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Term paper of database management system

Topic :- Bus reservation system

Submitted by
NITISH BHARDWAJ
Roll no.-RE3804B47
Reg no.-10808759
SUB:-DBMS
SUB CODE:-CAP301
Submitted by
AMANDEEP sir
Acknowledgement :-
I am extremely happy to present this term paper. I have divided the topics in small ways
so that the topics can be arranged & understood properly .the object of this term papers is to
bring out the subject matter in a most concise ,compact ,8 lucid manner.

We are thankful to the following colleagues for their adequate guidance and encouragement
during the preparation of the manuscript of this term paper like DBMS sir Amandeep ,friends
( shekhar, anand , rohit,mukesh etc),

Some websites as google.com, yahoo.com, bing.com, Wikipedia.com, etc.

Sir Amandeep give ideas about to thinking for making the term papers & tell about the pattern
of my topic. Amandeep sir say about the pattern of term papers.

i m also thankful to my room partner.


1. Acknowledgement

2. Table of contents

3. Introduction(Bus reservation system)

4. About functioning of topic

5. Bus services (passengers,description)

6. Bus budget & finances

7. E R Diagram

8. Command
9. Snap shot

10. Own’s view

11. conclusions

About Bus

A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses vary in capacity from 8 to 300
passengers. Buses are widely used public transportation.
The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-
decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midi
buses and minibuses. A luxury, long distance bus is called a coach. A bus is powered by a
combustion engine, although early buses were horse drawn and there were experiments
with steam propulsion. Trolleybuses use overhead power lines. In parallel with the car
industry bus manufacturing is increasingly globalised, with the same design appearing
around the world.

Type of Bus
• Single-deckers
• Double-deckers
• Articulated buses
• Low-floor buses

INTRODUCTION

Traveling is a large growing business in India and other countries also. It becomes very difficult to keep

records for large no. of items, customers and calculating bills. This project is very useful in the Bus reservation

system.

I observed the working of the Bus reservation system and after going through it, I get to know that there are

many operations, which they have to do manually. It takes a lot of time and cause many errors. Due to this,

sometimes a lot of problems occur and they were facing many disputes with customers. To solve the above
problem, and further maintaining records of items, seat availability for customers, price of per/seat, bill generation

and other things, I am offering this proposal of Bus reservation System.

OBJECTIVES

Objective of this software is to computerize any traveling company to manage data, so that all the

transactions become fast and there should not be any error in transactions like calculation mistake, bill generation

and other things. It replaces all the paper work. It keeps records of all the bills also, given to the customers, so that

user could update his daily accounts. allmost care and back-up procedures must be established to ensure 100%

successful implementation of the computerized Bus reservation system.


TOOLS / PLATFORM USED

Hardware Requirements :

• PC Pentium IV with 2.6 GHZ processor.

• Color Monitor.

• Keyboard.

• 40 GB Hard Disk or above.

• 256 MB RAM or above.

• Intel Mother Board.


Software Requirements :

• Operating System : Windows XP.

• Front end : visual basic


• MS Office tools : MS-Word, Excel, PowerPoint.

• Backend : PL/SQL
SYSTEM ANALYSIS

System analysis and design refers to the process of examining a business situation with the intent of

improving it through better procedures and methods. System development can generally be thought of as having

two major components: System Analysis and System Design.

1. IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDS :

Drawbacks of current system:

• Existing system is totally on book and thus a great amount of manual work has to be done. With the increase

of manual work in Bus services and information needs, automation was necessary.

• Needs a lot of working staff and extra attention on all the records.

• In existing system, there are various problems like keeping records of items, seat available, prices of per/seat

and fixing bill generation on each bill.


• Finding out the details regarding any information was very difficult, as the user has to go through all the

books thoroughly.

• Major problem was the lack of security check that was must to be applied.

2. STUDY METHODOLOGY :

System design is the process of planning a new system or replace or complement an existing system. But

before this planning can be done, we must thoroughly understand the existing system and determine how

computers can best be used to make its operation more effective. To obtain information about the current system

and determine the requirements of the new system, study of the current system has been carried out. System

analysis, then, is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing problems and using the information to

recommend improvement to the system. In brief, we can say that analysis specifies what the system should do.

Design specifies how the system should do.


3. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PARADIGM :

To develop a software, software engineer must incorporate a development strategy that encompasses the

processes, methods, tools and generic phases etc. This strategy is often referred to as a Process Model or Software

Engineering Paradigm.

Actually a paradigm specifies some activities that should be performed and the order in which they should

be performed. A Software Development Paradigm is chosen based on the nature of the project and application,

methods and tools to be used and the controls and deliverables that are required.

i.) Business modeling :

In this phase, all the information about the business functioning of the Restaurant is collected, how the data

and information is flow from one end to another end using the following questions:

• What information drives the department process?

• What information is generated?

• Who generates it?


• Where does the information go? Who process it?

The goal of business process engineering is to define architectures that will enable a business to use information

effectively.

In this project, I have determined three different architecture of business objectives and goals :

a. Data architecture.

b. Application architecture.

c. Technology architecture.

ii.) Data modeling :

In this phase, the information collected in business modeling phase is refined into a set of data objects that

are needed to support the project. The attributes of each object are identified and the relationships between these

objects defined.
iii.) Process modeling :

In this phase, processing descriptions and functions like adding, modifying, deleting customer records,

opening of new account, closing account, withdraw amount deposit amount, printing reports, providing

information, file handling etc. are created.

iv.) Application generation :

The fourth generation techniques are used to generate application, like reusing the predefined functions or

creating reusable components.

v.) Testing :

Most of the functions are already tested, as they are predefined functions. However, new components or

functions are also tested after application generation.

In the project process emphasizes reuse, many of the program components must be tested and all interfaces

must be fully exercised.


Business

Modeling
Data

Business Modeling
Process
Modeling
ModelingApplicatio
Data n
Testing &
Modeling Generatio
n Turnover

Process

Modeling

Application

Generation
Testing

&

Turnover
Near about 180 days

4. FEASIBILITY STUDY :

Feasibility is the determination of whether or not a project is worth doing the process followed and making

this determination is called feasibility study. This determines whether a project can and should be taken. Once it

has been determined that a project is feasible, the analyst can go ahead and prepare the project specification which

finalizes project requirements. Generally, feasibility studies are undertaken within right time constraints and

normally culminate in a written and oral feasibility report. The contents and recommendations of such a study will

be used as a sound basis for deciding whether to proceed, postpone or cancel the project. Thus, since the feasibility

study may lead to the commitment of large resources, it becomes necessary that it should be conducted

competently and that no fundamental errors of judgment are made.


There are following types of inter-related feasibility :

i.) Technical feasibility :

This is concerned with specifying equipment, software and hardware that will successfully satisfy the user

requirement. The technical needs of the system may vary considerably, but might include:

• The facility to produce output in a given time.

• Response time under certain conditions.

• Ability to process a certain volume of transactions at a particular speed.

• Facility to communicate data to distant location.

In examining technical feasibility, configuration of the system is given more importance than the actual

make of hardware. The configuration should give the complete picture about the system requirements. What speeds

of input and output should be achieved at particular quality of printing.

According to the definition of technical feasibility the compatibility between front-end and back-end is very

important. In our project the compatibility of both is very good. The degree of compatibility of visual basic and
PL/SQL is very good. The speed of output is very good when we enter the data and click button then the response

time is very fast and give result very quickset. I never find difficulty when we use complex query or heavy

transaction. The speed of transaction is always smooth and constant. This software provides facility to

communicate data to distant location.

The designing of front-end of a project is very important. So I have selected visual basic as front-end due to

the following reasons :

• Easy implementation of code.

• Well defined interface with database.

• Well defined hand shaking with PL/SQL .

• Easy Compiling and Running.

 At present scenario, a number of back-end tools are available, but I have selected PL/SQL because

of the following reasons :

• Able to handle large amount of data.

• Security.
• Robust RDBMS.

• Backup & recovery.

With the help of above support we remove defect of existing software. In future, we can easily switch over

any platform to ensure that system does not halt in case of undesired situation or events. Problem affected of any

module does not affect any other module of the system.

ii.) Operational Feasibility :

It is mainly related to human organizational and political aspects. The points to be considered are :

• What changes will be brought with the system?

• What organization structures are disturbed?

• What new skills will be required? Do the existing staff members have these skills?

At present stage all the work is done by manual. So, throughput and response time is too much. Major problem is

lack of security check that was must to be applied. Finding out the detail regarding any information was very
difficult, because data is stored in different books and each book at different places. In case of any problem, no one

can solve the problem until the master of this field is not present.

I have not changed the structure of organization. I have delivered a system that looks like a current structure

of organization. But, this system removes all the overheads. All the computational work will be done automatically

in our system. Response time is very quick.

Now, we will explain the last point of operational feasibility. It is a shop of hardware and it appoints

engineer for hardware problem. So, he can’t face difficulty in hardware and all employees of company know about

computer’s operation so the training of this software is not a difficult task.

iii.) Economical feasibility :

Economic analysis is the most frequently used technique for evaluating the effectiveness of a proposed

system. It is commonly known as cost/benefit analysis: the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that

are expected from a proposed system and compare them with cost. If benefits outweigh cost, a decision is taken to

design and implement the system. Otherwise, further justification or alternative in the proposed system will have to
be made if it is to have a chance of being approved. This is an ongoing effort that improves in accuracy at each

phase of the system life cycle.

Functioning of topic
This software is working with its employee very easy.it has facility to save data in its
software.only write the command the data will save automatically.we can save record in
the daily basic work that a daily basic employee and monthly basic employee,purchage of
goods and parts.

This software is work on query that is perform by the user and perform by the
administrator.it is easy to query for database.
E R Diagram of BUS RESERVATION SYSTEM :-
Relation between Owner and Bus:-

Bus
no. name
Body no.
addre
nno.
ss
Rout
e ow
OWNE mobil
nam
BUS ner
shi e
e
p
R

Bus no.

Relation between owner and government:-

Tax no. Owner


no.

Dept Owner
name govern
Linc name
enc OWNER
ment es

Owner
Owner address
no.
Relation between Bus and passange:-

p-name Bus no.

p-no.

Tr
p- Passeng Bus
addres av
s er
el

Bus Route Bus Route


name name
Relation between Agent and Owner:-

A-address A-no.
O-phone
O-no. no.

Coll Agent
Owner ecti
on

A-phone
O-name O-address A-name no.
Database Structure :

FIVE tables have been used in this project :

1. PASSANGER : Keeps record of bills.


S. No. Field Name Datatype Description
1. PNO : VARCHAR2(15 IT SHOW THAT NO OF PASSANGER
2. PNAME : Varchar(30) It shows NAME OF PASSANGERl
3. PADDRESS : Varchar2(20) It shows address of passanger
4. routenmae : Varchar(20) It shows the items name

2. owner : Keeps record of owner of record.


S. No. Field Name Datatype Description
1. ownername : number(10) Name of owner
2. Ownerno : Varchar(20) Number of owner
3. Ownerphno : Number(10) Phone number of owner
4. Owneraddress : Varchar(34) Address of owner
5 Bus no : Varchar2(7) Bus no that has owner

3.government:Keep record of username or passward


s.no. Field name Datatype Description
1 Dept no. Varchar2(15) Show the dept no.
2 Ownerno Varchar2(30) Show No. of owner
3 Tax no Varchar2(40) Show the taxno

4.BUS : Keeps record of username or password.

S. No. Field Name Datatype Description


1. Busno : varchar(7) No. of bus
2. busroutename : Varchar(20) Route of the bus

5.AGENT: : Keeps record of username or password.


Sno Field name Datatype Description
1 Aname Varchar2(15) Agent name
2 Aaddress Varchar2(30) Address of agent
3 Ano Varchar2(20) No of agent

Table creation :-

Bus table

create table bus(Bus no. varchar2(10),body no. varchar2(8),route name


varchar2(20));
Passanger table
create table passanger(pno varchar2(15),Pname varchar2(30),Paddess
varchar2(30),routename varchar2(23));

agent table
create table agent(Aname varchar2(15),Aaddess varchar2(30),Ano
varchar2(40));
Government table

create table government(deptname varchar2(15),ownerno


varchar2(30),taxno varchar2(40));
Owner table

create table owner(ownerno varchar2(11),name varchar2(30),address


varchar2(40),mobileno number(20),busno varchar2(10));
View structure of the database:
Query:

Desc bus;

Desc passanger;

Desc owner;

Desc agent;

Desc government;

TABLE:BUS:

NAME TYPE
Busno VARCHAR2(10)
Bodyno VARCHAR2(8)
Routename Varchar2(20)

TABLE: passanger:

NAME TYPE
Pno VARCHAR2(15)
Pname Varchar2(30)
ADDRESS VARCHAR2(30)
Routename Varchar2(23)

TABLE: owner:

NAME TYPE
Ownerno Varchar2(11)
NAME VARCHAR2(30)
Address VARCHAR2(40)
Mobileno number(10)
Busno VARCHAR2(10)

TABLE: agent:

NAME TYPE
Aname Varchar2(15)
Aaddress VARCHAR2(30)
Ano VARCHAR2(40)
TABLE:government

NAME TYPE
Deptname Varchar2(15)
Ownerno Varchar2(30)
Taxno Varchar2(40)

Insert record into table: BUS:

Query:

Insert into bus values (‘pb21 1234’, ‘br2315’,’jala to ldh’);

Output:

1 row created.
Insert record into table: passanger:

Query:

Insert into passanger values (‘an1234’, ‘mohit’, ’12,sector-2,jal’, ‘jal to ldh’);

Output:

1 row created.

Insert record into table: owner:

Query:

Insert into owner values (‘10802432’, ‘Anand shankar jha’, ‘17/2 noida’,
9988776655,’pb211234’);

Insert into owner values (10810085,‘Sakshi sharma’,’12/3


jal’,9977886655,’pb211234’);

Insert into owner values (10802343, ‘Nitish Bhardwaj’, ‘12/2 mohali,9988221133,


’pb211234’);
Insert into owner values (108968, ‘Sandip’, ‘19/2 nalwa road jalandhar cantt’,
9977646321,’pb211234’); Insert into owner values (10812344, ‘Vipul behal’, ’12,main
road abohar’, 9878456721,’pb211234’);

Owner NAME ADDRESS mobilenoT busno


no
108024 ANAND 17/2 noida 9988776655 Pb21123
32 SHANKAR 4
JHA
108100 SAKSHI 12/3, JALA 9977886655 PB21123
85 SHARMA 4
108023 NITISH 12/2 mohali 9988221133 PB21123
43 BHARDWAJ 4
108968 SANDIP 19.2 NALWA ROAD 9977646321 PB21123
JALANDHAR CANTT 4
108123 VIPUL 12, MAIN ROAD 9779045078 PB21123
44 BEHAL ABOHAR 4
108026 GAURAV 34, JAWAHAR 9888067078 PB21123
36 GUPTA COLONY, JALANDHAR 4
108069 SARABJIT 23, RAMA MANDI, 9326067578 PB21123
68 THAKUR JALANDHAR, PUJAB 4
108089 ANIMESH 45/3 SIKANDARPUR, 9888967889 Pb21123
68 TIWARI BHAGALPUR, BIHAR 4

Insert into passanger values (10802636, ‘Gaurav gupta’,’34, jawahar colony, jaladhar’,
‘ldh to jal);
Insert into passanger values (10806968, ‘sarabjit thakur’, ’23, rama mandi, jalandhar,
pujab’, ‘jal to phw’);

Insert into passanger values (10808968, ‘Animesh Tiwari’, ‘169’, ’45/3,


sikandarpur,Bhagalpur,Bihar’,’ldh to amrit);

Output:

1 row created.

1 row created.

1 row created.

1 row created.

1 row created.

1 row created.

1 row created.

1 row created.

1 row created.
Insert record into table: agent:

Query:

Insert into agent values (‘nitish kumar’, 12/2,jal’, ‘998877662’);

Insert into agent values (‘mohit kumar’, ‘15/3 phw’, ‘9876543215’);

Output:

1 row created.

1 row created.
CONCLUSION

This project is designed to meet the requirements of a Bus reservation system. It has been developed in visual basic
and the database has been built in PL/SQL only, keeping in mind the specifications of the system. Apart from MS-
Access we could have also implemented other database software like Oracle or SQL.

For designing the system we have used simple data flow diagrams and E/R diagrams.

Overall the project teaches us the essential skills like:

1. Using system analysis and design techniques like data flow diagram and E/R diagram in designing the
system.

2. Understanding programming logic and language along with utilities like reports, forms,
queries etc. in Visual Basic and PL/SQL.