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Menstruation & Menstrual Cycle

Menstruation the discharge of blood and

the uterine lining/endometrium from the
vagina at about a months interval

Menstrual cycle the periodic sequence in
which menstruation takes place at the interval
of about a month
Significance of Menstruation
Makes humans and primates exceptional,
among mammals

Menstrual Cycle in Human
Typical cycle takes about 28 days (vary between
different females)
Hormones involved: GnRH, FSH, LH, oestrogen &

GnRH pituitary gland (hypothalamus)
FSH & LH ovary
Oestrogen & progesterone - uterus
Hormones Functions
FSH responsible for the development of follicles
LH stimulate the growth of follicles & promote
ovulation & promotes the development of
corpus luteum
Oestrogen stop pituitary gland to produce FSH &
stimulates the production of LH (heal & repair
the uterine wall)
Progesterone stimulates the growth &
development of blood vessels in endometrium

Hormonal Levels of Menstrual Cycle
Days In the ovary In the uterus
1-5 Primary follicle develops
into a Graafian follicle
Menstruation occurs. Excess blood
and tissue of endometrium leaves
the uterus through vagina
6- 13 Graafian follicle matures Endometrium is repaired and
14 Ovulation occurs (released
of secondary oocyte from
ovary into Fallopian tube)
Endometrium continues to thicken
to prepare for the implantation of
15-24 Corpus luteum develops Endometrium becomes thicker.
Many blood vessels develop in it
25-28 Corpus luteum degenerates
if fertilisation does not occur
Endometrium begins to break