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STUDY OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

IN BLAST FURNACE

A report submitted for fulfillment of the MI NI PROJ ECT
By
ASISH KUMAR (10131A0303)
R.RAJENDRA PRASAD (10131A0340)
M.V.S.SRIKAR (10131A0328)

Under the esteemed guidance of
T.V.SESHAGIRI RAO
AGM, BLAST FURNACE
VIZAG STEEL PLANT


Department of Mechanical engineering
GAYATRI VIDYA PARISHAD COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING (AUTONOMOUS)
(Affiliated to JNTU Kakinada, Approved by AICTE)
VISAKHAPATNAM
2


CERTIFICATE



This is to certify that the mini-project report entitled STUDY OF
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS IN BLAST FURNACE that is being submitted
by ASISH KUMAR (10131A0303), R.RAJENDRA PRASAD (10131A0340),
M.V.S.SRIKAR (10131A0328) in partial fulfillment for the award of the
Degree of Bachelor of Technology in MECHANICAL ENGINEERING to
GAYATRI VIDYA PARISHAD COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING(A) is a record of bonafied work carried out by him
under our guidance and supervision.


Signature of Project Guide

T.V.SESHAGIRI RAO
Asst. General Manager
BLAST FURNACE DEPARTMENT
Visakhapatnam Steel plant

3

Acknowledgement

We sincerely thank our guide T.V.SESHAGIRI RAO
Asst. General Manager, BLAST FURNACE Dept. for his
encouragement and guidance in completing the project work.
We should thank our H.O.D. Sri. B.Govindarao, MECH
Dept. For his co-operation and support for successfully completion
for the project.
We would like to express our immense gratitude to Sri.
JEETENDRA KUMAR (Sr. Manager), Sri K.VENKATA RAMANA
(Deputy Manager), Mr. HARI PRASAD (Asst. Manager) and all
executives of BF Dept. who provided the aid facilities through the
course of my project work.
We also extend our thanks to all those who directly &
indirectly helped us in completing the project work successfully.

Students of GVPCE(A)

ASISH KUMAR (10131A0303)
R.RAJENDRA PRASAD (10131A0340)
M.V.S.SRIKAR (10131A0328)







4




ABSTRACT


Visakhapatnam Steel plant (VSP) is the first shore based integrated steel plant
in India producing high quality value added steel of 3.4 million tons per
annum. Blast Furnace is one of the major departments of VSP where the
conversion of raw materials like iron ore, Sinter and coke into molten metal
(pig iron) takes place. To charge raw material into Blast Furnaces, which are
operated at 2kg/cm
2
pressure, Bell-less top (BLT) charging system supplied
by M/s PAULWORTH, LUXUMBURGE is provided.

In this project various hydraulic systems used in top charging of blast furnace
are studied and noted. Based on this failure of Sealing valve is taken for
further study which is causing highest production loss to the company.

Major causes contributing to the failure of Sealing Valve are analyzed and
different procedures for changing valve components are examined.


















5



CONTENTS



1. INTRODUCTION - 7

2. BLAST FURNACE -16

3. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - 20

4. FAILURE ANLYSIS OF SEALING VALVE - 29

5. REPAIR PROCEDURES FOR SEAL VALVE FLAP AND SEAT - 31
6. CONCLUSION - 36

7. BIBLOGRAPHY - 36




















6



7


CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
VISAKHAPATNAM STEEL PLANT

Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, the first coastal based Steel plant of India is located, 16km
southwest of city of destiny, i.e. Visakhapatnam. Bestowed with modern technologies, Visakhapatnam
Steel Plant has an installed capacity of
3 Million Tons per annum of liquid steel, and,
2.656 Million Tons of saleable steel.

Visakhapatnam Steel Plant products meet exalting International Quality Standards such as
JIS, DIN, BIS, BS etc.
Visakhapatnam Steel Plant has the distinction to be the first integrated Steel Plant in India to
become a fully ISO-9002 certified company. The certificate covers quality systems of all Operational,
Maintenance, Service units besides Purchase systems, Training and Marketing functions spreading over
4 Regional Marketing Offices, 20 Branch offices and 22 stock yards located all over the country.
Visakhapatnam Steel Plant by successfully installing and operating efficiently Rs.460 corers
worth of Pollution Control and Environment Control equipments and converting the barren landscape
by planting more than 3 million plants has made the Steel Plant, Steel Township and surrounding areas
into a heaven of lush greenery- This has made Steel Township a greener, cleaner and cooler place,
which can boast of 3 to 4 degrees centigrade lesser temperature even in peak summer compared to
Visakhapatnam city.
Visakhapatnam Steel Plant exports quality pig iron and steel products too Sri Lanka,
Myanmar, Middle East, USA and Southeast Asia (pig iron). RINL-VSP was awarded Star Trading
House status during 1997-2000.
8

Having a total manpower of about 17250 Visakhapatnam Steel Plant has envisaged a labour
productivity of not less than 230 tones per annum year of Liquid Steel which is the best in the country
and comparable with the international levels.
The major production departments of Visakhapatnam steel plant are the Raw materials handling
system, Coke ovens, Sinter plant, Blast furnace, and Steel melting shop and Rolling mills.
RAW MATERIAL LINKAGES:
The steel plant is getting its supply of iron ore- lumps and fines from the Bailadilla deposits in
Madhya Pradesh (MP) blast furnace grade lime stone from Jaggayyapeta in Andhra Pradesh, SMS
grade lime stone from Badnapur in MP, blast furnace grade lime stone from the Kotni-sonor deposits in
MP. 20% of cocking coal requirements will be met by imports through the Visakhapatnam harbor
while the balance will come from the Bengal-Bihar. Coal for power generation will come from Talcher
in Orissa.
POWER SUPPLY:
A peak construction power requirement was about 12MVA. This was arranged from the
Gajuwaka substation of APSEB at 33KV.
The plant have captive power generation unit consists of 3 nos. turbo generators, each having
60 MW capacity. An additional requirement of operational power around 150 MVA is being met from
the APSEB grid.
Operational power supply is initially at 220 KV, which are subsequently stepped down to 400 KV
WATER SUPPLY:
Requirements f water during the peak of construction was of the order of 4.5, Mgd. This was
met from the Meghadrigedda, and Raiwada schemes of Andhra Pradesh state government.
Operational water requirements of 70 Mgd. Of the steel plant are being met from the Yeleru
water supply scheme provided by the AP government. This involved construction of a storage reservoir
9
at Yeleswaram and a 153 KM long linked canal to the plant site apart from Kanithi Balancing
Reservoir (KBR).
REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE SHOPS:
The repair and maintenance shops are required to manufacture spares and replaceable items and
will cater to the capital and running maintenance of the various units of the steel plant. The activities of
the repair and maintenance shops are extremely wide and varied in nature. The experience of the Indian
steel plants has been kept in view in planning the repair and maintenance facilities.
Raw Material Handling Plant(RMHP):
VSP annually requires quality raw materials viz. iron ore, fluxes (limestone, dolomite) coking
and non-coking coals, etc. to the tune of 12-13 million tons for producing 3 million tons of liquid steel.
To handle such a large volume of incoming raw materials received from different sources and to ensure
timely supply of consistent quality of feed materials to different VSP consumers, Raw material
Handling Plant serves a vital function. This unit is provided with elaborate unloading, blending,
stacking and reclaiming facilities viz. Wagon Tipplers, Ground and Tank Hoppers, Stock yards
Crushing Plants, Vibrating Screens, Single/ twin boom stackers, Wheels on boom and Blender
Reclaimers.
In VSP Peripheral unloading has been adopted for the first time in the country.

Fig RMHP
10

Coke ovens and Coal Chemical Division:
Blast Furnaces, the mother units of any steel plant requires huge quantities of strong, hard and
porous solid fuel in the form of hard metallurgical coke for supplying necessary heat for carrying out
the reduction and refining reactions besides acting as a reducing agent.


Coke is manufactured by heating of crushed coking coal ( below 3mm) in the absence of air at
temperature of 1000
0
c and above for about 16 to 18 hours . A coke oven comprises of two hollow
chambers namely coal chamber and heating chamber. In the heating chamber a gaseous fuel such as
blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, etc is burnt. The heat so generated is conducted through the common
wall to heat and carbonize the coking coal placed in the adjacent coal chamber.



Number of ovens built in series one after the other form a coke oven battery.At VSP there are
three coke oven batteries, 7 meters tall and having 67 ovens each. Each oven is having a volume of
11
41.6 cu. meters and can hold up to 31.6 tons of dry coal charge. The carbonization takes place at 1000
0

c to 1050
0
c in the absence of air for 16 to 18 hours.
Red hot coke is pushed out of the ovens and sent to coke dry cooling plants for cooling to avoid
its combustion. There are three coke dry cooling plants (CDCP), each having four cooling chambers.
The capacity of each cooling chambers is 50 to 52 TPH. Nitrogen gas is used as cooling medium. The
heat recovery from nitrogen is done by generating steam and expanding in two back pressure turbines
to produce 7.5 MW power each.
The coal chemicals such as benzyl (and its products), tar (and its products) and ammonium
sulphate, etc. are extracted in coal chemical plant from CO gas. After recovering the coal chemicals,
the gas is used as by product fuel by mixing it with gases such as BF gas, LD gas, etc. A mechanical,
biological and chemical treatment plant takes care of the effluents.
SINTER PLANT:
Sinter is a hard and porous ferrous material obtained by agglomeration of iron ore fines, coke
breeze, limestone fines; metallurgical wastes viz. flue dust, mill scale, LD slug, etc.
Sinter is a better feed material to blast furnace in comparison to iron ore lumps and its usage in
blast furnace help in increasing productivity decreasing the coke rate & improving the quality &
improving the quality of hot metal produced.
Sintering is done in 2 nos. of 312 Sq. meter, sinter machines of Dwight Lloyd type by heating
the prepared feed on a continuous metallic belt made of pallets at 1200 c- 1300 c.
Hot sinter discharged from sintering machine is crushed to sizes between 5mm and 50mmsize
and cooled before dispatching to blast furnaces.
The dust laden air from the machines are cleaned in scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators to reduce
the dust content to 100 mg/m3 level before allowing to escape into the atmosphere and thus helping in
maintaining a clean and dust free environment.

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BLAST FURNACES:
Hot metal is produced in blast furnaces, which are tall vertical furnaces. The furnace is named
as Blast Furnace as it is run with blast at high pressure and temperature. Raw materials such as sinter,
iron ore lumps, fluxes (limestone, dolomite) and coke arecharged from the top and hot blast at 1100
0
c
to 1300
0
c and 5.75 KSCH pressure is blown almost from the bottom. The furnaces are designed for
80% sinter in the burden.
VSP has two 3200cu.meters blast furnaces (largest in India) equipped with Paul worth Bell less
top equipment with conveyor charging. Rightly named as Godavari and Krishna after the two rivers of
A.P., the furnaces will help in bringing prosperity to the state of Andhra Pradesh.
Provision exists for granulation of 100% liquid slag at blast furnace cast house and utilization of
blast furnace gas-top pressure (1.5 to 2 atmospheric pressure) to generate 12 MW of power in each
furnace by employing gas expansion turbines.
The two furnaces with their novel circular cast house and four tap holes each are capable of
producing 9720 tons of hot metal daily or3.4 MT of hot metal annually.




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STEEL MELTING SHOP (SMS):
Steel is an alloy of iron with carbon up to 1.8%. Hot metal produced in blast furnace contains
impurities such as Carbon (3.4 to 4.25%), Silicon (0.4 to 0.5%) Manganese (0.3 to0.4%), Sulphur
(0.04% maximum) and Phosphorous (0.04% maximum) is not suitable as a common Engineering
Material. To improve the quality, the impurities are to be eliminated or decrease by oxidation process.
VSP produces steel employing three numbers of top blown oxygen converters called LD
Converters (L and D stands for Linz and Donawitz- two towns in Austria where this process was first
adopted) or Basic Oxygen Furnaces/Converters. Each converter is having 133cu.mts volume capable of
producing 3MT of liquid steel annually. Besides hot metal, steel scrap, fluxes such as calcinated lime
or dolomite from part of the charge to Converters.
99.5% pure Oxygen at 15-16 KSCG pressure is blown in the Converter through oxygen lance
having convergent divergent copper nozzles at the blowing end. Oxygen oxidizes the impurities present
in the hot metal, which are fluxed as slag with basic fluxes such as lime. During the process heat is
generated by exothermic reactions of oxidation of metalloids viz. Si, Mn, P and Carbon and
temperature rises to 1700
0
c enabling refining & slag formation.



14


Different grades of steel of superior quality can be made by this process by controlling the
Oxygen blow or addition of various ferroalloys or special additives such as FeSi, FeMn, Si-Mn, Coke
breeze, Aluminum etc. in required quantities while liquid steel is being tapped from the converter into a
steel ladle. Converter / LD gas produced as by product is used as a secondary fuel.
CONTINUOUS CASTING DEPARTMENT: Continuous casting may be defined as teaming of
liquid steel in a mould with a false bottom through which partially solidified ingot/bar (Similar to the
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shape & cross section of the mould) is continuously withdrawn at the same rate which liquid steel is
teamed in the mould.
Facilities at a continuous casting machine include a lift and turn for ladles, copper mould,
mould oscillating system tundish, primary and secondary cooling arrangement to cool the steel bloom,
gas cutting machines for cutting the blooms in required lengths (Avg. 6 meters long).
At VSP we have six-4 strand continuous casting machines capable of producing 2.82 MT/Year
Blooms of size 250X250 mm and 250X320 mm. Entire quantity of molten steel produced (100%) is
continuously cast in radial bloom casters which help in energy conservation as well as production of
superior quality products.

Fig Continuous Casting Machine
ROLLING MILLS:
Blooms produced in SMS-CCD do not find many applications as such and are required to be
shaped into products such as billets, rounds, squares, angles (equal and unequal), channels, IPE beams,
HE beams, wire rods and reinforcement bars by rolling them in 3 high capacity, high speed fully
automatic rolling mills namely Lightand Medium Merchant Mills (LMMM), Wire rod mill (WRM)

LMMM PRODUCTS WRM PRODUCT
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CHAPTER-2:
BLAST FURNACE DEPARTMENT
2.1INTRODUCTION TO BLAST FURNACE
Blast furnace department is one of the major departments in Visakhapatnam steel plant. It is having two
India's biggest blast furnace named Godavari and Krishna having useful volume of 3200 m
3
per furnace
and production capacity of 11315 tons / day. Raw material like iron ore, sinter, coke and additives like
limestone and dolomite are charged from top of the furnace and hot blast at around 1000C. is sent into
furnace through 32 numbers of tuyeres from the bottom of the furnace.
The line diagram of blast furnace is shown in figure 2.1 Blast furnace is cylindrical, tapered,
counter vessel where several reactions take place at different zones. The process of reduction will tap
hot metal as the main product and slag as by product from four tap holes, which are provided at the
bottom side of the furnace.
Blast furnace is designed to operate at 2 kg/sqcm working pressure at furnace top to get the
rated production. To charge the material in the furnace 2 kg/sqcm pressure is to be maintained in the
bin. A separate bell less top charging system is provided. The system is provided exactly on the top of
the furnace and the main purpose of it is to distribute the required quantity of material uniformly into
furnace as and when the furnace required. As the volume of blast furnace is very high - its raw material
requirement is also very high hence the charging equipment should operate continuously without any
break. In addition to this blast furnace department is having a slag granulation unit and 4 pig casting
machines also. Fig 2.1.1 shows schematic diagram of Blast furnace.
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2.2 SECTIONS IN BLAST FURNACE
1. BURDEN HANDLING SECTION (BHS):
In this section, the raw materials like iron ore, sinter, coke, limestone, manganese ore, quartz are
made to prepare as a stock and is transferred to top charge of the blast furnace by means of conveyors
in the form of batches. The raw materials are stored in bunkers. The raw materials from different
conveyors reach the top charge of the blast furnace. An amount of 20T coke and 6T sinter is used for
every batch of production in blast furnace. All these raw materials are made in stock by a series of
bunkers as shown in figure.


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2. FURNACE:
Two furnaces named Godavari and Krishna of 3200 cubic meters of volume, each
capable of producing 1.7MT of hot metal per year
Position : 33,100mm
Height of Hearth : 4600mm
Height of Bosh : 3400mm
Height of Belly : 1900mm
Height of shaft : 20,000mm
Dia. of Hearth : 12000mm
Dia .of Belly : 13300mm
Dia. of Top : 8900mm
No of Tuyeres : 32
No of Tap Holes : 4
4.CAST HOUSE SLAG GRANULATION PLANT (SGP):
In blast furnace, liquid iron and slag are the products formed due to heating of raw materials.The
liquid iron is transferred to SMS while slag is transferred to slag granulation plant (SGP) where the slag
is granulated and transferred to slag yard. This slag is used mainly in preparation of cement..
2.3 BELL LESS TOP CHARGING SYSTEM
It has mainly two bins having useful volume of 47m3. Each bin is having two sealing valves to
avoid from BF gas leakage, one at the top of the bin and other at the bottom. Each bin is having one
material gate at the lower portion to hold the burden and is located above the lower sealing valve.
There is a receiving hopper to receive the material from the main charging conveyors and to guide to
either of the bins. Receiving hopper is having one material gate at the bottom of the hopper. The
function of the material gate is not to allow any material to fall when the hopper is in transition from
one bin to the other bin. At the bottom of the bins and just above the furnace there is a distributiosn
19
chute gearbox. The main function of the gearbox is to hold, rotate and tilt the main distribution chute.
The length of the chute is 4m. The main purpose of the chute is to receive the material from the bins-
and to distribute uniformly in the furnace. The chute is having two motions one is rotation and the other
is tilting.
The chute rotates at an angle of 360
0
and tilts up to 54
0
from the vertical axis. The provision of chute
rotating and tilting facilitates to charge the material into the furnace in concentric circles. It is N
2

cooled gearbox having a lubrication interval of 8 minutes.
Raw material charging will be charged into the furnace, in batches. In which iron ore material is
one batch and coke as another batch. Either of the batches is first taken into one bin through receiving
hopper from the main charging conveyor. Then the bin will be pressurized up to 2 Kg/sqcm pressure by
using semi cleaned B.F. gas and nitrogen.Due to hot blast, the pressure will be maintained on the bin.
This obstructs the flow of raw materials in to the furnace. In order to avoid this, N
2
gas and BF gas is
circulated in the bin such that it can with stand the hot blast pressure. Thus the pressure is equalized.
After pressure equalization, lower sealing valve is opened fully and lower material gate is opened
partially to regulate the flow. Due to gravity the material falls into the chute and gets distribute into the
furnace.
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Chapter-3

HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

3.1 HYDRAULIC COMPONENTS IN BELL-LESS TOP CHARGING
SYSTEM:

Hydraulic Oil Tanks:
There are two hydraulic tanks of volume 1000l, each in Bell less top hydraulic system. They are
located at 44mts elevation of the blast furnace complex. Either of the tanks is kept in working and the
other is standby. These tanks act as a reservoir of hydraulic oil, receives oil from the system and supply
oil to the pump whenever it is required. These tanks are located above the main pumping unit So as to
maintain positive head in the suction line. If we see the cross section of the hydraulic tank, it is divided
into three chambers.
1. Receiving chamber: Hydraulic oil from valve stands comes to the receiving chamber through return
filters, and it settles there and flows to the suction chamber.
2. Suction chamber: This chamber acts as a supply reservoir to the pumping units.
3. Cooling chamber: This chamber is connected to cooling circulation pump. This pump circulates
cooling oil through heat exchanger by which the oil gets cooled in the process.
Pumps:
There are two main pumps in the bell less top charging system. Each pump is connected to one
tank. Pumps are axial piston pumps with fixed displacement and bent axis pumps. One pilot operated
relief valve with directional valve unloading is provided in the delivery side of the pump. Pump always
generates flow but whenever systems do not require flow, the above unloading valve simply unloads
the oil back into the tank and whenever system requires oil it loads oil to the system. This way
operation of the pump and frequent starting and stopping is avoided.In addition to the above main
pump, there will be another circulation pumping unit. The function of the circulation-pumping unit is to
keep the temperature of hydraulic oil under control.
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Valve Stands:
Bell less top hydraulic system is having two control valve stands.
1. Control Valve Stand-I 2. Control Valve Stand - II.
Control Valve stand-I consists of valves connecting to
a. Receiving hopper d. LMG (lower material gate)
b. UMG (upper material gate) e. LSV (lower sealing valve)
c. USV (upper sealing valve) f. Main goggle valve clamping
Control Valve - 2 consists of valves connecting to primary equalizing valves (PEV), secondary
equalizing valve (SEV), purging valves, and pressure relief valves.
Valve stands consists of direction control valves, flow control valves, and shutoff valves and
check valves. Mainly two types of direction valves are fitted in control valve stand 1.3/4 valves for
material gates and main google movement and 2/3 way valves for all sealing valves. Flow control will
be done according to the speed requirement of the valve. Whenever a particular valve is to be isolated
from the system corresponding shutoff valves will be close.
Hydraulic Cylinders:
The entire bell less top charging equipment except the chute is connected with hydraulic
cylinders. All these cylinders are turn-on rounded and are having spherical bearings at rod eye. Speed
of these cylinders regularly checked and accordingly flow control will be done. Since these cylinders
are located at the site, they are subjected to dust. To prevent the dust entrapment into the cylinder a
wiper seal is provided to the piston end.
Accumulator:
Bell less top hydraulic system is having two piston accumulators of volume 251ts each and one
bladder accumulator. Each piston accumulator is connected with 4 number of N2 bottles of each 251ts
of volume. A free moving piston separates the nitrogen gas and hydraulic oil in piston accumulator.

22

Piston accumulator is being operated between the pressures rating from 165 bars to 185 bars. Filling
pressure of N2 bottles is 160 bars.
Hydraulicoil:
Hydraulic oil used in bell less top hydraulic system is servo system HLP 46 supplied by M/s
IOCL. Once in three months oil will be sent for testing and based on the suggestion the oil replacement
will be done. As the clearances of all the hydraulic parts are in microns, effect of contamination is very
high on the equipment. Hence, oil should be maintained always clean.
Upper Sealing Valve:
Upper sealing valve is a flap with gas tight seal. The purpose of this valve is to maintain 2-
kg/sqcm pressure in the bin. Upper sealing valve is operated by hydraulic system. Cylinder (actuator)
mounting for this is turn-on type to reduce the thrust on the system. The hydraulic force pushes the
piston, so that it operates a crank, which rotates half circle and closes or opens the flap in the bin
through a long curved shaft.
Lower Material Gate:
Operation: Hydraulic force pushes the piston and itself operates the gate. After upper sealing valve has
been opened, the lower sealing valve and the lower material gate will be closed. Then the receiving
hopper comes to the position and fills the bin with material. Then closing of upper sealing valve and
getting required pressure is done. Then after opening of lower sealing valve, the material is allowed to
fall and the bin pressure is relieved. Then the opening of upper sealing valve takes place after the
material gate is closed.
Receiving Hopper:
The purpose of receiving hopper is to take the material coming from the BHS (Burden Handling
Section) through conveyors and directs the material into the bin.The hopper is free to move in linear
direction to cover the two bins one after other in sequential manner. The load on the hopper is constant
23
and somewhat less compared to other components in the system. Upper material gate' is fixed to the
receiving hopper. Receiving hopper is also operated by '4-way 2 position' DC valve.
Distribution Gear Box:
Distribution gearbox is the major part in distributing in the form of concentric circles in blast
furnace using the "CHUTE", which is in a sectioned cylinder form. Distribution gear box is an
epicyclical gearbox with two motions.
a) Rotating movement. b) Tilting movement
This gearbox is cooled by nitrogen. Distribution gearbox is operated by electrical motor, and the
gearbox is to be lubricated with grease for every 8min. that is located at top of blast furnace.
Pressure Relief Valve:
Pressure relief valve is used to relieve pressure in the bin. Pressure relief valve has piston with
double piston rods. 4/2 valves operate it. For relief valves hydraulic force is used only for operating
purpose, closing of valve is automatically done by spring force.
3.2 BASIC CIRCUIT FOR WORKING OF HYDRAULIC CYLINDER IN BELL LESS
TOP CHARGING SYSTEM
The pump (driven by motor) sucks fluid from the tank and discharges into the line through
different valves to the cylinder. So long as, there is no resistance to the flow, thefluid will be pushed
further and thus increases the pressure till the cylinder moves. But the maximum pressure must be
limited in order to prevent any damages to the system due too high load. For this, a pressure relief
valve is used in which a spring as a mechanical force presses the ball on the seat. The ball opens when
the force exceeds spring force. Thus, the fill flow delivery by the pump flows to the tank. Fig 2.1.3
shows Hydraulic circuit.
24

3.3 MAIN COMPONENTS IN THE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
Hydraulic Cylinder:

The cylinder comprises mainly cylinder cap, cylinder tube, cylinder head, tie rod, piston with
piston rod, guide bush and the mounting device (in this case mounting flange.)
Cylinder cap, cylinder tube, and the cylinder head are assembled and then held together by 4 tie rods.
Piston seal is fitted between the piston side and the rod side. A "stick - slip" free wheeling motion
(smooth) is achieved at the lowest speeds and low pressure, by the selected seal types and the surface
quality of the cylinder tube, piston rod guide. Figure shows Hydraulic Cylinder.

25

Fig Hydraulic Cylinder


COMPONENTS:
1. Cylinder cap 2. Cylinder tube
3. Cylinder head 4. The rod piston
5. Piston rod 6. Guide bush
7. Mounting flange

Direction Control Valve:
The control valve used in the hydraulic circuit is the Direction spool valve. The purpose of
this valve is to direct the flow of fluid and to change the direction of flow. A 4/3 -way spool valve is
mainly used to direct the flow of fluid.

Working of a 4/3-Way Direction Spool Valve:

Annular ports are cast around a longitudinal bore in a housing I. The annular ports interrupt the
longitudinal bore. If the control spool is moved it connects or divides the annular ports in the housing.
Each annular port is connected to an outlet terminator in the housing. Separation and combination of
the ports is synchronous. The operating sequence can be determined exactly.
The different control functions result relatively simply due to the spool shape. The housing
does not generally change. All the ports P,T,A and B are separate at outlet
position, i.e., without external operation. If the spool is pushed to the right, for example connections P
to B and A to T occurs sealing for individual annual ports is achieved via the tolerance between the
spool and the housing. Figure Show Direction Control Valve and circuit diagram.
26



1.Housing 3.Control lands
2. Annular port 4.Control spool
A, B, P, T are different switching positions.
Fig Direction Control Valve

Advantages of Direction Spool Valves:
1. They are relatively simple in design.
2. Very good pressure balance is obtained and thus low operating pressures are
required.
3. These valves have comparatively low losses.

27
Flow Control Valve:
The flow control valve used in the hydraulic circuit is a double throttle / check valve.

Working:
Double throttle check valves comprise two throttle check valves arranged symmetrically in one
block. They are fitted between the direct operated directional valve and the sub plate to influence the
speed of the user (main flow limiter). With flow from the bottom to the top, pressure acts via bore I on
the mounting face of the check valve, designed as a throttle pin.The throttle pin is pushed back and no
throttling takes place. With flow from top to bottom the pressure acts via bore 2 on the rear side of the
throttle pin. It is pushed against the stop 3 and occupies a throttle position according to the position of
adjustment screw. Fig shows flow control valve.

1. Pressure acts via bore. 3. Spring pushed against the top.
2. Pressure acts via bore 4.Adjustment screw.
Fig Flow Control Valve
Pressure Relief Valve:
The pressure relief valve used in the hydraulic circuit is the direct operated pressure relief valve. It
serves to influence pressure in a unit or in part of a unit.
Working of a Direct Operated Pressure Relief Valve:

28
The housing or the control contains the sleeve 2, spring 3, advance mechanism 4, poppet with
cushioning the housing or the control contains the sleeve 2, spring 3, and advance mechanism 4, poppet
with cushioning spool 5 and as a separate part the hardened seat. The spring pushes the poppet in its
seat. The spring force can be steplessly adjusted by means of a rotary knob. The pressure is also set
accordingly. Port P is connected with the system. Pressure in the system acts on the poppet surface. If
the pressure lifts the poppet from its seat, the connection to the T port is opened. A pin limits the
poppet stroke.
Since the spring force also increases according to the spring constant as stroke increases,
the underside of the spring retainer is a special shape. The impulse forces of the oil flow are
used in such a way that the increase in spring force is almost balanced out. Fig shows
pressure relief valve.

1. Control block
2. Sleeve
3. Spring
4. Advanced mechanism
5. Cushion spool
6. Hardened seat



Fig. Pressure Relief Valve







29
CHAPTER-4
FAILURE ANALYSIS OF THE SEALING VALVE OF BELL LESS
TOP CHARGING SYSTEM
4.1 Selection of problem:
To select a problem for this project data regarding various failures in Bell less top charging system is
collected from past records. Table 3.1.1 shows the data of major problems identified for the past three
years:
Table. Failure analysis of BLT charging system

From this data table it is clear that the failure of Sealing Valve is resulting in maximum loss 5577
tones of hot metal production. Fig 3.1.2 shows bar graph of Failure analysis of BLT charging system.

S.no

Problems

Off blast

Low blast
Wind
restriction
Loss of hot
metal(tons)
1. Sealing valve failure Nil Nil 71.5 5577
2. Hydraulic problems 8.15 5.30 6.10 3106
3. Bleeder valve 10.20 Nil Nil 2553
4. Sealing valve seat leakage 6.25 Nil Nil 1584
5. Hatch cover leakage 3.25 1.25 0.25 1014
6. Main charging conveyor Nil 1.35 3.45 453
7. Mobile hopper wheel failure 4.45 Nil Nil 1128
8. Up takes leakage Nil 3.20 Nil 437
30

Sealing valve problem Hydraulic problems
Bleeder valve failure Sealing valve seat leakage
Mobile hopper wheel failure Hatch cover leakage
Main charging conveyor failure Up takes leakage

4.2 PROBLEM DEFINITION AND ANALYSIS:
Sealing valve description: Sealing valve plays an important role in Bell Less Top Charging System.
These valves are meant for sealing the bin from Blast Furnace gas leakage which is driven by
Hydraulic cylinder. They consist of flap and a seat with silicon rubber seal. Flap closes against the seat
during closing, once the valve is closed, it will not allow any leakage through the valve. These valves
are located one at top of the bin and other at the bottom. These are very critical valves. Fig 3.1.3 shows
process flow diagram of sealing valve.




31
CHAPTER-5
REPAIR PROCEDURES FOR SEAL VALVE FLAP AND SEAT

5.1 PREPARATIONS PRIOR TO THE REPAIR WORK:
1. If access to seal valve is required, then fill material hopper with coke or install a
temporary platform inside. The platform may only be installed after the hopper is
degassed.
2. Disable and lock the burdening installation.
3. Move the rocker in a horizontal position and secure mechanically, open the cylinder
bypass valve.
4. Lock lower seal valve and material gate of serviced hopper in closed position. Use
safety pins.
5. Lock upper seal valve to be serviced in required position .Use safety pins.
6. Lock equalizing valves in closed position as required. Use safety pins.
7. Lock goggle valve in the equalizing lines in closed position.
8. Lock relief valve in the open position. Use safety pin.
9. Lock goggle valve in closed position.
10. Disable and lock the hydraulic, steam and electric circuits of the above mentioned
components.
11. Degas the material hopper.
12. Switch off and disable radar/microwave probe of hopper (if installed).
13. Post warning notes
5.2 EXCHANGING FLAP SEAL RING:
5.2.3 Exchanging procedure: Make sure that all the safety precautions described in section 1
and the preliminaries of this section are respected.
32
LOCK
SAFETY PIN
PROTECTION HOOD
1. Perform steps per chapter 5.1 and lock upper seal valve in open position (see PIC 5.2.1)
2. Open material hopper access door and degasify properly.



3. Access to the seal valve flap via the burden material or install a platform inside the hopper.
4. Remove fixing bolts of seal hold-down ring (see PIC 5.2.2).
5. Remove 3 M16 plugs of seal flap and release seal hold down ring by means of three M16
screws see PIC 4.5.3.2 & 4.5.3.3). Reinstall plugs with grease.
6. Remove hold-down ring from seal flap (see PIC 5.2.3).
7. Replace seal ring (see PIC 5.2.3).
8. Reinstall hold-down ring (install new bolts and nuts, if necessary).
9. Put equipment in operation.

PIC 5.2.1 LOCKING UPPER SEAL VALVE DRIVE
WARNING! - GAS HAZARD!
Prior to entering any BLT components, check environment for blast furnace gas, using gas
detectors. If necessary, use gas masks for the following repair work.
33
SEAL HOLD DOWN
RING
FIXING BOLT
OF SEAL
HOLD DOWN
RING
FIXING BOLT OF
SEAL HOLD DOWN
RING
SEAL RING
RELEASING SCREWS

PIC. 5.2.2: SCREWS SEAL VALVE FLAP


PIC 5.2.3. REEASING SEAL RING


5.3.3 Exchanging procedure:
Make sure that all the safety precautions described in section 1 and the preliminaries of this
section are respected.
1. Perform steps per Chapter 5.1 and lock upper seal valve in open position (see
PIC. 5.3.1).
2. Open material hopper access door and degasify properly.


WARNING! - GAS HAZARD!
Prior to entering any BLT components, check environment for blast furnace gas,
using gas detectors. If necessary, use gas masks for the following repair work
34
SEAL RING
LOOSE
BEARING
PART
DISC
SPRINGS
COUNTER
&
FASTENING
NUTS
PRESSURE
WASHER
RECTANG
-ULA R
OPENING
ACCESS
DOOR
CONICAL
PROTECTION
COVER
LOCK
PROTECTION HOOD
SAFETY
PIN
PIC. 5.3.1: LOCKING UPPER SEAL VALVE DRIVE


PIC. 5.3.2: SECURING SEAL VALVE FLAP
PIC. 5.3.3: CONICAL PROTECTION COVER OF SEAL VALVE FLAP

PIC. 5.3.4: PRESSURE WASHER OF SEAL PIC. 5.3.5: SPRINGS & LOOSE
VALVE FLAP SPHERICAL BEARING PART
35
SEAL HOLD DOWN
RING

SEAL RING
FLAP
AXLE
PROTECTION
COVER

PIC. 5.3.6: FLAT PROTECTION COVER PIC. 5.3.7: FLAP AXLE
3. Access to the seal valve flap via the burden material or install a platform inside the
hopper. 4. Introduce two chain hoists through the rectangular opening on top of the upper
seal valve casing and hook to upper eyelets of seal valve flap. Hook two further chain
hoists between lower eyelets of seal valve flap and the chains of the upper chain hoists (see
PIC 5.3.2). Tighten up the chain hoists.
5. Remove conical protection cover from inner side of seal flap (see PIC 5.3.3).
6. Loosen and remove the safety counter nut, fastening nut, pressure washer and springs
with loose spherical bearing part (see PIC 5.3.4 & PIC 5.3.5).
7. Remove the flat protection cover with sealing on the lever arm and dismantle the flap
axle (see PIC 5.3.6 & PIC 5.3.7).
8. Introduce one additional chain hoist through material hopper access door and hook to
seal valve flap (see PIC 5.3.2).
9. Remove seal flap through the material hopper access door while releasing
simultaneously the chain hoists through the rectangular opening on top of upper seal valve
casing and tightening up the chain hoist through the material hopper access door.
10. Check spherical bearings, springs, fixing elements and seat axle if these can be reused.
11. Install bearings to lever arm and new seal flap (see PIC5.3.8 & PIC5.3.9).
Remark: The spherical bearing must be free of grease prior mounting.


36
CONCLUSIONS:
1. Bell-Less top charging system of blast furnace is intended for distribution of
charging ingredients into the furnace as per preset requirements.
2. Most of the components of the system are hydraulically operated and any failure of
these leads to the stoppage of blast furnace.
3. From the problems that exist in Bell-Less top charging system Sealing Valve crank
and gland of Hydraulic Cylinder failure is of serious concern as it involves major
loss in production.
4. Hydraulically operated systems are more efficient and are extremely suitable in case
of noise reduction.
5. They are self lubricating and hence require less maintenance cost when compared to
other mechanical drives.
6. As the furnace is in continuous operation for every 6 months seal valve flap is
inspected and replaced where as seal valve seat is replaced once in a year.
7. For replacement 12 hours of shutdown is required and valve components should be
centered properly and made air tight for preventing leakage during equalizing
process.
BIBLOGRAPHY:
1. The Hydraulic trainer Instruction and information on oil Hydraulics by A Schmit
2. Fluid mechanics by R.K. RAJPUT.
3. Hydraulics and hydraulic machines by P.N. Modi and S.M.Seth.