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Meat

Processing
I. Introduction
II. Selection Of Animals For Slaughter
III. Slaughter Of Livestock

Prepared by :
Raya Mae T . Jumawan
HISTORY

 Egyptians
-salting and drying


 Romans
-used ice and snow


 1809 –Nicholas Appert
-Introduced hermetic sealing of foods

-canning

 

 WORLD WAR I
-freezing of meat on large scale

 

 WORLD WAR II
-Irradiation
The Development of Meat industry
in the Philippines

 (Before 1932)

Activities:

-slaughtering of animals
-selling the meat fresh

-making of sausages

-cured products

 

 Selling of animals by the dressed weight appeared to


be better because the prices were made based on the
weight of the carcass
 Pilferage of meat by butchers was rampant
 Pork comprised the greater bulk of consumed meat
however, there was insufficient supply
 Ham manufacturing became popular

 1932
Commonwealth Act no. 3953


(Promotion of New and Improvement of Existing
Industries)

 

-passed by the Philippine Congress resulting to the
creation of
Products Division of the Bureau of Animal

Industry
 

 


-acceleration of researches on meat and milk and
their by-products

-led to the popularization of meat processing in the
Philippines
-factories were basically engaged in ham and

sausage manufacture

Commonwealth Act No. 85
-strengthened the home extension services in the

country and resulted in the intensification of food


canning
 


Late 1950’s and early 1960’s

-marked the establishment of large packing plants
-“line operation” was introduced

 


Leading Meat Processing Industries Today:

 

Pure Foods Corporation

Swifts and Company

Philippines Integrated Meat Corporation (PIMECO)
Maya Farms


DEFINITION OF TERMS
 Barrow- A pig that has been castrated before
reaching sexual maturity.
 Boar- An uncastrated male pig.
 Bullock - a castrated bull; a steer.
 -a young bull.
 Bull- the uncastrated adult male of domestic
cattle.
 Butcher - someone who prepares various
cuts of meat and other related goods for sale.
 Castration- neutering a male animal by
removing the testicles
 Comminute- reduce to small pieces or particles
by pounding or abrading; "grind the spices in a
mortar"; "mash the garlic"
 Gilt- young sow
 Hide -the skin of an animal, especially the thick
tough skin or pelt of a large animal.
 Hog- a domesticated pig, especially a castrated
male weighing more than 102 kg
 Loin- a cut of meat taken from the side and back
of an animal between the ribs and the rump
 Ruminants- Any of various even-toed hoofed
mammals of the suborder Ruminantia.
Ruminants usually have a stomach divided into
four compartments (called the rumen,
reticulum, omasum, and abomasum), and chew
a cud consisting of regurgitated, partially
digested food. Ruminants include cattle, sheep,
goats, deer, giraffes, antelopes, and camels.
 Shote -a young pig
 Sow - an adult female hog
 Stag- an animal, especially a pig, castrated after
reaching sexual maturity
 Steer- a castrated male ox or bull; bullock

SELECTION OF
ANIMALS FOR
SLAUGHTER
-Depends mainly on the purpose for which the
meat is to be used and on the cost of the end-
product
 Sex Consideration

 a boar younger than seven months is fit for


slaughter
 castrated hogs have general tendency to
be fat, fatter than their female and
uncatrated male counterparts of the
same age
 Meat of pregnant animals is low of quality
 When the animal is at an advanced stage
of pregnancy, the meat may be fishy in
odor
 Castration in swine promotes the
development of mature characteristics


 Boars are more favored than
barrows in slaughtering
 Boars have superior leanness over
castrates
 Boar carcasses are longer, have
thinner backfat at the shoulder,
lighter back and loin, less fat but
have higher lean than barrows
 Boars have higher total nitrogen but
lower moisture and fat than
barrows

In cattle: Bulls vs. Steers

 Bulls gain more rapidly and more


efficiently than steers, and produce
leaner carcasses
 Steers have more marbling, more
subcutaneous fat, less longissimus dorsi
area and more kidney fat than bulls
have
 Meat from bulls is generally less tender
and lower in overall acceptability than
that of steers but is equal in flavor and
juiciness
 Meat from bulls is generally darker and
coarses


Age Consider ations

 Swine: 6-12 months


 Cattle and carabaos: 3 years or younger
 Goats: about 1 year

 Meat from older animals: darker, tougher,


fatter and usually poorer in quality
 -dark rough textured but flavorful, has high
water binding and emulsion capacity, and is
associated with high degree of marbling

 *the most important quality factor which


changes with age is TENDERNESS.

 Size Considerations

 Hogs: 80 to 110 kg

 Cattle and carabaos: 300 to 450 kg



 Class of Animal
Considerations

Swine:

 Sows
 Boars
 Barrows
 Gilts I’m
a
LE
 Shotes – command the highest price CH
ON
because these are utilized for the !!!
production of quality roasted pigs or
lechon

SLAUGHTER
OF
LIVESTOCK
 
Mana gement of Animals
Prior to Slaughter

Fasting
 
 Withdrawal of feed but water is given ad libitum
 Pigs:
12-24 hrs
 Ruminants: 24-48 hrs
 Advantages:
 Savings of feeds
 Ease of cleaning entrails
 Ease of cleaning and eviscerating carcass
 a thoroughly bled and brightly colored carcass
 long shelf life
 low shrinkage of the resulting meat

Stress
 Shipping stress
 Over-crowding stress
 Driving stress
 Heat stress

 Disadvantages:
 Loss of muscle glycogen
 High temperature of carcass
 Low water binding capacity of resulting meat
 Low aroma, flavor , texture and juiciness
scores
  
 *the resulting meat is difficult to cure

 Pale soft and exudative (PSE) - If the stress
given to the animal is not very severe
 Dry, firm and dark (DFD)- when the stress
given is very severe

 

“… stress may cause a decrease of about
6mgglycogen per gm of muscle tissue..”

 

“ the level of glycogen on the muscles at death
controls the pH of the resulting meat”


Meat source pH pH drop

Unstressed 5.3 Gradual


animals

Stressed 6.0-7.0 Very rapid


animals

to be partly due to the slight rise in temperature of the carcass, thereby favoring anaero
MISHANDLING

-whipping, kicking of animals prior to slaughter

 Develops blood clots and red spots in the meat


–due to breaking of blood vessels
 Thus: the blood is not withdrawn during
bleeding and supports luxuriant growth of
microorganisms

THE
SLAUGHTERHOUSE
 also called an abattoir (from the
French verb abattre, "to strike
down"), or freezing works (
New Zealand English)

a facility where animals are killed and


processed into meat foods
Objective: to reduce stress
and sufferings of animals
 Factors to consider in
slaughtering animals:

Cleanliness of the meat produces


Hygiene of production
Efficiency of meat inspection
Adequacy of meat preservation

National Meat
Inspection Commission
 -issued detailed guidelines on meat hygiene,
inspection and preservation and meat
inspection regulations
○ There must be complete facilities for the proper care
of animals prior to slaughter.
○ The slaughterhouse should have separate rooms for
the slaughter of hogs and ruminants
○ Must have good drainage and good ventilation, must
be far from residential houses and must have an
adequate pollution control device

Classification and
Accreditation of
Slaughterhouses
 "AAA" Those with facilities and operational
procedures appropriate to slaughter
livestock and fowls for sale in any market,
domestic or international.
 "AA" Those with facilities and operational
procedures sufficiently adequate that the
livestock and fowls slaughtered therein are
suitable for sale in any market domestic or
international
 "A" Those with facilities and procedures of minimum
adequacy that the livestock and fowls slaughtered
therein are suitable for distribution and sale only
within the city or municipality where the
slaughterhouse is located.

 “B” Those with facilities and operational procedures
of minimum adequacy as defined by the National
Meat Inspection Commission; the meat processed
herein is eligible for sale obly in the city or
municipality in which the plant is located

 “C” those whose facilities and operational
procedures of less than minimum standards that
must be closed until minimum standards are
provided or achieved

Slaughtering
swine
Stunning
 – done to make the animal unconscious
without killing it, and to make
restraining easy and sticking humane

Electricstunner
Carbon dioxide chamber
Stunning gun
Sledge hammer

Sticking or bleeding

 -doneon the hollow portion


above the tip of the breastbone

- cut the jugular veins and
carotid arteries

Scalding and Scraping

 Water temperature: 54 to 82 0 C (130 to


180 0F)

Too hot water: can cause setting of
hairs (over scalding)

Too cold water: cannot effect loosening
of hairs and scurf

Optimum scalding temperature: 60 to
71 0C (140 and 160 0F)

Evisceration
 -removalof the visceral organs from the
opening of the carcass up to the complete
removal of the internal organs from the
body cavity
The anus is loosened by
cutting around it
Removing penis
Removing penis
Splitting pelvic bone and tip
of sternum
Opening the sternum and midline
Removing the intestines and stomach
Removing liver
Removing gall bladder
Cutting the diaphragm Removing windpipe
Removing the heart
SPLITTING
The completed
carcass
Slaughtering swine
Slaughtering swine
(conventional)
Slaughtering Cattle
Slaughtering Cattle
Slaughtering Cattle
Slaughtering Cattle
Livestock slaughter
…THE END…

I ’m
still
a LEC
HON
!