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Menstruation & Menstrual Cycle

Menstruation the discharge of blood and


the uterine lining/endometrium from the
vagina at about a months interval

Menstrual cycle the periodic sequence in
which menstruation takes place at the interval
of about a month
Significance of Menstruation
Makes humans and primates exceptional,
among mammals

Menstrual Cycle in Human
Typical cycle takes about 28 days (vary between
different females)
Hormones involved: GnRH, FSH, LH, oestrogen &
progesterone

GnRH pituitary gland (hypothalamus)
FSH & LH ovary
Oestrogen & progesterone - uterus
Hormones Functions
FSH responsible for the development of follicles
LH stimulate the growth of follicles & promote
ovulation & promotes the development of
corpus luteum
Oestrogen stop pituitary gland to produce FSH &
stimulates the production of LH (heal & repair
the uterine wall)
Progesterone stimulates the growth &
development of blood vessels in endometrium

Hormonal Levels of Menstrual Cycle
Days In the ovary In the uterus
1-5 Primary follicle develops
into a Graafian follicle
Menstruation occurs. Excess blood
and tissue of endometrium leaves
the uterus through vagina
6- 13 Graafian follicle matures Endometrium is repaired and
thickens
14 Ovulation occurs (released
of secondary oocyte from
ovary into Fallopian tube)
Endometrium continues to thicken
to prepare for the implantation of
zygote
15-24 Corpus luteum develops Endometrium becomes thicker.
Many blood vessels develop in it
25-28 Corpus luteum degenerates
if fertilisation does not occur
Endometrium begins to break
down