones (1980) identified ineffective planning, lack of
among others as major causes of project abandonment in
Nigeria. Etigbamo (2012) and Dagana (2005) also identified diversion of funds from one project to
another, inadequate funds, dearth of manpower in the local government system especially community
velopment officers among others as factors that causes abandonment of community development
Hanachor (2012) identified choice of project site, embarking on projects without needs analysis,
improper financial analysis, under bidding of
projects and lack of technical analysis as causes of project abandonment. Furthermore, Bello and Bola
(1989) and Etigbamo (2006) observed that leadership choice of project rather than the felt-needs of the
utilization or abandonment of projects. Similarly, Oduaran (1994)
identified ineffective and uncoordinated mobilization of community members as a factor that causes
he reasons advanced for abandonment of
projects include; incorrect estimation, lack of available skilled personnel, inadequate planning, poor risk
management, misunderstanding of work requirement, poor quality control by regulatory agencies,
nd communication gap among the personnel, cost, inability of clients to engage contractors
or designers capable to do the work, failure on the part of the contractor to obtain vital inputs such as
The survey design was adopted for the study. The population of this study is made up of the population
of six local government areas of Bayelsa State used for the study viz; Yenagoa, Ogbia, Nembe, Sagbama,
population of these local government areas is four
hundred and ninety two thousand and sixty one (492,061) persons. Below is the population distribution
communities in the six local
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Table 2: Number of Communities, Sample communities and sample respondents
S/N LGAs
1 Yenagoa
2 Ogbia
3 Nembe
4 Sagbama
5 Southern Ijaw
6 Kolokuma/Opokuma
Total
Source: Etigbamo 2012

Whereas the sampled respondents were selected through the simple random sampling technique,
the thirty-nine communities were selected through the proportionate sampling technique. The instrument
used for data collection was the questionnaire.

The test re-test method was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The scores were
correlated using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistics and a correlation co
was obtained.
The administration and collection of the instrument was done by
trained research assistants. Out of the two thousand (2000) copies of questionnaire distributed, a total of
one thousand nine hundred and ninety five (1995) were successfully retrieved from the respondents and
used for the study.

The weighted mean was used to analyze the research questions. A criterion mean of 2.5 was used
in taking decision. Thus any item response that receives a mean equal or greater than 2.5 was considered
to be positive response while any item tha

Results
The results of the mean analysis of the subject responses presented in tables are based on the research
question:

What are the causes of abandonment of community development projects by
in Bayelsa State?

Table 3: Mean analysis of mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds
Item
Mismanagement/embezzlement of local
government funds is one main cause of
abandonment of community
development projects in Bayelsa State
Weight of Responses
Table 3 above shows that the weighted mean 3.5 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5,
response of the respondents is positive. Hence mismanagement/embezzlement of local government
funds is one main cause of abandonment of community development projects by local government
councils in Bayelsa State.
Table 4: Mean analysis of interference of local government funds by state government
Item
Interference by state government in the
funds of local government also leads to
the abandonment of community
development projects
Weight of Responses
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
of Communities, Sample communities and sample respondents
Total number
of communities
No. of sample
communities
Population of
sample communities
74 7 10,003
50 5 6,098
102 10 8,049
46 5 4,100
102 10 9,960
17 2 1,806
391 39 40,016
sampled respondents were selected through the simple random sampling technique,
nine communities were selected through the proportionate sampling technique. The instrument
used for data collection was the questionnaire.
was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The scores were
correlated using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistics and a correlation co
The administration and collection of the instrument was done by the researcher with the help of four
trained research assistants. Out of the two thousand (2000) copies of questionnaire distributed, a total of
one thousand nine hundred and ninety five (1995) were successfully retrieved from the respondents and
The weighted mean was used to analyze the research questions. A criterion mean of 2.5 was used
in taking decision. Thus any item response that receives a mean equal or greater than 2.5 was considered
to be positive response while any item that receives below 2.5 was considered to be negative response.
The results of the mean analysis of the subject responses presented in tables are based on the research
What are the causes of abandonment of community development projects by local government councils
Mean analysis of mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds
Responses
SA A D SD Total
W X

Mismanagement/embezzlement of local
cause of
abandonment of community
development projects in Bayelsa State

1066



899

26

04

1995

4264 2697 52 04 7017 3.5
Table 3 above shows that the weighted mean 3.5 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5,
response of the respondents is positive. Hence mismanagement/embezzlement of local government
funds is one main cause of abandonment of community development projects by local government
terference of local government funds by state government
Responses
SA A D SD Total
W X
Interference by state government in the
funds of local government also leads to
the abandonment of community

989



867

108

34

1995

3944 2601 216 34 6795 3.4
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
39
Population of
sample communities
Sample
respondents
500
305
402
205
498
90
2000
sampled respondents were selected through the simple random sampling technique,
nine communities were selected through the proportionate sampling technique. The instrument
was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The scores were
correlated using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistics and a correlation co-efficient of 0.92
the researcher with the help of four
trained research assistants. Out of the two thousand (2000) copies of questionnaire distributed, a total of
one thousand nine hundred and ninety five (1995) were successfully retrieved from the respondents and
The weighted mean was used to analyze the research questions. A criterion mean of 2.5 was used
in taking decision. Thus any item response that receives a mean equal or greater than 2.5 was considered
t receives below 2.5 was considered to be negative response.
The results of the mean analysis of the subject responses presented in tables are based on the research
local government councils
Mean analysis of mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds
Remark


Positive

Table 3 above shows that the weighted mean 3.5 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, therefore the
response of the respondents is positive. Hence mismanagement/embezzlement of local government
funds is one main cause of abandonment of community development projects by local government
terference of local government funds by state government
W
Remark


Positive

Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

From table 4 above, it is observed
Hence the response of the respondents is positive. Therefore interference by state government in the
funds of local government also leads to the abandonment of local government community d
projects.
Table 5: Mean analysis of lack of community participation
Item
Lack of community participation is also
responsible for the abandonment of
community development projects
government
Weight of Responses
Table 5 shows that the weighted mean 3.2 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, thus the response of the
respondents is positive. Therefore,
abandonment of community development projects by local government councils in Bayelsa State.
Table 6: Mean analysis of dearth of manpower
Item
The dearth of qualified manpower
especially community development
officers in the local government system in
Bayelsa State also causes abandonment of
community development projects
Weight of Responses
The weighted mean 3.1 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, hence the response of the respondents is
positive. Therefore dearth of qualified manpower especially community development officers in the local
government system in Bayelsa State also causes the abandonment of community development projects
embarked upon by local government councils in Bayelsa State.
Table 7: Mean analysis of lack of proper planning
Item
Lack of proper planning is a serious
problem militating against the successful
completion of most local government
community development projects in Bayelsa
State
Weight of Responses

From table 7 above, the weighted mean 3.0 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, thus the response of the
respondents is positive. Therefore, lack of proper planning is also a problem militating against the
successful completion of most local

Table 8: Mean analysis of diversion of funds from one project to another
Item
Diversion of funds from one project to
another also leads to the abandonment of
local government community development
projects in Bayelsa State

Weight of Responses

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
From table 4 above, it is observed that the weighted mean 3.4 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5.
Hence the response of the respondents is positive. Therefore interference by state government in the
funds of local government also leads to the abandonment of local government community d
Mean analysis of lack of community participation
Responses
SA A D SD Total
X
Lack of community participation is also
responsible for the abandonment of
community development projects by local

894



796

152

153

1995

3576 2388 304 153 6421 3.2
Table 5 shows that the weighted mean 3.2 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, thus the response of the
respondents is positive. Therefore, lack of community participation is also responsible for the
abandonment of community development projects by local government councils in Bayelsa State.
Mean analysis of dearth of manpower
Responses
SA A D SD Total
X
The dearth of qualified manpower
especially community development
officers in the local government system in
Bayelsa State also causes abandonment of


764




788

340

103

1995

3056 2364 680 103 6203 3.1
The weighted mean 3.1 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, hence the response of the respondents is
positive. Therefore dearth of qualified manpower especially community development officers in the local
in Bayelsa State also causes the abandonment of community development projects
embarked upon by local government councils in Bayelsa State.
Mean analysis of lack of proper planning
Responses
SA A D SD Total
Lack of proper planning is a serious
problem militating against the successful
completion of most local government
community development projects in Bayelsa

697




859

255

184

1995
2788 2577 510 184 6059
From table 7 above, the weighted mean 3.0 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, thus the response of the
respondents is positive. Therefore, lack of proper planning is also a problem militating against the
successful completion of most local government community development projects in Bayelsa State.
: Mean analysis of diversion of funds from one project to another
Responses
SA A D SD Total
Diversion of funds from one project to
leads to the abandonment of
local government community development

865




729

266

135

1995
3460 2187 532 135 6315
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
40
that the weighted mean 3.4 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5.
Hence the response of the respondents is positive. Therefore interference by state government in the
funds of local government also leads to the abandonment of local government community development
W X
Remark


Positive
3.2
Table 5 shows that the weighted mean 3.2 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, thus the response of the
lack of community participation is also responsible for the
abandonment of community development projects by local government councils in Bayelsa State.
W X
Remark



Positive
3.1
The weighted mean 3.1 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, hence the response of the respondents is
positive. Therefore dearth of qualified manpower especially community development officers in the local
in Bayelsa State also causes the abandonment of community development projects
W X
Remark



Positive
3.0
From table 7 above, the weighted mean 3.0 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5, thus the response of the
respondents is positive. Therefore, lack of proper planning is also a problem militating against the
government community development projects in Bayelsa State.
W X
Remark



Positive
3.1
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

The weighted mean 3.1 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5; hence
positive. This means that diversion of funds from one project to another leads to the abandonment of
local government community development projects in Bayelsa State.

Summary of findings
This research work on the analysis of causes of abandonment of community development projects by
local government councils in Bayelsa State has identified the following as causes of project abandonment
by local government councils in Bayelsa State.

1. Mismanagement /embezzlement o
2. Interference by state government in the funds of local government councils
3. Lack of community participation
4. Dearth of manpower especially community development officers
5. Lack of proper planning; and
6. Diversion of funds from one project to another.

Discussion
Table 3 shows that calculated mean 3.5 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5. This proves that the
respondents agreed that mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds is a major cause of
abandonment of community development projects embarked upon by local government councils in
Bayelsa State. The response indicates that 98.25% agreed that mismanagement/embezzlement of local
government funds cause project abandonment in Bayelsa State. This finding is in harm
of Osas (2012), Oyadongha (2012) Transparency (2001) and STAND (2010) that mismanagement and
embezzlement of local government funds had crippled the local government system and prevented them
from carrying out their primary responsibilit
abandoned half way.

The finding of the analysed data in table 4 shows that interference by state government in the
funds of local government also leads to abandonment of community development pr
government councils in Bayelsa State. This finding buttressed the submission of STAND (2010) that the
over bearing interference in the funds of local government by state government especially in the Niger
Delta is one major cause of abandon
government councils in the region.

Similarly, the result of the analysed data in table 5 indicates that lack of community participation
also causes abandonment of community development projects. Th
Onyeozu (2007) and Jones (1980).
Table 6 shows that the dearth of qualified manpower especially community development officers in the
local government system in Bayelsa State also causes abandonment of community deve
This is supported by the weighted mean of 3.1 which is greater than the criterion mean of 2.5 which
means that the response of the respondents is positive. This finding is in harmony with the observation
of Etigbamo (2012) that there are
system in Bayelsa State except one in Yenagoa local government. The lack of manpower in the local
government system in Bayelsa State is also echoed in Dagana (2005).

The analysis in table 7 shows that lack of proper planning is a serious problem militating against
the successful completion of most community development projects by local government councils in
Bayelsa State. This is supported by the weighted mean of 3.0 which is greater tha
This proves that the response of the respondents is positive. The result of this finding is in line with the
views of Onyeozu (2007) and Jones (1980) who emphasized effective planning for every successful
community development programming.

Finally, the result from table 8 shows that the weighted mean 3.1 is greater than the criterion mean
2.5. This means that the response of the respondents is positive. Hence, diversion of funds from one
project to another also leads to the abando
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The weighted mean 3.1 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5; hence the response of the respondents is
positive. This means that diversion of funds from one project to another leads to the abandonment of
local government community development projects in Bayelsa State.
analysis of causes of abandonment of community development projects by
local government councils in Bayelsa State has identified the following as causes of project abandonment
by local government councils in Bayelsa State.
Mismanagement /embezzlement of local government funds
Interference by state government in the funds of local government councils
Lack of community participation
Dearth of manpower especially community development officers
Lack of proper planning; and
from one project to another.
Table 3 shows that calculated mean 3.5 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5. This proves that the
respondents agreed that mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds is a major cause of
munity development projects embarked upon by local government councils in
Bayelsa State. The response indicates that 98.25% agreed that mismanagement/embezzlement of local
government funds cause project abandonment in Bayelsa State. This finding is in harm
of Osas (2012), Oyadongha (2012) Transparency (2001) and STAND (2010) that mismanagement and
embezzlement of local government funds had crippled the local government system and prevented them
from carrying out their primary responsibility of developing the rural communities, leaving most projects
The finding of the analysed data in table 4 shows that interference by state government in the
funds of local government also leads to abandonment of community development pr
government councils in Bayelsa State. This finding buttressed the submission of STAND (2010) that the
over bearing interference in the funds of local government by state government especially in the Niger
Delta is one major cause of abandonment of most development projects embarked upon by local
government councils in the region.
Similarly, the result of the analysed data in table 5 indicates that lack of community participation
also causes abandonment of community development projects. This finding is in line with the views of
Onyeozu (2007) and Jones (1980).
Table 6 shows that the dearth of qualified manpower especially community development officers in the
local government system in Bayelsa State also causes abandonment of community deve
This is supported by the weighted mean of 3.1 which is greater than the criterion mean of 2.5 which
means that the response of the respondents is positive. This finding is in harmony with the observation
of Etigbamo (2012) that there are no qualified community development officers in the local government
system in Bayelsa State except one in Yenagoa local government. The lack of manpower in the local
government system in Bayelsa State is also echoed in Dagana (2005).
7 shows that lack of proper planning is a serious problem militating against
the successful completion of most community development projects by local government councils in
Bayelsa State. This is supported by the weighted mean of 3.0 which is greater than the criterion mean 2.5.
This proves that the response of the respondents is positive. The result of this finding is in line with the
views of Onyeozu (2007) and Jones (1980) who emphasized effective planning for every successful
gramming.
Finally, the result from table 8 shows that the weighted mean 3.1 is greater than the criterion mean
2.5. This means that the response of the respondents is positive. Hence, diversion of funds from one
project to another also leads to the abandonment of community development project by local
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
41
the response of the respondents is
positive. This means that diversion of funds from one project to another leads to the abandonment of
analysis of causes of abandonment of community development projects by
local government councils in Bayelsa State has identified the following as causes of project abandonment

Table 3 shows that calculated mean 3.5 is greater than the criterion mean 2.5. This proves that the
respondents agreed that mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds is a major cause of
munity development projects embarked upon by local government councils in
Bayelsa State. The response indicates that 98.25% agreed that mismanagement/embezzlement of local
government funds cause project abandonment in Bayelsa State. This finding is in harmony with the views
of Osas (2012), Oyadongha (2012) Transparency (2001) and STAND (2010) that mismanagement and
embezzlement of local government funds had crippled the local government system and prevented them
y of developing the rural communities, leaving most projects
The finding of the analysed data in table 4 shows that interference by state government in the
funds of local government also leads to abandonment of community development projects by local
government councils in Bayelsa State. This finding buttressed the submission of STAND (2010) that the
over bearing interference in the funds of local government by state government especially in the Niger
ment of most development projects embarked upon by local
Similarly, the result of the analysed data in table 5 indicates that lack of community participation
is finding is in line with the views of
Table 6 shows that the dearth of qualified manpower especially community development officers in the
local government system in Bayelsa State also causes abandonment of community development projects.
This is supported by the weighted mean of 3.1 which is greater than the criterion mean of 2.5 which
means that the response of the respondents is positive. This finding is in harmony with the observation
no qualified community development officers in the local government
system in Bayelsa State except one in Yenagoa local government. The lack of manpower in the local
7 shows that lack of proper planning is a serious problem militating against
the successful completion of most community development projects by local government councils in
n the criterion mean 2.5.
This proves that the response of the respondents is positive. The result of this finding is in line with the
views of Onyeozu (2007) and Jones (1980) who emphasized effective planning for every successful
Finally, the result from table 8 shows that the weighted mean 3.1 is greater than the criterion mean
2.5. This means that the response of the respondents is positive. Hence, diversion of funds from one
nment of community development project by local
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

government councils in Bayelsa State. This finding buttressed the views of Etigbamo (2012) and Dagana
(2005) that most projects are abandoned by local government councils in Bayelsa State because of
diversion of funds to preferred projects because of the interest of one godfather or another.

Table 9: Below are some abandoned community development projects by local government councils in
Bayelsa State.
S/No L.G.A
1. Southern Ijaw
2. Southern Ijaw
3. Southern Ijaw
4. Yenagoa
5. Sagbama
6. Sagbama
7. Ogbia
8. Yenagoa
9. Yenagoa
10. Kolokuma/Opokuma
11. Nembe
12. Nembe
13. Nembe
14. Nembe
15. Nembe
16. Nembe
17. Ogbia
18. Ogbia
Source: Etigbamo 2012

Conclusion
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:
Project abandonment is a common feature in the Nigeria society especially in the rural
communities.
The quantum of loss resulting from abandonment of community development projects are
enormous and adversely affect the community, government and individual
Mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds, interference by state government in
the funds of local government, lack of community participation, dearth of qualified manpower
especially community development officers, lack of proper planning and
one project to another are all causes of abandonment of community development projects by
local government councils in Bayelsa State.

Recommendations
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:
Anti- graft agencies such as EFCC and ICPC as well as the Auditor
should check the account books of local government councils regularly to reduce the massive
fraud in the local government system.
Local government councils should b
account should be abolished. This will help to reduce the high rate of interference of the state in
the funds of local government councils.
Projects should not be imposed on the people rather needs analys
project execution to ascertain the felt needs of the community in order to evoke their
participation and ownership.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
government councils in Bayelsa State. This finding buttressed the views of Etigbamo (2012) and Dagana
(2005) that most projects are abandoned by local government councils in Bayelsa State because of
of funds to preferred projects because of the interest of one godfather or another.
Below are some abandoned community development projects by local government councils in
NAMES OF
COMMUNITIES
PROJECT REMARK
Anyama Water project Non
Amatolo Classroom block Poorly finished
Azama Water project Not completed
Agbura Market stall Abandoned
Toru-Orua Electricity Abandoned
Bolou- Orua Walk way Not
Oruma Water scheme Non
Azikoro Health centre Completed
Bebelibiri Health centre Abandoned
Sampou Water Scheme Non
Ologoama Concrete walk way Completed
Ologoama Community play
ground
Completed
Ologoama Water project Poorly finished
Akakumama Water project Not completed
Akakumama Community play
ground
Abandoned
Dorgu-Ewoama Concrete walk way Completed
Otakeme Community Town
Hall
Abandoned
Ewoi Concrete Culvert Completed
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:
Project abandonment is a common feature in the Nigeria society especially in the rural
The quantum of loss resulting from abandonment of community development projects are
enormous and adversely affect the community, government and individuals.
Mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds, interference by state government in
the funds of local government, lack of community participation, dearth of qualified manpower
especially community development officers, lack of proper planning and diversion of funds from
one project to another are all causes of abandonment of community development projects by
local government councils in Bayelsa State.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:
graft agencies such as EFCC and ICPC as well as the Auditor-General of local government
should check the account books of local government councils regularly to reduce the massive
fraud in the local government system.
Local government councils should be made autonomous. The State-Local government joint
account should be abolished. This will help to reduce the high rate of interference of the state in
the funds of local government councils.
Projects should not be imposed on the people rather needs analysis should be carried out before
project execution to ascertain the felt needs of the community in order to evoke their
participation and ownership.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
42
government councils in Bayelsa State. This finding buttressed the views of Etigbamo (2012) and Dagana
(2005) that most projects are abandoned by local government councils in Bayelsa State because of
of funds to preferred projects because of the interest of one godfather or another.
Below are some abandoned community development projects by local government councils in
REMARK
Non-functional
Poorly finished
Not completed
Abandoned
Abandoned
Not-completed
Non-functional
Completed
Abandoned
Non-functional
Completed
Completed
Poorly finished
Not completed
Abandoned
Completed
Abandoned
Completed
Project abandonment is a common feature in the Nigeria society especially in the rural
The quantum of loss resulting from abandonment of community development projects are
s.
Mismanagement/embezzlement of local government funds, interference by state government in
the funds of local government, lack of community participation, dearth of qualified manpower
diversion of funds from
one project to another are all causes of abandonment of community development projects by
General of local government
should check the account books of local government councils regularly to reduce the massive
Local government joint
account should be abolished. This will help to reduce the high rate of interference of the state in
is should be carried out before
project execution to ascertain the felt needs of the community in order to evoke their
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Local government councils should engage the services of qualified manpower especially
community development
programming successfully.
Community development projects should be properly planned to ensure successful execution and
completion.
Diversion of funds from one project to another because of god
discouraged.
The ministry of local government should be effectively empowered to be able to supervise and
monitor community development projects embarked upon by local government councils in the
state.

Finally, appropriate legislations should be enacted to curb the excessive rate of project
abandonment in the country.

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Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.





GENDER: A PREDICTOR OF COMMUNICATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE
EFFECTIVENESS IN KWARA SOUTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT PRIMARY
FASHIKU C. O., OLOFINNIYI O. E.
Department of Educational Administration and Planning,
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria.
GSE Department Kwara State College
Abstract
The research was an investigation in to influence gender has on head teachers communication and
administrative effectiveness in Kwara South senatorial district primary schools. Simple random
sampling technique was used to
sampled primary schools headed by 40 male and 40 female head teachers from four different local
government areas of the senatorial district. Head teachers Effective Communication and
Administrative Effectiveness Questionnaire (HTECAEQ) was used to collect the used data from the
teacher respondents. The validity of the instrument was ensured by three experts in the field of
Educational Management .its reliability was equally ascertained while t
analysis was used in determining the differences that existed in male and female head teachers
communication and administrative effectiveness in the senatorial district primary schools. The
findings reveal that male head teach
effective school programmes, administration, staff and students personnel administration and effective
public relations while their female counterpart were found to be better than their male count
the financial management of the schools. The paper concluded that gender should not be a
determining factor in the appointments of head teachers in schools while it was recommended that
government should encourage staff development programmes fo
tomorrow and that appointment of school heads should be based on merit but not on gender.
Key words: Gender, communication, administrative effectiveness, primary schools.




Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
GENDER: A PREDICTOR OF COMMUNICATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE
EFFECTIVENESS IN KWARA SOUTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT PRIMARY
SCHOOLS
By
FASHIKU C. O., OLOFINNIYI O. E.
Department of Educational Administration and Planning,
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria.
fashxtopher@gmail.com

&
FASHIKU, B. C.
GSE Department Kwara State College of Education, Oro.
The research was an investigation in to influence gender has on head teachers communication and
administrative effectiveness in Kwara South senatorial district primary schools. Simple random
sampling technique was used to select 324 respondents randomly sampled from 80 purposively
sampled primary schools headed by 40 male and 40 female head teachers from four different local
government areas of the senatorial district. Head teachers Effective Communication and
ve Effectiveness Questionnaire (HTECAEQ) was used to collect the used data from the
teacher respondents. The validity of the instrument was ensured by three experts in the field of
Educational Management .its reliability was equally ascertained while t-test statistical method of data
analysis was used in determining the differences that existed in male and female head teachers
communication and administrative effectiveness in the senatorial district primary schools. The
findings reveal that male head teacher were found to be better than their female counterpart in
effective school programmes, administration, staff and students personnel administration and effective
public relations while their female counterpart were found to be better than their male count
the financial management of the schools. The paper concluded that gender should not be a
determining factor in the appointments of head teachers in schools while it was recommended that
government should encourage staff development programmes for teachers as head masters of
tomorrow and that appointment of school heads should be based on merit but not on gender.
Gender, communication, administrative effectiveness, primary schools.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
45
GENDER: A PREDICTOR OF COMMUNICATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE
EFFECTIVENESS IN KWARA SOUTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT PRIMARY

The research was an investigation in to influence gender has on head teachers communication and
administrative effectiveness in Kwara South senatorial district primary schools. Simple random
select 324 respondents randomly sampled from 80 purposively
sampled primary schools headed by 40 male and 40 female head teachers from four different local
government areas of the senatorial district. Head teachers Effective Communication and
ve Effectiveness Questionnaire (HTECAEQ) was used to collect the used data from the
teacher respondents. The validity of the instrument was ensured by three experts in the field of
t statistical method of data
analysis was used in determining the differences that existed in male and female head teachers
communication and administrative effectiveness in the senatorial district primary schools. The
er were found to be better than their female counterpart in
effective school programmes, administration, staff and students personnel administration and effective
public relations while their female counterpart were found to be better than their male counterparts in
the financial management of the schools. The paper concluded that gender should not be a
determining factor in the appointments of head teachers in schools while it was recommended that
r teachers as head masters of
tomorrow and that appointment of school heads should be based on merit but not on gender.
Gender, communication, administrative effectiveness, primary schools.
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
Campaign for women empowerment and
dailies as the issue transcends not only local but international boundaries. The phenomenon is all about
granting equal social-economic, political and educational status to the women fold worldwi
such opportunities required by women in the society is the position of headship in the
educational system. More so, now
can do. On this premise, its essential to invest
administrative effectiveness of head teachers in Kwara South Senatorial district primary schools in the
state.
The school as a living organic structure has certain fundamental roles to play in the society
serves. However, the school like any formal organization is bureaucratic in nature
complexities and changing nature of its component parts as
politics, goals, shared powers, communication,
school leadership without the requisite orientation may cause a lot of disruption in the
organizations effectiveness. The head teachers administrative performance can therefore be measured by
the extent to which his/her job behavio
reference group (Liptian, 2001).
In African society, gender discrimination has for long been a matter of concern as a result of the
general assumption that the joy of a woman terminates in child
have always been considered as weaker sex who are fragile and thus may lack the enduring capability of
man and may not be able to hold grip to leadership position because of these
as a variable in social behaviour that c
psychologist had tendered to keep the door of gender discrimination closed.

School administration and leadership
According to Haplin (1996) and Kadir (2002)
There has never been any specific or predominant way of leadership pattern. Choice of leadership should
be based on an accurate diagnosis of reality of the situation in
(2008) observed that there is no pre
predispositions is that the leader ought to first diagnose the realities on ground before adopting any
leadership style, irrespective of the gender.

Katz and Kahn in line with Dyke (1995) hold that there is no distinction between leadership and
administration. Leadership consists of all acts of influencing other people towards organizations goal
achievement. Leaders need to be guided by certain leadership principles which have been tested in human
experience and found to be all embracing.

Dungan, Jerome, and Peter
with female principals, discovered that there was no significant difference between the female and male
population sub set score, secondly, there was no significant difference between male and female
population as measured by organizational climate development questionnaire.

The result of the research showed no marked difference in the performance of male and female
teachers and principals. However, men were found to have shown superiority over their women
counterpart in their devotion to duty while women were found to be better t
relation aspects of administration (Nwezi
sensitized to the needs that may be met in goal attainment as he/she cannot single
groups in a co-operative effort need
gender.



Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Campaign for women empowerment and gender equality has been on the front burner of the national
not only local but international boundaries. The phenomenon is all about
political and educational status to the women fold worldwi
such opportunities required by women in the society is the position of headship in the
now that women are claiming to perform better what their men counterpart
can do. On this premise, its essential to investigate the influence gender has on communication and
administrative effectiveness of head teachers in Kwara South Senatorial district primary schools in the
The school as a living organic structure has certain fundamental roles to play in the society
serves. However, the school like any formal organization is bureaucratic in nature,
complexities and changing nature of its component parts as its being affected by some variables in
politics, goals, shared powers, communication, leadership and internal control mechanism. Therefore
school leadership without the requisite orientation may cause a lot of disruption in the
effectiveness. The head teachers administrative performance can therefore be measured by
extent to which his/her job behaviours meet with his/her roles expectation by his significant
In African society, gender discrimination has for long been a matter of concern as a result of the
of a woman terminates in child bearing and in the kitchen. Also, women
have always been considered as weaker sex who are fragile and thus may lack the enduring capability of
man and may not be able to hold grip to leadership position because of these weaknesses. Of late, gender
as a variable in social behaviour that came out of the closet in the 1970s when personality and social
psychologist had tendered to keep the door of gender discrimination closed.
School administration and leadership
o Haplin (1996) and Kadir (2002), effective leadership depends on a number of factors.
There has never been any specific or predominant way of leadership pattern. Choice of leadership should
be based on an accurate diagnosis of reality of the situation in which the leader finds him or herself. Bush
here is no predetermined best way of influencing the people. The only prescribed
predispositions is that the leader ought to first diagnose the realities on ground before adopting any
irrespective of the gender.
Katz and Kahn in line with Dyke (1995) hold that there is no distinction between leadership and
administration. Leadership consists of all acts of influencing other people towards organizations goal
Leaders need to be guided by certain leadership principles which have been tested in human
experience and found to be all embracing.
Dungan, Jerome, and Peter (1992) in their comparative study of organizational climate of schools
iscovered that there was no significant difference between the female and male
population sub set score, secondly, there was no significant difference between male and female
population as measured by organizational climate development questionnaire.
result of the research showed no marked difference in the performance of male and female
teachers and principals. However, men were found to have shown superiority over their women
counterpart in their devotion to duty while women were found to be better than men in their public
relation aspects of administration (Nwezi, 1996). It should be noted that leaders in leadership becomes
be met in goal attainment as he/she cannot single
effort need to work together in achieving a common goal
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
46
nt burner of the national
not only local but international boundaries. The phenomenon is all about
political and educational status to the women fold worldwide. Among
such opportunities required by women in the society is the position of headship in the nations
that women are claiming to perform better what their men counterpart
igate the influence gender has on communication and
administrative effectiveness of head teachers in Kwara South Senatorial district primary schools in the
The school as a living organic structure has certain fundamental roles to play in the society it
with some degrees of
being affected by some variables in
leadership and internal control mechanism. Therefore
school leadership without the requisite orientation may cause a lot of disruption in the school
effectiveness. The head teachers administrative performance can therefore be measured by
/her roles expectation by his significant
In African society, gender discrimination has for long been a matter of concern as a result of the
earing and in the kitchen. Also, women
have always been considered as weaker sex who are fragile and thus may lack the enduring capability of
weaknesses. Of late, gender
70s when personality and social
effective leadership depends on a number of factors.
There has never been any specific or predominant way of leadership pattern. Choice of leadership should
which the leader finds him or herself. Bush
determined best way of influencing the people. The only prescribed
predispositions is that the leader ought to first diagnose the realities on ground before adopting any
Katz and Kahn in line with Dyke (1995) hold that there is no distinction between leadership and
administration. Leadership consists of all acts of influencing other people towards organizations goal
Leaders need to be guided by certain leadership principles which have been tested in human
(1992) in their comparative study of organizational climate of schools
iscovered that there was no significant difference between the female and male
population sub set score, secondly, there was no significant difference between male and female
result of the research showed no marked difference in the performance of male and female
teachers and principals. However, men were found to have shown superiority over their women
han men in their public
1996). It should be noted that leaders in leadership becomes
be met in goal attainment as he/she cannot single-handedly attain. The
to work together in achieving a common goal, irrespective of their
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Organizational structure and Leadership style
Leadership in the view of Mbiti (1994) has to do with those policies and decisions which help to direct
the activities of an organization towards its special aims .It is seen as a status of dominance and prestige
acquired by the ability to control intimate or set the pattern of behaviour for others. No constitution can
function without an effective leadership .A suc
communication and leadership. Nworgu (1998) identified fair desired leadership qualities that are
personalities purpose, knowledge and professional skills. It is a totality of an individual character
through which the person influence other people and wins their support and cooperation. A good leader
would probably have qualities of fairness, enthusiasm, spontaneity and self confidence (Kenneth2013)
.Leadership varies from one organization to th
note that no two leaders are alike in the way they administer their organizations. This, Summerhill (1996)
categorizes in to four leadership styles as: coercive, laissez fair, democratic and cha
Administrative principles and functions
School heads are faced with the tasks of performing managerial functions in order to ensure efficiency
and effectiveness within the school system. In the view of Ogunsaju (2006),planning, organiz
motivating and evaluating are the main managerial functions of a school head .others feel that managers
should perform as many functions as possible as it would allow them to achieve organizational aims and
objectives. Such other administrat
authority (Raymond1998).
It is expected that the school
domineering attitudes have an influence on administration
goals .Thus, it becomes necessary that all administrators recognize the fact that attitude of people within
the school will definitely influence the effectiveness of their work. It is obvious that a highly motiva
teacher will apart from being dedicated to his normal duties, be ready and willing to arrange make
lessons for his students if and when the need arises. His zeal is not only to justify his pay but in finding
solace in personal joy and satisfaction s
and willingness to help in solving his personal as well as official problems. By having this, goals and
objectives of the school can be achieved. A teacher then assumes that academic succes
own responsibilities, joy and satisfaction. A school head should know that human efforts are affected by
quite a number of factors.
Methodology
The design of this study was a descriptive survey as it enables the writer to obtain inform
representative sample of the population in order to infer a generalization on the perspective of the
respondents on the issue at hand and draw conclusion on the findings.
Research hypotheses
The following hypotheses were drawn and tested in t
Ho1: There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers effective communication and
programme administration in kwara South Senatorial district primary schools
Ho 2: There is no significant difference in male and female head te
administration in kwara South Senatorial district primary schools
Ho 3: There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers pupils personnel
administration in kwara South Senatorial district primary schools
Ho4: There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers financial administration in
kwara South Senatorial district primary schools
Ho5: There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers public relations in kwara
South Senatorial district primary schools

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Organizational structure and Leadership style
Leadership in the view of Mbiti (1994) has to do with those policies and decisions which help to direct
vities of an organization towards its special aims .It is seen as a status of dominance and prestige
acquired by the ability to control intimate or set the pattern of behaviour for others. No constitution can
function without an effective leadership .A such, effective administration depends greatly on effective
communication and leadership. Nworgu (1998) identified fair desired leadership qualities that are
personalities purpose, knowledge and professional skills. It is a totality of an individual character
through which the person influence other people and wins their support and cooperation. A good leader
would probably have qualities of fairness, enthusiasm, spontaneity and self confidence (Kenneth2013)
.Leadership varies from one organization to the other. In ensuring the leaders styles, it is important to
note that no two leaders are alike in the way they administer their organizations. This, Summerhill (1996)
categorizes in to four leadership styles as: coercive, laissez fair, democratic and charismatic leadership.
Administrative principles and functions
School heads are faced with the tasks of performing managerial functions in order to ensure efficiency
and effectiveness within the school system. In the view of Ogunsaju (2006),planning, organiz
motivating and evaluating are the main managerial functions of a school head .others feel that managers
should perform as many functions as possible as it would allow them to achieve organizational aims and
objectives. Such other administrative functions include: accountability, decision making and delegation of
ed that the school-head should note that head-teachers activities and his/her
influence on administration and achievement of the school educational
goals .Thus, it becomes necessary that all administrators recognize the fact that attitude of people within
the school will definitely influence the effectiveness of their work. It is obvious that a highly motiva
teacher will apart from being dedicated to his normal duties, be ready and willing to arrange make
lessons for his students if and when the need arises. His zeal is not only to justify his pay but in finding
solace in personal joy and satisfaction such a teacher must be able to see in his school manager the spirit
and willingness to help in solving his personal as well as official problems. By having this, goals and
objectives of the school can be achieved. A teacher then assumes that academic succes
own responsibilities, joy and satisfaction. A school head should know that human efforts are affected by
The design of this study was a descriptive survey as it enables the writer to obtain inform
representative sample of the population in order to infer a generalization on the perspective of the
respondents on the issue at hand and draw conclusion on the findings.
The following hypotheses were drawn and tested in this study
: There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers effective communication and
programme administration in kwara South Senatorial district primary schools
There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers staff personnel
administration in kwara South Senatorial district primary schools
There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers pupils personnel
administration in kwara South Senatorial district primary schools
There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers financial administration in
kwara South Senatorial district primary schools
There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers public relations in kwara
rial district primary schools

Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
47
Leadership in the view of Mbiti (1994) has to do with those policies and decisions which help to direct
vities of an organization towards its special aims .It is seen as a status of dominance and prestige
acquired by the ability to control intimate or set the pattern of behaviour for others. No constitution can
h, effective administration depends greatly on effective
communication and leadership. Nworgu (1998) identified fair desired leadership qualities that are
personalities purpose, knowledge and professional skills. It is a totality of an individual characteristics
through which the person influence other people and wins their support and cooperation. A good leader
would probably have qualities of fairness, enthusiasm, spontaneity and self confidence (Kenneth2013)
e other. In ensuring the leaders styles, it is important to
note that no two leaders are alike in the way they administer their organizations. This, Summerhill (1996)
rismatic leadership.
School heads are faced with the tasks of performing managerial functions in order to ensure efficiency
and effectiveness within the school system. In the view of Ogunsaju (2006),planning, organizing, staffing,
motivating and evaluating are the main managerial functions of a school head .others feel that managers
should perform as many functions as possible as it would allow them to achieve organizational aims and
ive functions include: accountability, decision making and delegation of
teachers activities and his/her
and achievement of the school educational
goals .Thus, it becomes necessary that all administrators recognize the fact that attitude of people within
the school will definitely influence the effectiveness of their work. It is obvious that a highly motivated
teacher will apart from being dedicated to his normal duties, be ready and willing to arrange make-up
lessons for his students if and when the need arises. His zeal is not only to justify his pay but in finding
uch a teacher must be able to see in his school manager the spirit
and willingness to help in solving his personal as well as official problems. By having this, goals and
objectives of the school can be achieved. A teacher then assumes that academic success of pupils is their
own responsibilities, joy and satisfaction. A school head should know that human efforts are affected by
The design of this study was a descriptive survey as it enables the writer to obtain information from a
representative sample of the population in order to infer a generalization on the perspective of the
: There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers effective communication and
programme administration in kwara South Senatorial district primary schools
achers staff personnel
There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers pupils personnel
There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers financial administration in
There is no significant difference in male and female head teachers public relations in kwara
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Sample and sampling Technique
The sample of the study was made up of 324 randomly selected primary school teachers
The respondents were made up of 162 male and female teachers and 40 male and 40 female
teachers selected from 80 schools
Instrumentation
The instrument used for the research work was a structured questio
Effective Communication and Administrative Effectiveness Questionnaire
questionnaires were statements on administrative performance of head teachers to which
rated the head-teachers. The rating scale on the performance ranges from 4,
questionnaire was in five different sections as it related to ad
organizations. They are programme administration, staff and students personnel administration, and
financial and public relation administration. The used instrument was given to test experts and senior
colleagues in the field of administration to asce
was equally carried out using a split half method on 50 respondents. The result obtained was 0.78 which
was considered enough for use.
Procedures for data collection and data analysis
The researchers and four other research assistants personally visited the sampled schools to make
contacts with the school heads who assisted in contacting the respondents. The data collected was
analyzed using descriptive and t-test
Result and discussion
A total of 324 respondents were randomly sampled from 80 sch
the State. The respondents have equal gender representation of 162 each from the sampled scho
Table1: Analysis of male and female head teachers ratting on effective communication and programme administration
Group N X
Male
Female
162
162
55.5
61.5

The t-test analysis shows that the calculated value was 9.46 while the table value was 1.66 at alpha level
.05 significant levels. There is a significant difference in male and female head teachers rating on effective
communication and school programme administratio
schools.
Table2: Analysis of male and female head teachers rating on effective administration
Group N X
Male
Female
162
162
66
66
Analyses of male and female head teacher rating on effective staff administration indicated that the
calculated value 4.75 is greater than table value 1.60 at .05 level of significant and 322 degree of freedom.
It therefore, connote that there is a significant different in male and female head teacher rating on
effective and staff personnel administration in Kwara South senatorial district primary schools.
Table3: Analysis of male and female head teachers ratting on effective student
Group N X
Male
Female
162
162
56
53.5
The t-test analyses of the rating of male and female head teachers on effective student personnel
administration indicated t-value 4.62 while the table value was 1.66 at 0.05 level of significant and 322
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Sample and sampling Technique
The sample of the study was made up of 324 randomly selected primary school teachers
The respondents were made up of 162 male and female teachers and 40 male and 40 female

The instrument used for the research work was a structured questionnaire tagged Head T
Effective Communication and Administrative Effectiveness Questionnaire (HTECAEQ).
were statements on administrative performance of head teachers to which
teachers. The rating scale on the performance ranges from 4, 3, 2 and
questionnaire was in five different sections as it related to administrative strategies in formal
organizations. They are programme administration, staff and students personnel administration, and
financial and public relation administration. The used instrument was given to test experts and senior
eld of administration to ascertain its validity before it being used. A test of reliability
was equally carried out using a split half method on 50 respondents. The result obtained was 0.78 which
n and data analysis
The researchers and four other research assistants personally visited the sampled schools to make
contacts with the school heads who assisted in contacting the respondents. The data collected was
test statistical method of data analysis.
A total of 324 respondents were randomly sampled from 80 schools in Kwara South senatorial district of
the State. The respondents have equal gender representation of 162 each from the sampled scho
Analysis of male and female head teachers ratting on effective communication and programme administration
SD Df Cal t value t-table value


10.11
11.57
322 9.46 1.66
analysis shows that the calculated value was 9.46 while the table value was 1.66 at alpha level
.05 significant levels. There is a significant difference in male and female head teachers rating on effective
communication and school programme administration in Kwara South senatorial District primary
Analysis of male and female head teachers rating on effective administration
SD Df Cal t value t-table value
10.11
11.57
322 4.75 1.66
Analyses of male and female head teacher rating on effective staff administration indicated that the
calculated value 4.75 is greater than table value 1.60 at .05 level of significant and 322 degree of freedom.
hat there is a significant different in male and female head teacher rating on
effective and staff personnel administration in Kwara South senatorial district primary schools.
Analysis of male and female head teachers ratting on effective student personnel administration
SD Df Cal t value t-table value

10.11
11.57
322 4.62 1.66
test analyses of the rating of male and female head teachers on effective student personnel
value 4.62 while the table value was 1.66 at 0.05 level of significant and 322
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
48
The sample of the study was made up of 324 randomly selected primary school teachers as respondents
The respondents were made up of 162 male and female teachers and 40 male and 40 female head-
nnaire tagged Head Teachers
(HTECAEQ). Items on the
were statements on administrative performance of head teachers to which the respondents
2 and 1 accordingly. The
ministrative strategies in formal
organizations. They are programme administration, staff and students personnel administration, and
financial and public relation administration. The used instrument was given to test experts and senior
used. A test of reliability
was equally carried out using a split half method on 50 respondents. The result obtained was 0.78 which
The researchers and four other research assistants personally visited the sampled schools to make
contacts with the school heads who assisted in contacting the respondents. The data collected was
outh senatorial district of
the State. The respondents have equal gender representation of 162 each from the sampled schools.
Analysis of male and female head teachers ratting on effective communication and programme administration
table value Decision
Rejected
analysis shows that the calculated value was 9.46 while the table value was 1.66 at alpha level
.05 significant levels. There is a significant difference in male and female head teachers rating on effective
n in Kwara South senatorial District primary
Analysis of male and female head teachers rating on effective administration
table value Decision
Rejected
Analyses of male and female head teacher rating on effective staff administration indicated that the
calculated value 4.75 is greater than table value 1.60 at .05 level of significant and 322 degree of freedom.
hat there is a significant different in male and female head teacher rating on
effective and staff personnel administration in Kwara South senatorial district primary schools.
personnel administration
table value Decision
Rejected
test analyses of the rating of male and female head teachers on effective student personnel
value 4.62 while the table value was 1.66 at 0.05 level of significant and 322
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

degrees of freedom. Therefore, there is a significant difference in male and female head teachers rating in
on effective student administration in Kwa
Table4: Analysis of male and female head teachers rating financial administration in schools
Group N X
Male
Female
162
162
60
60.2

On the rating of male and female head teachers effective financial management in schools the calculated
value of 1.04 is less than the table value of 1.66 at 0.05 level of significance and 322 degrees of freedom.
Therefore, there is a significant difference in male and female teachers rating in their effective financial
administration in Kwara South Senatorial district primary schools the hypotheses is hereby accepted.
Table5: Analysis of male and female head teachers rating on effecti
Group N X
Male
Female
162
162
61-3
46.25
As indicated in the table, the calculated table value 4.78 is greater than the table value 1
of significant and 322 degrees of freedom. There is a significant different in male and female head
teachers rating on effective public relation in Kwara South Senatorial district primary schools. The
hypothesis which says there is no signific
relation is therefore rejected.
Conclusion
From the analysis of data and results interpreted the male head teachers were found to be better
their female counterparts in effective school
administration and effective public relation of the schools. However, the female head teachers were found
to be better in financial administration of the schools. How
factor in the appointment of head teachers, since both male and female teacher were not shown to be
enkindled or debased in the performance of their duties. In view of this, it is evident that that leader are
made by the level of exposure or
the assignment and the type and nature of the environment.
Recommendations
Based on the above the following are recommended:
i. Staff development and leadership training programme sh
head teachers of tomorrow without any gender discrimination. The State Ministry of Education and
the LGEA should therefore organize periodic workshops and seminars for staff development.
ii. Appointment and promotion
professional merit and experience irrespective of gender, accountability should be considered as a
criteria for their appointment to the post of responsibilities.
iii. The Ministry of Education, LGEA, Primary Education Board and even National Primary Education
Commission should intensify their supervisory roles in the schools. Through monitoring and
supervision competence of teachers and their efficiency can be guarante

References
Abdulkareem, A. Y. (1986). The personal effectiveness of communication system in Nigeria higher educational
institutions: A case. Study of Kwara State College of Education. Post graduate seminar paper.
Abdulkareem, S. O. (2002). A comparative study of personnel
schools in ilorin Metropolis Kwara State. An unpublished researcher project: University of Ado
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
degrees of freedom. Therefore, there is a significant difference in male and female head teachers rating in
on effective student administration in Kwara South Senatorial district primary is hereby rejected.
Analysis of male and female head teachers rating financial administration in schools
SD Df Cal t value t-table value

10.11
11.57
322 1.04 1.66
On the rating of male and female head teachers effective financial management in schools the calculated
value of 1.04 is less than the table value of 1.66 at 0.05 level of significance and 322 degrees of freedom.
significant difference in male and female teachers rating in their effective financial
administration in Kwara South Senatorial district primary schools the hypotheses is hereby accepted.
Analysis of male and female head teachers rating on effective school public relation
SD Df Cal t value t-table value

46.25
10.11
11.57
322 4.78 1.66
As indicated in the table, the calculated table value 4.78 is greater than the table value 1
of significant and 322 degrees of freedom. There is a significant different in male and female head
teachers rating on effective public relation in Kwara South Senatorial district primary schools. The
hypothesis which says there is no significant difference in male and female head teachers rating on public
From the analysis of data and results interpreted the male head teachers were found to be better
in effective school programme administration, effective staff student personnel
administration and effective public relation of the schools. However, the female head teachers were found
to be better in financial administration of the schools. How-be-it gender should not be t
factor in the appointment of head teachers, since both male and female teacher were not shown to be
enkindled or debased in the performance of their duties. In view of this, it is evident that that leader are
training they have, the value of establishment in operation, the nature of
the assignment and the type and nature of the environment.
Based on the above the following are recommended:
Staff development and leadership training programme should avail the teachers as they are assumed
head teachers of tomorrow without any gender discrimination. The State Ministry of Education and
the LGEA should therefore organize periodic workshops and seminars for staff development.
Appointment and promotion of teachers and head teachers should be based on academic excellence,
professional merit and experience irrespective of gender, accountability should be considered as a
criteria for their appointment to the post of responsibilities.
The Ministry of Education, LGEA, Primary Education Board and even National Primary Education
Commission should intensify their supervisory roles in the schools. Through monitoring and
supervision competence of teachers and their efficiency can be guaranteed and adequately rewarded.
The personal effectiveness of communication system in Nigeria higher educational
: A case. Study of Kwara State College of Education. Post graduate seminar paper.
A comparative study of personnel administration problems of public and private primary
in ilorin Metropolis Kwara State. An unpublished researcher project: University of Ado
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
49
degrees of freedom. Therefore, there is a significant difference in male and female head teachers rating in
ra South Senatorial district primary is hereby rejected.

table value Decision
Accepted
On the rating of male and female head teachers effective financial management in schools the calculated
value of 1.04 is less than the table value of 1.66 at 0.05 level of significance and 322 degrees of freedom.
significant difference in male and female teachers rating in their effective financial
administration in Kwara South Senatorial district primary schools the hypotheses is hereby accepted.
ve school public relation
table value Decision
Rejected
As indicated in the table, the calculated table value 4.78 is greater than the table value 1-66 at 0.05 levels
of significant and 322 degrees of freedom. There is a significant different in male and female head
teachers rating on effective public relation in Kwara South Senatorial district primary schools. The
ant difference in male and female head teachers rating on public
From the analysis of data and results interpreted the male head teachers were found to be better than
programme administration, effective staff student personnel
administration and effective public relation of the schools. However, the female head teachers were found
it gender should not be the determinant
factor in the appointment of head teachers, since both male and female teacher were not shown to be
enkindled or debased in the performance of their duties. In view of this, it is evident that that leader are
training they have, the value of establishment in operation, the nature of
ould avail the teachers as they are assumed
head teachers of tomorrow without any gender discrimination. The State Ministry of Education and
the LGEA should therefore organize periodic workshops and seminars for staff development.
of teachers and head teachers should be based on academic excellence,
professional merit and experience irrespective of gender, accountability should be considered as a
The Ministry of Education, LGEA, Primary Education Board and even National Primary Education
Commission should intensify their supervisory roles in the schools. Through monitoring and
ed and adequately rewarded.
The personal effectiveness of communication system in Nigeria higher educational
: A case. Study of Kwara State College of Education. Post graduate seminar paper.
of public and private primary
in ilorin Metropolis Kwara State. An unpublished researcher project: University of Ado-Ekiti
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Ajayi,B & M.Kumasi. (2013) Organizational climate as p
Academic Research 1(5)pp553
Akure-Siullo, E. O. (1989). Who is an effective teacher in e
Publisher.
Bush, T. (2008).Leadership and management in
Eden, D.A. (1996). Introduction to educational a
Books
Ijaiya, N.Y.S (1995). The role of the head teacher
education 1(3) 52-65
Jiboyera, D.A. (1996). School administration in Nigeria. A theoretical and behavioural approach
Publication Ltd.
Jeffery,S. .F.(2007). Gender educational leadership p
http//repository.up.comedu/dissertation/AA13255853
Kadir, B.(2002) Current issues in school administration and l
Development; 31(1 ) 78-95
Kenneth. C. A. (2013) .The impact of o
of Bussiness and Management. 6 (6) pp 56
Krientiner and Knunk, A. (1997).
publication.
Ogunsaju , S (2006), School Management and Supervision
Urich, D. (1983). Comparative study of organizational between schools with male female principles
dissention abstract international 4421988.

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
(2013) Organizational climate as predictor of teachers effectiveness.
1(5)pp553-568
Who is an effective teacher in effective teacher: A theoretical perspective
Leadership and management in education. London: Sage Publication
Introduction to educational administration in Nigeria. 3
rd
Education R
Ijaiya, N.Y.S (1995). The role of the head teachers in effective school supervision
dministration in Nigeria. A theoretical and behavioural approach
Jeffery,S. .F.(2007). Gender educational leadership perception, power and paths.
p.comedu/dissertation/AA13255853
Kadir, B.(2002) Current issues in school administration and leadership .Journal
Kenneth. C. A. (2013) .The impact of organizational structure and leadership styles on i
6 (6) pp 56-63
Krientiner and Knunk, A. (1997). Organizational behavioral: concept and application. New-
School Management and Supervision, Ilorin: Crystal Press
Comparative study of organizational between schools with male female principles
dissention abstract international 4421988.











Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
50
ffectiveness. European
A theoretical perspective. Awka: Nue
Education Random. Spectrum
in effective school supervision. Journal of tudies in
dministration in Nigeria. A theoretical and behavioural approach. Ikeja: John West
power and paths.
Journal of Management
ional structure and leadership styles on innovation . Journal
-York: Meril
Comparative study of organizational between schools with male female principles. Ph.D. thesis
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

SCHOOL PHOBIA AND STUDENTS ADJUSTMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY
SCHOOLS IN OBIO-AKPOR LOCAL
Department o
Department o

Abstract
This study is a descriptive survey
adjustment among junior secondary
Government Area of Rivers State.
Students One (JSS 1). The sample consists of 200 respondents who were composed
through purposive sampling technique from five public secondary schools in the area
of study. Relevant data for answering the three research questions posed for the
study were collected through 28 items structured questionnaire developed by the
researchers and personally administered to the respondents. The split
co-efficient of this instrument was 0.79. The research
percentage rank order and the results show that school phobia is very prevalent
among junior secondary I students
phobia impacts negatively on r
were discussed and some recommendation
that effective guidance services should be provided in schools.



Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com




SCHOOL PHOBIA AND STUDENTS ADJUSTMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY
AKPOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF RIVERS STATE.
By

CHIKWE AGBAKWURU, Ph.D
Department of Educational Psychology,
Guidance and Counselling
University of Port Harcourt
chikweagba@yahoo.com
0813520936

&

MRS. B. N. IRULOH, Ph.D
Department of Educational Psychology,
Guidance and Counselling
University of Port Harcourt
descriptive survey which investigated school phobia and s
junior secondary school students in Obio/Akpor Local
Government Area of Rivers State. The study only targeted Junior Secondary
The sample consists of 200 respondents who were composed
through purposive sampling technique from five public secondary schools in the area
levant data for answering the three research questions posed for the
study were collected through 28 items structured questionnaire developed by the
personally administered to the respondents. The split
instrument was 0.79. The research questions were answered with
percentage rank order and the results show that school phobia is very prevalent
among junior secondary I students in Obio/Akpor LGA. It further shows that school
phobia impacts negatively on readiness of fresh students for learning. These results
were discussed and some recommendations offered. One of the recommendations is
that effective guidance services should be provided in schools.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
51
SCHOOL PHOBIA AND STUDENTS ADJUSTMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY
GOVERNMENT OF RIVERS STATE.
investigated school phobia and students
students in Obio/Akpor Local
The study only targeted Junior Secondary School
The sample consists of 200 respondents who were composed
through purposive sampling technique from five public secondary schools in the area
levant data for answering the three research questions posed for the
study were collected through 28 items structured questionnaire developed by the
personally administered to the respondents. The split-half reliability
questions were answered with
percentage rank order and the results show that school phobia is very prevalent
. It further shows that school
eadiness of fresh students for learning. These results
. One of the recommendations is
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
Life is a dynamic process. Being such,
one to any setting one finds oneself in. Those who succeed in adjusting to any setting they find
themselves in succeed and survive while those who fail in adjusting to new settings fail and
school is no exception to this order. In fact, successful academic career depends to a very significant
extent on ones level or degree of school adjustment. School adjustment is the process of bringing an
individuals behaviours in conformit
process that is geared towards the adaptation of the individual to school life and culture. Those who
adjust successfully feel relaxed, happy and comfortable. They also manifest great i
pursuits. On the other hand; those who fail to adjust with relative ease display their maladjustment
through physical symptoms such as stuttering, stammering, scratching head, and so on while their
behavioural deviations manifest throug
hand, the emotional symptoms of poor school adjustment are excessive worry, fears, inferiority, hatred,
extreme timidity, temper tantrum, persistent anxiety, conflicts and tension (Chauhan,
Fear and phobia are related terms. While fear means the dread of unknown objects, consequences
or events, phobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by an intense and irrational fear of particular objects
or situations (Gleitman, Fridlund and
objects and situations which should not normally evoke any fear because they present no actual danger to
the person (Nwankwo, 2013). Therefore, phobia is an extreme irrational fear that i
the reality of the situation. There are many types of phobia however, the scope of this study is restricted
to school phobia. It is an aspect of social phobia in which the learner manifests profound but irrational
fear for school. School phobia is severe apprehension about attending school, often accompanied by
physical complaints that disappear once the child is allowed to remain home (Berk, 1999). Like other
forms of phobia, school phobia is a psychopathological problem.
School phobia has many negative effects on th
performance. This condition marks the beginning of academic underachievement and failure. School
phobia is also the enemy of mental and bodily health. It destroys intrinsi
which are the bedrocks of academic success; suppresses purposive action; distorts perception and inhibits
clear thinking. When these situations prevail, the chances of success are lessened and mediocrity and
failure are experienced (Hurlock, 1956). School phobia is an emotional problem and like any other
emotional problem, it has negative consequences on development, learning and social relationship of
individuals. Research report in Peterson
Potential disruption in the establishment of reciprocal patterns of social interaction with caregivers.
Potential disruptions in attachment and the development of affectional bonds.
Potential negative influences upon the formation of self
Potential interference in the mastery of social skills and in the development of security and
confidence, which help a child enter readily into activities that promote further learning.
Many teachers in Rivers State speculate t
facing many school children in the state. They also maintain that the high rate of non
high rate of failures in external examinations, low level of academic motivation and other anti
behaviours which are currently the culture of school children in the state occur because many of them
have school phobia. Sadly, these speculations of teachers have not been verified by research reports
conducted in the state. The implication of
are suffering from school phobia, the causes of their school phobia and how school phobia affects their
school adjustment/readiness to learn.
The need to investigate school phobia and educa
by three major points. The first is the fact that
secondary school. The culture and characteristics of primary and secondary schools are not the same. In
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Life is a dynamic process. Being such, the survival of one largely depends on the degree of adjustment of
one to any setting one finds oneself in. Those who succeed in adjusting to any setting they find
themselves in succeed and survive while those who fail in adjusting to new settings fail and
school is no exception to this order. In fact, successful academic career depends to a very significant
extent on ones level or degree of school adjustment. School adjustment is the process of bringing an
individuals behaviours in conformity with the norms of the school setting. It is a continuous or on
process that is geared towards the adaptation of the individual to school life and culture. Those who
adjust successfully feel relaxed, happy and comfortable. They also manifest great i
pursuits. On the other hand; those who fail to adjust with relative ease display their maladjustment
through physical symptoms such as stuttering, stammering, scratching head, and so on while their
behavioural deviations manifest through aggression, lying, bullying, negativism and so on. On the other
hand, the emotional symptoms of poor school adjustment are excessive worry, fears, inferiority, hatred,
extreme timidity, temper tantrum, persistent anxiety, conflicts and tension (Chauhan,
Fear and phobia are related terms. While fear means the dread of unknown objects, consequences
or events, phobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by an intense and irrational fear of particular objects
tman, Fridlund and Reisberg, 2004). It is an excessive and irrational fear or dread of
objects and situations which should not normally evoke any fear because they present no actual danger to
the person (Nwankwo, 2013). Therefore, phobia is an extreme irrational fear that i
the reality of the situation. There are many types of phobia however, the scope of this study is restricted
to school phobia. It is an aspect of social phobia in which the learner manifests profound but irrational
ool phobia is severe apprehension about attending school, often accompanied by
physical complaints that disappear once the child is allowed to remain home (Berk, 1999). Like other
forms of phobia, school phobia is a psychopathological problem.
a has many negative effects on the childs school adjustment, leading
. This condition marks the beginning of academic underachievement and failure. School
phobia is also the enemy of mental and bodily health. It destroys intrinsic motivation and se
rocks of academic success; suppresses purposive action; distorts perception and inhibits
clear thinking. When these situations prevail, the chances of success are lessened and mediocrity and
erienced (Hurlock, 1956). School phobia is an emotional problem and like any other
emotional problem, it has negative consequences on development, learning and social relationship of
Peterson (1988) identifies four of these consequences as:
Potential disruption in the establishment of reciprocal patterns of social interaction with caregivers.
Potential disruptions in attachment and the development of affectional bonds.
Potential negative influences upon the formation of self-identify and self-concept.
Potential interference in the mastery of social skills and in the development of security and
confidence, which help a child enter readily into activities that promote further learning.
Many teachers in Rivers State speculate that school phobia is one of the most common problems
facing many school children in the state. They also maintain that the high rate of non
high rate of failures in external examinations, low level of academic motivation and other anti
behaviours which are currently the culture of school children in the state occur because many of them
have school phobia. Sadly, these speculations of teachers have not been verified by research reports
conducted in the state. The implication of this is that no one is certain if school children in Rivers State
are suffering from school phobia, the causes of their school phobia and how school phobia affects their
school adjustment/readiness to learn.
The need to investigate school phobia and educational adjustment of JSS 1 students is underscored
by three major points. The first is the fact that JSS 1 students have just transited from primary to
secondary school. The culture and characteristics of primary and secondary schools are not the same. In
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
52
the survival of one largely depends on the degree of adjustment of
one to any setting one finds oneself in. Those who succeed in adjusting to any setting they find
themselves in succeed and survive while those who fail in adjusting to new settings fail and weather. The
school is no exception to this order. In fact, successful academic career depends to a very significant
extent on ones level or degree of school adjustment. School adjustment is the process of bringing an
y with the norms of the school setting. It is a continuous or on-going
process that is geared towards the adaptation of the individual to school life and culture. Those who
adjust successfully feel relaxed, happy and comfortable. They also manifest great interest in academic
pursuits. On the other hand; those who fail to adjust with relative ease display their maladjustment
through physical symptoms such as stuttering, stammering, scratching head, and so on while their
h aggression, lying, bullying, negativism and so on. On the other
hand, the emotional symptoms of poor school adjustment are excessive worry, fears, inferiority, hatred,
extreme timidity, temper tantrum, persistent anxiety, conflicts and tension (Chauhan, 1981).
Fear and phobia are related terms. While fear means the dread of unknown objects, consequences
or events, phobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by an intense and irrational fear of particular objects
4). It is an excessive and irrational fear or dread of
objects and situations which should not normally evoke any fear because they present no actual danger to
the person (Nwankwo, 2013). Therefore, phobia is an extreme irrational fear that is disproportionate to
the reality of the situation. There are many types of phobia however, the scope of this study is restricted
to school phobia. It is an aspect of social phobia in which the learner manifests profound but irrational
ool phobia is severe apprehension about attending school, often accompanied by
physical complaints that disappear once the child is allowed to remain home (Berk, 1999). Like other
e childs school adjustment, leading to poor school
. This condition marks the beginning of academic underachievement and failure. School
c motivation and self-confidence
rocks of academic success; suppresses purposive action; distorts perception and inhibits
clear thinking. When these situations prevail, the chances of success are lessened and mediocrity and
erienced (Hurlock, 1956). School phobia is an emotional problem and like any other
emotional problem, it has negative consequences on development, learning and social relationship of
consequences as:
Potential disruption in the establishment of reciprocal patterns of social interaction with caregivers.
Potential disruptions in attachment and the development of affectional bonds.
concept.
Potential interference in the mastery of social skills and in the development of security and
confidence, which help a child enter readily into activities that promote further learning.
hat school phobia is one of the most common problems
facing many school children in the state. They also maintain that the high rate of non- school completion,
high rate of failures in external examinations, low level of academic motivation and other anti-academic
behaviours which are currently the culture of school children in the state occur because many of them
have school phobia. Sadly, these speculations of teachers have not been verified by research reports
this is that no one is certain if school children in Rivers State
are suffering from school phobia, the causes of their school phobia and how school phobia affects their
students is underscored
students have just transited from primary to
secondary school. The culture and characteristics of primary and secondary schools are not the same. In
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

addition, secondary school is more complex than primary school in every respect. Exposure to the new
culture and complex nature of secondary school can cause school phobia among junior secondary 1
students. The second point is the fact that first impressio
confront information that discredits them (Gleitman, Fridlund and Reisberg, 2004). Since junior
secondary I students are fresh, it is therefore necessary to find out at this early stage of their secondary
education if they are suffering from school phobia. Thirdly, since junior secondary I students are in a
period of transition from childhood to adolescence, it is also necessary to carry out this study to
authenticate the report of Berk (1999) that most ca
during the transition from middle childhood to adolescence owing to the youngsters experiences with
overcritical teachers, school bullies, jeering remarks of insensitive peers, and too much parental pres
for school success. This knowledge will assist professional guidance counsellors, school psychologists,
teachers and school administrators to take necessary steps to eliminate the factors that cause school
phobia among them. The achievement of this ta
of the school adjustment of fresh learners. This will impact very positively on their academic motivation.
This study is therefore undertaken to resolve the problem of apparent lack of research
school phobia among Junior Secondary I students in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers
State in particular and Nigeria in general. It is hoped that the results besides contributing to the store of
existing knowledge will also provide a basis f
necessitated by the results of the study.
Research Questions
The following research questions are posed to guide the study:
1. How pervasive is the incidence of school phobia among Junior S
Obio/Akpor Local Government Area?
2. What are the major causes of school phobia among
3. How does school phobia influence the readiness of
learning?
Methodology
This study was carried out in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study adopted
descriptive survey research design. The target population of the study consist of all junior secondary I
students in all public secondary schools in the area
week of the first term of 2013/2014 academic session) the population size could not be ascertained
because they were still arriving and registering in schools. The conduct of this study in the third we
arrival of the students in secondary schools was considered appropriate because the study is interested in
investigating the pervasive nature, causes and influence of school phobia on school adjustment of fresh
school entrants. The target population
(Asagwara, 1989, & Agbakwuru, 2009) have shown that fresh students normally experience fear about
school. When the fear is not mitigated, it may degenerate to phobia, anger, apathy towards sc
eventual withdrawal from school. The sample consists of 200 respondents who were composed through
purposive sampling technique from five public secondary schools in the area of study. Purposive
sampling technique was adopted in this study because
no basis for randomization to take place. Using this sampling technique, 40 students, were drawn from
each of the five public secondary schools for this study.
Relevant data for answering the research qu
method of administration of copies of a 28 items researchers
Questionnaire (SPQ) on the respondents by the researchers. The questionnaire was divided into four
parts. Part A contains four items eliciting information on the bio
hand, parts B, C and D contain 5, 15 and 4 items respectively. These sections elicited information for
answering the three research questions posed for
difficulty in completing the questionnaire, the items were worded in very simple English language and the
framing of the items was simply done in the yes or no format.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
addition, secondary school is more complex than primary school in every respect. Exposure to the new
culture and complex nature of secondary school can cause school phobia among junior secondary 1
the fact that first impression often stick like glue even after we are forced to
confront information that discredits them (Gleitman, Fridlund and Reisberg, 2004). Since junior
secondary I students are fresh, it is therefore necessary to find out at this early stage of their secondary
education if they are suffering from school phobia. Thirdly, since junior secondary I students are in a
period of transition from childhood to adolescence, it is also necessary to carry out this study to
authenticate the report of Berk (1999) that most cases of school phobia appear later around 11
during the transition from middle childhood to adolescence owing to the youngsters experiences with
overcritical teachers, school bullies, jeering remarks of insensitive peers, and too much parental pres
for school success. This knowledge will assist professional guidance counsellors, school psychologists,
teachers and school administrators to take necessary steps to eliminate the factors that cause school
phobia among them. The achievement of this task will be a significant contribution to the improvement
of fresh learners. This will impact very positively on their academic motivation.
This study is therefore undertaken to resolve the problem of apparent lack of research
econdary I students in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers
State in particular and Nigeria in general. It is hoped that the results besides contributing to the store of
existing knowledge will also provide a basis for evolving reasonable intervention strategies that may be
necessitated by the results of the study.
The following research questions are posed to guide the study:
cidence of school phobia among Junior Secondary Students
Obio/Akpor Local Government Area?
What are the major causes of school phobia among Junior Secondary Students One (JSS 1)
How does school phobia influence the readiness of Junior Secondary Students
This study was carried out in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study adopted
descriptive survey research design. The target population of the study consist of all junior secondary I
students in all public secondary schools in the area of study. At the time of conducting this study (third
week of the first term of 2013/2014 academic session) the population size could not be ascertained
because they were still arriving and registering in schools. The conduct of this study in the third we
arrival of the students in secondary schools was considered appropriate because the study is interested in
investigating the pervasive nature, causes and influence of school phobia on school adjustment of fresh
school entrants. The target population was also considered ideal for the study because research reports
(Asagwara, 1989, & Agbakwuru, 2009) have shown that fresh students normally experience fear about
school. When the fear is not mitigated, it may degenerate to phobia, anger, apathy towards sc
eventual withdrawal from school. The sample consists of 200 respondents who were composed through
purposive sampling technique from five public secondary schools in the area of study. Purposive
sampling technique was adopted in this study because since the population size was not known, there was
no basis for randomization to take place. Using this sampling technique, 40 students, were drawn from
each of the five public secondary schools for this study.
Relevant data for answering the research questions were collected through the personal contact
method of administration of copies of a 28 items researchers-developed instrument called School Phobia
Questionnaire (SPQ) on the respondents by the researchers. The questionnaire was divided into four
parts. Part A contains four items eliciting information on the bio-data of the respondents. On the other
hand, parts B, C and D contain 5, 15 and 4 items respectively. These sections elicited information for
answering the three research questions posed for the study. To ensure that the respondents will not have
difficulty in completing the questionnaire, the items were worded in very simple English language and the
framing of the items was simply done in the yes or no format.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
53
addition, secondary school is more complex than primary school in every respect. Exposure to the new
culture and complex nature of secondary school can cause school phobia among junior secondary 1
n often stick like glue even after we are forced to
confront information that discredits them (Gleitman, Fridlund and Reisberg, 2004). Since junior
secondary I students are fresh, it is therefore necessary to find out at this early stage of their secondary
education if they are suffering from school phobia. Thirdly, since junior secondary I students are in a
period of transition from childhood to adolescence, it is also necessary to carry out this study to
ses of school phobia appear later around 11-13 years
during the transition from middle childhood to adolescence owing to the youngsters experiences with
overcritical teachers, school bullies, jeering remarks of insensitive peers, and too much parental pressure
for school success. This knowledge will assist professional guidance counsellors, school psychologists,
teachers and school administrators to take necessary steps to eliminate the factors that cause school
sk will be a significant contribution to the improvement
of fresh learners. This will impact very positively on their academic motivation.
This study is therefore undertaken to resolve the problem of apparent lack of research reports on
econdary I students in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers
State in particular and Nigeria in general. It is hoped that the results besides contributing to the store of
or evolving reasonable intervention strategies that may be
tudents One (JSS 1) in
One (JSS 1)?
tudents One (JSS 1) for
This study was carried out in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study adopted
descriptive survey research design. The target population of the study consist of all junior secondary I
of study. At the time of conducting this study (third
week of the first term of 2013/2014 academic session) the population size could not be ascertained
because they were still arriving and registering in schools. The conduct of this study in the third week of
arrival of the students in secondary schools was considered appropriate because the study is interested in
investigating the pervasive nature, causes and influence of school phobia on school adjustment of fresh
was also considered ideal for the study because research reports
(Asagwara, 1989, & Agbakwuru, 2009) have shown that fresh students normally experience fear about
school. When the fear is not mitigated, it may degenerate to phobia, anger, apathy towards school and
eventual withdrawal from school. The sample consists of 200 respondents who were composed through
purposive sampling technique from five public secondary schools in the area of study. Purposive
since the population size was not known, there was
no basis for randomization to take place. Using this sampling technique, 40 students, were drawn from
estions were collected through the personal contact
developed instrument called School Phobia
Questionnaire (SPQ) on the respondents by the researchers. The questionnaire was divided into four
data of the respondents. On the other
hand, parts B, C and D contain 5, 15 and 4 items respectively. These sections elicited information for
the study. To ensure that the respondents will not have
difficulty in completing the questionnaire, the items were worded in very simple English language and the
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

To ascertain the reliability co
adopted. Since this method of reliability estimate represents the reliability of a test only half as long as the
actual test, (Gay, 1996) the Spearman
Finally, the reliability co-efficient obtained was 0.79. This was considered very ideal hence the instrument
was certified appropriate for the study. The three research questions were answered with simple
percentage rank order statistic.
Results
The results of the statistical analysis of the three research questions are presented in the following tables:
Table 1: Percentage rank order of prevalence of school phobia among junior secondary I
students.
Rank
1
st
When I remember school, I become very much fearful
2
nd
I always feel uncomfortable whenever I remember I will go to
school
3
rd
I have much fear about school but I dont know why
4
th
Going to school gives me pleasure
5
th
I do not feel disturbed going to school
The results on table one show that the yes percentage scores of items 1, 2 and 3 which show presence of
school phobia exceeded 50 percent and thus
from school phobia.
Table 2: Percentage rank order of causes of school phobia among junior secondary I students
Rank
1
st
I dont want to cut grasses
2
nd
The teachers flog us too much
3
rd
The teachers punish us when we fail to answer questions
correctly
4
th
Our teachers are not friendly
5
th
I dont understand what they teach
6
th
The senior students punish us
7
th
There are many dos and donts in the school
8
th
They give us too much home work
9
th
There are too many teachers in the school
10
th
There are too many students in the school
11
th
The school compound is too large
12
th
I dont have all the books that are used in the school
13
th
We stay too long in the school
14
th
Our school building is bad and it may fall on us one day

The results on table 2 show that the yes percentage score of the respondents in items 1
exceeded 50 percent. These results therefore show that those factors are causes of school
junior second I students.
Table 3: Percentage rank order of influence of school phobia on readiness of junior secondary
I students to learning
Rank Items
1
st
I feel restless in the classroom
2
nd
I dont understand what teachers teach
3
rd
I sometimes hide away from classes
4
th
I have no interest in learning

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
To ascertain the reliability co-efficient of the instrument, the split-half reliability procedure was
adopted. Since this method of reliability estimate represents the reliability of a test only half as long as the
actual test, (Gay, 1996) the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula was applied to correct the co
efficient obtained was 0.79. This was considered very ideal hence the instrument
was certified appropriate for the study. The three research questions were answered with simple
The results of the statistical analysis of the three research questions are presented in the following tables:
Percentage rank order of prevalence of school phobia among junior secondary I
Items Yes %
When I remember school, I become very much fearful 121 60.5
I always feel uncomfortable whenever I remember I will go to 119 59.5
I have much fear about school but I dont know why 119 59.5
school gives me pleasure 99 49.5
I do not feel disturbed going to school 81 40.5
The results on table one show that the yes percentage scores of items 1, 2 and 3 which show presence of
school phobia exceeded 50 percent and thus show that many junior secondary I students are suffering
Percentage rank order of causes of school phobia among junior secondary I students
Items Yes %
I dont want to cut grasses 142 71
The teachers flog us too much 129 69.5
The teachers punish us when we fail to answer questions 130 65
Our teachers are not friendly 130 65
I dont understand what they teach 126 63
The senior students punish us 124 62
There are many dos and donts in the school 123 61.5
They give us too much home work 120 60
There are too many teachers in the school 119 59.5
students in the school 112 56
The school compound is too large 99 49.5
I dont have all the books that are used in the school 99 49.5
We stay too long in the school 89 44.5
Our school building is bad and it may fall on us one day 20 10
The results on table 2 show that the yes percentage score of the respondents in items 1
exceeded 50 percent. These results therefore show that those factors are causes of school
Table 3: Percentage rank order of influence of school phobia on readiness of junior secondary
I students to learning
Yes %
I feel restless in the classroom 141 70.5
understand what teachers teach 137 68.5
I sometimes hide away from classes 120 60
I have no interest in learning 96 48
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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54
half reliability procedure was
adopted. Since this method of reliability estimate represents the reliability of a test only half as long as the
to correct the co-efficient.
efficient obtained was 0.79. This was considered very ideal hence the instrument
was certified appropriate for the study. The three research questions were answered with simple
The results of the statistical analysis of the three research questions are presented in the following tables:
Percentage rank order of prevalence of school phobia among junior secondary I
% No %
60.5 79 39.5
59.5 81 40.5
59.5 81 40.5
49.5 101 50.5
40.5 119 59.5
The results on table one show that the yes percentage scores of items 1, 2 and 3 which show presence of
show that many junior secondary I students are suffering
Percentage rank order of causes of school phobia among junior secondary I students
No %
58 29
61 30.5
70 35
70 35
74 37
76 38
77 38.5
80 40
81 40.5
88 44
101 50.5
101 50.5
111 55.5
180 90
The results on table 2 show that the yes percentage score of the respondents in items 1-10
exceeded 50 percent. These results therefore show that those factors are causes of school phobia among
Table 3: Percentage rank order of influence of school phobia on readiness of junior secondary
No %
59 29.5
63 21.5
80 40
104 52
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

The results on table 3 show that the yes percentage scores of the respondents for items 1, 2 and 3
greater than 50 percent. These results/items show that school phobia has negative influence on readiness
of junior secondary I students for learning.
Discussion
The results of research question one show that the yes percentage scores of items 1, 2 and
percent. These results show that junior secondary I students fear school too much; feel uncomfortable
whenever they remember going to school, and have unidentified reasons for fearing school too much.
These results show that the incidence of
students. This finding is not surprising as research report (Isangedighi, 1996) has shown that when people
meet for the first time or enter a new environment, they initially experience a sense of sho
differences between them. It also vindicates the assertions of Agbakwuru (2009) and Agbakwuru and
Onyekuru (2008) that fresh students fear school.
In a related way, the results of research question 2 show that the causes of school phobia amon
junior secondary I students are:
Cutting of grasses or manual labour.
Being flogged by the teachers.
Receiving punishment from teachers for not answering questions correctly.
Teachers not being friendly.
Not understanding what the teachers teach.
Being punished by senior students.
Many dos and donts in the school.
Too much home work from teachers.
Presence of too many teachers in the schools, and
Presence of too many students in the schools.
These findings collaborates the assertion of Asagwara (1989)
entrants hate school because of excessive punishment, the strange and difficult subjects, the numerous
rules and regulations, the regimented life in school and the hostile attitude of older students towards
them.
Finally, the results of research question 3 show that school phobia impacts negatively on the
readiness of junior secondary I students for learning. It makes them to:
Feel restless in the classroom.
Makes it impossible for them to understand what they are taught; and
Causes them to hide away from classes.
These findings also lend credence to the assertion of Hurlock (1956) that school phobia suppresses
purposive action, distorts perception and inhibits clear thinking.
take necessary measures to improve the ease of adjustment of fresh students to school.
Recommendations
In the light of the results of this study, it is recommended that professional guidance counsellors,
teachers, school administrators and pare
Take appropriate measures to facilitate the smooth adjustment of fresh students to the new school
environment. This calls for organizing timely and comprehensive school orientation programme for
them.
Ensure effective guidance and counselling services in
Help fresh students to experience at least initial success by matching school assignments with their
cognitive abilities and interests.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The results on table 3 show that the yes percentage scores of the respondents for items 1, 2 and 3
greater than 50 percent. These results/items show that school phobia has negative influence on readiness
of junior secondary I students for learning.
The results of research question one show that the yes percentage scores of items 1, 2 and
percent. These results show that junior secondary I students fear school too much; feel uncomfortable
whenever they remember going to school, and have unidentified reasons for fearing school too much.
These results show that the incidence of school phobia is very prevalent among junior secondary I
students. This finding is not surprising as research report (Isangedighi, 1996) has shown that when people
meet for the first time or enter a new environment, they initially experience a sense of sho
differences between them. It also vindicates the assertions of Agbakwuru (2009) and Agbakwuru and
Onyekuru (2008) that fresh students fear school.
In a related way, the results of research question 2 show that the causes of school phobia amon
Cutting of grasses or manual labour.
Being flogged by the teachers.
Receiving punishment from teachers for not answering questions correctly.
Teachers not being friendly.
Not understanding what the teachers teach.
punished by senior students.
Many dos and donts in the school.
Too much home work from teachers.
Presence of too many teachers in the schools, and
Presence of too many students in the schools.
These findings collaborates the assertion of Asagwara (1989) that many new secondary school
entrants hate school because of excessive punishment, the strange and difficult subjects, the numerous
rules and regulations, the regimented life in school and the hostile attitude of older students towards
e results of research question 3 show that school phobia impacts negatively on the
readiness of junior secondary I students for learning. It makes them to:
Feel restless in the classroom.
Makes it impossible for them to understand what they are taught; and
Causes them to hide away from classes.
These findings also lend credence to the assertion of Hurlock (1956) that school phobia suppresses
purposive action, distorts perception and inhibits clear thinking. These situations underscore the need to
ssary measures to improve the ease of adjustment of fresh students to school.
In the light of the results of this study, it is recommended that professional guidance counsellors,
teachers, school administrators and parents/guardian should:
Take appropriate measures to facilitate the smooth adjustment of fresh students to the new school
environment. This calls for organizing timely and comprehensive school orientation programme for
Ensure effective guidance and counselling services in the school.
Help fresh students to experience at least initial success by matching school assignments with their
cognitive abilities and interests.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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55
The results on table 3 show that the yes percentage scores of the respondents for items 1, 2 and 3 are
greater than 50 percent. These results/items show that school phobia has negative influence on readiness
The results of research question one show that the yes percentage scores of items 1, 2 and 3 exceeded 50
percent. These results show that junior secondary I students fear school too much; feel uncomfortable
whenever they remember going to school, and have unidentified reasons for fearing school too much.
school phobia is very prevalent among junior secondary I
students. This finding is not surprising as research report (Isangedighi, 1996) has shown that when people
meet for the first time or enter a new environment, they initially experience a sense of shock due to the
differences between them. It also vindicates the assertions of Agbakwuru (2009) and Agbakwuru and
In a related way, the results of research question 2 show that the causes of school phobia among
that many new secondary school
entrants hate school because of excessive punishment, the strange and difficult subjects, the numerous
rules and regulations, the regimented life in school and the hostile attitude of older students towards
e results of research question 3 show that school phobia impacts negatively on the
These findings also lend credence to the assertion of Hurlock (1956) that school phobia suppresses
These situations underscore the need to
ssary measures to improve the ease of adjustment of fresh students to school.
In the light of the results of this study, it is recommended that professional guidance counsellors,
Take appropriate measures to facilitate the smooth adjustment of fresh students to the new school
environment. This calls for organizing timely and comprehensive school orientation programme for
Help fresh students to experience at least initial success by matching school assignments with their
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Help the fresh students to find meaning in school work by relating lessons and other school
activities to real life outside school.
Make lessons practical, lively and interesting.
Diagnose and identify fresh students problems and take appropriate measures to assist them to
solve them.
Avoid unnecessary threats and punishments of the students.
Avoid unnecessary rigidity in dealing with fresh students.

Beside the above recommendations, it is also recommended that parents/guardians should:
Ensure that their children and wards report at school on the day of resumption. This is necessary for
them to participate fully in the school orientation programme.
Parents/guardians should also endeavour to accompany their children/wards to the school on the
day of resumption. This according to Asagwara (1989) helps to make the handover of the fresh
students to the school a smooth one. This is particularly important if the school is a boarding
institution.

References
Agbakwuru, C. (2009). School adjustment
Agbakwuru, C. and Onyekuru, B. (2008). Orientation programme and adjustment of fresh students in
Nigeria universities. Trends in Educational Studies, 3, (2), 79
Asagwara, C. G. (1989). Students orientation in Nigerian secondary schools.
Berk, L.E. (1999). Infants, children and adolescents, 3
Chauhan, S.S. (1981). Advanced educational psychology.
Gay, L.R. (1996). Educational research: competencies for anal
Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Gleitman, H., Fridlund, A.J. and Resisberg, D. (2004).
Company.
Hurlock, B. (1956). Child development.
Isangedighi, A.J. (1996). Child: the learning organism.
Nwankwo, O.C. (2013). Abnormal psychology: the clinical approach, 3
Port Harcourt Press.
Peterson, N.L. (1988). Early intervention for ha
childhood special education. London: Love Publishing Company.


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Help the fresh students to find meaning in school work by relating lessons and other school
eal life outside school.
Make lessons practical, lively and interesting.
Diagnose and identify fresh students problems and take appropriate measures to assist them to
Avoid unnecessary threats and punishments of the students.
sary rigidity in dealing with fresh students.
Beside the above recommendations, it is also recommended that parents/guardians should:
Ensure that their children and wards report at school on the day of resumption. This is necessary for
fully in the school orientation programme.
Parents/guardians should also endeavour to accompany their children/wards to the school on the
day of resumption. This according to Asagwara (1989) helps to make the handover of the fresh
a smooth one. This is particularly important if the school is a boarding
School adjustment. Owerri: Joe Mankpa Publishers.
Agbakwuru, C. and Onyekuru, B. (2008). Orientation programme and adjustment of fresh students in
Trends in Educational Studies, 3, (2), 79-83.
Students orientation in Nigerian secondary schools. Uyo: Legacy (Ni
Berk, L.E. (1999). Infants, children and adolescents, 3
rd
ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Advanced educational psychology. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, PVTT Ltd.
Gay, L.R. (1996). Educational research: competencies for analysis and application, 5
Gleitman, H., Fridlund, A.J. and Resisberg, D. (2004). Psychology 6
th
ed. New York: W.W. Norton and
Child development. New York: McGraw Book Company Inc.
Child: the learning organism. Calabar: Bon Universal Ltd.
Nwankwo, O.C. (2013). Abnormal psychology: the clinical approach, 3
rd
ed. Port Harcourt: University of
Peterson, N.L. (1988). Early intervention for handicapped and at-risk children: an introduction to early
childhood special education. London: Love Publishing Company.












Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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56
Help the fresh students to find meaning in school work by relating lessons and other school
Diagnose and identify fresh students problems and take appropriate measures to assist them to
Beside the above recommendations, it is also recommended that parents/guardians should:
Ensure that their children and wards report at school on the day of resumption. This is necessary for
Parents/guardians should also endeavour to accompany their children/wards to the school on the
day of resumption. This according to Asagwara (1989) helps to make the handover of the fresh
a smooth one. This is particularly important if the school is a boarding
Agbakwuru, C. and Onyekuru, B. (2008). Orientation programme and adjustment of fresh students in
Uyo: Legacy (Nig) Ltd.
ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, PVTT Ltd.
ysis and application, 5
th
ed. New Jersey:
New York: W.W. Norton and
ed. Port Harcourt: University of
risk children: an introduction to early
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

ANALYSIS OF TEACHERS JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY
SCHOOLS IN BAYELSA STATE
MAJOR NANIGHE BALDWIN,
Department of Educational Foundations
Department of Educational Foundations

Abstract
Teachers are generally considered remarkable variables within the school system
involving students in experiences that could bring about changes in their behaviours through the
acquisition of requisite knowledge. This work was carried
teachers perform their jobs using students perception i
research design adopted was the descriptive survey of the ex
students was drawn from a population of 10,305 SS2 students across 152 senior secondary schools in
Bayelsa State based on proportional representation. A Students Perception of Teachers Job
Performance Questionnaire (SPTJP
percentage of teachers mastery of their subjects, average in their use of teaching methods and
involvement in co-curricular activities. Teachers were rated low in their use of instruction
in lesson delivery and their ability to manage
recommended that conferences and seminars be organized
ability and skills in the making and use of instructiona
modern professional practice.





Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com








ANALYSIS OF TEACHERS JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY
SCHOOLS IN BAYELSA STATE
By
MAJOR NANIGHE BALDWIN, Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundations
Niger Delta University
Bayelsa State
E-mail: majornanighe@gmail.com
&
OMEMU FELIX, Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundations
Niger Delta University
Bayelsa State
Teachers are generally considered remarkable variables within the school system
involving students in experiences that could bring about changes in their behaviours through the
acquisition of requisite knowledge. This work was carried out to determine the extent to which
teachers perform their jobs using students perception in secondary schools in Bayelsa S
research design adopted was the descriptive survey of the ex-post facto type. A sample size of 1,125
from a population of 10,305 SS2 students across 152 senior secondary schools in
Bayelsa State based on proportional representation. A Students Perception of Teachers Job
Performance Questionnaire (SPTJPQ) was used for data collection. The result revealed high
mastery of their subjects, average in their use of teaching methods and
curricular activities. Teachers were rated low in their use of instruction
in lesson delivery and their ability to manage their classrooms during lessons. It was therefore
recommended that conferences and seminars be organized, targeted at improving teachers managerial
the making and use of instructional materials for lesson delivery in
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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57
ANALYSIS OF TEACHERS JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY
Teachers are generally considered remarkable variables within the school system, given their roles in
involving students in experiences that could bring about changes in their behaviours through the
out to determine the extent to which
n secondary schools in Bayelsa State. The
post facto type. A sample size of 1,125
from a population of 10,305 SS2 students across 152 senior secondary schools in
Bayelsa State based on proportional representation. A Students Perception of Teachers Job
Q) was used for data collection. The result revealed high
mastery of their subjects, average in their use of teaching methods and
curricular activities. Teachers were rated low in their use of instructional materials
their classrooms during lessons. It was therefore
targeted at improving teachers managerial
materials for lesson delivery in line with
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
Performance can be regarded
accomplishment (Sharri, Yaakub, & Awang
coordinated in such ways that could promote teaching and learning objectives effectively. The general aim
is to meet the needs of individual learner and the developmental aspirations of the nation.
Okeke (2004), Okure (2004) and
the core roles teachers have to play if schools
ensuring students instruction and learning. Teachers must ensure that students are pr
involve in the required learning experiences that would engender desired change in their behaviours. The
school and teachers particularly
upbringing of students academically, mentally, morally, emotionally, physically and spiritually. These
duties demand expertise and dedication on the part of the school teacher.
Generally, it seems likely that the Nigerian public have passed a vote of no confidence on the
school system. The extent to which school system is responding to the needs of individual and
development aspirations of the nation could right
variously been put forward as possible causal factors. According to Ogbo
school system suffers from serious underfunding (grossly
annual budget) in the midst of an ever growing students population,
and facilities. The various supervisory approaches adopted could generally be regarded as outdated. Over
politicization of the appointment of boards and principals, corruption within the system which has
become endemic and general indifference among all categories of schools staff. The prevalence of these
circumstances in the school system could pose a serious threat to acceptable teachers job performance as
the needed work environment could be unhealthy.
Regrettably, it could be observed that there is a general likelihood of low academic standards across
the secondary schools in Bayelsa S
to prepare their lesson notes except for the purpose of escaping the
promotion interviews. There seems to be an overt laziness in teachers completion of working records
such as assessments as deadlines are usually exceeded. More
instructional materials in teaching their lessons. Most times they would abscond from school to attend to
personal issues, using official time and would not want to get involved in co
school. As a result, students loiter and abscond from scho
bound to negatively affect their future
Recently, the Bayelsa State government in 2012 declared a state of emergency in the education
sector as part of the efforts in search of a health
optimal service delivery.
The purpose for which this study was carried out was
performance of their jobs in secondary schools in Bayelsa S
The study was guided by the following
i. To what extent do teachers demonstrate mastery of their subject matter?
ii. Do teachers prepare and use instructional materials in their lesson delivery?
iii. To what extent do teachers exh
iv. To what extend do teachers manage their classrooms during lessons?
v. What is the extent to which teachers involve in co
Methodology
Research Design
The research design adopted for
reason for the choice of this design
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
almost as any behaviour which is directed towards task or goal
accomplishment (Sharri, Yaakub, & Awang-Hashim, 2002). The activities of school teachers need to be
coordinated in such ways that could promote teaching and learning objectives effectively. The general aim
is to meet the needs of individual learner and the developmental aspirations of the nation.
Okure (2004) and Nnabuo, Okorie, Nwideeduh & Uche (2006) etc. have identified
the core roles teachers have to play if schools must succeed in their assignments of building character and
ensuring students instruction and learning. Teachers must ensure that students are pr
involve in the required learning experiences that would engender desired change in their behaviours. The
act in-loco parentis (Igwe, 2003 and Obi, 2004) in the comprehensive
emically, mentally, morally, emotionally, physically and spiritually. These
duties demand expertise and dedication on the part of the school teacher.
that the Nigerian public have passed a vote of no confidence on the
em. The extent to which school system is responding to the needs of individual and
development aspirations of the nation could rightly be described as inadequate. Several reasons have
been put forward as possible causal factors. According to Ogbodo and Nwaoku (2007)
school system suffers from serious underfunding (grossly, below the recommended UNESCO 26% of
annual budget) in the midst of an ever growing students population, and a general decline of resources
and facilities. The various supervisory approaches adopted could generally be regarded as outdated. Over
politicization of the appointment of boards and principals, corruption within the system which has
eral indifference among all categories of schools staff. The prevalence of these
circumstances in the school system could pose a serious threat to acceptable teachers job performance as
the needed work environment could be unhealthy.
be observed that there is a general likelihood of low academic standards across
e secondary schools in Bayelsa State. Teachers tend to always report late to school, and would not want
to prepare their lesson notes except for the purpose of escaping the sanctions of inspectors and to attend
promotion interviews. There seems to be an overt laziness in teachers completion of working records
such as assessments as deadlines are usually exceeded. More so, teachers could hardly prepare and use
aterials in teaching their lessons. Most times they would abscond from school to attend to
personal issues, using official time and would not want to get involved in co-curricular activities of the
school. As a result, students loiter and abscond from school, develop bad habits and other vices which are
tively affect their future.
Recently, the Bayelsa State government in 2012 declared a state of emergency in the education
sector as part of the efforts in search of a healthy school climate where schools would be repositione
The purpose for which this study was carried out was to critically analyse the extent
their jobs in secondary schools in Bayelsa State.
ollowing generated research questions, thus:
To what extent do teachers demonstrate mastery of their subject matter?
Do teachers prepare and use instructional materials in their lesson delivery?
To what extent do teachers exhibit flexibility in their teaching methods?
To what extend do teachers manage their classrooms during lessons?
What is the extent to which teachers involve in co-curricular activities?
The research design adopted for this study was the descriptive survey of the ex-
reason for the choice of this design was because the manifestations of the study variables under
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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58
almost as any behaviour which is directed towards task or goal
school teachers need to be
coordinated in such ways that could promote teaching and learning objectives effectively. The general aim
is to meet the needs of individual learner and the developmental aspirations of the nation.
& Uche (2006) etc. have identified
succeed in their assignments of building character and
ensuring students instruction and learning. Teachers must ensure that students are properly galvanized to
involve in the required learning experiences that would engender desired change in their behaviours. The
(Igwe, 2003 and Obi, 2004) in the comprehensive
emically, mentally, morally, emotionally, physically and spiritually. These
that the Nigerian public have passed a vote of no confidence on the
em. The extent to which school system is responding to the needs of individual and
be described as inadequate. Several reasons have
do and Nwaoku (2007), the
below the recommended UNESCO 26% of
general decline of resources
and facilities. The various supervisory approaches adopted could generally be regarded as outdated. Over
politicization of the appointment of boards and principals, corruption within the system which has
eral indifference among all categories of schools staff. The prevalence of these
circumstances in the school system could pose a serious threat to acceptable teachers job performance as
be observed that there is a general likelihood of low academic standards across
tate. Teachers tend to always report late to school, and would not want
sanctions of inspectors and to attend
promotion interviews. There seems to be an overt laziness in teachers completion of working records
so, teachers could hardly prepare and use
aterials in teaching their lessons. Most times they would abscond from school to attend to
curricular activities of the
ol, develop bad habits and other vices which are
Recently, the Bayelsa State government in 2012 declared a state of emergency in the education
e schools would be repositioned for
to critically analyse the extent of teachers
-post facto type. The
was because the manifestations of the study variables under
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

investigation had already taken place prior to the commencement of the study (Karlinger, 1986; Denga
and Ali, 1983; Isangedighi, Joshua, Asim and Ekuri, 2004).
Population
The 10,305 students of SS2 in the 152 government owned senior secondary schools in Bayelsa state
constitute the population of the study.
The sample and Technique
The sample of the study was made up of 1,125 students
represents about 10% of the total population.
The Instrument
The researchers developed and used a data collection instrument titled
Performance Questionnaire (ATJPQ). The instrument cont
asked to tick YES or NO for each item. All the questionnaire items put together measured overall
teachers job performance.
Administration of the Instrume
The researchers and two research assistants
their teachers job performance based on the study variables. The teachers assessed were those of English
language, Mathematics, Economics, Biolog
Validity and reliability of Instrument
The face validity of the instrument was determined by experts in tests and measurement of the Faculty of
Education, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa state. The reliability
instrument was determined through the split half method. The calculated correlation coefficient stood at
0. 79.
Method of Data Analysis
Simple percentages were used to analysis data.
Results and Discussion
Research Question 1. To what extent
Table 1. Percentage response on students perception of teachers mastery of subject matter.
S/N Statement Item
1 Ability to break topic into smaller units
2 Ability to use proper examples
3 Ability to explain terms and concepts
4 Ability to provide satisfactory answers
5 Ability to teach lesson step by step
Mean (x) percentage
Table 1 above portrays the responses to the question
their subjects. Item 1 which sought responses on teachers ability to break topics in to smaller units, 866
students said YES while 259 said No. This represented 77% and 23% respectively of the total responses.
Item 2 which sought information about teachers ability in using pro
YES while 360 said No. The figures represented 68% and 32% respectively. For item 3 which sought
teachers ability to explain concept to students understanding 754 tricked YES and 371 ticked No. There
represented 67% and 33% respectively. On teachers ability to provide satisfactory answers to students
questions 641 respondents said YES while 484 indicated No. These also represented 57% and 43%
respectively of total response. For teachers ability to present lessons step by
YES while 540 indicated No responses. Their respective responses were 52% and 49%. Overall teachers
subject matter mastery as responded
competence about their subject matter.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
investigation had already taken place prior to the commencement of the study (Karlinger, 1986; Denga
ighi, Joshua, Asim and Ekuri, 2004).
The 10,305 students of SS2 in the 152 government owned senior secondary schools in Bayelsa state
constitute the population of the study.
The sample of the study was made up of 1,125 students randomly drawn from the population. The figure
represents about 10% of the total population.
The researchers developed and used a data collection instrument titled Analysis of
(ATJPQ). The instrument contained twenty five items
asked to tick YES or NO for each item. All the questionnaire items put together measured overall
Administration of the Instrument
and two research assistants distributed the questionnaire to the sampled students
job performance based on the study variables. The teachers assessed were those of English
athematics, Economics, Biology and Agriculture Science
nstrument
The face validity of the instrument was determined by experts in tests and measurement of the Faculty of
Education, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa state. The reliability
instrument was determined through the split half method. The calculated correlation coefficient stood at
Simple percentages were used to analysis data.
To what extent do teachers demonstrate mastery of their subject matter?
Percentage response on students perception of teachers mastery of subject matter.
Yes No
Ability to break topic into smaller units 866 (7%) 257 (23%)
Ability to use proper examples 765 (68%) 360 (32%)
Ability to explain terms and concepts 754 (67%) 371 (33%)
Ability to provide satisfactory answers 641 (57%) 484 (43%)
Ability to teach lesson step by step 585(52%) 540(47%)
64% 36%
Table 1 above portrays the responses to the question on the extent to which teachers gained mastery of
which sought responses on teachers ability to break topics in to smaller units, 866
students said YES while 259 said No. This represented 77% and 23% respectively of the total responses.
Item 2 which sought information about teachers ability in using proper example, 765 respondents said
YES while 360 said No. The figures represented 68% and 32% respectively. For item 3 which sought
teachers ability to explain concept to students understanding 754 tricked YES and 371 ticked No. There
3% respectively. On teachers ability to provide satisfactory answers to students
questions 641 respondents said YES while 484 indicated No. These also represented 57% and 43%
respectively of total response. For teachers ability to present lessons step by step 585 respondents said
YES while 540 indicated No responses. Their respective responses were 52% and 49%. Overall teachers
responded by students stood at 64 %. The result showed that teachers had
t matter.
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59
investigation had already taken place prior to the commencement of the study (Karlinger, 1986; Denga
The 10,305 students of SS2 in the 152 government owned senior secondary schools in Bayelsa state
drawn from the population. The figure
Analysis of Teachers Job
ained twenty five items. Respondents were
asked to tick YES or NO for each item. All the questionnaire items put together measured overall
distributed the questionnaire to the sampled students assessed
job performance based on the study variables. The teachers assessed were those of English
The face validity of the instrument was determined by experts in tests and measurement of the Faculty of
Education, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa state. The reliability of the study
instrument was determined through the split half method. The calculated correlation coefficient stood at
do teachers demonstrate mastery of their subject matter?
Percentage response on students perception of teachers mastery of subject matter.
Total
257 (23%) 1125
360 (32%) 1125
371 (33%) 1125
484 (43%) 1125
540(47%) 1125
1125
on the extent to which teachers gained mastery of
which sought responses on teachers ability to break topics in to smaller units, 866
students said YES while 259 said No. This represented 77% and 23% respectively of the total responses.
per example, 765 respondents said
YES while 360 said No. The figures represented 68% and 32% respectively. For item 3 which sought
teachers ability to explain concept to students understanding 754 tricked YES and 371 ticked No. There
3% respectively. On teachers ability to provide satisfactory answers to students
questions 641 respondents said YES while 484 indicated No. These also represented 57% and 43%
step 585 respondents said
YES while 540 indicated No responses. Their respective responses were 52% and 49%. Overall teachers
by students stood at 64 %. The result showed that teachers had
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Research Question 2. Do teachers prepare and use instructional materials in their lesson delivery?
Table 2: Percentage response of students on the question of teachers use of instructional materials during lessons
delivery.
S/N Statement Item
6 Ability to bring drawings to lesson
7 Ability to bring real materials to lessons
8 Ability to use charts and real materials in explaining lesson
9 Ability to ask students to identify issues in charts
10 Ability to use arrange, charts and materials lesson
Mean (x) percentage
The results in table 2 reveal that for item 6 which sought whether teachers brought drawings to class, 326
respondents said YES while 799 indicated No. the figured accounted for 29% and 71% of total response.
For item 7, on whether teachers come to class w
Their respective percentages were 34% and 66%. Item 8 concerned itself
teachers ability in using charts and materials in explain
indicated No. These represented 44% and 55% respectively. For item 9 whether students were asked to
identify or explain drawings or charts, 405 responded YES while 720 said No. The percentage response
were 36% and 64% finally for item 10 which was
board, 495 students responded YES while 630 indicated No. These responses represented 44% and 56%
respectively. Overall teachers used of instructional materials as perceived by students stood at 37
result showed that teachers hardly prepare and make used of instructional materials in the process of their
lesson delivery.
Research Question 3. To what extent do teachers exhibit flexib
Table 3. Percentage response on students perception of teachers use of teaching methods during lessons.
S/N Statement Item
11 Ability to present lesson from known to unknown
12 Ability to involve students in the lesson
13 Ability to create links between lessons
14 Ability to demonstration lesson in as organized manner
15 Ability to evaluate student learning in ckss
Mean (x) percentage
Table 3 above reveal that for item 11, 720 respondents indicate YES and 405 No, on the ability of
teachers in presenting lesson from know to unknown. On teachers ability to involve students in the
lesson, 641 indicated YES and 484 said No. These figure represented 57% and 43% respectively of the
responses. On teachers ability to link lessons, 529 respondents said YES and 596 said No. Percentage
responses war 47% and 53% respectively. For item 14 which sought responses on tea
demonstrate lesson, 641 responded YES while 484 indicated No. Their percentage responses were 57%
and 43% out respectively. Finally for item 15 which sought to find out whether teachers encourage
students participation during lesson, 585
representing 48%. Overall teachers ability in the use of teaching methods as perceived by students stood
at 55 %. The result showed that teachers had average competence about their use of teachin
the lesson delivery.
Research Question 4. To what extend do teachers manage their classrooms during lessons?
Table 4. Percentage response on students perception of teachers classroom management abilities.
S/N Statement Item
16 Monitor students movements during lessons
17 Command the respect of students in class
18 Ensure that a single class (lesson) is maintahed
19 Ensure students take instructions during lesson
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Do teachers prepare and use instructional materials in their lesson delivery?
2: Percentage response of students on the question of teachers use of instructional materials during lessons
Yes No
Ability to bring drawings to lesson 326 (29%) 799 (71%)
Ability to bring real materials to lessons 382 (34%) 743(66%)
Ability to use charts and real materials in explaining lesson 495 (44%) 630 (55%)
Ability to ask students to identify issues in charts 405 (36%) 720 (64%)
Ability to use arrange, charts and materials lesson 495 (44%) 630 (56%)
37% 63%
The results in table 2 reveal that for item 6 which sought whether teachers brought drawings to class, 326
respondents said YES while 799 indicated No. the figured accounted for 29% and 71% of total response.
For item 7, on whether teachers come to class with materials 382 respondent said YES while 743 said No.
Their respective percentages were 34% and 66%. Item 8 concerned itself with eliciting information about
teachers ability in using charts and materials in explaining lessons 495 respondents ticked YES
indicated No. These represented 44% and 55% respectively. For item 9 whether students were asked to
identify or explain drawings or charts, 405 responded YES while 720 said No. The percentage response
were 36% and 64% finally for item 10 which was to know teachers ability in effectively using the chalk
board, 495 students responded YES while 630 indicated No. These responses represented 44% and 56%
respectively. Overall teachers used of instructional materials as perceived by students stood at 37
result showed that teachers hardly prepare and make used of instructional materials in the process of their
To what extent do teachers exhibit flexibility in their use of teaching
response on students perception of teachers use of teaching methods during lessons.
Yes No
Ability to present lesson from known to unknown 720(64%) 405(36%)
Ability to involve students in the lesson 641(57%) 484(43%)
Ability to create links between lessons 529(47%) 596(53%)
Ability to demonstration lesson in as organized manner 641(57%) 484(43%)
Ability to evaluate student learning in ckss 585(52%) 540(48%)
55% 45%
Table 3 above reveal that for item 11, 720 respondents indicate YES and 405 No, on the ability of
teachers in presenting lesson from know to unknown. On teachers ability to involve students in the
and 484 said No. These figure represented 57% and 43% respectively of the
responses. On teachers ability to link lessons, 529 respondents said YES and 596 said No. Percentage
responses war 47% and 53% respectively. For item 14 which sought responses on tea
demonstrate lesson, 641 responded YES while 484 indicated No. Their percentage responses were 57%
and 43% out respectively. Finally for item 15 which sought to find out whether teachers encourage
students participation during lesson, 585 students represent 52% indicated YES while 540 indicated No
representing 48%. Overall teachers ability in the use of teaching methods as perceived by students stood
at 55 %. The result showed that teachers had average competence about their use of teachin
To what extend do teachers manage their classrooms during lessons?
Table 4. Percentage response on students perception of teachers classroom management abilities.
Yes No
Monitor students movements during lessons 450 (40%) 675 (60%)
Command the respect of students in class 518 (46%) 607 (54%)
Ensure that a single class (lesson) is maintahed 450 (40%) 675 (60%)
Ensure students take instructions during lesson 551(49%) 574 (51%)
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60
Do teachers prepare and use instructional materials in their lesson delivery?
2: Percentage response of students on the question of teachers use of instructional materials during lessons
No Total
799 (71%) 1125
743(66%) 1125
630 (55%) 1125
720 (64%) 1125
630 (56%) 1125
63% 1125
The results in table 2 reveal that for item 6 which sought whether teachers brought drawings to class, 326
respondents said YES while 799 indicated No. the figured accounted for 29% and 71% of total response.
ith materials 382 respondent said YES while 743 said No.
eliciting information about
g lessons 495 respondents ticked YES and 630
indicated No. These represented 44% and 55% respectively. For item 9 whether students were asked to
identify or explain drawings or charts, 405 responded YES while 720 said No. The percentage response
to know teachers ability in effectively using the chalk
board, 495 students responded YES while 630 indicated No. These responses represented 44% and 56%
respectively. Overall teachers used of instructional materials as perceived by students stood at 37 %. The
result showed that teachers hardly prepare and make used of instructional materials in the process of their
ility in their use of teaching methods.
response on students perception of teachers use of teaching methods during lessons.
Total
405(36%) 1125
484(43%) 1125
596(53%) 1125
484(43%) 1125
540(48%) 1125
45% 1125
Table 3 above reveal that for item 11, 720 respondents indicate YES and 405 No, on the ability of
teachers in presenting lesson from know to unknown. On teachers ability to involve students in the
and 484 said No. These figure represented 57% and 43% respectively of the
responses. On teachers ability to link lessons, 529 respondents said YES and 596 said No. Percentage
responses war 47% and 53% respectively. For item 14 which sought responses on teachers ability to
demonstrate lesson, 641 responded YES while 484 indicated No. Their percentage responses were 57%
and 43% out respectively. Finally for item 15 which sought to find out whether teachers encourage
students represent 52% indicated YES while 540 indicated No
representing 48%. Overall teachers ability in the use of teaching methods as perceived by students stood
at 55 %. The result showed that teachers had average competence about their use of teaching methods in
To what extend do teachers manage their classrooms during lessons?
Table 4. Percentage response on students perception of teachers classroom management abilities.
Total
675 (60%) 1125
607 (54%) 1125
675 (60%) 1125
574 (51%) 1125
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

20 Ensure a noise free class during lessons
Mean (x) percentage
Table 4 above concerned itself with responses teachers classroom management ability. Item 16 on
teachers ability to monitor students movement during lessons, 450 respondents said YES while 675
indicated No. For item 17, 518 students indicate YES while 6
students respect. The percentage response stood at 46% and 54% respectively. 450 students represent
40% of the responses indicated YES on teachers ability in ensuring the maintenance of a single lesson.
675 respondents representing 60% of total responses indicated No. Question 19 sought to know whether
teacher has ability in ensuring that all instructions during lessons are followed. 551 respondents
representing 49% indicated YES while 474 representing 51% said
whether teachers could ensure noise free classrooms during lessons. 394 respondents indicating 35%
indicate YES while 731 respondents indicating 65% said No. Overall teachers ability to control their and
manage their class rooms during lessons stood at 42%. The result showed that teachers where ranked low
in their ability to discipline and manage their students during lessons.
Research Question 5. What is the extent to which teachers involve in co
Table 5. Percentage response on students perception of teachers involvement in cocurricular activities.
S/N Statement Item
21 Involve in the organization of sports
22 Involve in organizing clubs and societies
23 Involve in organizing quiz event
24 Involve in organization cultural events
25 Involve in end of year activities
Mean (x) percentage
Table 5 above was concerned with the extent to which teachers involve in schools cocurricular activities.
For item 21, 686 representing 61% agreed that teachers were involved in the organization of sporting
activities while 439 respondents represen
involvement in school clubs and societies. 701 respondents said YES representing 63% while 416
representing 37% said No.
Item 23 was on teachers involvement in organizing quiz. 641 respondents said YES
while 484 respondents indicating 43% said No. Item 24 was concerned with teachers involvement in
organizing cultural events. 540 responded Yes representing 48% while 585 indicated No representing
52%. Finally for item 25, 878 respondents said
and 22% respectively. Overall teachers involvement in cocurricular activities of the school stood at 61%
This result showed that teachers where ranked high in their involvements in cocurricular activit
Overall teachers job performance as perceived by students was 52%. A reflection of this result
could show base on the overall mean percentage of 52% that teachers were moderate, on the average in
terms of their job performance in secondary schools
Conclusion
The study considered the extent of teachers job performance from the perspective of the students.
Overall teachers job performance was show
State. Areas of low performance were in teachers managerial ability of classrooms and their use of
instructional materials in lesson delivery.
Recommendations
With the outcomes of the findings, i
should be organized for teachers in the areas of classroom management abilities and the use of
instructional materials in lesson delivery in line with modern professional practice.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Ensure a noise free class during lessons 394 (35%) 731 (65%)
42% 58%
Table 4 above concerned itself with responses teachers classroom management ability. Item 16 on
teachers ability to monitor students movement during lessons, 450 respondents said YES while 675
indicated No. For item 17, 518 students indicate YES while 607 said No on teachers ability to command
students respect. The percentage response stood at 46% and 54% respectively. 450 students represent
40% of the responses indicated YES on teachers ability in ensuring the maintenance of a single lesson.
ondents representing 60% of total responses indicated No. Question 19 sought to know whether
teacher has ability in ensuring that all instructions during lessons are followed. 551 respondents
representing 49% indicated YES while 474 representing 51% said No. Question 20 sought to know
whether teachers could ensure noise free classrooms during lessons. 394 respondents indicating 35%
indicate YES while 731 respondents indicating 65% said No. Overall teachers ability to control their and
rooms during lessons stood at 42%. The result showed that teachers where ranked low
in their ability to discipline and manage their students during lessons.
What is the extent to which teachers involve in co-curricular activities?
Percentage response on students perception of teachers involvement in cocurricular activities.
Yes No
Involve in the organization of sports 686 (61%) 439 (39%)
Involve in organizing clubs and societies 709 (63%) 416 (37%)
Involve in organizing quiz event 641 (57%) 484 (43%)
Involve in organization cultural events 540 (48%) 585 (52%)
Involve in end of year activities 878(78%) 247 (22%)
61% 39%
Table 5 above was concerned with the extent to which teachers involve in schools cocurricular activities.
For item 21, 686 representing 61% agreed that teachers were involved in the organization of sporting
activities while 439 respondents representing 39% indicate No. Item 22 sought to know teachers
involvement in school clubs and societies. 701 respondents said YES representing 63% while 416
Item 23 was on teachers involvement in organizing quiz. 641 respondents said YES
while 484 respondents indicating 43% said No. Item 24 was concerned with teachers involvement in
organizing cultural events. 540 responded Yes representing 48% while 585 indicated No representing
52%. Finally for item 25, 878 respondents said YES and 247 indicated No. Their percentages were 78%
and 22% respectively. Overall teachers involvement in cocurricular activities of the school stood at 61%
This result showed that teachers where ranked high in their involvements in cocurricular activit
Overall teachers job performance as perceived by students was 52%. A reflection of this result
could show base on the overall mean percentage of 52% that teachers were moderate, on the average in
terms of their job performance in secondary schools in Bayelsa state as perceived by students.
The study considered the extent of teachers job performance from the perspective of the students.
Overall teachers job performance was shown to be moderate across the secondary schools in Bayelsa
State. Areas of low performance were in teachers managerial ability of classrooms and their use of
instructional materials in lesson delivery.
With the outcomes of the findings, it is therefore recommended that periodic training and retraining
should be organized for teachers in the areas of classroom management abilities and the use of
instructional materials in lesson delivery in line with modern professional practice.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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61
731 (65%) 1125
1125
Table 4 above concerned itself with responses teachers classroom management ability. Item 16 on
teachers ability to monitor students movement during lessons, 450 respondents said YES while 675
07 said No on teachers ability to command
students respect. The percentage response stood at 46% and 54% respectively. 450 students represent
40% of the responses indicated YES on teachers ability in ensuring the maintenance of a single lesson.
ondents representing 60% of total responses indicated No. Question 19 sought to know whether
teacher has ability in ensuring that all instructions during lessons are followed. 551 respondents
No. Question 20 sought to know
whether teachers could ensure noise free classrooms during lessons. 394 respondents indicating 35%
indicate YES while 731 respondents indicating 65% said No. Overall teachers ability to control their and
rooms during lessons stood at 42%. The result showed that teachers where ranked low
curricular activities?
Percentage response on students perception of teachers involvement in cocurricular activities.
Total
439 (39%) 1125
416 (37%) 1125
484 (43%) 1125
585 (52%) 1125
247 (22%) 1125
1125
Table 5 above was concerned with the extent to which teachers involve in schools cocurricular activities.
For item 21, 686 representing 61% agreed that teachers were involved in the organization of sporting
ting 39% indicate No. Item 22 sought to know teachers
involvement in school clubs and societies. 701 respondents said YES representing 63% while 416
Item 23 was on teachers involvement in organizing quiz. 641 respondents said YES showing 57%
while 484 respondents indicating 43% said No. Item 24 was concerned with teachers involvement in
organizing cultural events. 540 responded Yes representing 48% while 585 indicated No representing
YES and 247 indicated No. Their percentages were 78%
and 22% respectively. Overall teachers involvement in cocurricular activities of the school stood at 61%
This result showed that teachers where ranked high in their involvements in cocurricular activities.
Overall teachers job performance as perceived by students was 52%. A reflection of this result
could show base on the overall mean percentage of 52% that teachers were moderate, on the average in
in Bayelsa state as perceived by students.
The study considered the extent of teachers job performance from the perspective of the students.
to be moderate across the secondary schools in Bayelsa
State. Areas of low performance were in teachers managerial ability of classrooms and their use of
s therefore recommended that periodic training and retraining
should be organized for teachers in the areas of classroom management abilities and the use of
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Referencs
Denga, D.I and Ali, A (1998). An introduction to research methods and statistics in education and social sciences
Ed). Calabar. Rapid Education Publishers.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004)
Igwe L.E.B (2003) Elements of education law
Isangedighi, A. J.; Joshua, M.T; Asim, A.
education and social sciences. Calabar: University of Cala
Kerlinger, F.N. (1986) Foundation of behavioural research.
Nnabuo, P.O.M; Okorie, N.C; Nwideedu
Owerri: Totan Publishers
Obi, E. (2004) Law and education m
Ogbodo, C.M and Nwaoku N.A (2007) Funding initiatives in higher education in Nigeria. Implications
for University Administration in J.B Babalola et al (eds).
NAEAP.
Okeke B. S. (2004) Teaching in Nigeria: The bureaucracy and professionalism.
Okure S. J. (2004) Educational Supervision
Sharri, A. S, Yaakub, N.F, & Awang
school teachers. Malaysian Management Journal























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An introduction to research methods and statistics in education and social sciences
). Calabar. Rapid Education Publishers.
of Nigeria (2004) National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC Press
Elements of education law. Port Harcourt: Pam Unique Pub. Co. Ltd.
Isangedighi, A. J.; Joshua, M.T; Asim, A. E. and Ekuri E. E (2004). Fundamentals of research and statistics in
. Calabar: University of Calabar Press.
Foundation of behavioural research. New York: Rinhart
o, P.O.M; Okorie, N.C; Nwideeduh, S. B. & Uche, C. M (2006) Leadership & supervision in education
lishers.
Law and education management. Enugu: Empathy International.
Ogbodo, C.M and Nwaoku N.A (2007) Funding initiatives in higher education in Nigeria. Implications
for University Administration in J.B Babalola et al (eds). Access, equity and quality in
Teaching in Nigeria: The bureaucracy and professionalism. Enugu: Mercum Intl Publicity
Educational Supervision. Calabar: Eastland Press
Sharri, A. S, Yaakub, N.F, & Awang-Hashim, R (2002) Job motivation and performanc
Malaysian Management Journal, 6 (1&2) pp 17-24.
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An introduction to research methods and statistics in education and social sciences (3
rd

. Lagos: NERDC Press
td.
Fundamentals of research and statistics in
Leadership & supervision in education,
Ogbodo, C.M and Nwaoku N.A (2007) Funding initiatives in higher education in Nigeria. Implications
Access, equity and quality in higher education.
Enugu: Mercum Intl Publicity
Hashim, R (2002) Job motivation and performance of secondary
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.







RE-THINKING SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION FOR EFFECTIVE CITIZENSHIP
TWENTY



Department of Curriculum a
e

Department of Language, Arts a

Abstract
The paper premised the inability of school Social
emphasis on cognitive rather than on the Affective domain of l
re-thinking and re-positioning of the subject in terms of its objectives, content and methodology. It
also advocated for a regular exposure of Social Studies teachers to professional development
programmes. Finally, the paper recommended the development of test instruments for the measuring
of the Affective domain of learning.








Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
THINKING SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION FOR EFFECTIVE CITIZENSHIP
TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY NIGERIA
By
IBHAFIDON H. E.,

OTOTE O. C.
Department of Curriculum and Instruction,
Faculty of Education,
Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma
e-mail: ehinorgodgrace @yahoo.com
phone: 07038913727

&

JIMOH A. S.
Department of Language, Arts and Social Sciences,
Faculty of Education,
Lagos State University, Ojo- Lagos
Phone 08033310592
premised the inability of school Social Studies to attain its set objectives o
ognitive rather than on the Affective domain of learning. Accordingly,
positioning of the subject in terms of its objectives, content and methodology. It
also advocated for a regular exposure of Social Studies teachers to professional development
programmes. Finally, the paper recommended the development of test instruments for the measuring
of the Affective domain of learning.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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63
THINKING SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION FOR EFFECTIVE CITIZENSHIP IN
Studies to attain its set objectives on the lopsided
earning. Accordingly, paper calls for a
positioning of the subject in terms of its objectives, content and methodology. It
also advocated for a regular exposure of Social Studies teachers to professional development
programmes. Finally, the paper recommended the development of test instruments for the measuring
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction
The re-engineering of the Nigerian educational system, following the 1969 National curriculum
conference was expected to reposition Nigeria in its rightful place among the committee of nations. This
position was seen to be in line with Fafunwas (2003) view of
by means of which a person develops ability, aptitude and other forms of behavior of positive value in the
society in which he lives. The conference resulted in a series of seminars and workshops which led to t
publication of the 1977 National policy on education which until then was lacking. The 1977 National
policy on education in pursuance of this task, observed that education in Nigeria is an instrument per
excellence for effecting national development
national development plans because education is an important instrument for change and any
fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society must be preceded by an
educational revolution. Accordingly, the (2004) revised National policy on Education identified the
national objectives of a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united strong and self
reliant nation; a great and dynamic economy; and a lan
(NPE, 2004 p.6).

It is pertinent to note that the policy went a step further to identify in specific terms the objectives
education was expected to achieve in Nigeria and they include the following:
the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity;
the inculcation of the right type of values and attitude for the survival of
Nigerian society.
the training of the mind in the understanding of the world ; and
the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities
and competencies as equipment for the individual to live and contribute to the development of
the society.

In line with this vision of the government, the
subjects were introduced into the Nigerian educational system. The restructuring led to the introduction
of Social Studies education into the Nigerian educational system.

Social Studies education was con
attainment of the aims and objectives enunciated in the national policy on education (Akinlaye,1996).
Advancing reasons for these, Akinlaye (1996,p.15) posited that Social Studies was a subj
geared towards self-realization, better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective
citizenship, national unity and national consciousness among others. This is in line with Peters (1972)
view of education as being the transmission of what is worthwhile to those who become committed to it.

Accordingly, the subject was viewed as capable enough to address and modify the
dysfunctionalities of the inherited educational system. The Nigerian Educational Research Council
Nigerian Educational Research and development council (NERDC) defined the subject as a way of life of
man, it focuses on how man influences the environment and is in turn influenced by the environment.
However, after nearly four decades of the introd
social, economic, and political life has had any remarkable improvement. For instance, Nigeria has
featured prominently at the top in the ranking of the world most corrupt nations in the world. The
has actually been silver and a bronze medalist in recent years (2003 and 2004) respectively. The Nigerian
culture is fast changing. It is also quite obvious that while some of these changes are on the positive side,
a greater percentage of it is on the reverse side and regrettably with respect to the cherished values of the
nation. Also obviously discernable is the direction of these changes which with very little exception, is
westernization. The changes in the society culturally speaking have been
experience, education, and the unrestricted exposure to western mass media. Over time, the cumulative
effects of these factors reflect in virtually every aspect of Nigerian lifestyle and have been blamed for the
numerous social ills of the society. For instance, the poor dress habits of the youths, religious intolerance
and riots, ethnic intolerance and disturbances, sectarian violence youth restiveness, cultism, political
thugeries, kidnapping, homosexualism, lesbianism, same sex
in greed, avarice, embezzlements of public fund, violent and other social criminalities). Nduka (2004)
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
engineering of the Nigerian educational system, following the 1969 National curriculum
conference was expected to reposition Nigeria in its rightful place among the committee of nations. This
position was seen to be in line with Fafunwas (2003) view of education as the aggregate of all processes
by means of which a person develops ability, aptitude and other forms of behavior of positive value in the
society in which he lives. The conference resulted in a series of seminars and workshops which led to t
publication of the 1977 National policy on education which until then was lacking. The 1977 National
policy on education in pursuance of this task, observed that education in Nigeria is an instrument per
excellence for effecting national development and accordingly, should continue to be highly rated in the
national development plans because education is an important instrument for change and any
fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society must be preceded by an
al revolution. Accordingly, the (2004) revised National policy on Education identified the
national objectives of a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united strong and self
reliant nation; a great and dynamic economy; and a land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens
It is pertinent to note that the policy went a step further to identify in specific terms the objectives
education was expected to achieve in Nigeria and they include the following:
inculcation of national consciousness and national unity;
the inculcation of the right type of values and attitude for the survival of the indiv
the training of the mind in the understanding of the world ; and
the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities
and competencies as equipment for the individual to live and contribute to the development of
In line with this vision of the government, the school curriculum was restructured and a number of
subjects were introduced into the Nigerian educational system. The restructuring led to the introduction
of Social Studies education into the Nigerian educational system.
Social Studies education was considered an innovative and versatile subject that will lead to the
attainment of the aims and objectives enunciated in the national policy on education (Akinlaye,1996).
Advancing reasons for these, Akinlaye (1996,p.15) posited that Social Studies was a subj
realization, better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective
citizenship, national unity and national consciousness among others. This is in line with Peters (1972)
ansmission of what is worthwhile to those who become committed to it.
Accordingly, the subject was viewed as capable enough to address and modify the
dysfunctionalities of the inherited educational system. The Nigerian Educational Research Council
Nigerian Educational Research and development council (NERDC) defined the subject as a way of life of
man, it focuses on how man influences the environment and is in turn influenced by the environment.
However, after nearly four decades of the introduction of this subject it cannot be said that the Nigerian
social, economic, and political life has had any remarkable improvement. For instance, Nigeria has
featured prominently at the top in the ranking of the world most corrupt nations in the world. The
has actually been silver and a bronze medalist in recent years (2003 and 2004) respectively. The Nigerian
culture is fast changing. It is also quite obvious that while some of these changes are on the positive side,
the reverse side and regrettably with respect to the cherished values of the
nation. Also obviously discernable is the direction of these changes which with very little exception, is
westernization. The changes in the society culturally speaking have been traced mainly to colonial
experience, education, and the unrestricted exposure to western mass media. Over time, the cumulative
effects of these factors reflect in virtually every aspect of Nigerian lifestyle and have been blamed for the
lls of the society. For instance, the poor dress habits of the youths, religious intolerance
and riots, ethnic intolerance and disturbances, sectarian violence youth restiveness, cultism, political
thugeries, kidnapping, homosexualism, lesbianism, same sex marriage and excessive materialism (resulting
in greed, avarice, embezzlements of public fund, violent and other social criminalities). Nduka (2004)
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
64
engineering of the Nigerian educational system, following the 1969 National curriculum
conference was expected to reposition Nigeria in its rightful place among the committee of nations. This
education as the aggregate of all processes
by means of which a person develops ability, aptitude and other forms of behavior of positive value in the
society in which he lives. The conference resulted in a series of seminars and workshops which led to the
publication of the 1977 National policy on education which until then was lacking. The 1977 National
policy on education in pursuance of this task, observed that education in Nigeria is an instrument per
and accordingly, should continue to be highly rated in the
national development plans because education is an important instrument for change and any
fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society must be preceded by an
al revolution. Accordingly, the (2004) revised National policy on Education identified the
national objectives of a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united strong and self-
d of bright and full opportunities for all citizens
It is pertinent to note that the policy went a step further to identify in specific terms the objectives
the individuals and the
the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities
and competencies as equipment for the individual to live and contribute to the development of
school curriculum was restructured and a number of
subjects were introduced into the Nigerian educational system. The restructuring led to the introduction
sidered an innovative and versatile subject that will lead to the
attainment of the aims and objectives enunciated in the national policy on education (Akinlaye,1996).
Advancing reasons for these, Akinlaye (1996,p.15) posited that Social Studies was a subject that was
realization, better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective
citizenship, national unity and national consciousness among others. This is in line with Peters (1972)
ansmission of what is worthwhile to those who become committed to it.
Accordingly, the subject was viewed as capable enough to address and modify the
dysfunctionalities of the inherited educational system. The Nigerian Educational Research Council now
Nigerian Educational Research and development council (NERDC) defined the subject as a way of life of
man, it focuses on how man influences the environment and is in turn influenced by the environment.
uction of this subject it cannot be said that the Nigerian
social, economic, and political life has had any remarkable improvement. For instance, Nigeria has
featured prominently at the top in the ranking of the world most corrupt nations in the world. The nation
has actually been silver and a bronze medalist in recent years (2003 and 2004) respectively. The Nigerian
culture is fast changing. It is also quite obvious that while some of these changes are on the positive side,
the reverse side and regrettably with respect to the cherished values of the
nation. Also obviously discernable is the direction of these changes which with very little exception, is
traced mainly to colonial
experience, education, and the unrestricted exposure to western mass media. Over time, the cumulative
effects of these factors reflect in virtually every aspect of Nigerian lifestyle and have been blamed for the
lls of the society. For instance, the poor dress habits of the youths, religious intolerance
and riots, ethnic intolerance and disturbances, sectarian violence youth restiveness, cultism, political
marriage and excessive materialism (resulting
in greed, avarice, embezzlements of public fund, violent and other social criminalities). Nduka (2004)
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

observed that many of the Nigerian bureaucratic elites operate
efficiency, accountability, merit and with reference

That education is the key to addressing these social ills of the Nigerian society is no longer a matter
of debate as Nduka (2004p.33) observed that although the Nigerian value disorientation is pervasive and
has in fact reached a crisis proportion, it is the firm belief of the Nigerian Academy of Education that the
best hope of rescuing the ethical shipwreck and enabling
smoothly and confidently on the high seas is revamped education. The question is can education be an
instrument per excellence in this onerous task? Again Nduka (2004) suggestions are that the first task is
identify a set of trans- cultural, trans
Nigerian society must subscribe. These basic values should include but not limited to the following
honesty, truthfulness, justice and fair play,
consciousness, service to the nation, patriotism, respect for elders and constituted authority, and service to God and human

To this end education will be seen as
It is pertinent at this juncture to recall that the social studies education though may not claim monopoly
over these basic values, but to a large extent addresses them in its content. As Jim
Social Studies is the most equipped subject in the school curriculum that has the capability to inculcate
moral and social values. A critical analysis of the objectives of the subject revealed that knowledge taught
in social studies is considered essential for worthwhile living in the society, since much of the content of
this knowledge is drawn from the realities of the learners own environment (Adejuwon, 1991). The
development of thinking and decision making skills, critical think
problem are stressed in social studies. In addition, there are attitudes and values which are considered
desirable and which a good citizen should possess. These are: co
honesty, integrity, hard- work and fairness. Furthermore,
Studies in our schools must

Inculcate national consciousness and aspiration towards national cohesion, unity and
progress;
Make learners become good citizens capable of
development of the society;
Inculcate the right type of attitudes, skills and values in the learners;
Make learner acquire basic knowledge, feelings and skills as essential pre
personal development as well as
man in the society; and
Develop in the learners, intellectual capacity and ability, self confidence, self
self-realization, initiative, thinking, resourcefulness for the socio

These objectives, were identified by NRRC (1971) in its guidelines on primary school
curriculum report of the national workshop on primary education held between April 26
May 8
th
1971 (p.262-263) The report states among others that Social S
students, positive attitudes of togetherness, comradeship and co
nation; the inculcation of appropriate values of honesty, integrity, hard work, fairness and justice
at work and play as ones contribut
Social Studies is structured to reflect these aims and objectives of the subject.
However, the present happenings in Nigeria portray that these objectives are not being realized but what
is however the issue today with regards to Nigeria search for an effective Social Studies education is how
do the nation reposition the subject to reflect the present national challenges?

The study by Ibhafidon (2011) shows that the inspite of the fact that Social Studies as a
subject has been in the school curriculum for the past four decades, the conduct of Nigerians
consequently, the issues is that something significant is wrong with either Social S
curriculum itself or with its implementation .Literature search revealed that something
fundamental is wrong with the objectives of social studies at the classroom level. (Jimoh, 2004)
revealed that 64.1% of the junior secondary school Social Studie
while just 25.37% of the objectives were affective. The study further revealed that the content
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
that many of the Nigerian bureaucratic elites operate without rigid and widespread adherence to
efficiency, accountability, merit and with reference to the primacy of service to the majority of the populace
That education is the key to addressing these social ills of the Nigerian society is no longer a matter
Nduka (2004p.33) observed that although the Nigerian value disorientation is pervasive and
has in fact reached a crisis proportion, it is the firm belief of the Nigerian Academy of Education that the
best hope of rescuing the ethical shipwreck and enabling the Nigeria developmental ship of state to sail
smoothly and confidently on the high seas is revamped education. The question is can education be an
instrument per excellence in this onerous task? Again Nduka (2004) suggestions are that the first task is
cultural, trans-religious and trans-ethinic basic values to which the mass of the
Nigerian society must subscribe. These basic values should include but not limited to the following
honesty, truthfulness, justice and fair play, discipline, courage, tolerance, humanness, courtesy, right attitude to work, national
consciousness, service to the nation, patriotism, respect for elders and constituted authority, and service to God and human
To this end education will be seen as an agent of values clarification, orientation and transmission
It is pertinent at this juncture to recall that the social studies education though may not claim monopoly
over these basic values, but to a large extent addresses them in its content. As Jimoh (2003) observed that
Social Studies is the most equipped subject in the school curriculum that has the capability to inculcate
moral and social values. A critical analysis of the objectives of the subject revealed that knowledge taught
is considered essential for worthwhile living in the society, since much of the content of
this knowledge is drawn from the realities of the learners own environment (Adejuwon, 1991). The
development of thinking and decision making skills, critical thinking and the ability to analyze and solve
problem are stressed in social studies. In addition, there are attitudes and values which are considered
desirable and which a good citizen should possess. These are: co-operation, comradeship, togetherness
work and fairness. Furthermore, according to Olayiwola (2000)
Inculcate national consciousness and aspiration towards national cohesion, unity and
Make learners become good citizens capable of and willing to contribute to the
development of the society;
Inculcate the right type of attitudes, skills and values in the learners;
Make learner acquire basic knowledge, feelings and skills as essential pre
personal development as well as to a positive contribution to the better quality of life of
Develop in the learners, intellectual capacity and ability, self confidence, self
realization, initiative, thinking, resourcefulness for the socio-political order.
These objectives, were identified by NRRC (1971) in its guidelines on primary school
curriculum report of the national workshop on primary education held between April 26
263) The report states among others that Social Studies will develop in the
students, positive attitudes of togetherness, comradeship and co-operation towards a healthy
nation; the inculcation of appropriate values of honesty, integrity, hard work, fairness and justice
at work and play as ones contribution to the development of the national goals. The content of
Social Studies is structured to reflect these aims and objectives of the subject.
the present happenings in Nigeria portray that these objectives are not being realized but what
er the issue today with regards to Nigeria search for an effective Social Studies education is how
do the nation reposition the subject to reflect the present national challenges?
Ibhafidon (2011) shows that the inspite of the fact that Social Studies as a
subject has been in the school curriculum for the past four decades, the conduct of Nigerians
consequently, the issues is that something significant is wrong with either Social S
curriculum itself or with its implementation .Literature search revealed that something
fundamental is wrong with the objectives of social studies at the classroom level. (Jimoh, 2004)
revealed that 64.1% of the junior secondary school Social Studies objectives were cognitive
while just 25.37% of the objectives were affective. The study further revealed that the content
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
65
without rigid and widespread adherence to the principle of
to the primacy of service to the majority of the populace.
That education is the key to addressing these social ills of the Nigerian society is no longer a matter
Nduka (2004p.33) observed that although the Nigerian value disorientation is pervasive and
has in fact reached a crisis proportion, it is the firm belief of the Nigerian Academy of Education that the
the Nigeria developmental ship of state to sail
smoothly and confidently on the high seas is revamped education. The question is can education be an
instrument per excellence in this onerous task? Again Nduka (2004) suggestions are that the first task is to
ethinic basic values to which the mass of the
Nigerian society must subscribe. These basic values should include but not limited to the following:
discipline, courage, tolerance, humanness, courtesy, right attitude to work, national
consciousness, service to the nation, patriotism, respect for elders and constituted authority, and service to God and humanity.
an agent of values clarification, orientation and transmission.
It is pertinent at this juncture to recall that the social studies education though may not claim monopoly
oh (2003) observed that
Social Studies is the most equipped subject in the school curriculum that has the capability to inculcate
moral and social values. A critical analysis of the objectives of the subject revealed that knowledge taught
is considered essential for worthwhile living in the society, since much of the content of
this knowledge is drawn from the realities of the learners own environment (Adejuwon, 1991). The
ing and the ability to analyze and solve
problem are stressed in social studies. In addition, there are attitudes and values which are considered
operation, comradeship, togetherness
according to Olayiwola (2000) Social
Inculcate national consciousness and aspiration towards national cohesion, unity and
and willing to contribute to the
Make learner acquire basic knowledge, feelings and skills as essential pre-requisite to
to a positive contribution to the better quality of life of
Develop in the learners, intellectual capacity and ability, self confidence, self-expression,
l order.
These objectives, were identified by NRRC (1971) in its guidelines on primary school
curriculum report of the national workshop on primary education held between April 26
th
to
tudies will develop in the
operation towards a healthy
nation; the inculcation of appropriate values of honesty, integrity, hard work, fairness and justice
ion to the development of the national goals. The content of
Social Studies is structured to reflect these aims and objectives of the subject.
the present happenings in Nigeria portray that these objectives are not being realized but what
er the issue today with regards to Nigeria search for an effective Social Studies education is how
Ibhafidon (2011) shows that the inspite of the fact that Social Studies as a
subject has been in the school curriculum for the past four decades, the conduct of Nigerians
consequently, the issues is that something significant is wrong with either Social Studies
curriculum itself or with its implementation .Literature search revealed that something
fundamental is wrong with the objectives of social studies at the classroom level. (Jimoh, 2004)
s objectives were cognitive
while just 25.37% of the objectives were affective. The study further revealed that the content
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

of the subject was 57.45% while the affective just 15.96% and psychomotor was even 26.6%.
This ratio failed to reflect the objective
domain having the lions-share.

Further more, many empirical studies have shown that at the implementation stage, the
method of teaching the subject significantly deviates from the modern teaching strat
child-centred of inquiry discussion, discovery, problem

Strategies for Repositioning Social Studies for Effective Citizenship
The findings of Jimoh (2004) that the cognitive domain has 64.18% of the objectives of soc
studies at the junior school level should be reversed. Social Studies concerned with the
inculcation of attitudes, skills and values pre
Ibhafidon (2011) asserts that students academic attainment in the subje
attainment stems from this greater emphasis on the cognitive aspect of the subject. This being
the case, concerted effort should be put in place to begin to emphasize the affective domain in
stating social studies objectives at the c
5:3:2 in favoure of effective domain should be enthroned in stating behavioral objectives at the
school level. This, we hope well guarantee a reversal of citizens conduct.

Closely related to the above
not available by way of measuring instruments in the area of affective domain. Efforts should be
put in place by curriculum experts in developing test instruments for the affective domain. It is
argued that the dearth of these test instruments accounts for the relative emphasis on the
cognitive aspect of the subject.

The findings of Okon (1999) and Ibhafidon (2011) that for Social Studies teachers at both
primary and secondary levels were using
inability to articulate the goals in the affective domain and learners inability to internalized the
learned attitudes and values. Social studies teachers must begin to realize that it is a taboo to
lecture method in the teaching of a subject. This is because this method has been found to
promote superficial learning. If the subject must promote positive attitudes and values in our
citizenry the subject should be taught using methods of teaching t
conceptualize, analyze and synthesizes issues. Teaching method that encapsulates learning
experiences which stimulate students interest and perceptions should be used more. These
steps will go a long way in helping learners to i
and by extension help in restoring our values out the same time change our orientation. Finally,
the inculcation of social norms, teaching of co
morals and sound attitudes will be guaranteed.

Over the years, social studies content was relatively remains static. Except for some
specific emergent issues such as sex education, drug abuse, environmental education, and some
few other areas, the subject has not r
our firm convinction that the content of the subject deserves a major surgical operation in order
to reposition it so as to address the issues facing the Nigerian nation. Presently, Nigerian socie
is bedeviled by a number of problems. These problems include lack of patriotic zeal, unity,
greed avarices, embezzlement of public fund, religious, cultural prostitution, intolerance, youth
restiveness among other. These problems have been identified to
quest for growth and development (Ibhafidon, 2012). In order to successfully overcome these
evils, the social studies curriculum must be revisited and revamped. The starting point is to
review its content and align it to equip an
be effective players in the restructuring and transformation of the Nigerian nation.

Social studies teachers need to undergo regular on a basis professional development
programmes. The programme env
addition, social studies teachers should also be encouraged to present research papers. This will
assist in identifying the various curricular problems at the classroom level.

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
of the subject was 57.45% while the affective just 15.96% and psychomotor was even 26.6%.
This ratio failed to reflect the objectives and content at the curriculum level with affective
share.
Further more, many empirical studies have shown that at the implementation stage, the
method of teaching the subject significantly deviates from the modern teaching strat
centred of inquiry discussion, discovery, problem-solving, story-telling, etc.
Strategies for Repositioning Social Studies for Effective Citizenship
The findings of Jimoh (2004) that the cognitive domain has 64.18% of the objectives of soc
studies at the junior school level should be reversed. Social Studies concerned with the
inculcation of attitudes, skills and values pre-disposes to emphasis the affective domain.
Ibhafidon (2011) asserts that students academic attainment in the subject was high. This high
attainment stems from this greater emphasis on the cognitive aspect of the subject. This being
the case, concerted effort should be put in place to begin to emphasize the affective domain in
objectives at the classroom level. This study recommends that a ratio of
5:3:2 in favoure of effective domain should be enthroned in stating behavioral objectives at the
school level. This, we hope well guarantee a reversal of citizens conduct.
Closely related to the above is the point that literature search has revealed that much is
not available by way of measuring instruments in the area of affective domain. Efforts should be
put in place by curriculum experts in developing test instruments for the affective domain. It is
argued that the dearth of these test instruments accounts for the relative emphasis on the
cognitive aspect of the subject.
The findings of Okon (1999) and Ibhafidon (2011) that for Social Studies teachers at both
primary and secondary levels were using lecture method to teach has been traced to the subjects
inability to articulate the goals in the affective domain and learners inability to internalized the
learned attitudes and values. Social studies teachers must begin to realize that it is a taboo to
lecture method in the teaching of a subject. This is because this method has been found to
promote superficial learning. If the subject must promote positive attitudes and values in our
citizenry the subject should be taught using methods of teaching that enable the learners to
conceptualize, analyze and synthesizes issues. Teaching method that encapsulates learning
experiences which stimulate students interest and perceptions should be used more. These
steps will go a long way in helping learners to internalize concepts and principles of the subject
and by extension help in restoring our values out the same time change our orientation. Finally,
the inculcation of social norms, teaching of co-operation and team-spirit, good habits, character,
sound attitudes will be guaranteed.
Over the years, social studies content was relatively remains static. Except for some
specific emergent issues such as sex education, drug abuse, environmental education, and some
few other areas, the subject has not really been made to reflect modern social environment. It is
our firm convinction that the content of the subject deserves a major surgical operation in order
to reposition it so as to address the issues facing the Nigerian nation. Presently, Nigerian socie
is bedeviled by a number of problems. These problems include lack of patriotic zeal, unity,
greed avarices, embezzlement of public fund, religious, cultural prostitution, intolerance, youth
restiveness among other. These problems have been identified to be the bane of Nigerians
quest for growth and development (Ibhafidon, 2012). In order to successfully overcome these
evils, the social studies curriculum must be revisited and revamped. The starting point is to
review its content and align it to equip and reposition the citizens to such a point that they will
be effective players in the restructuring and transformation of the Nigerian nation.
Social studies teachers need to undergo regular on a basis professional development
programmes. The programme envisaged here involves seminars, workshops and conferences. In
addition, social studies teachers should also be encouraged to present research papers. This will
assist in identifying the various curricular problems at the classroom level.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
66
of the subject was 57.45% while the affective just 15.96% and psychomotor was even 26.6%.
s and content at the curriculum level with affective
Further more, many empirical studies have shown that at the implementation stage, the
method of teaching the subject significantly deviates from the modern teaching strategies of
telling, etc.
The findings of Jimoh (2004) that the cognitive domain has 64.18% of the objectives of social
studies at the junior school level should be reversed. Social Studies concerned with the
disposes to emphasis the affective domain.
ct was high. This high
attainment stems from this greater emphasis on the cognitive aspect of the subject. This being
the case, concerted effort should be put in place to begin to emphasize the affective domain in
lassroom level. This study recommends that a ratio of
5:3:2 in favoure of effective domain should be enthroned in stating behavioral objectives at the
is the point that literature search has revealed that much is
not available by way of measuring instruments in the area of affective domain. Efforts should be
put in place by curriculum experts in developing test instruments for the affective domain. It is
argued that the dearth of these test instruments accounts for the relative emphasis on the
The findings of Okon (1999) and Ibhafidon (2011) that for Social Studies teachers at both
lecture method to teach has been traced to the subjects
inability to articulate the goals in the affective domain and learners inability to internalized the
learned attitudes and values. Social studies teachers must begin to realize that it is a taboo to use
lecture method in the teaching of a subject. This is because this method has been found to
promote superficial learning. If the subject must promote positive attitudes and values in our
hat enable the learners to
conceptualize, analyze and synthesizes issues. Teaching method that encapsulates learning
experiences which stimulate students interest and perceptions should be used more. These
nternalize concepts and principles of the subject
and by extension help in restoring our values out the same time change our orientation. Finally,
spirit, good habits, character,
Over the years, social studies content was relatively remains static. Except for some
specific emergent issues such as sex education, drug abuse, environmental education, and some
eally been made to reflect modern social environment. It is
our firm convinction that the content of the subject deserves a major surgical operation in order
to reposition it so as to address the issues facing the Nigerian nation. Presently, Nigerian society
is bedeviled by a number of problems. These problems include lack of patriotic zeal, unity,
greed avarices, embezzlement of public fund, religious, cultural prostitution, intolerance, youth
be the bane of Nigerians
quest for growth and development (Ibhafidon, 2012). In order to successfully overcome these
evils, the social studies curriculum must be revisited and revamped. The starting point is to
d reposition the citizens to such a point that they will
be effective players in the restructuring and transformation of the Nigerian nation.
Social studies teachers need to undergo regular on a basis professional development
isaged here involves seminars, workshops and conferences. In
addition, social studies teachers should also be encouraged to present research papers. This will
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Social studies is one of the subjects in the social curriculum that is expected to inculcate
cultural values to the learners. However, it has been found that this aspect of the subject is given
less attention by teachers at the classroom level. At a recent international con
Africa, a Nigerian presented a very brilliant paper titled Cultural Education a Strategy for
National Development. The comment that was made by the participants after the brilliant
presentation was that his paper advocating the wearing of
three-piece English suite. That paper it was observed would have made a more effective impact
if the presenter has worn a native African dress. The point being made here is that teachers
should teach Cultural Education
they teach. After all, there is an adage that says that the Act of playing a part is to think yourself
into it Teachers should ensure that the content and learning experiences for Cultural
are stimulating and interesting and are presented with conviction. Culture is defined loosely as
the way of life of the people. Culture involves both materials and non
Nigerians need a cultural revolution. As it is today
variety of foreign cultures that are erroneously mistaken for Nigerian culture.

Social Studies has the onerous task of teaching culture. Through culture societal values,
attitudes and norms are transmitted fr
see increase social crimes as having relationship with acceptance of western culture. Ibhafidon
(2012) noted that with increase exposure to western culture, Nigerians have abandoned her
cultural heritage. This trend he claimed is mostly responsible for the increased crime rate in the
country. Nigerian must return back to its cultural heritage and Social Studies as one of the
carrier subject must be restricted to address cultural education with all seriou

The society we live is dynamic and Nigerian society is not an exemption. Development is
good and should be encouraged by all. However, one should not loose sight of the facts that
these developments generate
Studies is in a position to address these issues and should accommodate these issues. For
instance, the issues of gender balance, sex education, examination malpractice, youth restiveness
quota system, ethnic and religious conflict and a host of other issues should engage the attention
of our young learners early enough. Through, early exposure, learners will come to appreciate
the evils they constitute to peaceful co

Conclusion
This paper has taken the position that social studies as a subject as it is in both content and
methodology is structurally defective and as such cannot achieve the set goals. For it to do this,
the subject should make to under go a
review envisaged will be in line with repositioning it to meet the modern day challenge of the
Nigerian state and the Nigerian child.
Consequently, it has argued that social studies as a subject need
drastically different from the lecture method. B
methods that are child-centred. A
subject should be reviewed to include c
Nigerian state. Furthermore teacher
objective to be based on affective dormain.

Finally some challenging
for inclusion into the content of the subject.
named strategies taken seriously, social studies would be
learners for effective citizenship
for the survival of self and the Nigerian nation among others.

References
Ainlaye F. A. Mansaray A. & Ajiboye J.O.
Nigeria Ltd.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
one of the subjects in the social curriculum that is expected to inculcate
cultural values to the learners. However, it has been found that this aspect of the subject is given
less attention by teachers at the classroom level. At a recent international con
Africa, a Nigerian presented a very brilliant paper titled Cultural Education a Strategy for
National Development. The comment that was made by the participants after the brilliant
presentation was that his paper advocating the wearing of local outfit was at variance with his
piece English suite. That paper it was observed would have made a more effective impact
if the presenter has worn a native African dress. The point being made here is that teachers
should teach Cultural Education with all the emphasis and not by precept but by practicing what
they teach. After all, there is an adage that says that the Act of playing a part is to think yourself
into it Teachers should ensure that the content and learning experiences for Cultural
are stimulating and interesting and are presented with conviction. Culture is defined loosely as
the way of life of the people. Culture involves both materials and non-material aspect of life.
Nigerians need a cultural revolution. As it is today Nigerian cultural heritage has given way to a
of foreign cultures that are erroneously mistaken for Nigerian culture.
Social Studies has the onerous task of teaching culture. Through culture societal values,
attitudes and norms are transmitted from one generation to the other. Teacher must begin to
see increase social crimes as having relationship with acceptance of western culture. Ibhafidon
(2012) noted that with increase exposure to western culture, Nigerians have abandoned her
e. This trend he claimed is mostly responsible for the increased crime rate in the
country. Nigerian must return back to its cultural heritage and Social Studies as one of the
carrier subject must be restricted to address cultural education with all seriousness.
The society we live is dynamic and Nigerian society is not an exemption. Development is
good and should be encouraged by all. However, one should not loose sight of the facts that
issues and these issues often than not may be negative. Social
Studies is in a position to address these issues and should accommodate these issues. For
instance, the issues of gender balance, sex education, examination malpractice, youth restiveness
a system, ethnic and religious conflict and a host of other issues should engage the attention
of our young learners early enough. Through, early exposure, learners will come to appreciate
the evils they constitute to peaceful co-existence and national development.
This paper has taken the position that social studies as a subject as it is in both content and
methodology is structurally defective and as such cannot achieve the set goals. For it to do this,
to under go a surgical operation by way of curriculum review. The
review envisaged will be in line with repositioning it to meet the modern day challenge of the
Nigerian state and the Nigerian child.
argued that social studies as a subject needs a teaching method that is
drastically different from the lecture method. By its nature, the subject lends itself more to
centred. Also, it is the opinion of the researchers that the content of the
subject should be reviewed to include current challenges due to the dynamic nature of the
Nigerian state. Furthermore teachers were encouraged to place more emphasis on
affective dormain.
challenging issues facing the Nigerian nation were identi
for inclusion into the content of the subject. The researchers are convinced that with the above
seriously, social studies would be repositioned to equip
rners for effective citizenship - the citizens who will have right type of attitude
and the Nigerian nation among others.
A. Mansaray A. & Ajiboye J.O. (1996) Fundalmentals of Social Studies teaching
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
67
one of the subjects in the social curriculum that is expected to inculcate
cultural values to the learners. However, it has been found that this aspect of the subject is given
less attention by teachers at the classroom level. At a recent international conference in South
Africa, a Nigerian presented a very brilliant paper titled Cultural Education a Strategy for
National Development. The comment that was made by the participants after the brilliant
local outfit was at variance with his
piece English suite. That paper it was observed would have made a more effective impact
if the presenter has worn a native African dress. The point being made here is that teachers
with all the emphasis and not by precept but by practicing what
they teach. After all, there is an adage that says that the Act of playing a part is to think yourself
into it Teachers should ensure that the content and learning experiences for Cultural Education
are stimulating and interesting and are presented with conviction. Culture is defined loosely as
material aspect of life.
age has given way to a
of foreign cultures that are erroneously mistaken for Nigerian culture.
Social Studies has the onerous task of teaching culture. Through culture societal values,
om one generation to the other. Teacher must begin to
see increase social crimes as having relationship with acceptance of western culture. Ibhafidon
(2012) noted that with increase exposure to western culture, Nigerians have abandoned her
e. This trend he claimed is mostly responsible for the increased crime rate in the
country. Nigerian must return back to its cultural heritage and Social Studies as one of the
sness.
The society we live is dynamic and Nigerian society is not an exemption. Development is
good and should be encouraged by all. However, one should not loose sight of the facts that
issues and these issues often than not may be negative. Social
Studies is in a position to address these issues and should accommodate these issues. For
instance, the issues of gender balance, sex education, examination malpractice, youth restiveness
a system, ethnic and religious conflict and a host of other issues should engage the attention
of our young learners early enough. Through, early exposure, learners will come to appreciate
This paper has taken the position that social studies as a subject as it is in both content and
methodology is structurally defective and as such cannot achieve the set goals. For it to do this,
surgical operation by way of curriculum review. The
review envisaged will be in line with repositioning it to meet the modern day challenge of the
eaching method that is
its nature, the subject lends itself more to
that the content of the
urrent challenges due to the dynamic nature of the
place more emphasis on subjects
issues facing the Nigerian nation were identified and advocated
convinced that with the above-
to equip and prepare the
attitudes and values
Social Studies teaching. Lagos . Pumark
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Bolarin, T. A. (2004). Education as
Education. Academy Congress Publication Nigeria.
Fafunwa A. B. (1967) New perspective in
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) National
Ibhafidon, H. E. (2011). Evaluation
implementation in Lagos State. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis LASU.
Ibhafidon, H. E., and Jimoh, A. S. (2010). Met
communication channel for national development
Oderinde.
Jimoh (2003) The Capability of Social Studies to inculcate moral and social values into learners.
University Educational Perspectives
Jimoh, A. S. (2004). Analysis of the
programme. Nigerian Academy of Education
Nduka, O. (2004) Value education
Annual congress 22
nd
-26
th
Nov.
Nigeria Educational Research Council (1
Ethiope publishing.
Olayiwola, F. J. (2000) Social Studies
Okai, A.U. (1999). An evaluation of the Nigeria
thesis Unilag.
Okpete R.K. (2004). The school curriculum and values education in the Nigerian context
reconstructionist approach in values education
Peters R. S. (1972) Education and the
Darden R. F. Hirst P.H., Peters R. S. London: Routleedge and Kegan Paul.














Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
A. (2004). Education as agent of value clarification and orientation
Academy Congress Publication Nigeria.
perspective in Africa education. London: Macmillan Ltd.
ria (2004) National policy on education. NERDC Press.
E. (2011). Evaluation of Social Studies. The junior secondary school curriculum
Lagos State. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis LASU.
S. (2010). Methods of teaching Social Studies in Lagos State
communication channel for national development. A Book of Reading in Honour of B.
Jimoh (2003) The Capability of Social Studies to inculcate moral and social values into learners.
University Educational Perspectives. Vol. 6.
S. (2004). Analysis of the value education component of the secondary school
Nigerian Academy of Education.
(2004) Value education: A keynote address to the Nigerian academy of education
Nov.
Nigeria Educational Research Council (1980) Social Studies: Teaching, issues and problems. Benin C
(2000) Social Studies education and national unity. Social Studies Quarterly
evaluation of the Nigerian primary school curriculum. An Unpublished Ph.D.
school curriculum and values education in the Nigerian context
tionist approach in values education. Nigerian Academy of Education.
Peters R. S. (1972) Education and the educated man. Education and the development of reason
F. Hirst P.H., Peters R. S. London: Routleedge and Kegan Paul.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
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agent of value clarification and orientation. Nigerian Academy of
Ltd.
junior secondary school curriculum
Lagos State education; A
. A Book of Reading in Honour of B. B.
Jimoh (2003) The Capability of Social Studies to inculcate moral and social values into learners. Lagos State
value education component of the secondary school Social Studies
to the Nigerian academy of education, 19
th

980) Social Studies: Teaching, issues and problems. Benin City:
Social Studies Quarterly . 3(1).
. An Unpublished Ph.D.
school curriculum and values education in the Nigerian context: A
development of reason. Part 1 (Eds.)
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.





ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENEES
CLASSROOM IMPLEMENTATION
Federal College of Education (Tech
Abstract
In this study, some issues relating to two variables namely, information and communication
technology (ICT), and book keeping skills for effective implementation of entrepreneurship education
at NCE 11 level were examined. This was done to determine the ef
education in the operations of small scale business enterprises. The population of the study consisted
of 1,400 NCE 11 2011/2012 second semester vocational education students of Federal College of
Education (Tech), Omoku. This population was made up of students from the following units
Technical, Business, Fine and Applied arts, Home economics, and Agricultural Education all of
whom had offered entrepreneurship education in their first semester. Out of the entire populat
800 were randomly sampled. Two research questions and two hypothesis were formulated to guide
the study. Mean statistics was used to answer the research questions while regressive analysis was
used to test the hypothesis at .05 level of significance
curriculum does not satisfy students needs for the operation of small scale enterprises. Based on the
findings, it was recommended that practical and theoretical teaching of entrepreneurship education
should be effectively taught the students to ensure effective acquisition of needed skills.












Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENEESS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
CLASSROOM IMPLEMENTATION OF NCE II VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
CURRICULUM

By


PAC ORDU, Ph.D
School of Business Education
Federal College of Education (Technical)
P. M. B. 11, Omoku
Rivers State, Nigeria
08037097470
pacordu2009@yahoo.com


In this study, some issues relating to two variables namely, information and communication
technology (ICT), and book keeping skills for effective implementation of entrepreneurship education
at NCE 11 level were examined. This was done to determine the effectiveness of entrepreneurship
education in the operations of small scale business enterprises. The population of the study consisted
of 1,400 NCE 11 2011/2012 second semester vocational education students of Federal College of
his population was made up of students from the following units
Technical, Business, Fine and Applied arts, Home economics, and Agricultural Education all of
whom had offered entrepreneurship education in their first semester. Out of the entire populat
800 were randomly sampled. Two research questions and two hypothesis were formulated to guide
the study. Mean statistics was used to answer the research questions while regressive analysis was
used to test the hypothesis at .05 level of significance. Findings revealed that the entrepreneurship
curriculum does not satisfy students needs for the operation of small scale enterprises. Based on the
findings, it was recommended that practical and theoretical teaching of entrepreneurship education
be effectively taught the students to ensure effective acquisition of needed skills.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
69
S OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN
OF NCE II VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
In this study, some issues relating to two variables namely, information and communication
technology (ICT), and book keeping skills for effective implementation of entrepreneurship education
fectiveness of entrepreneurship
education in the operations of small scale business enterprises. The population of the study consisted
of 1,400 NCE 11 2011/2012 second semester vocational education students of Federal College of
his population was made up of students from the following units
Technical, Business, Fine and Applied arts, Home economics, and Agricultural Education all of
whom had offered entrepreneurship education in their first semester. Out of the entire population,
800 were randomly sampled. Two research questions and two hypothesis were formulated to guide
the study. Mean statistics was used to answer the research questions while regressive analysis was
. Findings revealed that the entrepreneurship
curriculum does not satisfy students needs for the operation of small scale enterprises. Based on the
findings, it was recommended that practical and theoretical teaching of entrepreneurship education
be effectively taught the students to ensure effective acquisition of needed skills.
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.



Introduction

The increasing pace of technological changes and innovations is constantly creating corresponding
changes in the society. These changes,
the move for a better way of carrying our his activities. This innovative demand has placed higher
pressure on educational institutions to effect some of these changes. This is consequent upon
that institutions as centres of learning serve the purpose of incubators of knowledge and skills. The
government of Nigeria, in her quest for development and to become one of the first twenty countries of
the world by the year 2020 has just real
of this move is on the heels of massive unemployment rate of graduates some of whom have constantly
become part of the social problems of the country. To this change, government has pushed
to higher institutions for a solution to graduate unemployment problems which has become inherent.

There is no gainsaying that the world today has been dominated by technology driven industries
both for manufacturing, distribution of goods
dominated-industrial sector focus on what Okorie (2010) described as innovation, speed, cross
functionality and strong customer relations. This means that human skills development cannot be
undermined since technology driven society is also human skills driven. This can be shown from the
strengths of such societies as South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, etc globally known as
little Asian Tigers. For Nigeria to develop and chase the dre
workforce must be focused. This means that such skilled areas as information and communication
technology, and book keeping skills in business education aspect of vocational programme can be
harnessed to facilitated entrepreneurship in technological development of Nigeria. This was captured by
Ezemoyih and Amos (2010) when they observed that technology is a problem solving process which has
as its goals, the improvement of the quality of human life, human needs and
Entrepreneurship education has been recognized as an area of education that can re
tertiary institution graduates of this country and reposition the nation to a productive society. By this,
government hoped that future graduates of he
through their entrepreneurial activities. In this regards, institutions have been mandated to establish
entrepreneurship education centres through which all graduates would be made to go through some
entrepreneurship courses before graduation. It is also hoped that some of these graduates would have
had their mindset on self reliant economy as is obtainable in developed societies rather than relying on
government jobs. It is on record that the econom
been made by private subsector economy rather than government sector. Entrepreneurship education
and the resultant entrepreneurial activities in the western world is so attractive that private practice
employment has become the engine of their development. These entrepreneurs are in various areas of
the economy covering all human endeavours. These western countries have become exporters of goods
and services to developing nations like Nigeria.
In response to the challenge thrown to institutions by government, administrators of institutions
and faculties are re-evaluating the nature of their programme and are considering various forms of
innovations. On one hand, information and communications technological
factor in the transformation from backwardness of the present dispensation to entrepreneurial self reliant
economy of tomorrow. On the second note, book keeping skills and knowledge competencies is also
being viewed as a key factor in the effective management of enterprises. Indeed, Nwanewezi (2010),
Asuquo (2010), Azih (2010), and Ezemoyih & Amos (2010) are of the view that skill competencies in ICT
and financial records keeping need to be acquired by the entrepreneur as a
gain competitive advantage. In reference to this competitive advantage, Agonmuo in Uzo and Ike (2010)
explained that effective business operations emphasise the need for information technology skills as a
means to becoming relevant within the global economy. In that same light, Raymond and Ojo (2010)
warned that if accounting educators fail to use the technology available in teaching their students, they
will be denying themselves and their students a competitive advantage in a
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The increasing pace of technological changes and innovations is constantly creating corresponding
changes in the society. These changes, to a very large extent, have made man to become constantly on
the move for a better way of carrying our his activities. This innovative demand has placed higher
pressure on educational institutions to effect some of these changes. This is consequent upon
that institutions as centres of learning serve the purpose of incubators of knowledge and skills. The
government of Nigeria, in her quest for development and to become one of the first twenty countries of
the world by the year 2020 has just realized the importance of these institutions. Government realization
of this move is on the heels of massive unemployment rate of graduates some of whom have constantly
become part of the social problems of the country. To this change, government has pushed
to higher institutions for a solution to graduate unemployment problems which has become inherent.
There is no gainsaying that the world today has been dominated by technology driven industries
both for manufacturing, distribution of goods and offering of services. These goods and services
industrial sector focus on what Okorie (2010) described as innovation, speed, cross
functionality and strong customer relations. This means that human skills development cannot be
ince technology driven society is also human skills driven. This can be shown from the
strengths of such societies as South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, etc globally known as
little Asian Tigers. For Nigeria to develop and chase the dream of 20:2020, appropriate multi
workforce must be focused. This means that such skilled areas as information and communication
technology, and book keeping skills in business education aspect of vocational programme can be
ed entrepreneurship in technological development of Nigeria. This was captured by
Ezemoyih and Amos (2010) when they observed that technology is a problem solving process which has
as its goals, the improvement of the quality of human life, human needs and resources.
Entrepreneurship education has been recognized as an area of education that can re
tertiary institution graduates of this country and reposition the nation to a productive society. By this,
government hoped that future graduates of her institutions have the role to developing the nation
through their entrepreneurial activities. In this regards, institutions have been mandated to establish
entrepreneurship education centres through which all graduates would be made to go through some
entrepreneurship courses before graduation. It is also hoped that some of these graduates would have
had their mindset on self reliant economy as is obtainable in developed societies rather than relying on
government jobs. It is on record that the economic development recorded by developed nations have
been made by private subsector economy rather than government sector. Entrepreneurship education
and the resultant entrepreneurial activities in the western world is so attractive that private practice
oyment has become the engine of their development. These entrepreneurs are in various areas of
the economy covering all human endeavours. These western countries have become exporters of goods
and services to developing nations like Nigeria.
to the challenge thrown to institutions by government, administrators of institutions
evaluating the nature of their programme and are considering various forms of
innovations. On one hand, information and communications technological skills is interpreted as a key
factor in the transformation from backwardness of the present dispensation to entrepreneurial self reliant
economy of tomorrow. On the second note, book keeping skills and knowledge competencies is also
y factor in the effective management of enterprises. Indeed, Nwanewezi (2010),
Asuquo (2010), Azih (2010), and Ezemoyih & Amos (2010) are of the view that skill competencies in ICT
and financial records keeping need to be acquired by the entrepreneur as a means of differentiation to
gain competitive advantage. In reference to this competitive advantage, Agonmuo in Uzo and Ike (2010)
explained that effective business operations emphasise the need for information technology skills as a
vant within the global economy. In that same light, Raymond and Ojo (2010)
warned that if accounting educators fail to use the technology available in teaching their students, they
will be denying themselves and their students a competitive advantage in an increasing automated society
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
70
The increasing pace of technological changes and innovations is constantly creating corresponding
to a very large extent, have made man to become constantly on
the move for a better way of carrying our his activities. This innovative demand has placed higher
pressure on educational institutions to effect some of these changes. This is consequent upon the fact
that institutions as centres of learning serve the purpose of incubators of knowledge and skills. The
government of Nigeria, in her quest for development and to become one of the first twenty countries of
ized the importance of these institutions. Government realization
of this move is on the heels of massive unemployment rate of graduates some of whom have constantly
become part of the social problems of the country. To this change, government has pushed the challenge
to higher institutions for a solution to graduate unemployment problems which has become inherent.
There is no gainsaying that the world today has been dominated by technology driven industries
and offering of services. These goods and services
industrial sector focus on what Okorie (2010) described as innovation, speed, cross-
functionality and strong customer relations. This means that human skills development cannot be
ince technology driven society is also human skills driven. This can be shown from the
strengths of such societies as South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, etc globally known as
am of 20:2020, appropriate multi-skilled
workforce must be focused. This means that such skilled areas as information and communication
technology, and book keeping skills in business education aspect of vocational programme can be
ed entrepreneurship in technological development of Nigeria. This was captured by
Ezemoyih and Amos (2010) when they observed that technology is a problem solving process which has
resources.
Entrepreneurship education has been recognized as an area of education that can re-engineer
tertiary institution graduates of this country and reposition the nation to a productive society. By this,
r institutions have the role to developing the nation
through their entrepreneurial activities. In this regards, institutions have been mandated to establish
entrepreneurship education centres through which all graduates would be made to go through some
entrepreneurship courses before graduation. It is also hoped that some of these graduates would have
had their mindset on self reliant economy as is obtainable in developed societies rather than relying on
ic development recorded by developed nations have
been made by private subsector economy rather than government sector. Entrepreneurship education
and the resultant entrepreneurial activities in the western world is so attractive that private practice
oyment has become the engine of their development. These entrepreneurs are in various areas of
the economy covering all human endeavours. These western countries have become exporters of goods
to the challenge thrown to institutions by government, administrators of institutions
evaluating the nature of their programme and are considering various forms of
skills is interpreted as a key
factor in the transformation from backwardness of the present dispensation to entrepreneurial self reliant
economy of tomorrow. On the second note, book keeping skills and knowledge competencies is also
y factor in the effective management of enterprises. Indeed, Nwanewezi (2010),
Asuquo (2010), Azih (2010), and Ezemoyih & Amos (2010) are of the view that skill competencies in ICT
means of differentiation to
gain competitive advantage. In reference to this competitive advantage, Agonmuo in Uzo and Ike (2010)
explained that effective business operations emphasise the need for information technology skills as a
vant within the global economy. In that same light, Raymond and Ojo (2010)
warned that if accounting educators fail to use the technology available in teaching their students, they
n increasing automated society
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

At the Colleges of Education, entrepreneurship education has been introduced in their vocational
education curriculum vis--vis business education programme since 2002. With the present stance of
government on entrepreneurship education as an engine of economic development, the nature of various
subunits of vocational education such as agricultural education, business education, home economics
education, technical education , etc need to keep pace with changes in the business
Institutions are currently making key decisions concerning the application of ICT and book keeping in
education to re-strategise for economic development. Across the country, Colleges of Education are
faced with the task of updating their e
contributions of ICT and book keeping skills to this update process, Ezemoyih and Amos (2010)
explained that ICT skills enhance the accounting education teachers skills of operation, reduce mistakes
and wastages, eliminate drudgery and improve the effectiveness and efficiency in an automated office.
This research work was conducted to find out how these two variables (ICT and book keeping skills) are
taught in the entrepreneurship curriculum of Colleges
Literature review
Entrepreneurship education, Ezeyi (2011) was described as an aspect of education that is geared towards
developing in students skills, ideas and managerial abilities necessary for personal reliance. She went on
to inform that entrepreneurship education can also be interpreted to mean that type of education given to
learners to instill in them the principles, skills and practices required to see and evaluate business
opportunities, to gather necessary resourcs and desire to
inform that entrepreneurship education is also poised to help learners acquire the skills of initiating
appropriate action to ensure success in any chosen profession or occupational area. These scenarios
show that the essence of entrepreneurship education is for the individual to be knowledgeable and skilled
in the effective performance of jobs in his chosen occupation. This therefore means that the value of
entrepreneurship educational can be determined if t
employability knowledge and skill competencies. These employability knowledge and skills, in this study
are found in ICT and book keeping to equip the individual in a way that he could fit into specific paid
employment or create his own niche of business outfit upon graduation from school.
Questioning the rationale behind the unrealistic Nigerian government budgetary allocation which
has never met the UNESCO recommended 26% annual budget allocation, Jibril (2010
and Ubogu (2011) demanded to know if anything had actually changed in terms of empowering students
for self reliance, or if it had provided the necessary road map to technological advancement. Ubogu
(2011) further advised that in order f
the necessary road map, the educational system has to be skilled based and entrepreneurial in nature. He
further explained that such education system has to be that which is capable of emp
individual to be self reliant through self employment. This form of education is necessary now because,
according to Okereke and Okoroafor (2011), the geometric progression and turn out of graduates from
various levels of schooling, and are no
productive skills endlessly wait for government jobs that are hard to come by. This, according to him, is
because these graduates lack the entrepreneurship knowledge and skill competencies to be
Research questions
The following research questions were posed to guide the study:
1. To what extent has entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been implemented in the
acquisition of ICT skills in vocational education?
2. To what extent has entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been implemented in the
acquisition of book keeping skills in vocational education?
Research Hypothesis
The following research hypothesis were formulated and tested at .05 level of significance.
Ho1 There is no significance influence of the implementation of entrepreneurship education (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation in terms of ICT skills.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
At the Colleges of Education, entrepreneurship education has been introduced in their vocational
vis business education programme since 2002. With the present stance of
ip education as an engine of economic development, the nature of various
subunits of vocational education such as agricultural education, business education, home economics
education, technical education , etc need to keep pace with changes in the business
Institutions are currently making key decisions concerning the application of ICT and book keeping in
strategise for economic development. Across the country, Colleges of Education are
faced with the task of updating their entrepreneurship education curriculum. Looking at the
contributions of ICT and book keeping skills to this update process, Ezemoyih and Amos (2010)
explained that ICT skills enhance the accounting education teachers skills of operation, reduce mistakes
wastages, eliminate drudgery and improve the effectiveness and efficiency in an automated office.
This research work was conducted to find out how these two variables (ICT and book keeping skills) are
taught in the entrepreneurship curriculum of Colleges of Education.
Entrepreneurship education, Ezeyi (2011) was described as an aspect of education that is geared towards
developing in students skills, ideas and managerial abilities necessary for personal reliance. She went on
that entrepreneurship education can also be interpreted to mean that type of education given to
learners to instill in them the principles, skills and practices required to see and evaluate business
opportunities, to gather necessary resourcs and desire to take advantage of them as well. This goes to
inform that entrepreneurship education is also poised to help learners acquire the skills of initiating
appropriate action to ensure success in any chosen profession or occupational area. These scenarios
that the essence of entrepreneurship education is for the individual to be knowledgeable and skilled
in the effective performance of jobs in his chosen occupation. This therefore means that the value of
entrepreneurship educational can be determined if the individual is well equipped with relevant
employability knowledge and skill competencies. These employability knowledge and skills, in this study
are found in ICT and book keeping to equip the individual in a way that he could fit into specific paid
ployment or create his own niche of business outfit upon graduation from school.
Questioning the rationale behind the unrealistic Nigerian government budgetary allocation which
has never met the UNESCO recommended 26% annual budget allocation, Jibril (2010
and Ubogu (2011) demanded to know if anything had actually changed in terms of empowering students
for self reliance, or if it had provided the necessary road map to technological advancement. Ubogu
(2011) further advised that in order for our education to empower students for self reliance and prepare
the necessary road map, the educational system has to be skilled based and entrepreneurial in nature. He
further explained that such education system has to be that which is capable of emp
individual to be self reliant through self employment. This form of education is necessary now because,
according to Okereke and Okoroafor (2011), the geometric progression and turn out of graduates from
various levels of schooling, and are not employed is a social problem. These graduates, for lack of
productive skills endlessly wait for government jobs that are hard to come by. This, according to him, is
because these graduates lack the entrepreneurship knowledge and skill competencies to be
The following research questions were posed to guide the study:
To what extent has entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been implemented in the
acquisition of ICT skills in vocational education?
entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been implemented in the
acquisition of book keeping skills in vocational education?
The following research hypothesis were formulated and tested at .05 level of significance.
significance influence of the implementation of entrepreneurship education (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation in terms of ICT skills.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
71
At the Colleges of Education, entrepreneurship education has been introduced in their vocational
vis business education programme since 2002. With the present stance of
ip education as an engine of economic development, the nature of various
subunits of vocational education such as agricultural education, business education, home economics
education, technical education , etc need to keep pace with changes in the business environment.
Institutions are currently making key decisions concerning the application of ICT and book keeping in
strategise for economic development. Across the country, Colleges of Education are
ntrepreneurship education curriculum. Looking at the
contributions of ICT and book keeping skills to this update process, Ezemoyih and Amos (2010)
explained that ICT skills enhance the accounting education teachers skills of operation, reduce mistakes
wastages, eliminate drudgery and improve the effectiveness and efficiency in an automated office.
This research work was conducted to find out how these two variables (ICT and book keeping skills) are
Entrepreneurship education, Ezeyi (2011) was described as an aspect of education that is geared towards
developing in students skills, ideas and managerial abilities necessary for personal reliance. She went on
that entrepreneurship education can also be interpreted to mean that type of education given to
learners to instill in them the principles, skills and practices required to see and evaluate business
take advantage of them as well. This goes to
inform that entrepreneurship education is also poised to help learners acquire the skills of initiating
appropriate action to ensure success in any chosen profession or occupational area. These scenarios
that the essence of entrepreneurship education is for the individual to be knowledgeable and skilled
in the effective performance of jobs in his chosen occupation. This therefore means that the value of
he individual is well equipped with relevant
employability knowledge and skill competencies. These employability knowledge and skills, in this study
are found in ICT and book keeping to equip the individual in a way that he could fit into specific paid
ployment or create his own niche of business outfit upon graduation from school.
Questioning the rationale behind the unrealistic Nigerian government budgetary allocation which
has never met the UNESCO recommended 26% annual budget allocation, Jibril (2010), Ibrahim (2010)
and Ubogu (2011) demanded to know if anything had actually changed in terms of empowering students
for self reliance, or if it had provided the necessary road map to technological advancement. Ubogu
or our education to empower students for self reliance and prepare
the necessary road map, the educational system has to be skilled based and entrepreneurial in nature. He
further explained that such education system has to be that which is capable of empowering the
individual to be self reliant through self employment. This form of education is necessary now because,
according to Okereke and Okoroafor (2011), the geometric progression and turn out of graduates from
t employed is a social problem. These graduates, for lack of
productive skills endlessly wait for government jobs that are hard to come by. This, according to him, is
because these graduates lack the entrepreneurship knowledge and skill competencies to be self employed.
To what extent has entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been implemented in the
entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been implemented in the
The following research hypothesis were formulated and tested at .05 level of significance.
significance influence of the implementation of entrepreneurship education (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation in terms of ICT skills.
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Ho2 There is no significance influence of the implementation of entrepreneurshi
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation in terms of book keeping skills
Methodology
The study was a survey design. The population was 1,400 students and a sample of 800 was used for the
study. Out of the 800 questionnaire distributed, all the 800 were retrieved by the researcher given a one
hundred percent return. The questionnaire contained two sections of 10 items each dealing with issues
relating to the specific variables. The questionnaire was design
instrument was subjected to face and content validity by two lecturers of vocational education
programme. The reliability co-efficient of the instrument was determined by the use of Crombach Alpha.
This yielded a co-efficient of 0.72. Mean statistic was used for answering the research questions while
regression analysis was used to test hypothesis at .05 level of significance. Any item with a mean of less
than 2.50 was considered not significant while any item
significant
Result and Discussions
In line with research questions, the results of findings are summarized below:

Research Question One:
To what extent has entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been implement
ICT skills in vocational education?

Table 1: Mean rating of respondents on information communication and technology skills
S/
N
Items

To what extent has entrepreneurship
curriculum for NCE II been implemented
in the acquisition of ICT skills
1
Leading students on excursion trips to ICT
service providing companies
2
Teaching students the concepts of team
work in ICT environment
3
Using interactive packages to expand
students knowledge of ICT
4
Teaching students the use of quick media to
design maps and group objects together
5
Introduce students to handwriting
recognition technology to convert notes to
text
6
Utilising minio-capture ink recording
system to teach students interactive series
7
Application of interactive
technology to capture images for
presentation and meetings
8
Attending to all topics relating to networking
of information
9
Teaching students the concept of creativity
with the use of ICT facilities
10
Encouraging students to attend workshops
aimed at learning the relationships between
ICT skills and entrepreneurship education

Total
NS = Not Satisfy, S = Satisfies
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
There is no significance influence of the implementation of entrepreneurship education (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation in terms of book keeping skills
The study was a survey design. The population was 1,400 students and a sample of 800 was used for the
800 questionnaire distributed, all the 800 were retrieved by the researcher given a one
hundred percent return. The questionnaire contained two sections of 10 items each dealing with issues
relating to the specific variables. The questionnaire was designed using a four point Likert scale and the
instrument was subjected to face and content validity by two lecturers of vocational education
efficient of the instrument was determined by the use of Crombach Alpha.
efficient of 0.72. Mean statistic was used for answering the research questions while
regression analysis was used to test hypothesis at .05 level of significance. Any item with a mean of less
than 2.50 was considered not significant while any item with a mean of 2.50 and above was considered
In line with research questions, the results of findings are summarized below:
To what extent has entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been implemented in the acquisition of
ICT skills in vocational education?
Mean rating of respondents on information communication and technology skills
N = 800
VGE 4 GE 3 LE 2 VLE 1 Sum
entrepreneurship
curriculum for NCE II been implemented
in the acquisition of ICT skills

Leading students on excursion trips to ICT
service providing companies
178 95 257 270 1780
Teaching students the concepts of team
183 158 192 266 1858
Using interactive packages to expand

132 170 238 261 1773
Teaching students the use of quick media to
design maps and group objects together
145 149 290 217 1822
Introduce students to handwriting
recognition technology to convert notes to 208 162 229 202 1976
capture ink recording
system to teach students interactive series
170 175 295 160 1955
Application of interactive teaching
technology to capture images for 221 229 181 169 2102
Attending to all topics relating to networking
157 171 278 194 1891
Teaching students the concept of creativity

179 181 270 169 1971
Encouraging students to attend workshops
aimed at learning the relationships between
ICT skills and entrepreneurship education
168 190 288 154 1973
1741 1680 2518 2061 19101

Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
72
p education (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation in terms of book keeping skills
The study was a survey design. The population was 1,400 students and a sample of 800 was used for the
800 questionnaire distributed, all the 800 were retrieved by the researcher given a one
hundred percent return. The questionnaire contained two sections of 10 items each dealing with issues
ed using a four point Likert scale and the
instrument was subjected to face and content validity by two lecturers of vocational education
efficient of the instrument was determined by the use of Crombach Alpha.
efficient of 0.72. Mean statistic was used for answering the research questions while
regression analysis was used to test hypothesis at .05 level of significance. Any item with a mean of less
with a mean of 2.50 and above was considered
ed in the acquisition of
Mean rating of respondents on information communication and technology skills
Sum
_
X
Decision

1780 2.23 NS
1858 2.32 NS
1773 2.22 NS
1822 2.28 NS
1976 2.45 NS
1955 2.44 NS
2102 2.63 N
1891 2.37 NS
1971 2.46 NS
1973 2.46 NS
19101 2.39 NS
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Table 1 shows a mean of 2.39 which is less than the cut
entrepreneurship curriculum implementation does not satisfy students needs with regards to what they
need to know in information communication and technology skills for small enterprises operations.

Research Question Two: To what extent has entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been
implemented in the acquisition of book keeping skills in vocational education?


Table 2: Mean rating of respondents on book keeping skills
S/
N
Items

To what extent has entrepreneurship
curriculum for NCE III been implemented in
the acquisition of book keeping skills
1
Attending workshops aimed at capturing the
basics of book keeping in entrepreneurship
business activities
2
Teaching students to acquire the ability to perform
year-end routines
3
Teaching students the principle of regular checks
to ensure that sales and purchase order processing
are updated
4
Teaching students the concept of analysis of
receipts and payment record as an important
aspect of book keeping
5
Giving students series of case studies to enable
them acquire the knowledge of preparation of
income statement
6
Teaching students the rudiments to recognise the
ability to develop statement of cash flow
7
Teaching students to develop the ability of
creating bank, cash and loss account
8
Utilisation of appropriate instructional resources
to teach students the preparation of profit and loss
account
9
Encouraging students to attend conferences aimed
at discovering the use of ICT in the analysis of
inventory management records
10
Teaching students methos of using ICT facilities
in the process of receipts and invoices
Total
NS = Not Satisfy, S = Satisfies
The data in Table 2 shows a mean of 2.31. This result shows
curriculum does not satisfy students needs with regards to what they need to know book keeping skills
for small scale business operation.

Research Hypothesis
Ho 1 There is no significance influence of the
(theory and practice) on students needs for small scale enterprise operation with regards to
terms of ICT skills.





Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Table 1 shows a mean of 2.39 which is less than the cut-off point of 2.50. This means that the NCE II
entrepreneurship curriculum implementation does not satisfy students needs with regards to what they
information communication and technology skills for small enterprises operations.
To what extent has entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been
implemented in the acquisition of book keeping skills in vocational education?
Mean rating of respondents on book keeping skills
N = 800
VGE 4 GE3 LE2 VLE1
To what extent has entrepreneurship
curriculum for NCE III been implemented in
the acquisition of book keeping skills

Attending workshops aimed at capturing the
basics of book keeping in entrepreneurship 94 166 220 312
Teaching students to acquire the ability to perform
195 198 168 240
the principle of regular checks
to ensure that sales and purchase order processing 139 145 248 268
Teaching students the concept of analysis of
receipts and payment record as an important 113 147 274 266
Giving students series of case studies to enable
them acquire the knowledge of preparation of 145 143 263 245
Teaching students the rudiments to recognise the
ability to develop statement of cash flow
168 171 267 194
Teaching students to develop the ability of
creating bank, cash and loss account
202 238 190 169
Utilisation of appropriate instructional resources
to teach students the preparation of profit and loss 191 270 143 200
Encouraging students to attend conferences aimed
at discovering the use of ICT in the analysis of
inventory management records
132 133 265 270
Teaching students methos of using ICT facilities
in the process of receipts and invoices
166 181 206 247
1545 1792 2251 2415
The data in Table 2 shows a mean of 2.31. This result shows that the NCE II entrepreneurship
curriculum does not satisfy students needs with regards to what they need to know book keeping skills
for small scale business operation.
There is no significance influence of the implementation of entrepreneurship education
(theory and practice) on students needs for small scale enterprise operation with regards to
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
73
off point of 2.50. This means that the NCE II
entrepreneurship curriculum implementation does not satisfy students needs with regards to what they
information communication and technology skills for small enterprises operations.
To what extent has entrepreneurship curriculum for NCE 11 been
implemented in the acquisition of book keeping skills in vocational education?
Sum
_
X
Decisio
n

1641 2.05 NS
1948 2.43 NS
1755 2.19 NS
1706 2.13 NS
1784 2.23 NS
1914 2.39 NS
2074 2.59 S
2060 2.58 S
1727 2.16 NS
1866 2.33 NS
18474 2.31 NS
that the NCE II entrepreneurship
curriculum does not satisfy students needs with regards to what they need to know book keeping skills
implementation of entrepreneurship education
(theory and practice) on students needs for small scale enterprise operation with regards to
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Table 3: Multiple regression of joint relationship of independent variable (theory and prac
enterprises operation in terms of ICT skills.

Model
Unstandardised
Coefficients
B
1 (Constant) -1.908
Theory of NCE
11 Ent Curr

.979
Pract of NCE
11 Ent Curr

.117
Table 3 shows how the individual aspect of the NCE II curriculum (theory and practice) exerts
different levels of influence on students needs for small business operation as
23.801; practice, t = 2.808. That means the theory aspect of NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum
currently exerted a higher influence on students needs for small enterprises operations in terms of ICT
skills.
Table 4: Model summary of the influence of NCE III entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation with regards to ICT skills.
Model R R-Square
1 0.972 0.946
P 0.05, Critical R-value = 0.068
Table 4. shows a calculated r-value of 0.972 which was greater than the critical r
alpha level. It also showed an R
(theory and practice) account for 94.6% of enterprises operation needs of students with regards to ICT
skills.
Table 5: Analysis of variance of the influence of the NCE II entrepreneurship
practice) on ICT skills
Model Sum of Square
1 Regression
Residual
Total
2692.906
155.094
2848.000

Table 5 shows the calculated F-value of 6919.192 as against the critical F
This means that the calculated F-value of 6919.192 was significant. The result shows that the NCE II
entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and practice) exert a significan
for small scale business operation with regards to ICT skills.
Ho2 There is no significance influence of the implementation of entrepreneurship education
(theory and practice) on students needs for small scale enterpris
keeping skills.
Table 6: Multiple regression of joint relationship of independent variable (theory and practice) on
enterprises operation with regards to book keeping skills.

Model
Unstandardised
Coefficients

1 (Constant)
Theory of NCE II Ent. Curr .518
Pract. of NCE II Ent. Curr .539
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Multiple regression of joint relationship of independent variable (theory and prac
enterprises operation in terms of ICT skills.
Unstandardised
Coefficients
Standardised
Coefficients

T
Std error Beta
1.908 .222 -8.583


.041

.872

23.801


.042

.103

2.808
Table 3 shows how the individual aspect of the NCE II curriculum (theory and practice) exerts
different levels of influence on students needs for small business operation as follows: theory, t =
23.801; practice, t = 2.808. That means the theory aspect of NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum
currently exerted a higher influence on students needs for small enterprises operations in terms of ICT
f the influence of NCE III entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation with regards to ICT skills.
Square Adjusted R-Square Std Error
0.946 0.945 0.44113

value of 0.972 which was greater than the critical r-value of 0.068 at .05
alpha level. It also showed an R
2
of 0.946, indicating that NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum
(theory and practice) account for 94.6% of enterprises operation needs of students with regards to ICT
Analysis of variance of the influence of the NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and
Df Mean square F
2
797
799
1346.453
.195
6919.192
value of 6919.192 as against the critical F-value of 2.99 at P
value of 6919.192 was significant. The result shows that the NCE II
entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and practice) exert a significant joint influence on students needs
for small scale business operation with regards to ICT skills.
There is no significance influence of the implementation of entrepreneurship education
(theory and practice) on students needs for small scale enterprise operation with regards to book
Multiple regression of joint relationship of independent variable (theory and practice) on
enterprises operation with regards to book keeping skills.
Unstandardised
Coefficients
Standardised
Coefficients

T
B Std error Beta
-1.640 .283 -5.791
.518 .052 .473 9.879
.539 .053 .486 10.150
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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74
Multiple regression of joint relationship of independent variable (theory and practice) on


Sig
8.583 .000
23.801

.000


.005
Table 3 shows how the individual aspect of the NCE II curriculum (theory and practice) exerts
follows: theory, t =
23.801; practice, t = 2.808. That means the theory aspect of NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum
currently exerted a higher influence on students needs for small enterprises operations in terms of ICT
f the influence of NCE III entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation with regards to ICT skills.
Std Error

value of 0.068 at .05
of 0.946, indicating that NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum
(theory and practice) account for 94.6% of enterprises operation needs of students with regards to ICT
curriculum (theory and
Sig
.000a
value of 2.99 at P .05.
value of 6919.192 was significant. The result shows that the NCE II
t joint influence on students needs
There is no significance influence of the implementation of entrepreneurship education
e operation with regards to book
Multiple regression of joint relationship of independent variable (theory and practice) on
T

Sig
5.791 .000a
9.879 .000
10.150 .000
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Table 6 shows how the individual aspect of the NCE II curriculum (theory and practice) exerts
different levels of influence on students needs for small enterprises operation as follows: theory, t =
9.879; practice, t = 10.150. That means the practical aspect of book ke
on students needs for small enterprises operations.
Table 7: Model summary of the influence of NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation with regards t
Model R
1 0.952
P 0.05; Critical R-value = 0.068
Table 7 shows a calculated r
0.068 at .05 alpha level. The
entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and practice) account for 91% of enterprises operation needs of
students in terms of book keeping skills.
Table 8: Analysis of variance of the influence of t
practice) on book keeping skills
Model Sum of Square
1 Regression
Residual
Total
2460.125
251.875
2712.000
Table 8 shows the calculated F-value of 3892.251 as against the critical F
implication of this is that the calculated F
NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and practice) exert a significant joint influence on
students needs for small scale enterpris
Discussions
In the study, results of analysis show that implementation of ICT content of entrepreneurship
curriculum does not give students their needs to acquire deep understanding of what it takes to oper
a small scale business. From the analysis, Table 4 shows an r
value of 0.068. By this values, it means that the entrepreneurship curriculum have a significant
influence on the needs of students acquisition of s
show that while the theoretical contents of the curriculum was vigourously implemented (t = 23.801),
the practical content was poorly implemented (p = 2.808). From the findings of this study, it is
observed that NCE 11 entrepreneurship curriculum in the College in terms of ICT content is not
effectively implemented. This may account from either lack of qualified lecturers or lack of required
facilities or both. This may be the reason why students were
enable them have the mind-set for self employment. The need for effective ICT skills has been
underscored by Elom (2010) who opined that technology is made possible by high speed and efficient
machines operated by skilled workers either in the private or public sector economy.
Analysis of data in Table 2 shows that the implementation of book keeping skills content of
NCE 11 in terms of book keeping does not satisfy students needs for business operation in terms of
book keeping skills. Table 2 shows a mean of 2.36 as compared to the cut
Table 7 shows a r-value of 0.952 as against the critical r
theory and practice of entrepreneurship curriculum
small business operations. However, in Table 6, the findings reveal that more attention has been given
to practical aspect of the curriculum (p = 10.150) than theoretical aspect (t = 9.879). Though, thi
the case here, the overall influence of low attention on practical implementation in visible while higher
attention on theoretical is stronger.


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
how the individual aspect of the NCE II curriculum (theory and practice) exerts
different levels of influence on students needs for small enterprises operation as follows: theory, t =
9.879; practice, t = 10.150. That means the practical aspect of book keeping exerted a higher influence
on students needs for small enterprises operations.
Model summary of the influence of NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and
practice) on students needs for small scale enterprises operation with regards to book keeping skills.
R-Square Adjusted R-Square Std Error
0.907 0.909 0.56216
Table 7 shows a calculated r-value of 0.952 which was greater than the critical r
0.068 at .05 alpha level. The table also showed an R
2
of 0.907. This means that NCE II
entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and practice) account for 91% of enterprises operation needs of
students in terms of book keeping skills.
Analysis of variance of the influence of the NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and
Square Df Mean quare F
2
797
799
1230.063
.316

3892.251
value of 3892.251 as against the critical F-value of 2.99 at P
implication of this is that the calculated F-value of 3892.251 was significant. The result shows that the
NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and practice) exert a significant joint influence on
students needs for small scale enterprises operation with regards to book keeping skills.
In the study, results of analysis show that implementation of ICT content of entrepreneurship
curriculum does not give students their needs to acquire deep understanding of what it takes to oper
a small scale business. From the analysis, Table 4 shows an r-value of .972 as against the critical r
value of 0.068. By this values, it means that the entrepreneurship curriculum have a significant
influence on the needs of students acquisition of skills for small business operation. Table 3 however
show that while the theoretical contents of the curriculum was vigourously implemented (t = 23.801),
the practical content was poorly implemented (p = 2.808). From the findings of this study, it is
erved that NCE 11 entrepreneurship curriculum in the College in terms of ICT content is not
effectively implemented. This may account from either lack of qualified lecturers or lack of required
facilities or both. This may be the reason why students were not able to acquire the needed skills to
set for self employment. The need for effective ICT skills has been
underscored by Elom (2010) who opined that technology is made possible by high speed and efficient
skilled workers either in the private or public sector economy.
Analysis of data in Table 2 shows that the implementation of book keeping skills content of
NCE 11 in terms of book keeping does not satisfy students needs for business operation in terms of
book keeping skills. Table 2 shows a mean of 2.36 as compared to the cut-off point of 2.50. Again,
value of 0.952 as against the critical r-value of 0.068. This figure means that the
theory and practice of entrepreneurship curriculum has a significant influence on students needs for
small business operations. However, in Table 6, the findings reveal that more attention has been given
to practical aspect of the curriculum (p = 10.150) than theoretical aspect (t = 9.879). Though, thi
the case here, the overall influence of low attention on practical implementation in visible while higher
attention on theoretical is stronger.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
75
how the individual aspect of the NCE II curriculum (theory and practice) exerts
different levels of influence on students needs for small enterprises operation as follows: theory, t =
eping exerted a higher influence
Model summary of the influence of NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and
o book keeping skills.
Std Error
0.56216
value of 0.952 which was greater than the critical r-value of
of 0.907. This means that NCE II
entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and practice) account for 91% of enterprises operation needs of
he NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and
Sig
3892.251

.000a
value of 2.99 at P .05. The
value of 3892.251 was significant. The result shows that the
NCE II entrepreneurship curriculum (theory and practice) exert a significant joint influence on
es operation with regards to book keeping skills.
In the study, results of analysis show that implementation of ICT content of entrepreneurship
curriculum does not give students their needs to acquire deep understanding of what it takes to operate
value of .972 as against the critical r-
value of 0.068. By this values, it means that the entrepreneurship curriculum have a significant
kills for small business operation. Table 3 however
show that while the theoretical contents of the curriculum was vigourously implemented (t = 23.801),
the practical content was poorly implemented (p = 2.808). From the findings of this study, it is
erved that NCE 11 entrepreneurship curriculum in the College in terms of ICT content is not
effectively implemented. This may account from either lack of qualified lecturers or lack of required
not able to acquire the needed skills to
set for self employment. The need for effective ICT skills has been
underscored by Elom (2010) who opined that technology is made possible by high speed and efficient
skilled workers either in the private or public sector economy.
Analysis of data in Table 2 shows that the implementation of book keeping skills content of
NCE 11 in terms of book keeping does not satisfy students needs for business operation in terms of
off point of 2.50. Again,
value of 0.068. This figure means that the
has a significant influence on students needs for
small business operations. However, in Table 6, the findings reveal that more attention has been given
to practical aspect of the curriculum (p = 10.150) than theoretical aspect (t = 9.879). Though, this is
the case here, the overall influence of low attention on practical implementation in visible while higher
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Conclusion
Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn from the study: The
vocational education curriculum offered in the NCE 11 level of vocational education is associated with
small scale business operation skills development programme. This was found in terms of information
and communication technology, and b
teaching and learning process, there was discovered absolute lack of facilities both in human and
material resources. This was responsible for the attention of teaching and learning process
focused more on theoretical aspects at the near total exclusion of practical contents implementation.
Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from this stud
Commission for Colleges of Educatio
concerns, the establishment of a centre for entrepreneurship education in all higher institutions. This
integration is with a view to establishing a centre f
qualified and experienced lecturer
related conferences and workshops for qualified teaching personnel to be recommended to their
institutions for employment as lecturers in the
which non-qualified lecturers have been made to handle the teaching of entrepreneurship education
courses leading to poor delivery of contents.
References
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Azih, N. (2010). Modern accounting skills required by accounting education students.
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Ezemoyih, C. M. and Amos, O. N. (2010). Evaluation of information and communication technology
skills needed by accounting education
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Ezeyi, V. N. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: An indispensable tool for sustainable business
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Ibrahim, A. (2010). Entrepreneurship education as a necessary curriculum in higer educational
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn from the study: The
vocational education curriculum offered in the NCE 11 level of vocational education is associated with
small scale business operation skills development programme. This was found in terms of information
and communication technology, and book keeping skills contents of the curriculum. In the course of
teaching and learning process, there was discovered absolute lack of facilities both in human and
material resources. This was responsible for the attention of teaching and learning process
focused more on theoretical aspects at the near total exclusion of practical contents implementation.
Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from this study, it is recommended
for Colleges of Education (NCCE) should integrate wholly, with the new government
the establishment of a centre for entrepreneurship education in all higher institutions. This
integration is with a view to establishing a centre for entrepreneurship education and
lecturer. The head of this unit shall ensure to scout around at vocationally
related conferences and workshops for qualified teaching personnel to be recommended to their
institutions for employment as lecturers in the centre. The new ideal will do away with the method by
qualified lecturers have been made to handle the teaching of entrepreneurship education
courses leading to poor delivery of contents.
Asuquo, E. E. (2010). Business and information processing skills needed by business centre operators.
, 6 (2): 95-101.
Azih, N. (2010). Modern accounting skills required by accounting education students.
-130.
iew of entrepreneurship in vocational and technical education.
Business and Vocational Education, 1 (1): 73-78.
Ezemoyih, C. M. and Amos, O. N. (2010). Evaluation of information and communication technology
skills needed by accounting education lecturers in Nigeria. Business Education Journal,
Ezeyi, V. N. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: An indispensable tool for sustainable business
Association of Business Educators of Nigeria Book of Readings, 1 (11): 67-71.
m, A. (2010). Entrepreneurship education as a necessary curriculum in higer educational
Journal of Business Educational Research and Development, 1 (1):135
Jibril, A. H. (2010). Towards improving the standard of vocational and technical education in Nigeria.
Journal of Business Educational Research and Development, 1 (1): 115-120.
Nwanewezi, M. C. (2010). Problems in business education research in ICT era as perceived by
Business Education Journal, 6 (2): 46-54.
Okereke, L. C. and Okoroafor, S. N. (2011). Entrepreneurship skills development for millennium
development goals (MDGs) in business education. Association of business educators of Nigeria Book of
ing for human assets: A strategy for enhancing human
resources/organizational management. Journal of Business and Vocational Education
Raymond, U. and Ojo K. E. (2010). Promoting accounting education in an era of information and
communication technology. Business Education Journal, 6 (2): 276-285.
Ubagu, R. (2011). Introduction of entrepreneurship curriculum and instructions in Nigerian
Universities: Prospects and challenges. Association of Business Educators of Nigeria Book of Readings,
Uzo, O. and Ike, B. E. (2010). Busines s education and employable skills in the e-era.
(1): 54-59.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
76
Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn from the study: The entrepreneurship
vocational education curriculum offered in the NCE 11 level of vocational education is associated with
small scale business operation skills development programme. This was found in terms of information
ook keeping skills contents of the curriculum. In the course of
teaching and learning process, there was discovered absolute lack of facilities both in human and
material resources. This was responsible for the attention of teaching and learning process to be
focused more on theoretical aspects at the near total exclusion of practical contents implementation.
y, it is recommended that the National
n (NCCE) should integrate wholly, with the new government
the establishment of a centre for entrepreneurship education in all higher institutions. This
or entrepreneurship education and headed by a
The head of this unit shall ensure to scout around at vocationally
related conferences and workshops for qualified teaching personnel to be recommended to their
centre. The new ideal will do away with the method by
qualified lecturers have been made to handle the teaching of entrepreneurship education
n processing skills needed by business centre operators.
Azih, N. (2010). Modern accounting skills required by accounting education students. Business
iew of entrepreneurship in vocational and technical education. Journal of
Ezemoyih, C. M. and Amos, O. N. (2010). Evaluation of information and communication technology
Business Education Journal, 6 (2):110-
Ezeyi, V. N. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: An indispensable tool for sustainable business
71.
m, A. (2010). Entrepreneurship education as a necessary curriculum in higer educational
, 1 (1):135-140.
d technical education in Nigeria.
Nwanewezi, M. C. (2010). Problems in business education research in ICT era as perceived by
Okereke, L. C. and Okoroafor, S. N. (2011). Entrepreneurship skills development for millennium
Association of business educators of Nigeria Book of
ing for human assets: A strategy for enhancing human
Journal of Business and Vocational Education, 1 (1): 101-107.
Raymond, U. and Ojo K. E. (2010). Promoting accounting education in an era of information and
Ubagu, R. (2011). Introduction of entrepreneurship curriculum and instructions in Nigerian
Association of Business Educators of Nigeria Book of Readings,
era. Journal of Business
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.





EFFECTS OF STIMULUS CONTROL ON INCLINATION TO PORNOGRAPHY BY
SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS AND UNIVERSITYS UNDERGADUATES IN

AZUKA F.N. GODSPRESENCE
Department o
E-mail:
ABSTRACT
This study investigated the effects of stimulus c
two selected schools in Rivers State.
of the University of Port Harcourt for 2003 academic session and
First International Academy, Rumuokoro. Two research questions and two hypotheses, which were
tested at 0.05 alpha levels, were used in the study. Quasi
sample is composed of 160 students fro
another 80 non-porn users. The study sample was derived through purposive sampling. Instrument
for data collection is a questionnaire entitled: Rating Scale for Students Inclination to
Pornography. It is a five point Likert scale. The instruments reliability coefficient is r=0. 82; it was
determined through Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Collected data were analyzed
using mean (X) and t-test statistics. Result of analyses are
using pornography is not significantly different (p< 0.5) from mean sexual response of non
there is a significant difference (p>. 05) between the mean attitude of the students that received
treatment and those that were in the control group. The study recommends that, among other things,
the services of counselling psychologists and therapists should be enlisted in schools and colleges to
take care of students who have psychosexual problems.








Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
EFFECTS OF STIMULUS CONTROL ON INCLINATION TO PORNOGRAPHY BY
SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS AND UNIVERSITYS UNDERGADUATES IN
RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

By
AZUKA F.N. GODSPRESENCE
Department of Educational Foundations
University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
Enugu State, Nigeria.
mail: pheloskky.2blessed@gmail.com;
azukaking@yahoo.com
07033637883
e effects of stimulus control on students inclination to pornography among
two selected schools in Rivers State. The population for the study consists of all the regular students
of the University of Port Harcourt for 2003 academic session and all secondary school students of
First International Academy, Rumuokoro. Two research questions and two hypotheses, which were
tested at 0.05 alpha levels, were used in the study. Quasi-experimental design was adopted. The study
of 160 students from both schools divided into two groups of 80 porn users and
porn users. The study sample was derived through purposive sampling. Instrument
for data collection is a questionnaire entitled: Rating Scale for Students Inclination to
aphy. It is a five point Likert scale. The instruments reliability coefficient is r=0. 82; it was
determined through Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Collected data were analyzed
test statistics. Result of analyses are: (1) the mean sexual response of students
using pornography is not significantly different (p< 0.5) from mean sexual response of non
there is a significant difference (p>. 05) between the mean attitude of the students that received
d those that were in the control group. The study recommends that, among other things,
the services of counselling psychologists and therapists should be enlisted in schools and colleges to
take care of students who have psychosexual problems.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
77
EFFECTS OF STIMULUS CONTROL ON INCLINATION TO PORNOGRAPHY BY
SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS AND UNIVERSITYS UNDERGADUATES IN
ontrol on students inclination to pornography among
ll the regular students
ry school students of
First International Academy, Rumuokoro. Two research questions and two hypotheses, which were
experimental design was adopted. The study
divided into two groups of 80 porn users and
porn users. The study sample was derived through purposive sampling. Instrument
for data collection is a questionnaire entitled: Rating Scale for Students Inclination to
aphy. It is a five point Likert scale. The instruments reliability coefficient is r=0. 82; it was
determined through Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Collected data were analyzed
: (1) the mean sexual response of students
using pornography is not significantly different (p< 0.5) from mean sexual response of non-users, (2)
there is a significant difference (p>. 05) between the mean attitude of the students that received
d those that were in the control group. The study recommends that, among other things,
the services of counselling psychologists and therapists should be enlisted in schools and colleges to
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction

This study is set against the backdrop that viewing or reading lascivious material has led many people,
especially youths of school age into some one form of deviant sexual behaviour or the other, and
sometimes continual consumption of pornography as it is
promiscuous behaviour. This study, therefore, is set out to determine how the application of a
psychotherapy known as stimulus control
pornography.

Nwankwo (1995) posits that human behaviour is goal
either internal or external stimuli or frame of reference. Human beings can respond to various forms of
stimuli at different times, in some cases the response
Therefore, our responses to certain stimuli in our environment can constitute a danger depending on the
degree of response, hence the adoption and application of stimulus control as a psychotherapeutic
technique to take care of undesirable responses.

Essuman, Nwaogu and Nwachukwu (1990, 49) defines Stimulus Control as a process by which
environmental contingencies are altered in order to reduce the probability of a particular behaviour
occurring, for example keeping medicine out of reach of children serves as Stimulus Control. Simply put,
stimulus control is the control of a persons reactions by the characteristics of the situation.

Pornography

Pornography is the describing or showing of naked people
excitement (Hornby, 1995). The American Heritage Dictionary defines pornography as written, graphic,
or other forms of communication intended to
pornography by Mackinnon (1983) focuses on male dominance, thus:

Pornography is the celebration, the promotion, the authorization and the legitimization
of rape, sexual harassment, battery, and the abuse of children all for the purpose of the
sexual pleasure of men. Simply p
of which rape, battery, sexual harassment, and the sexual and physical abuse of
children are also forms of practice. It is affirmatively employing the enforcement of
others powerlessness.

Similarly, Russell (1993) defines pornography as material that combines sex and/or the exposure
of genitals with abuse or degradation in a manner that appears to endorse, condone, or encourage such
behaviour.

Lascivious material (pornography) designed to arouse sexu
It was initially within the reach of the affluent and the royalties. Later on the innovation of photography
and motion pictures, videocassette recorder escalated the trend. Recently, the proliferation of cable
network and the internet has made pornography more readily accessible. Young people growing up in our
heavily sexualized culture are being exposed to sexually explicit material and message before they are
mentally or emotionally ripe to understand and evaluat
sex education is taking place in the media, not in the school, church or home.

According to Shahid, presented in khan (online, 2003), Muslim region has an interesting
philosophy of pornography and nudity
entertainment, but a disease and an addiction, and that Muslims should therefore avoid it. Child
pornography is another disease, Muslim position stresses further that child pornography which has
contributed to 500,000 cases of incest involving father and daughter per year in the United States of
America is totally an aberration. Record also has it that child slave trade for sex involves five million
children worldwide. In the United States alone more t
because of exposure to pornography.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
This study is set against the backdrop that viewing or reading lascivious material has led many people,
especially youths of school age into some one form of deviant sexual behaviour or the other, and
sometimes continual consumption of pornography as it is fondly called has led many young people into
promiscuous behaviour. This study, therefore, is set out to determine how the application of a
stimulus control could help to check inclinational attitude of students toward
Nwankwo (1995) posits that human behaviour is goal-oriented and normally arises in response to
either internal or external stimuli or frame of reference. Human beings can respond to various forms of
stimuli at different times, in some cases the response (behaviour) is undesirable and in others, desirable.
Therefore, our responses to certain stimuli in our environment can constitute a danger depending on the
degree of response, hence the adoption and application of stimulus control as a psychotherapeutic
technique to take care of undesirable responses.
Essuman, Nwaogu and Nwachukwu (1990, 49) defines Stimulus Control as a process by which
environmental contingencies are altered in order to reduce the probability of a particular behaviour
ample keeping medicine out of reach of children serves as Stimulus Control. Simply put,
stimulus control is the control of a persons reactions by the characteristics of the situation.
Pornography is the describing or showing of naked people or sexual acts in order to cause sexual
excitement (Hornby, 1995). The American Heritage Dictionary defines pornography as written, graphic,
s of communication intended to excite lascivious feelings. Feminist definition of
nnon (1983) focuses on male dominance, thus:
Pornography is the celebration, the promotion, the authorization and the legitimization
of rape, sexual harassment, battery, and the abuse of children all for the purpose of the
sexual pleasure of men. Simply put, pornography eroticizes dominance and submission,
of which rape, battery, sexual harassment, and the sexual and physical abuse of
children are also forms of practice. It is affirmatively employing the enforcement of
others powerlessness.
ssell (1993) defines pornography as material that combines sex and/or the exposure
of genitals with abuse or degradation in a manner that appears to endorse, condone, or encourage such
Lascivious material (pornography) designed to arouse sexual feelings dates back thousands of years.
It was initially within the reach of the affluent and the royalties. Later on the innovation of photography
and motion pictures, videocassette recorder escalated the trend. Recently, the proliferation of cable
work and the internet has made pornography more readily accessible. Young people growing up in our
heavily sexualized culture are being exposed to sexually explicit material and message before they are
mentally or emotionally ripe to understand and evaluate what they are viewing. Unfortunately, majority of
sex education is taking place in the media, not in the school, church or home.
According to Shahid, presented in khan (online, 2003), Muslim region has an interesting
philosophy of pornography and nudity. It posits that pornography is neither educational nor
entertainment, but a disease and an addiction, and that Muslims should therefore avoid it. Child
pornography is another disease, Muslim position stresses further that child pornography which has
ibuted to 500,000 cases of incest involving father and daughter per year in the United States of
America is totally an aberration. Record also has it that child slave trade for sex involves five million
children worldwide. In the United States alone more than 100, 000 rapes are being committed annually
because of exposure to pornography.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
78
This study is set against the backdrop that viewing or reading lascivious material has led many people,
especially youths of school age into some one form of deviant sexual behaviour or the other, and
has led many young people into
promiscuous behaviour. This study, therefore, is set out to determine how the application of a
could help to check inclinational attitude of students toward
oriented and normally arises in response to
either internal or external stimuli or frame of reference. Human beings can respond to various forms of
(behaviour) is undesirable and in others, desirable.
Therefore, our responses to certain stimuli in our environment can constitute a danger depending on the
degree of response, hence the adoption and application of stimulus control as a psychotherapeutic
Essuman, Nwaogu and Nwachukwu (1990, 49) defines Stimulus Control as a process by which
environmental contingencies are altered in order to reduce the probability of a particular behaviour
ample keeping medicine out of reach of children serves as Stimulus Control. Simply put,
stimulus control is the control of a persons reactions by the characteristics of the situation.
or sexual acts in order to cause sexual
excitement (Hornby, 1995). The American Heritage Dictionary defines pornography as written, graphic,
Feminist definition of
Pornography is the celebration, the promotion, the authorization and the legitimization
of rape, sexual harassment, battery, and the abuse of children all for the purpose of the
ut, pornography eroticizes dominance and submission,
of which rape, battery, sexual harassment, and the sexual and physical abuse of
children are also forms of practice. It is affirmatively employing the enforcement of
ssell (1993) defines pornography as material that combines sex and/or the exposure
of genitals with abuse or degradation in a manner that appears to endorse, condone, or encourage such
al feelings dates back thousands of years.
It was initially within the reach of the affluent and the royalties. Later on the innovation of photography
and motion pictures, videocassette recorder escalated the trend. Recently, the proliferation of cable
work and the internet has made pornography more readily accessible. Young people growing up in our
heavily sexualized culture are being exposed to sexually explicit material and message before they are
e what they are viewing. Unfortunately, majority of
According to Shahid, presented in khan (online, 2003), Muslim region has an interesting
. It posits that pornography is neither educational nor
entertainment, but a disease and an addiction, and that Muslims should therefore avoid it. Child
pornography is another disease, Muslim position stresses further that child pornography which has
ibuted to 500,000 cases of incest involving father and daughter per year in the United States of
America is totally an aberration. Record also has it that child slave trade for sex involves five million
han 100, 000 rapes are being committed annually
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Statement of the Problem
The proliferation of pornography and easy accessibility to porn materials and porn websites on the
internet is currently causing a nasty indenture on our sense of morality and societal ethical mores and
standards. Youths, preteens and children are often th
males are also potential targets.

There are many youths out there who are finding it increasingly difficult to adjust themselves
psychologically in their growth process toward adulthood because of their
pornography when they were too young to handle the problems posed by such exposure. Some of them
evidently are growing up with traumatized personality.
that the evil of pornography can get anyone trapped
executive of a reputable company, media personnel, banker, attorney or solicitor, or an army general or a
head of department. This is so because the victims often fail to rearrange t
associated with the problem behaviours within their environment. This is where Stimulus Control is
relevant.

The awful problem with pornography consumption is that once anyone gets addicted he can hardly
throw off his dependence on porn material in spite of many associated negative consequences. Intelligent
people seem to be more vulnerable. It could be because they have greater capacity to fantasize (Cline,
1990). There are many people who are already pornography addicts to t
psychological problems. Some individuals also have grown up with perverted view of sexual relationship
and gender values because of earlier impact on their brain made by unhealthy exposure to pornography.

Hunter (2000) reports that
U.S Congress said that there are estimated 40,000 to 100,000 hardcore (porn) websites. Currently, there is
estimated more than one million porn sites today in the web
In the same vein, Representative Steve Largernt from Oklahoma testifies that 200 new porn sites are
created each day. To make matters worse, these pornography sites are easily accessible to anyone in the
internet irrespective of age of the individual. It is threatening to know that school children have easy,
unguided access to the internet.

At the moment, there is a monstrous advert of Dial
against preteens (Hunter, 2000). This p
crime in Japan which is committed through internet dating websites which involves child pornography
and child prostitution. According to police report, in 2001 above 888 internet sex crimes wer
out of which 387 cases involve child pornography or child prostitution (South
Therefore, this work is designed to propose ways of diverting or changing the growing inclination
of students toward pornography through
discriminating stimulus that genders enforcement of any appropriate response made.
Purpose of the study
This study is designed to demonstrate the resultant effects of application of a psychother
technique and therapy known as stimulus control on the growing inclination of some sampled students
toward pornography.
This study attends to the following:
The degree of influence which pornography exerts on students sexual inclination.
The effectiveness of stimulus control technique in checking/restraining students interest in
pornography.
Determining whether stimulus control was sufficient to deal effectively with students inclination
toward pornography or not.

Significance of the study
This study is an important one and would be useful in many ways, which include the following:
i. It would identify some factors that encourage ones interest in pornography.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The proliferation of pornography and easy accessibility to porn materials and porn websites on the
internet is currently causing a nasty indenture on our sense of morality and societal ethical mores and
standards. Youths, preteens and children are often the targets of such sex fashion spree. Heterosexual
There are many youths out there who are finding it increasingly difficult to adjust themselves
psychologically in their growth process toward adulthood because of their
pornography when they were too young to handle the problems posed by such exposure. Some of them
evidently are growing up with traumatized personality. It is critically an insidious problem to the society
an get anyone trapped - it could be a fifteenyear old as well as a chief
executive of a reputable company, media personnel, banker, attorney or solicitor, or an army general or a
head of department. This is so because the victims often fail to rearrange the cues that are often
associated with the problem behaviours within their environment. This is where Stimulus Control is
The awful problem with pornography consumption is that once anyone gets addicted he can hardly
nce on porn material in spite of many associated negative consequences. Intelligent
people seem to be more vulnerable. It could be because they have greater capacity to fantasize (Cline,
1990). There are many people who are already pornography addicts to the point that they have
psychological problems. Some individuals also have grown up with perverted view of sexual relationship
and gender values because of earlier impact on their brain made by unhealthy exposure to pornography.
Hunter (2000) reports that Representative Robert Goodlatte from Virginia testifying before the
U.S Congress said that there are estimated 40,000 to 100,000 hardcore (porn) websites. Currently, there is
estimated more than one million porn sites today in the web - this is a ghastly blow on universal morality.
, Representative Steve Largernt from Oklahoma testifies that 200 new porn sites are
created each day. To make matters worse, these pornography sites are easily accessible to anyone in the
age of the individual. It is threatening to know that school children have easy,
At the moment, there is a monstrous advert of Dial a porn phone sex that is specifically directed
against preteens (Hunter, 2000). This poses a growing devastating danger. There is also a surging sex
crime in Japan which is committed through internet dating websites which involves child pornography
and child prostitution. According to police report, in 2001 above 888 internet sex crimes wer
out of which 387 cases involve child pornography or child prostitution (South-South Express, 2002, p.5).
Therefore, this work is designed to propose ways of diverting or changing the growing inclination
of students toward pornography through the instrumentality of Stimulus Control
discriminating stimulus that genders enforcement of any appropriate response made.
This study is designed to demonstrate the resultant effects of application of a psychother
technique and therapy known as stimulus control on the growing inclination of some sampled students
This study attends to the following:
The degree of influence which pornography exerts on students sexual inclination.
effectiveness of stimulus control technique in checking/restraining students interest in
Determining whether stimulus control was sufficient to deal effectively with students inclination
toward pornography or not.
This study is an important one and would be useful in many ways, which include the following:
It would identify some factors that encourage ones interest in pornography.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
79
The proliferation of pornography and easy accessibility to porn materials and porn websites on the
internet is currently causing a nasty indenture on our sense of morality and societal ethical mores and
e targets of such sex fashion spree. Heterosexual
There are many youths out there who are finding it increasingly difficult to adjust themselves
earlier exposure to
pornography when they were too young to handle the problems posed by such exposure. Some of them
It is critically an insidious problem to the society
year old as well as a chief
executive of a reputable company, media personnel, banker, attorney or solicitor, or an army general or a
he cues that are often
associated with the problem behaviours within their environment. This is where Stimulus Control is
The awful problem with pornography consumption is that once anyone gets addicted he can hardly
nce on porn material in spite of many associated negative consequences. Intelligent
people seem to be more vulnerable. It could be because they have greater capacity to fantasize (Cline,
he point that they have
psychological problems. Some individuals also have grown up with perverted view of sexual relationship
and gender values because of earlier impact on their brain made by unhealthy exposure to pornography.
Representative Robert Goodlatte from Virginia testifying before the
U.S Congress said that there are estimated 40,000 to 100,000 hardcore (porn) websites. Currently, there is
blow on universal morality.
, Representative Steve Largernt from Oklahoma testifies that 200 new porn sites are
created each day. To make matters worse, these pornography sites are easily accessible to anyone in the
age of the individual. It is threatening to know that school children have easy,
porn phone sex that is specifically directed
oses a growing devastating danger. There is also a surging sex
crime in Japan which is committed through internet dating websites which involves child pornography
and child prostitution. According to police report, in 2001 above 888 internet sex crimes were committed
South Express, 2002, p.5).
Therefore, this work is designed to propose ways of diverting or changing the growing inclination
the instrumentality of Stimulus Control which involves a
discriminating stimulus that genders enforcement of any appropriate response made.
This study is designed to demonstrate the resultant effects of application of a psychotherapeutic
technique and therapy known as stimulus control on the growing inclination of some sampled students
The degree of influence which pornography exerts on students sexual inclination.
effectiveness of stimulus control technique in checking/restraining students interest in
Determining whether stimulus control was sufficient to deal effectively with students inclination
This study is an important one and would be useful in many ways, which include the following:

Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

ii. This work is also meant to spell out ways to avoid developing awful penchant
iii. The results of this study will, among other things, provide the basis for a more potent and fruitful
approach towards saving our children, youths, and married couples from sore, bleak future.
iv. The study would be hitting against perverted
encourage healthy, responsive relationship among members of the opposite sex.
v. Very importantly, this study will also depict how the counselling technique known as stimulus
control could be effectively appli
vi. Finally, this study would further provide a stimulating environment for further research and
educational project on pornography in general, and on the use of behaviour modification
programme to curb or control pornographys use, its effect on users, and peoples unwholesome
attachment to pornography.

Research Questions
The researcher proposes the following research questions for the study, namely:
1. To what extent is the students inclination
2. To what extent can the application of stimulus control affect students inclination toward
pornography?

Null hypotheses
The following null hypotheses are
Also, they are answerable to the research questions posed earlier. Theses hypotheses are:
1. The sexual response of students who are exposed to pornography is not significantly different from
the sexual response of non-users of p
2. There is no significant difference in the use of stimulus control as a therapy to modify the
unwholesome attachment of pornography users in comparison with pornography users who did not
receive treatment.

Review of Related Literature
This chapter will be discussing various literatures that have to do with Stimulus Control, pornography and
perhaps some definitional positions on inclination. This review certainly will help to provide theoretical
and practical framework for this intelle

The Concept of Stimulus Control
According to the Wortman, Loftus and Weaver (1999) Stimulus Control is a behaviour therapy technique
that focuses on rearranging the environment
The association between the environment and the desired response is achieved by eliminating all other
options. A dieter, for example, who removes all snacks from the house except fruit and vegetables, is
exercising Stimulus Control.

Wortman, et al said that reinforcement is and inextricable ally of Stimulus Control. Besides
controlling the strength and frequency of operant responses, reinforcement has another important effect.
It relates a particular behaviour to stimuli that are associated with th
been conditioned to press a bar and a bulb in his Skinner box lights up. The Skinner box and the lighted
bulb have become associated with the behaviour of bar pressing and the reward that follows. Whenever
there stimuli - the box and the light
is called Stimulus Control, because the stimuli prevailing at the time of reinforcement have come to
control the organisms response. Parham (
environment is designed so that certain cues (
behaviours are performed. Selecting a place to relax where there are few cues associated with wo
selecting a place to study, such as a particular room or a particular desk that is used only for studying are
examples of Stimulus Control.


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
This work is also meant to spell out ways to avoid developing awful penchant
The results of this study will, among other things, provide the basis for a more potent and fruitful
approach towards saving our children, youths, and married couples from sore, bleak future.
The study would be hitting against perverted view of sex and gender values, and would rather
encourage healthy, responsive relationship among members of the opposite sex.
Very importantly, this study will also depict how the counselling technique known as stimulus
control could be effectively applied to modify students unhealthy inclination toward pornography.
Finally, this study would further provide a stimulating environment for further research and
educational project on pornography in general, and on the use of behaviour modification
to curb or control pornographys use, its effect on users, and peoples unwholesome
attachment to pornography.
The researcher proposes the following research questions for the study, namely:
To what extent is the students inclination toward pornography responsible for their sexual response?
To what extent can the application of stimulus control affect students inclination toward
are used to give direction and empirical structure to this research work.
answerable to the research questions posed earlier. Theses hypotheses are:
The sexual response of students who are exposed to pornography is not significantly different from
users of pornography.
There is no significant difference in the use of stimulus control as a therapy to modify the
unwholesome attachment of pornography users in comparison with pornography users who did not
This chapter will be discussing various literatures that have to do with Stimulus Control, pornography and
perhaps some definitional positions on inclination. This review certainly will help to provide theoretical
and practical framework for this intellectual investigation.
f Stimulus Control
According to the Wortman, Loftus and Weaver (1999) Stimulus Control is a behaviour therapy technique
that focuses on rearranging the environment - the cues that are often associated with problem behavi
The association between the environment and the desired response is achieved by eliminating all other
options. A dieter, for example, who removes all snacks from the house except fruit and vegetables, is
said that reinforcement is and inextricable ally of Stimulus Control. Besides
controlling the strength and frequency of operant responses, reinforcement has another important effect.
It relates a particular behaviour to stimuli that are associated with the learning situation. Suppose a rat has
been conditioned to press a bar and a bulb in his Skinner box lights up. The Skinner box and the lighted
bulb have become associated with the behaviour of bar pressing and the reward that follows. Whenever
the box and the light - are present, the rat is likely to press the bar again. This relationship
because the stimuli prevailing at the time of reinforcement have come to
he organisms response. Parham (1988) states that Stimulus Control is a technique in which the
designed so that certain cues (discriminative stimuli) increase the likelihood that specific
behaviours are performed. Selecting a place to relax where there are few cues associated with wo
selecting a place to study, such as a particular room or a particular desk that is used only for studying are
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
80
for pornography.
The results of this study will, among other things, provide the basis for a more potent and fruitful
approach towards saving our children, youths, and married couples from sore, bleak future.
view of sex and gender values, and would rather
encourage healthy, responsive relationship among members of the opposite sex.
Very importantly, this study will also depict how the counselling technique known as stimulus
ed to modify students unhealthy inclination toward pornography.
Finally, this study would further provide a stimulating environment for further research and
educational project on pornography in general, and on the use of behaviour modification
to curb or control pornographys use, its effect on users, and peoples unwholesome
toward pornography responsible for their sexual response?
To what extent can the application of stimulus control affect students inclination toward
cture to this research work.
answerable to the research questions posed earlier. Theses hypotheses are:
The sexual response of students who are exposed to pornography is not significantly different from
There is no significant difference in the use of stimulus control as a therapy to modify the
unwholesome attachment of pornography users in comparison with pornography users who did not
This chapter will be discussing various literatures that have to do with Stimulus Control, pornography and
perhaps some definitional positions on inclination. This review certainly will help to provide theoretical
According to the Wortman, Loftus and Weaver (1999) Stimulus Control is a behaviour therapy technique
the cues that are often associated with problem behaviours.
The association between the environment and the desired response is achieved by eliminating all other
options. A dieter, for example, who removes all snacks from the house except fruit and vegetables, is
said that reinforcement is and inextricable ally of Stimulus Control. Besides
controlling the strength and frequency of operant responses, reinforcement has another important effect.
e learning situation. Suppose a rat has
been conditioned to press a bar and a bulb in his Skinner box lights up. The Skinner box and the lighted
bulb have become associated with the behaviour of bar pressing and the reward that follows. Whenever
are present, the rat is likely to press the bar again. This relationship
because the stimuli prevailing at the time of reinforcement have come to
s that Stimulus Control is a technique in which the
increase the likelihood that specific
behaviours are performed. Selecting a place to relax where there are few cues associated with work, or
selecting a place to study, such as a particular room or a particular desk that is used only for studying are
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Stimulus Control of Behaviour
This is an instrument conditioning (operant) experiment where
particular response to one stimulus and not reinforcing the same response to another stimulus. The result
of such an experiment is that when the positive stimulus (s
be made; but when the negative stimulus (S
occur at all. Since the tendency to respond is tied to the stimulus that is present, the discrimination
process in instrumental conditioning is som
(Morgan, King, Weisz and Schopler, 1986). The following experiment illustrates discrimination learning,
or the Stimulus Control of Behaviour in an operant chamber (Hanson, 1959):

The pigeons in this experiment were positively reinforced for key
the translucent key was illuminated by a light that appeared yellow
observers. During the intervals of yellow
positive reinforcement for pecking the key. If another light, a red one, illuminated the key,
the pigeons received no reinforcement. Consequently, the birds learned to peck during the
yellow-green, but not during the red periods. After such discrimination has b
change in behaviour when the stimuli are shifted is dramatic almost like turning a faucet on
or off (p.160).
Parham (1988) sums it up by saying that Stimulus Control of Behaviour is when a persons
reactions are determined by the characte
behaviour that is cued by discriminative stimuli is said to be under Stimulus Control. Most operant
behaviours are under Stimulus Control in one way or the other; for instance, a police ca
a sufficient discriminative stimulus for you to slow down. According to Wade and Travis (1993), a
somewhat different kind of discrimination occurs when an animal or human being learns to respond to a
stimulus only when some other stimulu
stimulus signals whether a response, if made, will pay off. In a Skinner box, for example, a light may serve
as a discriminative stimulus for pecking at a circle. When the light is on, pecki
is off pecking is futile. The light is said to exert Stimulus Control over the pecking by setting the occasion
for reinforcement to occur if the response is made. However, the response is not compelled.
Furthermore, Wortman, et
seen in the treatment for insomnia devise
their beds for activities other than sleeping. They use the beds for reading, watchi
Bootzin and associates emphasize that the bed must be reestablished as a cue associated only with
sleeping. Evidently, Stimulus Control techniques are considered the most effective known treatment for
such thing as insomnia and other similar behavioural problems.
Pornography as a Concept
Pornography is any material that is designed to sexually arouse its viewers or readers. Many experts have
defined pornography as those explicit sexual depictions whose purpose or effect is to bring about sexual
arousal in the ordinary viewer or reader (Wil
Gary, 1983, p.62). The American heritage dictionary defines pornography as written, graphic, or other
forms of communications intended to excite lascivious feelings. Ntozake Shange argues that por
is the use of sex to intimidate and control women and children and anyone else who is subject to a
situation like that.

Carnes (1991) says that pornography is a sign, or symptom of inappropriate perspective on the
sacred gift of sexuality. The real problem is that our understanding of the nature of sexual relationship is
becoming increasingly polluted. We have traded that which is of most worth for something less life
giving, commitment-solidifying, joy
so doing, we also stumble onto a powerful mood
life.
Minneapolis Ordinance states that pornography is central in creating and maintaining the civil
inequality of the sexes. Pornography is a systematic practice of exploitation and subordination based on
sex, which differently harms women. The bigotry and contempt it promotes with the acts of aggression it
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com

This is an instrument conditioning (operant) experiment where discrimination is achieved by reinforcing a
particular response to one stimulus and not reinforcing the same response to another stimulus. The result
of such an experiment is that when the positive stimulus (s
+
) is present, the learned response is likely t
be made; but when the negative stimulus (S
-
) is present, the response is less likely to occur or will not
occur at all. Since the tendency to respond is tied to the stimulus that is present, the discrimination
process in instrumental conditioning is sometimes referred to as the Stimulus Control of Behaviour
(Morgan, King, Weisz and Schopler, 1986). The following experiment illustrates discrimination learning,
or the Stimulus Control of Behaviour in an operant chamber (Hanson, 1959):
s experiment were positively reinforced for key-peck responses only when
the translucent key was illuminated by a light that appeared yellow-green to human
observers. During the intervals of yellow-green illumination, the pigeons received contingent
ve reinforcement for pecking the key. If another light, a red one, illuminated the key,
the pigeons received no reinforcement. Consequently, the birds learned to peck during the
green, but not during the red periods. After such discrimination has been learned, the
change in behaviour when the stimuli are shifted is dramatic almost like turning a faucet on
Parham (1988) sums it up by saying that Stimulus Control of Behaviour is when a persons
reactions are determined by the characteristics of the situation. Liebert and Spiegler (1990), posit that a
behaviour that is cued by discriminative stimuli is said to be under Stimulus Control. Most operant
behaviours are under Stimulus Control in one way or the other; for instance, a police ca
a sufficient discriminative stimulus for you to slow down. According to Wade and Travis (1993), a
somewhat different kind of discrimination occurs when an animal or human being learns to respond to a
stimulus only when some other stimulus called a discriminative stimulus is present. The discriminative
stimulus signals whether a response, if made, will pay off. In a Skinner box, for example, a light may serve
as a discriminative stimulus for pecking at a circle. When the light is on, pecking brings a reward; when it
is off pecking is futile. The light is said to exert Stimulus Control over the pecking by setting the occasion
for reinforcement to occur if the response is made. However, the response is not compelled.
al (1999) submit that a more extensive example of this technique can be
seen in the treatment for insomnia devised by Bootzin, Epstein and Wood, 1991. Many insomniacs use
their beds for activities other than sleeping. They use the beds for reading, watching television, and so on.
Bootzin and associates emphasize that the bed must be reestablished as a cue associated only with
sleeping. Evidently, Stimulus Control techniques are considered the most effective known treatment for
her similar behavioural problems.
Pornography is any material that is designed to sexually arouse its viewers or readers. Many experts have
defined pornography as those explicit sexual depictions whose purpose or effect is to bring about sexual
arousal in the ordinary viewer or reader (Williams, 1979, p. 196; Malamuth and Donnerstein, 1982, p.105;
Gary, 1983, p.62). The American heritage dictionary defines pornography as written, graphic, or other
forms of communications intended to excite lascivious feelings. Ntozake Shange argues that por
is the use of sex to intimidate and control women and children and anyone else who is subject to a
Carnes (1991) says that pornography is a sign, or symptom of inappropriate perspective on the
real problem is that our understanding of the nature of sexual relationship is
becoming increasingly polluted. We have traded that which is of most worth for something less life
solidifying, joy-producing sexuality for transient, sensual, immediate gratification. In
so doing, we also stumble onto a powerful mood-altering experience to deal with the stresses of everyday
Minneapolis Ordinance states that pornography is central in creating and maintaining the civil
exes. Pornography is a systematic practice of exploitation and subordination based on
sex, which differently harms women. The bigotry and contempt it promotes with the acts of aggression it
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
81
discrimination is achieved by reinforcing a
particular response to one stimulus and not reinforcing the same response to another stimulus. The result
) is present, the learned response is likely to
) is present, the response is less likely to occur or will not
occur at all. Since the tendency to respond is tied to the stimulus that is present, the discrimination
etimes referred to as the Stimulus Control of Behaviour
(Morgan, King, Weisz and Schopler, 1986). The following experiment illustrates discrimination learning,
peck responses only when
green to human
green illumination, the pigeons received contingent
ve reinforcement for pecking the key. If another light, a red one, illuminated the key,
the pigeons received no reinforcement. Consequently, the birds learned to peck during the
een learned, the
change in behaviour when the stimuli are shifted is dramatic almost like turning a faucet on
Parham (1988) sums it up by saying that Stimulus Control of Behaviour is when a persons
ristics of the situation. Liebert and Spiegler (1990), posit that a
behaviour that is cued by discriminative stimuli is said to be under Stimulus Control. Most operant
behaviours are under Stimulus Control in one way or the other; for instance, a police car up-head is often
a sufficient discriminative stimulus for you to slow down. According to Wade and Travis (1993), a
somewhat different kind of discrimination occurs when an animal or human being learns to respond to a
s called a discriminative stimulus is present. The discriminative
stimulus signals whether a response, if made, will pay off. In a Skinner box, for example, a light may serve
ng brings a reward; when it
is off pecking is futile. The light is said to exert Stimulus Control over the pecking by setting the occasion
for reinforcement to occur if the response is made. However, the response is not compelled.
a more extensive example of this technique can be
. Many insomniacs use
ng television, and so on.
Bootzin and associates emphasize that the bed must be reestablished as a cue associated only with
sleeping. Evidently, Stimulus Control techniques are considered the most effective known treatment for
Pornography is any material that is designed to sexually arouse its viewers or readers. Many experts have
defined pornography as those explicit sexual depictions whose purpose or effect is to bring about sexual
liams, 1979, p. 196; Malamuth and Donnerstein, 1982, p.105;
Gary, 1983, p.62). The American heritage dictionary defines pornography as written, graphic, or other
forms of communications intended to excite lascivious feelings. Ntozake Shange argues that pornography
is the use of sex to intimidate and control women and children and anyone else who is subject to a
Carnes (1991) says that pornography is a sign, or symptom of inappropriate perspective on the
real problem is that our understanding of the nature of sexual relationship is
becoming increasingly polluted. We have traded that which is of most worth for something less life-
l, immediate gratification. In
altering experience to deal with the stresses of everyday
Minneapolis Ordinance states that pornography is central in creating and maintaining the civil
exes. Pornography is a systematic practice of exploitation and subordination based on
sex, which differently harms women. The bigotry and contempt it promotes with the acts of aggression it
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

fosters, harm womens opportunities for equality of rights in emp
public accommodation and public services; create public harassment and private denigration; promote
injury and degradation such as rape, battery and prostitution and inhibit just enforcement of laws against
these acts; contributes significantly to restricting women from full exercise of citizenship and participation
in public life, including neighborhoods; damage relation between the sexes; and undermine womens
equal exercise of rights to speech and action guaranteed t
the United States and the State of Minnesota (cited in Ferguson, 1995, p, 677).
At this juncture it is pertinent to declare that Dworkin (1988) opines that pornography is the
material means of sexualizing inequality; and that is why pornography is a central practice in the
subordination of women. One Germaine Greer has also remarked that pornography is already a vastly
bigger cultural presence that all our opera, ballet, theatre, music and fine art put
The concept of Pornographys E
Different groups have come up with different arguments on the various effects pornography has on
society. Involved in the debate are the liberals, feminists, and religious conservatives (Einsiedel, 1988).
The liberals view of pornographys effect is in respect of free speech. They argue that unless there is a
direct cause and effect relationship between pornography and harm to women or children the content of
pornography should be legal. The liberals point to
as justification for its availability.
conceptualization of effect. They claim that pornography enacts male dominance over women. As
pornographys main effect is to deny women full equality (Einsiedel, 1988, p. 113).

Religious and political conservatives adopt similar ideological conception of effect. They argue that
pornography is destroying (rather than enforcing) their
family value, which stress the virtues of the nuclear family, monogamous sexual relationships within
marriage, and the reproductive rather than recreational functions of sexual behaviour (McNair, 1996,
p.49). Drs. Malamuth and Donnerstein (1984) noted in their research based book: Pornography and
Sexual Aggression, that certain forms of pornography (aggressive) can produce aggressive attitudes
toward women and can desensitize an individuals perception of r
are, also, directly related to actual aggressive behaviour against women. These results suggest, again, that
aggressive pornography does increase aggression against women.

Zillmann and Bryant (1988) undertook a pains
nonviolent pornography. After many weeks of exposure, the subjects/participants reported less
satisfaction with their partners sexual performance, affection, and physical appearance. The researchers
also found an incompatibility of the sexual values implicit in enduring intimate relationship, and
particularly in marriage. The chief proclamation of pornography is great sexual joy without any
attachment, commitment or responsibility.
male and female), after intensive exposure to pornography, had a greater acceptance of pre
extramarital sex and an enhancement of the belief that male and female promiscuity is natural. Extensive
exposure also lowered their evaluation of marriage, making the marriage institution to appear less
significant and less viable in the future. It also reduced their desire to have children and promoted the
acceptance of male dominance and female servitude.

Furthermore, research findings on the powerful effects of pornography as demonstrated in the
study carried out by Hunter(2000) are predicated on these significant areas: namely sexual arousal,
addiction escalation, aggression against the opposite sex and corresponding attit
pathway to self-inflicted sexual illness, desensitizing effect, conditioned into deviancy, causal model of
rape, declining family values, ideological aspect, imprinting brain with sexual image, impact on
psychosexual development, pornography and the community.
was so deeply addicted that he could not stay away from pornography for 90 days even for
$1,000.Psychologist Patrick Cranes (1991) found among 932 sex addicts that 90% of the men and 77% of
the women reported pornography as significant to their addictions.



Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
fosters, harm womens opportunities for equality of rights in employment, education, property, rights,
public accommodation and public services; create public harassment and private denigration; promote
injury and degradation such as rape, battery and prostitution and inhibit just enforcement of laws against
contributes significantly to restricting women from full exercise of citizenship and participation
in public life, including neighborhoods; damage relation between the sexes; and undermine womens
equal exercise of rights to speech and action guaranteed to all citizens under the Constitution and laws of
the United States and the State of Minnesota (cited in Ferguson, 1995, p, 677).
At this juncture it is pertinent to declare that Dworkin (1988) opines that pornography is the
g inequality; and that is why pornography is a central practice in the
subordination of women. One Germaine Greer has also remarked that pornography is already a vastly
bigger cultural presence that all our opera, ballet, theatre, music and fine art put together.
The concept of Pornographys Effect
Different groups have come up with different arguments on the various effects pornography has on
society. Involved in the debate are the liberals, feminists, and religious conservatives (Einsiedel, 1988).
liberals view of pornographys effect is in respect of free speech. They argue that unless there is a
direct cause and effect relationship between pornography and harm to women or children the content of
pornography should be legal. The liberals point to the supposedly casual cathartic effects of pornography
The feminists who are of course anti-porn argue for an ideological
conceptualization of effect. They claim that pornography enacts male dominance over women. As
pornographys main effect is to deny women full equality (Einsiedel, 1988, p. 113).
Religious and political conservatives adopt similar ideological conception of effect. They argue that
pornography is destroying (rather than enforcing) their cherished and institutionalized Judaeo
family value, which stress the virtues of the nuclear family, monogamous sexual relationships within
marriage, and the reproductive rather than recreational functions of sexual behaviour (McNair, 1996,
Drs. Malamuth and Donnerstein (1984) noted in their research based book: Pornography and
Sexual Aggression, that certain forms of pornography (aggressive) can produce aggressive attitudes
toward women and can desensitize an individuals perception of rape. These attitudes and perceptions
are, also, directly related to actual aggressive behaviour against women. These results suggest, again, that
aggressive pornography does increase aggression against women.
Zillmann and Bryant (1988) undertook a painstaking research on prolonged consumption of
nonviolent pornography. After many weeks of exposure, the subjects/participants reported less
satisfaction with their partners sexual performance, affection, and physical appearance. The researchers
n incompatibility of the sexual values implicit in enduring intimate relationship, and
particularly in marriage. The chief proclamation of pornography is great sexual joy without any
attachment, commitment or responsibility. Zillmann and Bryant further found that their subjects (both
male and female), after intensive exposure to pornography, had a greater acceptance of pre
extramarital sex and an enhancement of the belief that male and female promiscuity is natural. Extensive
d their evaluation of marriage, making the marriage institution to appear less
significant and less viable in the future. It also reduced their desire to have children and promoted the
acceptance of male dominance and female servitude.
rch findings on the powerful effects of pornography as demonstrated in the
study carried out by Hunter(2000) are predicated on these significant areas: namely sexual arousal,
addiction escalation, aggression against the opposite sex and corresponding attitude towards women, easy
inflicted sexual illness, desensitizing effect, conditioned into deviancy, causal model of
rape, declining family values, ideological aspect, imprinting brain with sexual image, impact on
rnography and the community. For instance, a patient named Ralph
was so deeply addicted that he could not stay away from pornography for 90 days even for
$1,000.Psychologist Patrick Cranes (1991) found among 932 sex addicts that 90% of the men and 77% of
the women reported pornography as significant to their addictions.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
82
loyment, education, property, rights,
public accommodation and public services; create public harassment and private denigration; promote
injury and degradation such as rape, battery and prostitution and inhibit just enforcement of laws against
contributes significantly to restricting women from full exercise of citizenship and participation
in public life, including neighborhoods; damage relation between the sexes; and undermine womens
o all citizens under the Constitution and laws of
At this juncture it is pertinent to declare that Dworkin (1988) opines that pornography is the
g inequality; and that is why pornography is a central practice in the
subordination of women. One Germaine Greer has also remarked that pornography is already a vastly
together.
Different groups have come up with different arguments on the various effects pornography has on
society. Involved in the debate are the liberals, feminists, and religious conservatives (Einsiedel, 1988).
liberals view of pornographys effect is in respect of free speech. They argue that unless there is a
direct cause and effect relationship between pornography and harm to women or children the content of
the supposedly casual cathartic effects of pornography
porn argue for an ideological
conceptualization of effect. They claim that pornography enacts male dominance over women. As such,

Religious and political conservatives adopt similar ideological conception of effect. They argue that
cherished and institutionalized Judaeo-Christian
family value, which stress the virtues of the nuclear family, monogamous sexual relationships within
marriage, and the reproductive rather than recreational functions of sexual behaviour (McNair, 1996,
Drs. Malamuth and Donnerstein (1984) noted in their research based book: Pornography and
Sexual Aggression, that certain forms of pornography (aggressive) can produce aggressive attitudes
ape. These attitudes and perceptions
are, also, directly related to actual aggressive behaviour against women. These results suggest, again, that
taking research on prolonged consumption of
nonviolent pornography. After many weeks of exposure, the subjects/participants reported less
satisfaction with their partners sexual performance, affection, and physical appearance. The researchers
n incompatibility of the sexual values implicit in enduring intimate relationship, and
particularly in marriage. The chief proclamation of pornography is great sexual joy without any
her found that their subjects (both
male and female), after intensive exposure to pornography, had a greater acceptance of pre-and
extramarital sex and an enhancement of the belief that male and female promiscuity is natural. Extensive
d their evaluation of marriage, making the marriage institution to appear less
significant and less viable in the future. It also reduced their desire to have children and promoted the
rch findings on the powerful effects of pornography as demonstrated in the
study carried out by Hunter(2000) are predicated on these significant areas: namely sexual arousal,
ude towards women, easy
inflicted sexual illness, desensitizing effect, conditioned into deviancy, causal model of
rape, declining family values, ideological aspect, imprinting brain with sexual image, impact on
For instance, a patient named Ralph
was so deeply addicted that he could not stay away from pornography for 90 days even for
$1,000.Psychologist Patrick Cranes (1991) found among 932 sex addicts that 90% of the men and 77% of
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Different Forms of Pornography

Violent Pornography
Aggressive sexual crimes against women are very serious and escalating problem, especially in the United
States. Recent Senate Judiciary Committee hearings concluded that rape has increased four times as fast as
the overall crime rate over the last decade.
rape rate four times that of Germany, thirteen times as much as English, and twenty times as much as
Japan.

In recent years, there has been a considerable body of research on violent p
which is found in R-rated films. Many of these films are also broadcast unedited on cable TV and later
are available to children in nearly every video store (in America). The typical files show nude females, or
females in sexually arousing situations and postures being raped, tortured, or murdered. The results of
this research suggests the possibility of conditioning viewers into associating sexual arousal with inflicting
injury, rape, humiliations or torture in females. Where these fil
repeatedly viewed in the privacy of ones residence and masturbated
or anti-social conditioning and behavio

Malamuth and Donnerstein (1984) noted
Aggression, that certain forms of pornography (aggressive) can affect aggressive attitude towards women
and can desensitize an individuals perception of rape. These attitudes and perceptions are, furt
directly related to actual aggressive behaviour against women. The literature on aggressive porn is rather
impressive in its consistency in suggesting a variety of harms or possibility of anti
exposure to this material. Dr. Ma
exposed to sexually violent pornography, such as rape and other forms of sexual violence, two
the male subjects, following such exposure, indicated an increased willingness to force
acts if they were assured of not been caught or punished.

In a similar research by Seymour Feshback and associates, 51% of normal UCLA males indicated
the likelihood of emulating a sadomasochistic rape (seen in porn material they had been
they were assured of not getting caught. Mills College Sociologist, Diana Russell, in a study found that the
depiction and dissemination of the
them were significant elements in reducing inhibitions to the use of violence, thus habituating both males
and females to the idea of rape while at the same time accepting sexual aberrance as normal behaviour.
In another study, Malamuth and Check (1981) showed to some men at the Un
nonsexual movies or movies in which a man sexually overpowered a woman. A week later, in a separate
study, the men completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitudes toward women and toward rape.
The men who had viewed sexually violent movies expressed a greater tolerance toward rape and greater
agreement that women enjoy rape. In a replication, Malamuth and Check (1985) found that viewing
sexually violent movies increased false beliefs about rape
negative, aggressive attitude toward women.

The 10-member panel of the 1986 Attorney Generals Commission on Pornography in the U.S.A.,
after reviewing a great volume of clinical and experimental research, concluded unanimously
substantial exposure to sexually violent materials (violent pornography) bears a causal relationship to
antisocial act of sexual violence -
materials and increase in aggressive b
Non-violent pornography
Non-violent pornography is sexual
must be stated though that the absence of violence does not mean that such pornography is a heal
model of sexual behaviour; it could sometimes have more moral, health and psychological implications. It
is negative and anti-social. Examples include child pornography, incest type of pornography, sex with
animals and group sex pornography, etc.


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
ornography
Aggressive sexual crimes against women are very serious and escalating problem, especially in the United
States. Recent Senate Judiciary Committee hearings concluded that rape has increased four times as fast as
the overall crime rate over the last decade. In fact, the United State leads the world in rape statistics with a
rape rate four times that of Germany, thirteen times as much as English, and twenty times as much as
In recent years, there has been a considerable body of research on violent p
rated films. Many of these films are also broadcast unedited on cable TV and later
are available to children in nearly every video store (in America). The typical files show nude females, or
sing situations and postures being raped, tortured, or murdered. The results of
the possibility of conditioning viewers into associating sexual arousal with inflicting
injury, rape, humiliations or torture in females. Where these films are available on videotape
in the privacy of ones residence and masturbated, with the associated risks of negative
social conditioning and behaviour, as previously noted.
Malamuth and Donnerstein (1984) noted in their research-based book, Pornography and Sexual
Aggression, that certain forms of pornography (aggressive) can affect aggressive attitude towards women
and can desensitize an individuals perception of rape. These attitudes and perceptions are, furt
directly related to actual aggressive behaviour against women. The literature on aggressive porn is rather
impressive in its consistency in suggesting a variety of harms or possibility of anti-social outcomes from
exposure to this material. Dr. Malamuth and associate further found that when college males were
exposed to sexually violent pornography, such as rape and other forms of sexual violence, two
the male subjects, following such exposure, indicated an increased willingness to force
acts if they were assured of not been caught or punished.
In a similar research by Seymour Feshback and associates, 51% of normal UCLA males indicated
the likelihood of emulating a sadomasochistic rape (seen in porn material they had been
they were assured of not getting caught. Mills College Sociologist, Diana Russell, in a study found that the
depiction and dissemination of the rape myth (e.g. that most women really enjoy having sex forced upon
ts in reducing inhibitions to the use of violence, thus habituating both males
and females to the idea of rape while at the same time accepting sexual aberrance as normal behaviour.
In another study, Malamuth and Check (1981) showed to some men at the University of Manitoba either
nonsexual movies or movies in which a man sexually overpowered a woman. A week later, in a separate
study, the men completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitudes toward women and toward rape.
ally violent movies expressed a greater tolerance toward rape and greater
agreement that women enjoy rape. In a replication, Malamuth and Check (1985) found that viewing
sexually violent movies increased false beliefs about rape particularly in men who a
negative, aggressive attitude toward women.
member panel of the 1986 Attorney Generals Commission on Pornography in the U.S.A.,
after reviewing a great volume of clinical and experimental research, concluded unanimously
substantial exposure to sexually violent materials (violent pornography) bears a causal relationship to
- and there is a causal relationship between exposure to sexually violent
materials and increase in aggressive behaviour directed toward women.
violent pornography is sexual-arousing material, which of course, is totally devoid of violence. It
must be stated though that the absence of violence does not mean that such pornography is a heal
model of sexual behaviour; it could sometimes have more moral, health and psychological implications. It
social. Examples include child pornography, incest type of pornography, sex with
animals and group sex pornography, etc.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
83
Aggressive sexual crimes against women are very serious and escalating problem, especially in the United
States. Recent Senate Judiciary Committee hearings concluded that rape has increased four times as fast as
In fact, the United State leads the world in rape statistics with a
rape rate four times that of Germany, thirteen times as much as English, and twenty times as much as
In recent years, there has been a considerable body of research on violent pornography much of
rated films. Many of these films are also broadcast unedited on cable TV and later
are available to children in nearly every video store (in America). The typical files show nude females, or
sing situations and postures being raped, tortured, or murdered. The results of
the possibility of conditioning viewers into associating sexual arousal with inflicting
ble on videotape, these can be
, with the associated risks of negative
based book, Pornography and Sexual
Aggression, that certain forms of pornography (aggressive) can affect aggressive attitude towards women
and can desensitize an individuals perception of rape. These attitudes and perceptions are, furthermore,
directly related to actual aggressive behaviour against women. The literature on aggressive porn is rather
social outcomes from
lamuth and associate further found that when college males were
exposed to sexually violent pornography, such as rape and other forms of sexual violence, two-third of
the male subjects, following such exposure, indicated an increased willingness to force a woman into sex
In a similar research by Seymour Feshback and associates, 51% of normal UCLA males indicated
the likelihood of emulating a sadomasochistic rape (seen in porn material they had been exposed to) if
they were assured of not getting caught. Mills College Sociologist, Diana Russell, in a study found that the
(e.g. that most women really enjoy having sex forced upon
ts in reducing inhibitions to the use of violence, thus habituating both males
and females to the idea of rape while at the same time accepting sexual aberrance as normal behaviour.
iversity of Manitoba either
nonsexual movies or movies in which a man sexually overpowered a woman. A week later, in a separate
study, the men completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitudes toward women and toward rape.
ally violent movies expressed a greater tolerance toward rape and greater
agreement that women enjoy rape. In a replication, Malamuth and Check (1985) found that viewing
particularly in men who already possessed
member panel of the 1986 Attorney Generals Commission on Pornography in the U.S.A.,
after reviewing a great volume of clinical and experimental research, concluded unanimously that
substantial exposure to sexually violent materials (violent pornography) bears a causal relationship to
and there is a causal relationship between exposure to sexually violent
arousing material, which of course, is totally devoid of violence. It
must be stated though that the absence of violence does not mean that such pornography is a healthy
model of sexual behaviour; it could sometimes have more moral, health and psychological implications. It
social. Examples include child pornography, incest type of pornography, sex with
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Methodology
Research design
The research design for this study is quasi
students inclination toward pornography are examined and evaluated. The design therefore has both the
Experimental group, which is treated with stimulus control, and a Control group, which receives no
treatment. See illustration below:

Experimental group
Control group
where:

T1 = students randomly selected for the experimental and control groups
X = treatment applied to the experimental group
0= no treatment on the control group
T2= the effect of treatment on the experimental group.

Sample and Sampling Technique
A total of 80 students (males and females) were selected as sample for this study through purposiv
sampling procedure. The researcher had to go to cyber cafes and student hostels and classrooms to find
out students who use pornography through oral examination and personal interviews.
divided into two halves (using split
students were identified and selected who do not use pornography. The 80 students represent extraneous
variable in the study.

Instrument for Data Collection
For the purpose of this study a thirty
Pornography Scale (SITPS) was developed and utilized by the researcher to be responded to on a five
point Likert scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided,
received validation from experts. The instrument was used to garner data for the study.

Reliability of the Instrument
A test-retest application was used to determine the reliability coefficient of the res
(Questionnaire). This was administered on ten students once, and again after an interval of ten days. Their
responses for the two different times were recorded promptly. Persons Product Moment Correlation
Coefficient (r) was applied to correlate the students scores in the first and second tests. This is done to
determine the instruments reliability coefficient, which is r = 0.82

Treatment Programme
Eighty students whose earlier response on the
pornography were divided into two stratified groups (experimental group and control group) of 40
persons in each group. Persons in the experimental group were acquainted with the purpose of the study.
The programme was introduced
dependence on or inclination toward pornography. The control group subjects were not given any
treatment. Before treatment, both the experimental and control groups were briefed by the resear
the possible consequences of prolonged dependence on pornography.

Method of data analysis
The data obtained from this study is analyzed to determine the effect of the independent variable
(Stimulus control) on the dependent variable (inclination o
statistics was used to test the two hypotheses proposed; mean and standard deviation were used to
analyse the two research questions posed for the study.


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
The research design for this study is quasi-experimental design. The effects of Stimulus Control on
students inclination toward pornography are examined and evaluated. The design therefore has both the
is treated with stimulus control, and a Control group, which receives no

T1 X T2
T1 0 T2
= students randomly selected for the experimental and control groups
applied to the experimental group
0= no treatment on the control group
the effect of treatment on the experimental group.
echnique
A total of 80 students (males and females) were selected as sample for this study through purposiv
sampling procedure. The researcher had to go to cyber cafes and student hostels and classrooms to find
out students who use pornography through oral examination and personal interviews.
divided into two halves (using split-half method) into experimental group and control group. Another 80
students were identified and selected who do not use pornography. The 80 students represent extraneous
ollection
For the purpose of this study a thirty-one item questionnaire titled: Students Inclination Toward
was developed and utilized by the researcher to be responded to on a five
point Likert scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. The instrument
received validation from experts. The instrument was used to garner data for the study.
retest application was used to determine the reliability coefficient of the res
(Questionnaire). This was administered on ten students once, and again after an interval of ten days. Their
responses for the two different times were recorded promptly. Persons Product Moment Correlation
rrelate the students scores in the first and second tests. This is done to
determine the instruments reliability coefficient, which is r = 0.82
Eighty students whose earlier response on the self-report scale skewed positively towards use of
pornography were divided into two stratified groups (experimental group and control group) of 40
persons in each group. Persons in the experimental group were acquainted with the purpose of the study.
The programme was introduced to the students as one intended to be used to help them overcome
dependence on or inclination toward pornography. The control group subjects were not given any
treatment. Before treatment, both the experimental and control groups were briefed by the resear
the possible consequences of prolonged dependence on pornography.
The data obtained from this study is analyzed to determine the effect of the independent variable
(Stimulus control) on the dependent variable (inclination of students toward pornography). Students t
statistics was used to test the two hypotheses proposed; mean and standard deviation were used to
analyse the two research questions posed for the study.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
84
experimental design. The effects of Stimulus Control on
students inclination toward pornography are examined and evaluated. The design therefore has both the
is treated with stimulus control, and a Control group, which receives no
A total of 80 students (males and females) were selected as sample for this study through purposive
sampling procedure. The researcher had to go to cyber cafes and student hostels and classrooms to find
out students who use pornography through oral examination and personal interviews. The sample was
o experimental group and control group. Another 80
students were identified and selected who do not use pornography. The 80 students represent extraneous
Students Inclination Toward
was developed and utilized by the researcher to be responded to on a five-
Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. The instrument
received validation from experts. The instrument was used to garner data for the study.
retest application was used to determine the reliability coefficient of the research instrument
(Questionnaire). This was administered on ten students once, and again after an interval of ten days. Their
responses for the two different times were recorded promptly. Persons Product Moment Correlation
rrelate the students scores in the first and second tests. This is done to
positively towards use of
pornography were divided into two stratified groups (experimental group and control group) of 40
persons in each group. Persons in the experimental group were acquainted with the purpose of the study.
to the students as one intended to be used to help them overcome
dependence on or inclination toward pornography. The control group subjects were not given any
treatment. Before treatment, both the experimental and control groups were briefed by the researcher on
The data obtained from this study is analyzed to determine the effect of the independent variable
f students toward pornography). Students t-test
statistics was used to test the two hypotheses proposed; mean and standard deviation were used to
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Result and Analysis of Result
In this chapter the researcher makes presentation of the results of the study. This is done in accordance
with the data collected and analyzed in respect of the research questions and corresponding hypotheses
proposed earlier.
Research Question One: To what extent is students
their sexual response?
Table 1: Table showing mean scores

Groups
Users of
pornography
Mean
SD
N
Non-users of
pornography
Mean
SD
N

Research Question Two: To what extent does the application of Stimulus Control technique affect
students inclination toward pornography?

Table 2: Table showing mean scores
and Control Groups).

Groups Mean
Experimental group (post-
test)
97.85
Control group 105.0

Hypothesis One

The sexual response of students exposed to the use of pornography is not significantly different from the
sexual response of non-users of pornography.

Table 3: Independent t-test summary on the sexual response of students who are exposed to the use of
pornography comparing with those who do not use pornography.
Group Number
Users of
pornography
40
Non-users of
pornography
80

The t-calculated value is 0.487 (which lies between
significance with 118 degrees of freedom. We, therefore accept the null hypothesis, which says that
is no significant difference between the mean sexual response of users of pornography (97.9) and the
mean sexual response of no-users of pornography (which has the mean 98.6). The standard deviation of
users of pornography and that of non
accentuates to the no significant difference in the sexual appetites of the two groups. Note that the
standard deviation of 6.69 is derived out of 80 students who do not use porn, while the standard
deviation 8.8 is from 80 students who use pornography.
Hypothesis Two
There is no significant difference in the use of Stimulus Control as a technique to modify the inclination
of pornography users in comparison with pornography users who did not receive the t


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
esearcher makes presentation of the results of the study. This is done in accordance
with the data collected and analyzed in respect of the research questions and corresponding hypotheses
To what extent is students inclination toward pornography responsible for
mean scores and standard deviation of users and non-users of pornography
Gender
Male Female
99.45
9.20
20
96.35
8.00
20
98.35
7.7
40
98.85
5.3
40
To what extent does the application of Stimulus Control technique affect
inclination toward pornography?
mean scores and standard deviation of users of pornography (Experimental
Mean SD Number
97.85 5.83 40
105.0 12.60 40
The sexual response of students exposed to the use of pornography is not significantly different from the
users of pornography.
test summary on the sexual response of students who are exposed to the use of
pornography comparing with those who do not use pornography.
X SD Df T-cal T-crit
97.9 8.8

118


0.047


2.00 98.6 6.69
calculated value is 0.487 (which lies between -2.000 and 2.000 critical values) at 0.05 level of
significance with 118 degrees of freedom. We, therefore accept the null hypothesis, which says that
is no significant difference between the mean sexual response of users of pornography (97.9) and the
users of pornography (which has the mean 98.6). The standard deviation of
users of pornography and that of non-users of pornography are 8.8 and 6.69, respectively. This also
accentuates to the no significant difference in the sexual appetites of the two groups. Note that the
standard deviation of 6.69 is derived out of 80 students who do not use porn, while the standard
tion 8.8 is from 80 students who use pornography.
There is no significant difference in the use of Stimulus Control as a technique to modify the inclination
of pornography users in comparison with pornography users who did not receive the t
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
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85
esearcher makes presentation of the results of the study. This is done in accordance
with the data collected and analyzed in respect of the research questions and corresponding hypotheses
inclination toward pornography responsible for
users of pornography
Overall
97.9
8.8
40
5.3
98.6

80
To what extent does the application of Stimulus Control technique affect
of users of pornography (Experimental
Number


The sexual response of students exposed to the use of pornography is not significantly different from the
test summary on the sexual response of students who are exposed to the use of
Result



Ho Accepted
2.000 and 2.000 critical values) at 0.05 level of
significance with 118 degrees of freedom. We, therefore accept the null hypothesis, which says that there
is no significant difference between the mean sexual response of users of pornography (97.9) and the
users of pornography (which has the mean 98.6). The standard deviation of
rnography are 8.8 and 6.69, respectively. This also
accentuates to the no significant difference in the sexual appetites of the two groups. Note that the
standard deviation of 6.69 is derived out of 80 students who do not use porn, while the standard
There is no significant difference in the use of Stimulus Control as a technique to modify the inclination
of pornography users in comparison with pornography users who did not receive the treatment.
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

Table 4: Independent t-test summary on student users of pornography who received Stimulus Control
treatment in comparison with users of pornography who were not treated.
Groups Number
Experimental
group
40
Control group 40
The null Hypothesis is rejected, since the calculated t
at 0.05 level of significance, with 78 degrees of freedom, there is
the experimental group and the control group. The same goes for the standard deviations of the two
groups: experimental group mean score is 97.85 with a standard deviation of 5.83, while control group
mean score is 105.0, with a standard deviation of 12.03. This result shows that there is a significant
difference in the inclination of pornography viewers/readers/users who received stimulus control
treatment and the inclination of pornography users who were not given s
acceptability of pornography waned drastically among members of the experimental group after the
treatment programme.
Conclusion

The study presents a comprehensive graphic analysis of attachment to pornography by students,
otherwise are expected to utilize their time and opportunity to be in school to develop their potentials,
but who rather choose to be distracted with a pastime that affects both their effectiveness and efficiency
as students. Pornography, whether it is
exert unhealthy, retrogressive and immoral effects on the students malleable minds. Pornography viewing
has been shown to interfere with students attention even when the victims are in the cl
normal learning is supposed to be taking place. A grave consequence of attachment to porn is addiction,
which can result in a number of psychological and emotional problems.

The study also highlights the fact that violent pornography can in
women and can desensitize an individuals perception of rape. The reviewed literature on aggressive or
violent porn suggest among other things, a variety of harms or possibility of anti
exposure to this material. For instance, a youth who gets addicted to pornography may grow up with a
mindset that despises the institution of marriage. Dr. Malamuth and associate
when college males were exposed to sexually violent pornography,
sexual violence, two-third of the male subjects, following such exposure, indicated an increased
willingness to force a woman into sex acts if they were assured of not been caught or punished. This has
implications for education. Finally, the study demonstrates how
could be successfully applied in curbing the incidence of pornography. Stimulus Control of behaviour
could serve as remedial as well as preventive strategy.

Recommendations
The study recommends a number of measures to be put in place in order to check the incidence of
circulation and use of sexual explicit materials, especially when it is within the reach of school
underage children. They include:
The services of counselling psychologists and therapists should be enlisted in schools and colleges to
take care of students who have psychosexual problems.
Government should use legislation to proscribe the sale, circulation, and possession of porn materials
among school-age group in the country.
Appropriate laws enforcing the use of blocking filters among web site operators should be
promulgated
There should be enabling legislation to censor audio, visual and graphic programmes, materials and
advertisements of promoters in entertainment industries, show business, and advertising firms.
There should be public/private cooperation in establishing and managing rehabilitation centres in
major cities and the countryside to take care of porn addicts.
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
test summary on student users of pornography who received Stimulus Control
treatment in comparison with users of pornography who were not treated.
Number X SD Df T-cal T-crit
97.85 5.83

78


3.34


2.00 105.0 12.03
The null Hypothesis is rejected, since the calculated t-value (3.34) is greater than the critical t
at 0.05 level of significance, with 78 degrees of freedom, there is a wide difference in the mean scores of
the experimental group and the control group. The same goes for the standard deviations of the two
groups: experimental group mean score is 97.85 with a standard deviation of 5.83, while control group
05.0, with a standard deviation of 12.03. This result shows that there is a significant
difference in the inclination of pornography viewers/readers/users who received stimulus control
treatment and the inclination of pornography users who were not given stimulus control treatment. The
acceptability of pornography waned drastically among members of the experimental group after the
The study presents a comprehensive graphic analysis of attachment to pornography by students,
otherwise are expected to utilize their time and opportunity to be in school to develop their potentials,
but who rather choose to be distracted with a pastime that affects both their effectiveness and efficiency
as students. Pornography, whether it is violent or non-violent pornography, are shown in the study to
exert unhealthy, retrogressive and immoral effects on the students malleable minds. Pornography viewing
has been shown to interfere with students attention even when the victims are in the cl
normal learning is supposed to be taking place. A grave consequence of attachment to porn is addiction,
which can result in a number of psychological and emotional problems.
The study also highlights the fact that violent pornography can induce aggressive attitude towards
women and can desensitize an individuals perception of rape. The reviewed literature on aggressive or
violent porn suggest among other things, a variety of harms or possibility of anti-social outcomes from
material. For instance, a youth who gets addicted to pornography may grow up with a
mindset that despises the institution of marriage. Dr. Malamuth and associates, in their study, found that
when college males were exposed to sexually violent pornography, such as rape and other forms of
third of the male subjects, following such exposure, indicated an increased
willingness to force a woman into sex acts if they were assured of not been caught or punished. This has
cation. Finally, the study demonstrates how stimulus control, a therapeutic technique,
could be successfully applied in curbing the incidence of pornography. Stimulus Control of behaviour
could serve as remedial as well as preventive strategy.
The study recommends a number of measures to be put in place in order to check the incidence of
circulation and use of sexual explicit materials, especially when it is within the reach of school

services of counselling psychologists and therapists should be enlisted in schools and colleges to
take care of students who have psychosexual problems.
Government should use legislation to proscribe the sale, circulation, and possession of porn materials
age group in the country.
Appropriate laws enforcing the use of blocking filters among web site operators should be
There should be enabling legislation to censor audio, visual and graphic programmes, materials and
of promoters in entertainment industries, show business, and advertising firms.
There should be public/private cooperation in establishing and managing rehabilitation centres in
major cities and the countryside to take care of porn addicts.
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
86
test summary on student users of pornography who received Stimulus Control
crit Result
2.00


Ho Accepted
value (3.34) is greater than the critical t-value (2.000)
a wide difference in the mean scores of
the experimental group and the control group. The same goes for the standard deviations of the two
groups: experimental group mean score is 97.85 with a standard deviation of 5.83, while control group
05.0, with a standard deviation of 12.03. This result shows that there is a significant
difference in the inclination of pornography viewers/readers/users who received stimulus control
timulus control treatment. The
acceptability of pornography waned drastically among members of the experimental group after the
The study presents a comprehensive graphic analysis of attachment to pornography by students, who
otherwise are expected to utilize their time and opportunity to be in school to develop their potentials,
but who rather choose to be distracted with a pastime that affects both their effectiveness and efficiency
violent pornography, are shown in the study to
exert unhealthy, retrogressive and immoral effects on the students malleable minds. Pornography viewing
has been shown to interfere with students attention even when the victims are in the classroom where
normal learning is supposed to be taking place. A grave consequence of attachment to porn is addiction,
duce aggressive attitude towards
women and can desensitize an individuals perception of rape. The reviewed literature on aggressive or
social outcomes from
material. For instance, a youth who gets addicted to pornography may grow up with a
, in their study, found that
such as rape and other forms of
third of the male subjects, following such exposure, indicated an increased
willingness to force a woman into sex acts if they were assured of not been caught or punished. This has
, a therapeutic technique,
could be successfully applied in curbing the incidence of pornography. Stimulus Control of behaviour
The study recommends a number of measures to be put in place in order to check the incidence of
circulation and use of sexual explicit materials, especially when it is within the reach of school-age or
services of counselling psychologists and therapists should be enlisted in schools and colleges to
Government should use legislation to proscribe the sale, circulation, and possession of porn materials
Appropriate laws enforcing the use of blocking filters among web site operators should be
There should be enabling legislation to censor audio, visual and graphic programmes, materials and
of promoters in entertainment industries, show business, and advertising firms.
There should be public/private cooperation in establishing and managing rehabilitation centres in
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

School heads should inculcate and incorporate moral instruction programmes in their school
curriculum, and especially to educate students on the evils associated with pornography.

References
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Carnes, P. (1991). Dont call it love: Recovery from sexual addictions. New York: Bantam Books.
Cline, B.V. (1990). Pornographys effect in adults and children
Dworkin, A. (1998). Letters from a war zone
Einsiedel, E.K. (1988). The British Canadian, and U.S. Pornography Commissions and their use of social
research. Journal of Communication, 38 (2): 108
Essuman J.K,, Nwaogu P.O. & Nwachukwu, V.C. (1990).
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Ferguson, F. (1995). Pornography: The theory.
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Khan, F. (1996). Candid talk. Retrieved on August 8, 2003 from
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Hunter, C.D. (2000). The dangers of pornography
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Liebert, R.M. & Spiegler, M.D. (1990).
Mackinnon, C. (1983). Pornography: A feminist perspective
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the womans arousal. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,92,55
McNair, B. (1996). Mediated sex: pornography and postmodern culture.
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Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1988). Effects of prolonged consumption of pornography on family values.
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
hould inculcate and incorporate moral instruction programmes in their school
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Attorney Generals Commission on Pornography in the U.S.A. (1986). Report of 10-
Carnes, P. (1991). Dont call it love: Recovery from sexual addictions. New York: Bantam Books.
Pornographys effect in adults and children. New York: Morality in Media.
Letters from a war zone. New York: Dutton
Einsiedel, E.K. (1988). The British Canadian, and U.S. Pornography Commissions and their use of social
Journal of Communication, 38 (2): 108-121.
Essuman J.K,, Nwaogu P.O. & Nwachukwu, V.C. (1990). Principles and techniques of behav
Owerri: International University Press.
Ferguson, F. (1995). Pornography: The theory. Critical Inquiry, 21:670-695.
Hanson, H.M. (1959). Effects of Discrimination Training of Personality. Journal of Experimental Psychology
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uniport.com
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hould inculcate and incorporate moral instruction programmes in their school
curriculum, and especially to educate students on the evils associated with pornography.
-Member Panel.
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. New York: Morality in Media.
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Principles and techniques of behaviour modification.
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? An unpublished Ph.D dissertation submitted to Annenberg
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Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.





MANAGERIAL PRACTICES FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN PUBLIC
SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABIA
Department o
Department of Educational Management
Abstract

This paper investigates managerial practices for quality improvement in public secondary schools in
Abia-State. In line with the purpose of the study, three research questions and one hypothesis were
formulated. The population of the study consisted of all the two
secondary schools in Abia-State. A total of 108 public senior
size of the study which was drawn using stratified random sampling technique and their
administrators served as respondents. An instrument titled Managerial Practices for Quality
Improvement Questionnaire (MPQIQ) w
coefficient gave 0.79 using Crombatch Alpha. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the
three research questions and z-test statistics to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study show
that the managerial practices of planning, supervision and leadership help to improve quality in
public secondary schools in Abia
should provide the direction and sense of purpose, supervi
and that leadership should provide the lead for achieving quality improvement.

Keywords: Managerial Practices; Quality Improvement; Secondary Education; Planning;
Supervision and Leadership.



Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
PRACTICES FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN PUBLIC
SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABIA-STATE

By
AWAH, OKORIE AWAH
Department of Educational Management
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt
+234 8037808987
awahokorie@yahoo.com

&
AGABI EUCHARIA
Department of Educational Management
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt
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This paper investigates managerial practices for quality improvement in public secondary schools in
State. In line with the purpose of the study, three research questions and one hypothesis were
formulated. The population of the study consisted of all the two-hundred and four (204) public
State. A total of 108 public senior secondary schools constituted the sample
size of the study which was drawn using stratified random sampling technique and their
administrators served as respondents. An instrument titled Managerial Practices for Quality
Improvement Questionnaire (MPQIQ) was used for data collection and its computed reliability
coefficient gave 0.79 using Crombatch Alpha. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the
test statistics to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study show
that the managerial practices of planning, supervision and leadership help to improve quality in
public secondary schools in Abia-State. Some of the recommendations were that planning in schools
should provide the direction and sense of purpose, supervision should prevent the occurrence of error,
and that leadership should provide the lead for achieving quality improvement.
Managerial Practices; Quality Improvement; Secondary Education; Planning;

Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
88
PRACTICES FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN PUBLIC
This paper investigates managerial practices for quality improvement in public secondary schools in
State. In line with the purpose of the study, three research questions and one hypothesis were
hundred and four (204) public
secondary schools constituted the sample
size of the study which was drawn using stratified random sampling technique and their
administrators served as respondents. An instrument titled Managerial Practices for Quality
as used for data collection and its computed reliability
coefficient gave 0.79 using Crombatch Alpha. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the
test statistics to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study showed
that the managerial practices of planning, supervision and leadership help to improve quality in
State. Some of the recommendations were that planning in schools
sion should prevent the occurrence of error,
Managerial Practices; Quality Improvement; Secondary Education; Planning;
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.


Introduction

One major concern of every educational system in the world is the achievement of quality. This calls for
the intensive application of managerial practices which will not only bring about this needed quality but to
also improve on it. Educational managemen
management and administration. Obasi (2004) defined educational management as the scientific and
systematic process by which education experts formulate policies, plans as well as co
activities in such a way that education and national goals are achieved within the available human and
material resources. From the definition, educational management aims at the achievement of goals, and
since the principal is the primus inter pare
he is an educational manager at that level. Supporting this assertion is Nnabuo (2001) who noted that as
an educator, he is not and cannot be restricted to purely administrative task. He as
principals are sometimes referred to as school managers as well as school administrators. This means that
at the administrative level, he also performs some managerial tasks of planning and the formulation of
policies for the achievement of school goals (Maduagwu, 2004).

In order for the school principal to achieve the school goals, he performs a lot of managerial tasks
and practices. Some of these managerial practices as given by Henri Fayol (1916) as cited in Okorie (2009)
and Nwafor (2000) include planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Fayol was
one of the first to define administration as the functions of managers. It is however worthy to note that
managerial practices or functions are not limited to the a
leadership, record keeping, personnel and material resources management.

One major aim of every managerial practice is to improve upon the quality of educational service
delivery. Quality of an educational serv
presupposes an already set standard and spells out the ability of educational service to continually serve
the needs of its customers. Quality education delivery in secondary schools is indicated by
in provision of service, efficiency in school operations, productivity level of staff, provision in quality
service, quality control in service provision, continuous improvement of quality, conformance to quality
standard, effectiveness in service delivery, working with less supervision, and so on (Okeke, 2004).

Quality improvement on the other hand calls for the inherent workings of the educational
practitioners with the idea that education system work in balance to sustain quality in ever
educational service. It also calls for the continuous addition of more ingredients in every facet of
education which will not only satisfy the needs of the customers, but in return surpass their expectation in
patronizing that school through enrollment. I
the effectiveness of activities and processes to provide added benefits to both the organization and its
customers.

Looking at the laudable goals of secondary education as
Nigeria (2004:18), there is therefore the urgent need for the principal to exhibit excellent managerial skills
or practices which would not only help to achieve these goals qualitatively but also, improve upon the
present state of quality; but where these are lacking, one cannot help but wonder the nature of the service
given to customers; hence, the need to investigate the managerial practices for quality improvement in
public secondary schools in Abia-

Managerial practice of planning
Planning could be said to be the most delicate and important function of an educational manager because
his success or failure hinges on it. Underscoring the importance of planning, the FRN (2004) writes that
the success of any educational institution hinges on proper planning, efficient administration and
adequate funding. No wonder Koles (2001) writes that planning helps educational
managers/administrators towards accomplishing objectives in an orderly step
importance of planning for quality improvement (QI) cannot be over emphasized. QI is a continuous and
unceasing effort to make changes for a better educational service delivery. Planning compels mangers to
look ahead, anticipate the needed changes which br
impact of these changes especially as it affect the quality of education. The point of emphasis for planning
Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) March - Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. | www.jeda-uniport.com
One major concern of every educational system in the world is the achievement of quality. This calls for
the intensive application of managerial practices which will not only bring about this needed quality but to
also improve on it. Educational management practices, has it roots from the theories of educational
management and administration. Obasi (2004) defined educational management as the scientific and
systematic process by which education experts formulate policies, plans as well as co
activities in such a way that education and national goals are achieved within the available human and
material resources. From the definition, educational management aims at the achievement of goals, and
since the principal is the primus inter pares in secondary school that ensures that these goals are achieved;
he is an educational manager at that level. Supporting this assertion is Nnabuo (2001) who noted that as
an educator, he is not and cannot be restricted to purely administrative task. He as well noted that school
principals are sometimes referred to as school managers as well as school administrators. This means that
at the administrative level, he also performs some managerial tasks of planning and the formulation of
ment of school goals (Maduagwu, 2004).
In order for the school principal to achieve the school goals, he performs a lot of managerial tasks
and practices. Some of these managerial practices as given by Henri Fayol (1916) as cited in Okorie (2009)
or (2000) include planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Fayol was
one of the first to define administration as the functions of managers. It is however worthy to note that
managerial practices or functions are not limited to the above but include amongst others supervision,
leadership, record keeping, personnel and material resources management.
One major aim of every managerial practice is to improve upon the quality of educational service
delivery. Quality of an educational service is concerned with how good or bad the product is. It
presupposes an already set standard and spells out the ability of educational service to continually serve
the needs of its customers. Quality education delivery in secondary schools is indicated by
in provision of service, efficiency in school operations, productivity level of staff, provision in quality
service, quality control in service provision, continuous improvement of quality, conformance to quality
service delivery, working with less supervision, and so on (Okeke, 2004).
Quality improvement on the other hand calls for the inherent workings of the educational
practitioners with the idea that education system work in balance to sustain quality in ever
educational service. It also calls for the continuous addition of more ingredients in every facet of
education which will not only satisfy the needs of the customers, but in return surpass their expectation in
h enrollment. It is the action taken throughout the organization to increase
the effectiveness of activities and processes to provide added benefits to both the organization and its
Looking at the laudable goals of secondary education as enumerated by the Federal Republic of
Nigeria (2004:18), there is therefore the urgent need for the principal to exhibit excellent managerial skills
or practices which would not only help to achieve these goals qualitatively but also, improve upon the
ent state of quality; but where these are lacking, one cannot help but wonder the nature of the service
given to customers; hence, the need to investigate the managerial practices for quality improvement in
-Sate.
l practice of planning
Planning could be said to be the most delicate and important function of an educational manager because
his success or failure hinges on it. Underscoring the importance of planning, the FRN (2004) writes that
educational institution hinges on proper planning, efficient administration and
adequate funding. No wonder Koles (2001) writes that planning helps educational
managers/administrators towards accomplishing objectives in an orderly step-by
importance of planning for quality improvement (QI) cannot be over emphasized. QI is a continuous and
unceasing effort to make changes for a better educational service delivery. Planning compels mangers to
look ahead, anticipate the needed changes which bring about quality and its improvement, consider the
impact of these changes especially as it affect the quality of education. The point of emphasis for planning
Vol. 22, No. 1, 2014.
uniport.com
89
One major concern of every educational system in the world is the achievement of quality. This calls for
the intensive application of managerial practices which will not only bring about this needed quality but to
t practices, has it roots from the theories of educational
management and administration. Obasi (2004) defined educational management as the scientific and
systematic process by which education experts formulate policies, plans as well as co-ordinate educational
activities in such a way that education and national goals are achieved within the available human and
material resources. From the definition, educational management aims at the achievement of goals, and
s in secondary school that ensures that these goals are achieved;
he is an educational manager at that level. Supporting this assertion is Nnabuo (2001) who noted that as
well noted that school
principals are sometimes referred to as school managers as well as school administrators. This means that
at the administrative level, he also performs some managerial tasks of planning and the formulation of
In order for the school principal to achieve the school goals, he performs a lot of managerial tasks
and practices. Some of these managerial practices as given by Henri Fayol (1916) as cited in Okorie (2009)
or (2000) include planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Fayol was
one of the first to define administration as the functions of managers. It is however worthy to note that
bove but include amongst others supervision,
One major aim of every managerial practice is to improve upon the quality of educational service
ice is concerned with how good or bad the product is. It
presupposes an already set standard and spells out the ability of educational service to continually serve
the needs of its customers. Quality education delivery in secondary schools is indicated by the proficiency
in provision of service, efficiency in school operations, productivity level of staff, provision in quality
service, quality control in service provision, continuous improvement of quality, conformance to quality
service delivery, working with less supervision, and so on (Okeke, 2004).
Quality improvement on the other hand calls for the inherent workings of the educational
practitioners with the idea that education system work in balance to sustain quality in every area of the
educational service. It also calls for the continuous addition of more ingredients in every facet of
education which will not only satisfy the needs of the customers, but in return surpass their expectation in
t is the action taken throughout the organization to increase
the effectiveness of activities and processes to provide added benefits to both the organization and its
enumerated by the Federal Republic of
Nigeria (2004:18), there is therefore the urgent need for the principal to exhibit excellent managerial skills
or practices which would not only help to achieve these goals qualitatively but also, improve upon the
ent state of quality; but where these are lacking, one cannot help but wonder the nature of the service
given to customers; hence, the need to investigate the managerial practices for quality improvement in
Planning could be said to be the most delicate and important function of an educational manager because
his success or failure hinges on it. Underscoring the importance of planning, the FRN (2004) writes that
educational institution hinges on proper planning, efficient administration and
adequate funding. No wonder Koles (2001) writes that planning helps educational
by-step manner. The
importance of planning for quality improvement (QI) cannot be over emphasized. QI is a continuous and
unceasing effort to make changes for a better educational service delivery. Planning compels mangers to
ing about quality and its improvement, consider the
impact of these changes especially as it affect the quality of education. The point of emphasis for planning
Journal of Education in Developing

Official journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

here is to know if it has resulted in the improvement of already existing quality or not. Where
the principal goes back to the drawing board and where it has, it still calls for a continuous improvement.

UNESCO (2005) on the centrality of planning to QI opines that within the realm of educational
planning, many things are changing which
educational system. Sometimes, they may result in no impact upon quality in which case major
government expenditure on such changes has been wasted. The education manager working with this
kind of environment must plan effectively to intercept and terminate existing practices that are damaging
and wasteful. From the assertion above, every necessary change the administrator is planning for must
have peculiarities of quality improvement embedded in
more, he has actually planned to compromise the quality of the educational service and its improvement.

Planning for the improvement of quality in education requires three core areas
and output. In the area of input, the principal plans for the recruitment of adequate and qualified
teachers, procurement of the needed instructional facilities, school programmes, and so on. Planning for
process involves the principal ensuring that every necess
is evident. In this regard, he plans for adequate supervision of teaching, methods of teaching, methods of
evaluation, inspection of teachers lesson note, plan and diary; delivery process, and so on. In the p
for process, he ensures that the four pillars of learning as seen in Fasasi (2006) are considered
know, learning to do, learning to be and learning to live together. Planning for output requires a
consideration of the students perform
progression and pass rates, within and outside the school. The output unit is like the computer garbage
in, garbage out. Where the planning fails to ensure quality improvement from the input and p
needed quality improvement would be found wanting in the output.

Managerial Practice of Supervision
It is a truism to state that no organization can survive without supervision and of which, educational
institution is no exception. Madumere
achieving quality for effective management and control of schools. One of the main roles of any school
supervision system by the principal is to monitor quality improvement in education. As such, superv
forms part of an overall quality monitoring and improvement system which includes other devices such as
examinations and achievement tests, and self
(1996), supervision aims at stimulating profe