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GSM System and Products Overview

SY1 Course
Student Guide

"NORTHERN TELECOM AND NORTEL MATRA CELLULAR CONFIDENTIAL:


Information contained in this document is the property of Northern Telecom and/or Nortel Matra Cellular. Except as
specifically authorized in writing by Northern Telecom and Nortel Matra Cellular, the holder of this document shall
keep the information contained herein confidential and shall protect same in whole or in part from disclosure and
dissemination to third parties and use for evaluation, operation and maintenance purposes only".
"You may not reproduce, represent, or download through any means, the information contained herein in any way or in
any form without prior written consent of Northern Telecom and Nortel Matra Cellular".

© Nortel Matra Cellular and Northern Telecom 2000

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000


GSM System and Products Overview

Publication History

Version Date Comments

04.01/EN September, 97 Creation


04.02/EN November, 97 Update miscellaneous mismatches
10.01/EN* August, 98 V10 Release
11.01/EN May, 99 V11 Release
12.01/EN January, 2000 V12 Release

* Starting from V10, the document edition complies with the equipment version.

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GSM System and Products Overview

SY1 Course
Introduction 1
GSM History 2
Basic Network Overview 3
Services 4
Cellular Principles 5
Radio Interface 6
Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7
Procedures 8
Base Transceiver Station Functions 9
S2000/S4000/S8000 BTS Families 10
Base Station Controller Functions 11
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family 12
TransCoder Unit: Functional Description 13
TCU: Physical Presentation 14
NSS Functions 15
NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP 16
OSS Functions 17
OMC-R, TML and OMC-S 18
PicoNODE Family 19
Solutions of Exercises 20
Glossary 21

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GSM System and Products Overview

Volume Composition

No. Title Reference Version/Edition


1 GSM System and Products PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN
Overview

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GSM System and Products Overview

Course Presentation
This course is the main starting of the GSM (GSM900, GSM 1800 and
GSM 1900) program. It provides a global overview of the digital radio
communication system (i.e. NSS, BSS, OSS) in terms of architecture,
cellular concepts, radio channel handling, cellular call control, and
Nortel’s products as well as the associated techniques necessary for the
understanding of GSM.

Course Objectives
Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to:
 describe the GSM system and its role in wireless communications worldwide,
 quote the GSM network services,
 describe the GSM cellular features,
 describe the Radio Interface,
 describe the steps of the main procedures (call establishment, location
updating, handover, etc.),
 describe the functions of NSS (Network Sub System), BSS (Base station Sub
System), OSS (Operation Sub System) and MS (Mobile Station),
 describe the software architecture of the GSM system,
 identify and describe the NORTEL NETWORKS GSM products.

Prerequisites
Before taking this course, a basic knowledge in transmission and switching, and/or
cellular radio system, decibels, PCM links, LAPD, OSI layers, SS7 is required.
An excellent way to obtain it is to attend the 2 days TL1 course
(Telecommunications Overview).

Scope
This course applies to the V12 version of the BSS and to the GSM O9 of the NSS.

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GSM System and Products Overview

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GSM System and Products Overview

Table of Contents
COURSE NOTES CONTENTS

PUBLICATION HISTORY ii
SY1 COURSE iii
VOLUME COMPOSITION iv
COURSE PRESENTATION v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

1. INTRODUCTION 1-1

GSM TRAINING CURRICULUM 1-2


BSS NORTEL TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS 1-4
SY1 COURSE 1-5
OBJECTIVES 1-6

2. GSM HISTORY 2-1

OBJECTIVES 2-2
BEFORE GSM: MOBILE TELEPHONY MILESTONES 2-3
ANALOG CELLULAR SYSTEMS AROUND THE WORLD 2-4
DEVELOPMENT OF THE GSM STANDARD 2-5
GSM SPECIFICATIONS 2-7
THE APPLICATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM 2-8
GSM FAMILY RADIO BAND SPECTRUM 2-9
GSM BENEFITS 2-10
GSM STANDARD SPREAD: SALES 2-11
DEVELOPMENT OF THE GSM STANDARD 2-12
EXPLOSIVE GROWTH IN WIRELESS DATA 2-13
INCREASING GSM DATA RATES 2-14
MOBILE DATA TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION 2-15
GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE 2-16

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GPRS AND EDGE 2-17


UNIVERSAL MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM 2-18

3. BASIC NETWORK OVERVIEW 3-1

OBJECTIVES 3-2
TRAFFIC/SIGNALING 3-3
NETWORK OVERVIEW 3-4
MOBILE STATION 3-5
SIM-CARD AND GSM MOBILE EQUIPMENT 3-6
THE SIM-CARD FUNCTIONS 3-7
SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION 3-8
MOBILE IDENTIFICATION 3-9
MS CLASSMARK 3-10
TRENDS IN MOBILE STATION 3-11
BSS ARCHITECTURE 3-12
NSS ARCHITECTURE 3-13
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 3-14

4. SERVICES 4-1

OBJECTIVES 4-2
TELESERVICES 4-3
SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES 4-10
INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES 4-16
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 4-23

5. CELLULAR PRINCIPLES 5-1

OBJECTIVES 5-2
RADIO DESIGN 5-3
ERLANG CONCEPT 5-4
FADING 5-5
COVERAGE OR TRAFFIC LIMITATIONS 5-6
CELL SECTORIZATION 5-7
OMNIDIRECTIONAL SITE ANTENNAS 5-8
BI AND TRISECTORIAL SITE ANTENNAS 5-9
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CALCULATED CELL COVERAGE (TRISECTORIAL SITE) 5-10


CALCULATED CELL COVERAGE 5-11
CLUTTERS 5-12
LINK BUDGET PRESENTATION 5-13
COCHANNEL INTERFERENCE 5-14
THE FREQUENCY REUSE DISTANCE 5-15
INTERFERENCE LIMITS 5-16
FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN 5-17
FREQUENCY PLAN 5-18
DIFFERENT TYPES OF CELLS 5-19
CELL LAYERING 5-20
FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN 5-21

6. RADIO INTERFACE 6-1

OBJECTIVES 6-2
FUNCTIONS OF THE RADIO INTERFACE 6-3
GSM USES PAIRED RADIO CHANNELS 6-4
GSM BAND ALLOCATIONS (MHZ) 6-5
GSM TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA) 6-6
PHYSICAL CHANNEL 6-7
GSM DELAYS UPLINK TDMA FRAMES 6-8
PROPAGATION DELAYS 6-9
LOGICAL CHANNELS 6-10
FROM PHYSICAL CHANNELS TO LOGICAL CHANNELS 6-11
TRAFFIC CHANNELS (TCHS) 6-12
CONTROL CHANNELS 6-13
THE LOGICAL CHANNELS ON RADIO INTERFACE 6-14
LOGICAL CHANNELS DESCRIPTION 6-15
TRAFFIC AND CONTROL MULTI-FRAMING 6-17
TRAFFIC CHANNELS COMBINATION 6-18
DEDICATED SIGNALING CHANNELS COMBINATION 6-19
PHYSICAL CHANNEL AND LOGICAL CHANNELS 6-20
COMMON CHANNELS COMBINATION 6-21
BCCH COMBINED 6-22
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WHY 26 AND 51 FRAMES PER MULTIFRAME? 6-23


FROM SPEECH TO RADIO TRANSMISSION 6-24
SPEECH QUALITY - SOURCE CODING 6-25
CHANNEL PROCESSING 6-26
INTERLEAVING: TCH FULL RATE 6-27
BURST FORMATTING 6-28
BURST FORMATS 6-29
CIPHERING 6-31
MODULATION 6-32
DISCONTINUOUS TRANSMISSION FEATURES 6-33
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 6-34

7. ARCHITECTURE, FUNCTIONS AND PROTOCOLS 7-1

OBJECTIVES 7-2
BASIC ELEMENTS OF A CELLULAR SYSTEM 7-3
ARCHITECTURE OF A GSM SYSTEM 7-4
BSS ARCHITECTURE 7-5
BTS GENERAL ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONS 7-6
BSC GENERAL ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONS 7-7
TRAU ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONS 7-8
NSS ARCHITECTURE 7-9
HOME LOCATION REGISTER 7-10
AUTHENTICATION CENTER 7-11
VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER 7-12
EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER 7-13
INTERWORKING FUNCTION 7-14
PROTOCOL MODEL 7-15
RADIO INTERFACE 7-16
ABIS INTERFACE 7-17
LAPD AND LAPDM FRAMES 7-19
ATER INTERFACE 7-20
A INTERFACE 7-22
PSTN/ISDN/PSDN INTERFACE 7-24
GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE 7-25
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CHECK YOUR LEARNING 7-26

8. PROCEDURES 8-1

OBJECTIVES 8-2
CONTENTS 8-3
DESCRIPTORS STORED IN SIM-CARD 8-4
DESCRIPTORS STORED IN THE NETWORK 8-5
DESCRIPTORS EMBODIED IN THE MS 8-6
GSM’S ACTORS 8-7
CELL SELECTION 8-8
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT 8-9
REGISTRATION: THE VERY FIRST LOCATION UPDATE 8-10
INTRA-VLR LOCATION UPDATE 8-11
INTER-VLR LOCATION UPDATE 8-12
IMSI ATTACH 8-13
IMSI DETACH 8-14
AUTHENTICATION 8-15
CIPHERING 8-17
MOBILE ORIGINATING CALL 8-19
MOBILE TERMINATING CALL 8-20
CALL RELEASE 8-23
REASONS FOR HANDOVER 8-25
MOBILITY AND HANDOVER 8-26
HANDOVER PREPARATION 8-27
HANDOVER DECISION 8-28
HANDOVER EXECUTION 8-29
INTRA-BSC HANDOVER 8-30
INTER-BSC HANDOVER 8-31
INTER-MSC HANDOVER 8-32
EXERCISE 8-33

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9. BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION FUNCTIONS 9-1

OBJECTIVES 9-2
BSS ARCHITECTURE 9-3
CAPABILITIES OF A BTS 9-4
FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE 9-6
GENERIC ARCHITECTURE 9-7
BCF 9-8
TRX 9-9
TRANSMISSION CHAIN 9-10
RECEPTION CHAIN 9-11
COUPLING SYSTEM 9-12
BTS CONNECTION MODES 9-13

10. S2000/S4000/S8000 BTS FAMILIES 10-1

OBJECTIVES 10-2
COVERAGE SOLUTION 10-3
DRX BASED BTS FAMILY 10-4
BTS S8000 OUTDOOR 10-5
BCF MODULE (FIRST VERSION) 10-7
COMPACT BCF MODULE (SECOND VERSION) 10-8
S8000 TRX 10-10
S8000 COUPLING 10-11
BTS S8000 INDOOR 10-12
BTS S8002 10-14
BTS S8006 10-16
BTS S2000L (LOW POWER) 10-18
BTS S2000H (HIGH POWER) 10-20
ENHANCED PACKAGING 10-21
HIGH POWER RF MODULE 10-22
S8000 DOWN-LINK 10-23
S8000 UP-LINK 10-24
BTS E-CELL 10-25

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S2000E/S4000 FAMILY 10-28


BTS S4000 INDOOR 10-29
BTS S4000 OUTDOOR 10-31
BTS S2000E INDOOR/OUTDOOR 10-33
DUAL-BAND CONFIGURATIONS 10-35
BTS CONFIGURATION TABLE 10-36

11. BASE STATION CONTROLLER FUNCTIONS 11-1

OBJECTIVES 11-2
BSC IN THE GSM NETWORK 11-3
BSC FUNCTIONS 11-4
SIGNALING IN THE BSS 11-6
GENERIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE BSC 11-7
BSC OMC-R CONNECTION OPTIONS 11-8

12. BSC 6000/12000/12000HC FAMILY 12-1

OBJECTIVES 12-2
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC 12-3
FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE 12-6
PHYSICAL LAYOUT 12-7
DUPLEX OPERATION 12-8
BSC 12000 12-9
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC 12-10
GPRS SUPPORT 12-11
BSC 12000 UPGRADE TO BSC 12000HC 12-12
BSC PROVISIONING 12-13
BSC 12000 PRODUCT CONFIGURATION 12-14
BSC 12000 CONFIGURATION 12-15
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC 12-17
EXERCISES 12-18
NUMBER OF SITES THAT A BSC CAN HANDLE 12-21
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 12-22

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13. TRANSCODER UNIT: FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION 13-1

OBJECTIVES 13-2
TCU FUNCTIONS 13-3
BENEFIT HAVING REMOTE TCUS 13-4
FUNCTIONAL DETAIL 13-5
SIGNALING ON THE BTS-TCU INTERFACE 13-6
SPEECH ON THE BTS-TCU INTERFACE 13-7
USER’S DATA RATE TREATMENT 13-8
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 13-9

14. TCU: PHYSICAL PRESENTATION 14-1

OBJECTIVES 14-2
HARDWARE LAYOUT 14-3
EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS 14-4
TCU CABINET 14-5
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 14-6

15. NSS FUNCTIONS 15-1

OBJECTIVES 15-2
NSS ARCHITECTURE 15-3
MOBILE SWITCHING CENTER INTERFACES 15-4
GATEWAY MSC FUNCTIONS 15-5
VISITOR MSC FUNCTIONS 15-6
MSC ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONS 15-7
INTERWORKING FUNCTION 15-8
ECHO CANCELER 15-9
SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE CENTER 15-10
VOICE MAIL SYSTEM 15-11
INTELLIGENT NETWORK PLATFORM 15-12

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16. NSS NORTEL: DMS AND GPP 16-1

OBJECTIVES 16-2
NSS NORTEL: DMS FAMILY AND PICONODE 16-3
SUPERNODE (SN) 16-4
DIGITAL MULTIPLEX SYSTEM (DMS) ARCHITECTURE 16-5
DMS CORE MODULES 16-6
SUPERNODE CONFIGURATION 16-7
NORTEL’S ENHANCED NETWORK (ENET) 16-8
LINK PERIPHERAL PROCESSOR (LPP) 16-9
LPP CABINET 16-10
PCM-30 DIGITAL TRUNK CONTROLLER (PDTC) 16-11
PERIPHERALS: ISM 16-12
PERIPHERALS: IOM 16-13
BILLING SERVER 16-14
SUPERNODE SIZE ENHANCED (SNSE) 16-15
MICRONODE 16-17
INCOMING CALL FROM THE PSTN TO THE GMSC 16-19
A CALL GOES TO THE VMSC THAT PAGES THE MS 16-20
NORTEL IWF: GSM PASSPORT NODE 16-21
GPP NODE 16-22
NORTEL’S IN PLATFORM: SERVICEBUILDER 16-25
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 16-26

17. OSS FUNCTIONS 17-1

OBJECTIVES 17-2
OSS PRESENTATION 17-3
NETWORK MANAGEMENT 17-4
CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT 17-10
FAULT MANAGEMENT 17-12
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT 17-13
SECURITY MANAGEMENT 17-14
WHY AN OMC-R? 17-15

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OMC-R FUNCTIONS 17-16


COMMON FUNCTIONS 17-17
SERVER ADMINISTRATION 17-18
OMC-S FUNCTIONS 17-19
HIERARCHICAL ARRANGEMENT OF NMC AND OMC 17-20
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 17-21

18. OMC-R, TML AND OMC-S 18-1

OBJECTIVES 18-2
OMC-R 18-3
OMC-R ARCHITECTURE 18-4
HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE 18-5
REMOTE OPERATION TERMINAL APPLICATION 18-6
NETWORK ELEMENTS OPERATED BY OMC-R 18-7
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE OMC-R NETWORK 18-8
NEW MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE 18-9
NEW MMI: LOGICAL VIEW 18-10
NEW MMI: TOPOLOGICAL VIEW 18-11
ALARM WINDOW 18-12
BSS ON SITE MAINTENANCE WITH TML 18-13
BTS ON SITE MAINTENANCE WITH TML 18-14
BSC ON SITE MAINTENANCE WITH TML 18-18
TCU ON SITE MAINTENANCE WITH TML 18-19
OMC-S 18-20
SDM-FT PLATFORM 18-22
OMC-S ELEMENT MANAGER MAIN WINDOW 18-25
NETWORK CONFIGURATION WINDOW 18-26
FAULT MANAGEMENT 18-27
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT 18-28
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 18-29

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19. PICONODE FAMILY 19-1

PICONODE: A VERY SMALL GSM SYSTEM 19-2


RURAL AND COMMUNITY 19-3
CORPORATE/IN-BUILDING: CORPORATENET 19-4
PICONODE ARCHITECTURE 19-5
COMMUNITYNET 19-6
PICONODETM BTS 19-8
PICONODETM BSC 19-9
PICONODETM MSC 19-10
PICONODETM OMC 19-11
TM
PICONODE COMBO 19-12
TM
PICONODE SCALABLE GSM SOLUTIONS 19-13

20. SOLUTIONS OF EXERCISES 20-1

CELLULAR PRINCIPLES: FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN 20-2


BTS S8000: COUPLING SYSTEM FOR TWO TRX WITH DIVERSITY 20-3
BSC: TCU WARNING INFORMATION PATH 20-4
BSC: INCOMING CALL INFORMATION PATH 20-6
BSC: CALL-ESTABLISHED TRAFFIC PATH 20-7

21. GLOSSARY 21-1

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GSM System and Products Overview

Student Notes:

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Introduction

Section 1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Introduction

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Introduction 1-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-1 January, 2000


Introduction

GSM Training Curriculum


1 - BSS and NSS Courses
NSS System Courses
BSS Operation
900 GSM Intelligent Networks Overview 3 days System Courses & Maintenance Courses
930 GSM DMS Overview 3 days OM1/2 BSS Operation and Maintenance 10 days
SY0 GSM General Overview 2 days

NSS
931 GSM NSS Overview 2 days
932 GSM Data Overview 1 day SY1 GSM System and Products OM4 OMC-R Administration 4 days

BSS Operation
935 GSM HLR-PS (Provisioning Server) 3 days Overview 5 days OM5 BSS Databuild 5 days
936 GSM Billing Mediation Device (GMBD) 3 days SYS GSM System Overview 3 days OM6 S8000 BTS Local Maintenance 2 days

System
937 OMC-S Overview & Operation 2 days TL1 Telecommunications Overview 2 days OM7 BSS Performance
& Maintenance
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

938 GSM GPP-IWF 5 days TL4 ATM Overview 1 day Measurements Tools 2 days
950 GSM DMS Maintenance Part 1 10 days OM9 BSS Operation and Fault
951
961
GSM DMS Maintenance Part 2
GSM09 Release Delta
10 days
2 days Courses
Handling 4 days

Courses
OM10 Reconfiguration Tools 3 days
962 GSM10 Release Delta 1 day BSS System Courses
OM31 BSC and TCU Local Maintenance3 days
963 GSM11 Release Delta 2 days
ARI Advanced Radio Interface OMDV10-12 BSS Release for V10 Experts 3 days
970 GSM-MSC/VLR Translations 10 days
972 GSM HLR Service Datafill 5 days Description 3 days OMDV12 BSS Release for V11 Experts 2 days
974 GSM CCS7 Transl. and Operations 5 days BS21 BSC 12000 and TCU OM36 BSC, TCU and BTS S8000
Advanced Description 2 days Local Maintenance 5 days

RSV1
Radio and Network Engineering
Courses
Radio Site Verification 1 day
NE2
NMO
BSS
BSS Optimization Parameters
Network Monitoring and
Optimization
3 days

2 days BSS Installation & Commissioning

System
PR1 S8000 BTS Family
RSV2 RSV Measurement & Post-Processing 2 days PIC1 BSC & TCU Installation and
Advanced Description 2 days
CNE Cellular Network Engine. Process 1 day Commissioning. 5 days
RF0 RF Basics 3 days PR2 S2000 L&H and e-cell BTS
Advanced Description 1 day PIC7 BTS S8000 Outdoor I&C 5 days
CP1 Cell Planning Fundamentals 2 days

Courses
CP2 Cell Planning Project 5 days PR3 BSS Products Overview 2 days PIC10 BTS S8000 Indoor I&C 4 days
RSQ1 Radio Survey and RF Qualification 2 days PR4 BSC and TCU 3G Advanced PIC17 BTS S8000 I&C 5 days
RSQ2 Radio Measurements 3 days Description 2 days PIM8 BTS S2000 (H&L) I&C and O&M 2 days
SSE1 Site Survey and Site Engineering 1 day SR11 BSS Release V11 Overview 1 day
SSE2 Site Survey Visit and Engineering SR12 BSS Release V12 Overview 1 day
Case Studies 1 day SY2 BSS Dimensioning 2 days
SSE3 Aerial Verification 2 days
NETRF1 Network and RF Engineering Course 5 days

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Introduction 1-2

The BSS and NSS training courses are split into several families according to the
different skills required to deal with GSM networks:
• System: to acquire general knowledge about GSM, as well as a general overview of
the equipment designed by Nortel Networks.
• BSS System: to acquire a general knowledge on BSS system: products,
dimensioning, optimization.
• BSS Operation and Maintenance: to be able to operate and maintain a
telecommunication network by fully using the OMC-R facilities and give an in-depth
understanding of the BSS functions and equipment.
• NSS System: to acquire knowledge on the operation and maintenance of the NSS
part of the system.
• Radio and Network Engineering: to be in charge of cell planning, BSS network
topology, field tests, data fill or BSS parameters optimization.
• Installation and Commissioning: to be able to install, cable, and run test on-site
equipment.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-2 January, 2000


Introduction

GSM Training Curriculum


2 - GPRS, UMTS, BSS Tools, GSM-R, and PicoNODE Courses
GPRS Courses GSM-R Courses
TL2 Frame Relay Overview 1 day RL11 GSM-R System and Products
TL3 TCP/IP Overview 2 days Overview 5 days
GP0 GPRS General Overview 1 day RL12 GSM-R deltas with standard GSM 1 day
GP1 GPRS Technical Description 3 days RL21 GSM-R BSS Optimization parameters 3 days
GP10 Passport Operation and Maintenance 2 days RL22 GSM-R BSS Optimization parameters
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

GP2 PCUSN Configuration and Operation 1.5 day versus GSM 1 day
GP3 SGSN Configuration and Operation 1.5 day RL23 GSM-R BSS dimensioning 2 days
GP4 GGSN Configuration and Operation 2 days RL30 GSM-R IN Overview and datafill 5 days
GP5 OMC-D Operation 5 days RL31 GSM-R NSS Overview 2 days
RL32 GSM-R HLR Service Datafill 5 days
RL41 GSM-R RF Engineering 5 days
UMTS Courses RL51 BTS S8002 I&C 3 days
RL61 BTS S8002 local maintenance 2 days
UM0 UMTS Introduction 1 day
RL62 GSM-R performance measurements
tools 2 days
BSS Tools Courses RL63 BSS O&M for GSM-R 10 days
RL64 BSS Operations and Fault Handling
CT1000 CT1000 Course 8 days for GSM-R 4 days
CT1000_NRP Reconfiguration Procedures 4 days
CT3100 CT3100 Course 5 days
CT3100OJT On the job training 3 days
PicoNODE Courses
CT7100 GSM Network Monitoring and
Optimization Tool (NSS and BSS) 4 days PN1 PicoNODE Product Overview 1 day
CT7100_B GSM Network Monitoring and PN2 PicoNODE OMC Network Operation 5 days
Optimization Tool (BSS only) 3 days PN3 PicoNODE OMC System Administration 5 days
CT7100_N GSM Network Monitoring and PN4 PicoNODE BSS Operation 5 days
Optimization Tool (NSS only) 2 days PN5 PicoNODE NSS Operation 5 days
CT7100_T GSM Network Monitoring Tool PN245 PicoNODE: From I&C to O&M 10 days
(Call Trace/Call Path Trace) 1 day

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Introduction 1-3

The BSS and NSS training courses are split in several families according to the different
skills required to deal with GSM networks:
• GPRS: an overview of this new system and advanced description of new nodes.
• UMTS: an overview of this future system.
• BSS Tools: to be able to use the new tools.
• GSM-R: an overview and advanced description of this new system for railways
companies.
• PicoNODE: to be able to operate and manage this new product line (wireless access
in rural or corporate areas).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-3 January, 2000


Introduction

BSS Nortel Technical Publications


S4000/ BSS Product What’s new OMC-R
S4000C BSS BSS BSS Preventive BSS BSS V11/ V12
Documen- in the Maintenance
Indoor 03 tation Overview BSS V12 Operating Operating & Corrective Operating Parameters O&M 39
Evolutions Principles
BTS Overview NTP suite Principles User Maintenance Procedures User Guide
OMC-R
Architecture 32 TML
and 06 00 01 88 07 08 34 36 52 50 (BSC/TCU)
Reference User Manual
TML
ROT 14 51
General Information Operations Manuals (BTS)
User Manual
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC
TCU 16 41 Maintenance
Procedures
BSC PE/CDC/DD/0004 PE/CDC/DD/0026 TCU
6000/ 22 CD-ROM of CD-ROM of 42 Maintenance
12000 GSM BSS NTPs BSS Parameters User Guide Procedures
S2000/
S4000
Outdoor 23 Reference GSM-BSS Maintenance 46 S2000E BTS
Maintenance
BTS Manuals Documentation Manuals Procedures
S4000 BTS
S2000H/L
35 47 Maintenance
BTS Procedures

S4000 S8000 BTS


Smart 43 48 Maintenance
BTS Procedures
S2000 H/L BTS
S2000/ Fault Number Description CT Tools (optional) 49 Maintenance
S2000E 53 Procedures
BTS
S2000/ S8000/ S2000H/L Advanced CT1000 CT1000/ CT3100 CT5100 CT7100 CT7100 Call Trace/
S8000/ CT3100 Operating BSS CCM User S8002 BTS
S8002 BSC/TCU S2000E S8002 e-cell Maintenance User Instal. CallAnalyzer
Path Trace
84 Maintenance
63 S4000 Instal. Procedures User
BTS BTS BTS BTS Procedures Manual Manual Manual Manual Manual User Manual Procedures
e-cell BTS
e-cell 101 102 103 104 105 29 38 54 118 20 21 60 90 Maintenance
BTS 92 Manual
© NORTEL

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Introduction 1-4

The BSS product documentation or BSS Nortel Technical Publication comprises 46


manuals.
Kinds of manuals:
Reference manuals detail each subsystem or equipment in terms of architecture,
hardware and software of its modules and indicate general dimensioning rules.
Maintenance manuals include both preventive and corrective maintenance and details
the various maintenance procedure. The BSS Maintenance Principles describes the
principles of maintenance and gives the list of faults.
Generic site dossiers give a canvas to be used by the network operator, where he can
collect any specific information for a site.
General information:
• The BSS Product Documentation Overview (00) is the general manual which
introduces all the manuals of the BSS NTPs and includes the glossary.
• The BSS Overview (01) is an overview of the digital cellular network and of its
division into subsystem.
Operating manuals:
• The BSS Operating Principles gives the general principles of operation and a
dictionary of GSM parameters and observation counters.
• The BSS parameters User Guide aims at describing BSS GSM and Nortel
parameters, formules and engineering issues for algorithms parameters.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-4 January, 2000


Introduction

SY1 Course
Organization
GSM System
• Section 1: Introduction • Section 5: Cellular Principles
• Section 6: Radio Interface
• Section 2: GSM History
• Section 7: Architecture, Functions and
• Section 3: Basic Network Overview
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Protocols
• Section 4: Services
• Section 8: Procedures

• Section 9: BTS Functions


• Section 10: S2000/4000/S8000 BTS • Section 15: NSS Functions
Families • Section 16: NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
• Section 11: BSC Functions • Section 17: OSS Functions
• Section 12: BSC 6000/12000/12000HC • Section 18: OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Family • Section 19: PicoNODE Family
• Section 13: TransCoder Unit Functions • Section 20: Solutions of Exercises
• Section 14: TCU Physical Presentation • Section 21: Glossary

GSM Products
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Introduction 1-5

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-5 January, 2000


Introduction

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to:


 describe the GSM system and its role in wireless communications
worldwide,
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

 quote the GSM network services,


 describe the GSM cellular features,
 describe the Radio Interface,
 describe the steps of the main procedures (call establishment,
location updating, handover, etc.),
 describe the functions of NSS (Network Sub System), BSS (Base
station Sub System), OSS (Operation Sub System) and MS (Mobile
Station),
 describe the software architecture of the GSM system,
 identify and describe the NORTEL NETWORKS GSM products.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Introduction 1-6

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-6 January, 2000


Introduction
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-7 January, 2000


Introduction
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-8 January, 2000


GSM History

Section 2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

GSM History

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-1 January, 2000


GSM History

Objectives

Provide an introduction to the world of mobile


communications with particular emphasis on
development to digital cellular radio.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to:


- Relate the early mobile communication systems.
- Show the benefits of digital radio transmission.
- Relate the development and spread of the GSM standard.
- Indicate the trend for wireless in the next years.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-2 January, 2000


GSM History

Before GSM: Mobile Telephony Milestones

1876 1970

10101010
Electric transmission
(Graham Bell) Digital Technology
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

(1st digital switch)

• • •
1897 ———
• • • 1982

1st wireless
transmissions 1st analog cellular
(Marconi) network

1946 1992

10101010

1st public mobile 1st GSM communication


telephone (digital cellular network)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-3

1876: The telephone was introduced to the public at the Centennial Exposition of the United States in
Philadelphia. Alexander Graham Bell was able to transmit speech electrically, in one direction only,
over a copper wire circuit of several hundred feet in length. This “speaking telegraph” was quickly
perfected for adequate two-way communication and was offered for business and residential service
the following years. Within a short time there were thousands, then tens of thousand, and soon
hundreds of thousand of paying customers.

End of the 19th century: While the struggle to search for the ways to utilize the copper wire transmission
facility more and more efficiently, a young German scientist named Heinrich Rudolf Hertz discovered
a strange and wonderful phenomenon: from an electric spark there seemed to emanate invisible
waves of force which could be captured at a distant location by a suitably constructed receiving
device. Hertz’s own experiments extended only a few yards.

1897: Guglielmo Marconi shows the first wireless transmission over 15 km in Bristol. A few years
later(1901), G. Marconi transmitted these waves overseas, and began to call it Radio.

1946: The first public mobile telephone service was introduced in twenty five American cities. Each system
used a single, high-powered transmitter and large tower in order to cover distances of over 50 km in
a particular market. Nevertheless these early FM push-to-talk telephone systems of the late 1940s
used 120 kHz of RF bandwidth in a half duplex mode (only one person on the telephone call could
talk at a time), even though the actual telephone-grade speech because of the kHz of baseband
spectrum. The large RF bandwidth was needed because of the difficulty in mass producing tight RF
filters and low-noise, front-end receiver amplifiers.

1970: A.Pinet introduced in France the first digital switch.

1982: The first commercial cellular system was turned on in Chicago.

1992: GSM, the first fully digital cellular system, was introduced on in Germany and in France.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-3 January, 2000


GSM History

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".


Analog Cellular Systems Around the World

1981 NMT 1979 AMPS


Dedicated developments
The Nordic Solution 800 MHz
Now 18 Millions Subscribers Now 25 Millions
450 MHz and 900 MHz Subscribers
1985 1986
RADIOCOM 2000 C.450
NORWAY, DENMARK 1985 TACS in UK FRANCE GERMANY
FINLAND, SWEDEN, 800 and 900 MHz 400 MHz 450 MHz
FRANCE (450 MHz) 900 MHz
Japan
• NTT cellular (1979)
• JTACS (1988)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-4

There are several different types of analog cellular systems:


• NMT450 and NMT900: Scandinavia, Benelux, Spain, Austria, France, Switzerland;
• AMPS in more 34 countries: U.S.A., Canada, Argentine, Chile, Indonesia, Brazil,
Australia, Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire);
• TACS (Total Access Communication System) in UK Ireland and Italy;
• R2000: France;
• C450: Germany;
• NTT (1979) cellular and JTACS (1988) in Japan.
• RTMS: Italy;

The world's first cellular system actually was implemented in 1979 by the Nippon
Telephone and Telegraph company (NTT) in Japan. This system uses 600 FM duplex
channels of 25 kHz in the 800 MHz band.

In Europe, the Nordic Mobile Telephone system (NMT) was developed in 1981 for the
450 MHz band and uses 180 channels of 25 kHz.

The extended European Total Access Cellular System (ETACS) was deployed in 1985
and is virtually identical to the US. AMPS system, except that the smaller bandwidth
channels result in a slight degradation of signal-to-noise ratio and coverage range.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-4 January, 2000


GSM History

Development of the GSM Standard

1982: Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) created within CEPT


1985: List of recommendations are settled and intensely
supported by the industry.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1987: Initial MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) aside the


drafting of technical specifications was signed by
network operators of 13 countries:
• time-scales for the procurement and deployment,
• compatibly of numbering and routing plans,
• tariff principles and definition of accounting.

1990: • The GSM specifications for the 900 MHz are frozen.
• Specifications start for the 1800 MHz GSM systems.
• GSM stands as
"Global System for Mobile communications"
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-5

1982: CEPT decides to establish a "Groupe Spécial Mobile" (the initial origin of the Term GSM) in to
develop a set of common standards for a future pan-European Cellular Mobile Network.
1984: Establishment of three Working Parties to define and describe GSM features:
• the radio interface,
• transmission and signaling protocols,
• interfaces and network architecture.
1985, 1986: Discussion and adoption of a list of recommendations to be generated by the Group Spécial
Mobile. A so-called permanent nucleus is established to continuously coordinate the work, which is
intensely supported by industry delegates. Thinking over a radio transmission prototype.
1987: The first Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is prepared during mid-1987 and signed by 13
European countries in September 1987. Apart from the drafting of the technical specifications within
the ad-hoc working groups, European public telecommunication operators worthy recognized the
cooperation for commercial and operational aspects. The MoU serves as an adequate forum for
discussion on pure operational matters. Its main purposes is to provide a framework for all the
necessary measures to be taken by the signatories together to ensure the opening of a commercial
service in their respective countries by 1991.
The network operators plan the progressive implementation of the networks in each country so that
transport routes between the countries of signatories could be brought early into the coverage of the
respective systems.
1988: Validation and trials, especially the radio interface, show that GSM will work.
With the establishment of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), Groupe
Spécial Mobile becomes a technical committee:
• GSM is embodied into European Telecommunications Standards,
• GSM stands as "Global System for Mobile Communication" grant.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-5 January, 2000


GSM History

Development of the GSM Standard

1991: First system trial are running.

1992: Official commercial launch of GSM service in Europe.


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1993: - The GSM-MoU has 62 signatories in 39 countries


worldwide. In addition 32 applicants in 19 others
countries.
- GSM network are operational in Europe.
- First commercial services also start outside Europe.
- One million subscribers to GSM networks.

1995: Specification of GSM phase 2 are frozen.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-6

1991: First system-trial are running at Telecom 91 exhibition.


The GSM Recommendations comprise:
• more than 130 single documents;
• include more than 5,000 pages.
The GSM MoU of 1987 was later signed by more operators and amended by 1991
to accept members from non CEPT operators countries thus extend its scope to
spread cooperation agreements with non-signatory bodies.
1993: Aside the GSM-MoU has 62 members (signatories) in 39 countries worldwide; and
in addition 32 potential members (observers, applicants) in 19 other countries.
GSM networks are operational in Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, United kingdom.
The end of 1993 shows one millions subscribers to GSM networks, however more
than 80% of them are to be found in Germany alone.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-6 January, 2000


GSM History

GSM Specifications

01 SERIES
12 SERIES GENERAL 02 SERIES
OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE SERVICE ASPECTS

11 SERIES 03 SERIES
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

EQUIPMENT AND TYPE NETWORK ASPECTS


APPROVAL SPECIFICATIONS

10 SERIES 04 SERIES
SERVICE INTERWORKING MS-BSS INTERFACE AND
PROTOCOLS

09 SERIES 05 SERIES
NETWORK PHYSICAL LAYER ON THE
INTERWORKING RADIO PATH.

08 SERIES 06 SERIES
BSS TO MSC INTERFACES 07 SERIES SPEECH CODING
TERMINAL ADAPTERS SPECIFICATIONS
FOR MOBILE STATIONS

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-7

One important question was how far GSM should go in its specification work; that is, to
what degree the system had to be specified so as to be identical in all countries, and how
much could be left to the operators and suppliers to agree upon.

Clearly, without identical air interfaces in all networks, the subscribers are not going to
have free roaming between network. This was considered to be the absolute minimum
degree of standardization, and these equipment were favored. One might have seen it as
advantageous to specify everything in the system, including the hardware and the mobile
station and even other parts of the system. It was agreed upon that there would be no
attempt to specify the system in such detail.

Basically, only the functional interfaces between the majors buildings blocks would be
specified. This approach had several advantages, perhaps the most important of which is
that for each major building block, the principle of functional specifications offers each
operator, and thus the customer, the opportunity to purchase whatever make of
equipment he wants, thus setting the stage for maximum competition between
manufacturers. For instance the fact that an operator has purchased an exchange from a
certain supplier does not force him to go on buying equipment from the same supplier.

Standardized electrical interfaces as well as protocols are provided for both the fixed
network and subscriber equipment. These include standardized rate adaptations
compatible with conventional ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) definitions.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-7 January, 2000


GSM History

The Application of the Radio Spectrum

AM Marine
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4

Short Wave - International Broadcast - Amateur CB


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 MHz

VHF LOW Band FM VHF VHF TV 7-13

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 240 300 MHz


Cellular GSM1800, GSM1900
UHF UHF TV 14-69 GPS

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 3.0 GHz

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 GHz

Broadcasting Aeronautical Terrestrial Microwave

Land-Mobile Mobile telephony Satellite


PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-8

In the early years of radio, only the lowest few megahertz of the radio spectrum were in
use and they were used for point to point communications between fixed stations, mainly
ships, and broadcasting. These applications were respectively called the fixed service, the
mobile service and the broadcasting service.

By international agreement, the spectrum then in use was divided into several frequency
bands, different bands being allocated for each service.

This concept of dividing the spectrum between the different links of radio service is still
found to be wise and its application has been extended and elaborated to serve modern
requirements.

The international table of frequency allocations (World Radiocommunication Conference


1995) now covers the frequency range 9 kHz to 275 MHz, divided into hundreds of
frequency bands, allocated for 33 different services.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-8 January, 2000


GSM History

GSM Family Radio Band Spectrum

Uplink 915

915

876 880 890 915 1710 1785 1850 1910


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

P-GSM
E-GSM GSM 1800 GSM 1900
R-GSM

921 925 935 960 1805 1880 1930 1990


MHz
960

960
Downlink

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-9

According to the resolution of the World Radiocommunication Conference in 1978, the


European Telecom Authorities primarily reserved two frequency bands of twice 25 MHz:
• 890 MHz to 915 MHz from mobile to the network,
• 935 MHz to 960 MHz from base stations to the mobiles for use by cellular systems.
By 1990, a newly allocated band of twice 75 MHz (1710 MHz to 1785 MHz for uplink and
1805 MHz to 1880 MHz for downlink) was formed for the Digital Communication System
which is a version of GSM suited to the 1800 MHz frequency band. This application was
initiated in the United Kingdom.
Furthermore FCC has granted band of twice 60 MHz (1850 MHz to 1910 MHz for uplink
and 1930 MHz to 1990 MHz for downlink) devoted to GSM networks.
Two new frequency bands are supported:
• the Extended GSM 900 band or E-GSM = P-GSM + 2x10 MHz,
• the Railway GSM 900 band for Railways companies or
R-GSM = E-GSM + 2x4 MHz.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-9 January, 2000


GSM History

GSM Benefits

Advantages of the GSM standard Digital Advantages

Technology low cost


Worldwide market $
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

High resistance
Open system to interferences

Transmission data rate

Roaming

Transmission Security

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-10

The features and benefits expected in the GSM were:


• superior speech quality (equal to or better than the existing analog cellular
technology),
• low terminal and services costs,
• a high level of security (confidentiality and fraud prevention),
• international roaming (under one subscriber directory number),
• support of low power hand-portable terminals,
• variety of new services and network facilities.

It was a logical consequence of the prevailing reality that a measure of Inter-working


compatibility with the services offered by other existing telecommunication networks was
sought. In particular, the basis for the services in GSM standard can be found in the ISDN
concept.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-10 January, 2000


GSM History

GSM Standard Spread: Sales


300
70
60 250
Million users

Million users
50 200
40
150
30
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

100
20
10 50
0 0
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
areas/ customers
networks
countries (millions)
dec 92 7 13 0.25 Source:
dec 93 18 34 1.4 IDC Feb 98
GSM MoU Feb 98
dec 94 41 65 4.5
dec 95 67 113 12.5
dec 96 97 189 33
dec 97 105 233 66
dec 98 110 240 140
dec 99 137 370 220

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-11

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-11 January, 2000


GSM History

Development of the GSM Standard

End 1999: 220 millions of subscribers


370 networks in 137 countries
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Countries without GSM Network(s)

2005: Between 700 million and 1 billion expected.


PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-12

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-12 January, 2000


GSM History

Explosive Growth in Wireless Data

1998
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Data 70%
Data 4%

Voice 30%

Voice 96%
2005

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-13

Fixed data networks have been growing rapidly for the past 15 years. The PC or work
station attached to a LAN has become the de-facto working environment. LANs
connected to LANs on other sites around the world allow companies to improve
communications and share data. With the advent of the internet people have become
used to using a computer not only for work but for their personal lives or as a source of
entertainment.
Today’s wireless networks were designed primarily for voice, with a small data capability.
As more and more people are using data applications, the wireless market needs to
progress to provide data-on the-move and liberate users from the need to find an ethernet
cable or a telephone jack.
The Future
Imagine writing a report on the train on the way home, your secretary rings to say the
boss wants a video conference NOW!.
He comes on line, and tells you the report must be out tonight, with photos of the new
product which you can get from the Web. While still talking to the boss, you connect to the
Web, down load some files, attach them to your report and send it to a defined group of
people. All on the move.
This scenario will require considerable more than the 9.6 kbps or 14.4 kbps offered in
GSM today.

Europe’s GSM operators currently see 2 to 3% of traffic as data. But enhancements to


GSM, such as HSCSD, EDGE and GPRS will bring high data rates and get the users
used to using data applications from a wireless terminal.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-13 January, 2000


GSM History

Increasing GSM Data Rates

video
photo report
UMTS clip

video
E/GPRS web photo report clip
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

photo video
ISDN e-mail web report clip

video
PSTN e-mail web photo report clip

photo video
e-mail web report
GSM clip

0 10 sec 1 min 10 min 1 hour


Transmission Time

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-14

GSM today
We can currently use a data terminal attached to an MS to connect to any standard data
service provided by the PSTN, ISDN or PDN networks as long as the network accepts a
data rate of 9.6 kbps and the IWF is equipped.
This includes access to the Web, e-mail, fax etc.. Use of these facilities is generally
limited due to the speed of the communication. Internet use is expensive and slow due to
the limited data rate and the circuit switched nature of the GSM system.

GSM 2+
HSCSD allows 14.4 kbps in one TS as from 1Q99 and multiple timeslots in the future. It is
however, still a circuit switched system which will supply expensive connections unless
the operators pricing schemes are imaginative. It will help those who use data over GSM
today and encourage others to use the services but it does involve a capacity penalty for
the network.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-14 January, 2000


GSM History

Mobile Data Technology Evolution

2M 30 min delay intranet


t
cke
1M
p a Mobile
Mobile Data
Data Rate
Rate
throughput kbps

Explosion
Explosion in
in Next
Next 44 Years
Years
alternative: A2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

100 k
64 k
it EDGE UMTS
cu HSCSD
cir
14.4
10 k
GPRS
9.6

1k SMS
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 timeframe
FTSE
-100
inde
x

GPRS = General Packet Radio Service


HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data
EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for Gsm Evolution
UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecomunication System
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-15

Up to V10* the data services were limited to 9.6 kbps.


A new service has been standardized in ETSI to reach 14.4 kbps user rate (AUIR) on one
TS. This enhancement is a part of a global strategy aimed at offering higher data rates.
This new data rate is the result of a new channel coding on the radio interface.
The BSS provides two modes:
• transparent data service,
• non transparent data service, using RLP protocol between MS and IWF.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-15 January, 2000


GSM History

General Packet Radio Service

IP
(Internet/Intranet)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

GPRS
PLMN
X.25 PSPDN

Corporate
Intranet

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-16

GPRS is the first major revolution in GSM data, providing speeds over 100 kbit/s on a
pseudo-packet switched radio interface and a real packet switched NSS. This will
encourage users to connect to high-speed applications across the wireless network and
optimises the network resources for data transmission.
There are however some limitations and the first implementations will have mobility
constraints. However, it is likely to attract users to internet type services and provides
operators with a natural migration path towards 3G systems.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-16 January, 2000


GSM History

GPRS and EDGE

Enhanced Data rate for Gsm Evolution


New highly spectrum-efficient modulation for higher bit rates
GMSK modulation replaced with 8-Phase Shift Keying: throughput x 3
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Applicable to both HSCSD and GPRS


Rates expected to reach 300 kbps (E-HSCSD) and 380 kbps (E-GPRS)

2000
UMTS
384
380
EDGE
300
GPRS 170 packet
circuit
HSCSD 43,2

GSM 14,4
speed kbps
1 10 100 1000 10000
log scale

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-17

Enhanced Data rate for Gsm Evolution or EDGE is often referred to in GPRS context as
the combination of the two technologies is seen by some groups in the mobile industry as
an alternative for UMTS. This makes EDGE an alternative for operators without an UMTS
license who wish to offer medium-speed mobile data services.
EDGE is being defined for both GPRS and GSM data services. EDGE is a redefinition of
the GSM modulation and coding scheme from GMSK to 8-PSK. It gives up to three times
higher throughput compared to GSM, using the same bandwidth.
This will enable end-user data rates of maximum 48 kbps per Time Slot for GPRS and
28.8 kbps per TS for GSM services.
By combining multiple TSs as with GPRS, data rates of 384 kbps can be achieved.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-17 January, 2000


GSM History

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

✔ Wireless office - Business


– Tele conference
– Sales order placement
– Files transfer
– Intranet services
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

✔ Travel - Car Centric Application


– Video and graphic oriented navigation tool 30 min delay

– Traffic intelligent information system


– Emergency services
– Location based yellow pages alternative: A2

✔ Entertainment / Education / Personal Communication


– Video/music on demand
– Interactive games / Tele-tourism
– Virtual school
– Video telephony

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-18

UMTS, or more precisely IMT2000, will at first provide a capacity advantage for wireless
data networks that become overcrowded. But it has to provide more than that. The higher
data rates will allow applications such as video and multimedia to be a real option from a
wireless terminal. And, the more open architecture will provide a service environment
allowing a wide range of services to be developed by operators and service specialists.
Total global roaming is one of the objectives of the specifications.

UMTS will take over from GSM 2+ systems to provide higher capacity and data rates.
This will allow new applications to be developed but will require new terminals. The most
obvious scenario is for existing GSM operators to migrate through GSM 2+ to
GSM/UMTS hybrid networks.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-18 January, 2000


GSM History
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-19 January, 2000


GSM History
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 2-20 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

Section 3
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Basic Network Overview

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-1 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

Objectives

After completing this lesson you will be able to:


• List the 3 sub-systems of a GSM system and their interfaces.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• List the different equipment in each GSM sub-system.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-2 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

Traffic/Signaling

Traffic

«bla bla bla...»


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Signaling « RING ! »
riiiiing

Network

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-3

The network can carry two types of information:


• Traffic: it concerns all the «user to user» information. It can be voice as well as data.
• Signaling: the network also requires to carry information for its own working. Their
purposes are numerous: traffic data routing, maintenance, security... These data are
usually not visible from user’s point of view.
There exists several signaling types:
• PTS (Per-Trunk Signaling): signaling and voice component are transmitted on the same
facility. PTS requires the voice component to be completely built, even if the call can’t
be completed.
• CCS (Common Channel Signaling): two separate paths are used for information transfer
(one for traffic, another for all-related signaling information). Thus, CCS allows the voice
component to be built separately which allows resources to be saved. For instance, no
voice facilities would be assigned to the call if the dialed number is busy.

GSM works with CCS(#7)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-3 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

Network Overview

BTS NSS PSTN


BSS

BSC MSC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MS

OMC-R OMC-S
OSS
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-4

A GSM system is basically designed as a combination of three major subsystems: the


Network SubSystem (NSS), the radio subsystem called the Base station SubSystem (BSS),
and the Operation SubSystem (OSS).
The Network SubSystem (NSS) includes the equipment and functions related to end-to-end-
calls, management of subscribers, mobility, and interfaces with the fixed network (PSTN). It
is built on the switch of the system called Mobile-services Switching Center (MSC).
The Base station SubSystem (BSS) includes the equipment and functions related to the
management of the connection on the radio path. It mainly consists of Base Transceiver
Stations (BTS) communicating with the Mobile Station (MS) and one Base Station Controller
(BSC) managing the flow of information between the BTSs and the MSC.
The Operation SubSystem (OSS) mainly contains Operation and Maintenance Center for
NSS (OMC-S) and Operation and Maintenance Center devoted to the BSS (OMC-R). It is
connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC (BTSs are not
connected to the OSS).
Any mobile network or PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) is related to a public fixed
network, commonly to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-4 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

Mobile Station

Mobile Station

=
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SIM Card Handset Battery

Global GSM Mobility battery


Card

+ +
The Smart Card to use

f153454
GSM
2W
jmhfod
kgdjipj

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-5

The Mobile Station (MS) is composed of three parts:


• the handset includes the radio equipment (receiver-transmitter) and the Man-Machine
Interface (MMI),
• the SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module-card): this smart card allows the identification
of any subscriber (not only of his equipment) by the network. In particular, he can
borrow any mobile without changing anything from the network point of view since he
keeps the same SIM-card,
• the battery.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-5 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

SIM-Card and GSM Mobile Equipment

SIM-Card
Global GSM Mobility
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Card

= +
The Smart Card to use Calling line
0609225831

GSM
Contains:
- IMSI

Subscriber knows
- Called party number = MS-ISDN
- PIN

Handset

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-6

The GSM committee has introduced an important powerful innovation by using a Smart
Card in conjunction with a mobile telephone. Thus GSM subscribers are provided with a
Subscriber Identity Module card (SIM-Card) with its unique identification at the very
beginning of the service.
The subscriber is identified within the system when he inserts the SIM-Card in the mobile
equipment and switches it on. This provide a considerable amount of flexibility to the
subscribers since they can use any GSM-specified mobile equipment.
With the SIM-Card the idea of "personal communication" is already realized: the user only
needs to take his smart card on a trip. You can rent a mobile equipment unit at the
destination, even in other country, and insert your own SIM-Card. Any call you make will be
charged to your home GSM account. Also the GSM system is able to reach you at the
mobile unit you are currently using.
The Mobile Station (MS) includes radio equipment and the man machine interface (MMI)
that a subscriber needs in order to access the services provided by the GSM network.
Mobile Stations can be installed in vehicles or can be portable or hand-held stations.
The mobile station includes provisions for data communication as well as voice.
Mobile Stations transmit and receive messages to and from the GSM over the air interface
to establish and continue connection through the system.
Each mobile station has an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) that is
permanently stored in the mobile unit. Upon request, the MS sends this number over the
signaling channel to the network. The IMEI is used to identify mobile units that are reported
stolen or operating incorrectly.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-6 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

The SIM-Card Functions

Credit Card Size

µ SIM-Card
Global GSM Mobility
Card
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

15 mm The Smart Card to use


25 mm

Permanent data:
GSM
- Unique mobile subscriber identity Microchip with stored
through IMSI number, user information
- Authentication parameter Ki,
- Authentication algorithm A3,
- Generating encryption key Kc Removable data:
algorithm A8. - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Number,
- Location Area Identification.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-7

The SIM-Card is a removable smart card, the size of a credit card, and contains an
integrated circuit chip with a microprocessor, random access memory, and read-only
memory.
Many MSs use the µ SIM-Card which can be snapped out of the credit card SIM, if required.
When a mobile users want to make a call, they insert their SIM-Card and provide their
Personal Identity Number (PIN), which is compared with a PIN stored within the SIM-CARD.
The PIN can also be permanently bypassed by the subscribers if authorized by the service
provider. Disabling the PIN code simplifies the call setup but reduces the protection of the
user's account in the event of a stolen SIM-CARD.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-7 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

Subscriber Identification

IMSI MS - ISDN

Mobile Station -
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
Nature Integrated Services Digital Network Nb
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Similar to ISDN,
Conformity with E212
Conformity with E164/E213

Identify a PLMN Identify the subscriber


National Significant Mobile Number
worldwide of a PLMN

MCC MNC MSIN CC NDC SN


Format H1 H2 x x x ......... x x x M1 M2 xx xx xx xx

Country
Mobile Mobile Mobile Subscriber National Mobile Subscriber
Code
Meaning Country Network Ident. Nb
(where Destination (national definition)
Code Code H1 H2 = Identity of HLR
subscription Code * M1 M2 = nbr of logical HLR
within the home PLMN
has been made)

Nb. digits 3 2 max 10 1 to 3 2 to 4 total max 15

* This code does not identify a geographical area


but an operator
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-8

The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the primary identification of the
subscriber within the GSM network and is permanently assigned to him.

The Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) is the number that the calling party dials
in order to reach the GSM subscriber. It is used by the land networks to route calls toward
an appropriate GSM network. MSISDN is stored in HLR.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-8 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

Mobile Identification
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE ED
TY OV
PR
AP
TAC FAC SNR SP

Type Approval Serial number (SPare)


Code Final Assembly
Code

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-9

Stored inside the Mobile Equipment.


Used to replace IMSI or TMSI when both are unavailable (example: Emergency calls without
SIM-Card) or when required by the network (for maintenance).
Can be used for EIR database updating (when existing):
• TAC = 6 digits describing the type of equipment,
• FAC = 2 digits for identification of the factory,
• SNR = 6 digits for the serial number of the device.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-9 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

MS Classmark

Classmark
Power classes
Revision level (Phase 1, 2, 2+)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

GSM GSM GSM


RF power Class
900 1800 1900
Encryption algorithm (A5/1,A5/2)
1 1 W** 1 W**
Frequency (900/1800/1900)
2 8 W* 0.25 W 0.25 W
Short message
3 5W 4W 4W
4 2 W**
5 0.8 W

* Typical value for car mounted


** Typical value for handheld

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-10

The type of MS must be given to the NSS at the beginning of each new connection,
because this type can change between calls. The subscriber may insert this SIM-Card into
another Mobile Equipment (ME).
The classmark of each MS can contain up to five parameters:
• revision level,
• RF power capability,
• encryption algorithm: A5/1, A5/2,
• frequency capability: P-GSM (2 x 25 MHz), E-GSM (2 x 35 MHz), R-GSM (2 x 4
MHz), GSM 1800, GSM 1900,
• short message capability.
This classmark is sent when the system establishes the radio link between MS and the Base
Transceivers Stations.
The power class information is the maximum power the MS is able to transmit and is used
by the network for several procedures: selection, power control, handover.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-10 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

Trends in Mobile Station


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Booster
2W 5W Dual-band
Hands-free Data 900-1800
Pocket 2W 8W 900-1900

PC
Fax Organizer Java

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-11

Trends for MS are:


• Hands-free (2 W + booster 5 W).
• Increasing autonomy:
- idle mode: 40 hours to 140 hours,
- communication mode: 4 hours to 15 hours,
• Supplementary features (e.g. display of calling number).
• Additional features (e.g. voice recognition).
• Connection with terminals for data transmission:
- Modem on PCMCIA board for Laptop PC.
- Modem integrated.
• Dual-band terminal (GSM 900/1800 MHz).
• Radio organizer (Nokia 9000).
• Versatile terminal (under JAVA softwares): fax, internet, pager, organizer.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-11 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

BSS Architecture

MSC
Radio
TCU Interface
A Interface
S2000H&L
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

NSS BTS

Ater Interface
Public Telephone Network

Abis Interface S8000 MS


BSC Outdoor
OMC-R BTS

Radio
Interface

OMN Interface

Sun
S8000
StorEdge A5000
Indoor
BSS BTS
MS
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-12

The Base Station SubSystem (BSS) is a set of equipment (aerials, transceivers and a
controller) that is viewed by the Mobile Switching Center through a single A interface as
being the entity responsible for communicating with mobile telephones or Mobile Stations
(MSs) in a certain area.

The radio equipment of a BSS may be composed of one or more cells, such a BSS may
contain one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs).

The interface between the BSC and the BTSs is called an Abis interface.

The BSS includes two types of equipment:


• the Base Transceiver Station (BTS functionally includes also the TRAU) in contact with
the mobile stations through the radio interface,
• the BSC, the latter being in contact with the Mobile Switching Center.

A BSS contains only one Base Station Controller (BSC).

The function split is basically between a transmission equipment, the BTS, and the BSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-12 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

NSS Architecture

AuC EIR
PSTN
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC

MSC
BSC

VLR HLR

MSC

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-13

BSCs of a same area are connected to a switch. In a GSM system this switch is called MSC
(Mobile Switching Center). MSCs are connected to each others.
Usually, each MSC is associated to four databases.
The Visitor Location Register (VLR) memorizes information about the subscribers physically
present in a geographic area. If a subscriber leaves this area, this information is stored in
the VLR of another MSC.
Each Home Location Register (HLR) is related to a precise number of subscribers. The
information present in a subscriber’s HLR are quite similar to these contained in the VLR of
the area where he is but, here, this information is static. Thus the VLR stands for a copy of
the HLR more easily available (the VLR and the MS are in the same area). They are always
linked, since the HLR memorizes the identity number of the VLR where it can find its
subscriber.
Authentication Center (AuC): Radio channel use sets a problem of communication safety. In
particular operators have to pay attention to the fraudulent resources use. Therefore the
network is provided with a system of user authentication.
The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a list of all the Mobile Equipment: it contains valid
and invalid mobile equipment.
When a communication comes from the PSTN to a given subscriber, it enters the network in
the MSC that contains the subscriber’s HLR. This MSC is called GMSC (Gateway MSC).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-13 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview

Check Your Learning

1- How many sizes of SIM-Card are there?


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What is an IMSI? a MSISDN? an IMEI?

3- What is a PIN code?

4- Is it possible for a given subscriber to have several MSISDN?

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-14

1- How many sizes of SIM-Card are there?

2- What is an IMSI? a MSISDN? an IMEI?

3- What is a PIN code?

4- Is it possible for a given subscriber to have several MSISDN?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-14 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-15 January, 2000


Basic Network Overview
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 3-16 January, 2000


Services

Section 4
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Services

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-1 January, 2000


Services

Objectives

This section explores the services that are provided


in a GSM network.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this section you will be able to:


• Relate the services that can be offered to GSM subscribers

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-2 January, 2000


Services

Teleservices
1 - Telephony

Hello
Speaking
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Originated
call 1

Speaking

Hello
Terminated
call 1

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-3

Teleservices cover regular telephony, emergency calls, voice messaging, and short
messages handling.

The most important service provided by GSM users is telephony which enables bi-directional
speech calls to be placed between GSM users and any telephone subscriber who is
reachable through the general telephony network.

Fixed telephone subscribers worldwide as well as mobile network subscribers or subscribers


of specific networks connected to a public telephone network can be reached.

Before either Mobile Originated or Mobile Terminated calls can be established, the mobile
telephone must be switched on and registered into the system.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-3 January, 2000


Services

Teleservices
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
2 - Emergency Call

Global GSM Mobility Emergency


Card 112
The Smart Card to use

GSM

Do not require a SIM-Card


while "112" is invoked
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-4

To place an emergency call enter 112 followed by SEND. Additional means to place such
call are also allowed by a dedicated button.

The Mobile Telephone supports the initiation of an emergency call without a SIM present in
it, regardless of the call being accepted or not by the network.

Note that calls to national emergency services may be standard for the country of the
serving GSM network (number 17 to call the police in France, number 911 to make an
emergency call in U.S.A.).
However, with the exception of code "112", these are not treated within the GSM network as
"teleservice emergency call" and would require a valid IMSI.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-4 January, 2000


Services

Teleservices
3 - Short Message Cell Broadcast

me
ssa
ge
A
eA Information
sag
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

me
ssa me s Provider A
ge
B

eA
sag
mes
B
ge
ssa
me

mess
B age B
ge
sa
es
m A Information
ge Provider B
sa
es
m

GSM Network
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-5

The cell broadcast enables an Information Provider to submit short messages for
broadcasting to a specified area within the GSM network.

The cell broadcast service has the following features:


• The cell broadcast message is sent (on control channels) in a limited area, defined by
the originator of the message, by agreement with the GSM Operator.
• The mobile telephone only receive the broadcast message in idle mode.
• The short message function running in the mobile is able not to store broadcast
messages which are not wanted or which have already been received.
• The mobile telephone does not send acknowledgment.
• The GSM network continuously sends cell broadcast messages so that all such
messages are sent in turn, an then repeated. On the other hand, the cycle time is short
enough for important messages to be received by travelers (subscribers) moving
through a group of cells.
• The maximum length of each cell broadcast message will be 93 characters and GSM
specifications allows up to 15 of these 93 character messages treated as segment of a
longer message.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-5 January, 2000


Services

Teleservices
4 - Short Message Service

Radio SMS-MO/ PP
PLMN
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SMS-SC

Radio
PLMN

SMS-MT/ PP Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-6

Short Message Service (SMS) allows the point to point transmission of a short message
to/from MS, using their IMSI.
A short message is an alphanumeric string that can be up to 160 characters long (140
octets).
Two different types of short message are defined:
• short message MT/PP (Mobile Terminated / Point to Point),
• short message MO/PP (Mobile Originated / Point to Point).
Point to point messages may be sent or received when the MS is engaged on a call (voice
or data), or in idle mode.
However, messages which overlap the boundary of such a call, or during a handover, may
be lost, in which case they will be sent again.
Messages may be input to the SC from a fixed network customer by means of a suitable
telecommunication service either from the fixed network or from a mobile network customer.
An acknowledgment indicates that the GSM Network has successfully transferred the
message to the mobile telephone or the SC.
Optionally, the SC may offer final delivery notification to the originator. This delivery report
indicates whether this particular message has been correctly received at the receiving
station or not, to the extent that the SC is able to establish this.
It does not indicate whether the message has been read. If the delivery report is negative, it
includes the failure cause. The delivery report is sent to the originator, if reachable, as soon
as the information is available.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-6 January, 2000


Services

Teleservices
5 - Fax
Alternate Speech and Fax:
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Automatic fax:

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-7

Fax transmissions are possible via a PLMN only with a Fax-group3 (14.4 kbps).

Two modes are available:


• manual mode allows to switch alternatively from voice transmission to fax transmission,
• automatic mode allows to send and receive a fax without any human intervention;
however, voice transmission is impossible in this mode.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-7 January, 2000


Services

Teleservices
6 - User's Data Call Features

Embodied
Teleservices
bearer
Fax G3, SMS
treatments for
Teleservices radio transmission
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

voice

Cable that
bears data

Data / Fax
kit adaptation

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-8

Connections can be made with a suitable data/fax kit adaptation either to other Mobile
Station or to other data users on circuit-switched (PSTN).

The slide gives an example of a suitable data/fax kit and a computer that are directly
connected to the MS.

In the case of making a Fax-call to a PSTN subscriber, the GSM network automatically
selects the suitable modem for the link to the similar modem at the remote end.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-8 January, 2000


Services

Teleservices
7 - Voice Messaging
Please leave
a message
Busy after the tone
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Forward 1
to voice
mail box

Voice mail
box
GSM
network

You have
3 voices
messages...
Voice
message
Retrieving the voice
messages
server

Warming up...
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-9

Another service derived from telephony is voice messaging. Many operators offer it as a
basic feature.

It enables a voice message to be stored for later retrieval by the mobile recipient, either
because he was not reachable at time of the call or because the calling party choose to
access the voice mailbox of the GSM subscriber directly.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-9 January, 2000


Services

Supplementary Services
Calling Party 1 - Line Identification Called Party
CoLP CLIP
CLIR CoLR
 Calling Line Identification

presentation (CLIP)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

restriction (CLIR)

Cnted line Calling line


0609173957 0609225831
Connected Line Identification
presentation (CoLP)

restriction (CoLR)

 Calling Name Presentation


(CNAP)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-10

Calling line identification presentation (CLIP) provides the ability to indicate the ISDN
number of the calling party with possible additional address information to the called party.
This identity is provided to the called subscriber before answering, thus enabling him to
make the decision of whether to take the call or not.

Calling line identification restriction (CLIR) enables the calling party not to send any
address information to the called party.

Connected line identification presentation (CoLP) provides the GSM caller with the
phone number he has reached.

Connected line identification restriction (CoLR) enables the called party not to send its
phone number to the calling party.

Calling Name Presentation (CNAP) provides the calling party name instead of the ISDN
number. However, this service is not yet specified by GSM recommendations.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-10 January, 2000


Services

Supplementary Services
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission". 2 - Call Transfer and Call Forwarding

 unconditional (CFU)

 on busy (CFB)

 on no reply (CFNRy)

 on not reachable (CFNRc)


1 2

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-11

Call forwarding unconditional (CFU) allows a called mobile subscriber to have the
network send all incoming calls, which are addressed to the called mobile subscriber’s
directory number, to another directory number.

Call forwarding on mobile subscriber busy (CFB): allows a called mobile subscriber to
have the network send the incoming calls, which are addressed to the called mobile
subscriber’s directory number and which meet mobile subscriber busy, definition to another
directory number.

Call forwarding on no reply (CFNRy) allows an called mobile subscriber to have the
network send the incoming calls, which are addressed to the subscriber’s directory number
and which meet no reply, to another directory number.

Call forwarding on MS not reachable (CFNRc) provides for a mobile subscriber to have
the network send all incoming calls, which are addressed to the called mobile directory
number and meet the not reachable definition, to another directory number.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-11 January, 2000


Services

Supplementary Services
3 - Waiting / Hold and Multi Party

WAIT HOLD

1 2 1 2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Waiting / Hold:

1
Multi Party: 1

Max = 5 persons

2 2

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-12

Call waiting (CW): provides a mobile subscriber with the possibility of being notified of an
incoming call while his mobile telephone is in the busy state. Subsequently, the user can
either answer, reject, or ignore the incoming call. Both the call waiting and call hold
(described further) options are the same as those offered by the PSTN.

Call Hold (HOLD): allows a served mobile subscriber to interrupt communication on an


existing call and then subsequently, if desired, to reestablish communication.

Multi party service (MPTY):


• This Supplementary Service provides a mobile subscriber with the ability to have a
multi-connection call, in other words a simultaneous communication with more than one
party.
• A precondition for the multi-party service is that the served mobile subscriber is in
control of one active call and one call on hold, both calls having been answered. In this
situation the served mobile subscriber can request the network to begin the multiParty
service.
• Once a multiParty call is active, remote parties may be added, disconnected or
separated (i.e.. removed from the multiParty call but remain connected to the served
mobile subscriber).
• The maximum number of remote parties is 5.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-12 January, 2000


Services

Supplementary Services
4 - Call Barring

 Outgoing (BAOC)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

 Outgoing international (BOIC)

 Outgoing international
except home PLMN country (BOIC-exHC)

 Incoming (BAIC)

 Incoming when roaming outside


(BIC-Roam)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-13

Barring of all outgoing call (BAOC): makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent
all outgoing calls.

Barring outgoing international calls (BOIC): allows a mobile subscriber to prevent all
attempted outgoing calls.

BOIC except those directed to the home PLMN country (BOIC-exHC)

Barring of all incoming international (BAIC).

Barring of all incoming calls when roaming outside the home GSM network country
(BIC-Roam): makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all incoming calls that
would otherwise be terminated at his directory number. This only applies to the case when
the mobile subscriber roams outside his home GSM network.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-13 January, 2000


Services

Supplementary Services
5 - Call Completion (CCBS)

NEW! Unable to place


BUSY a call. Speaking Speaking
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

...
1 2

Reinitiate This call in state


the call
Ring !
Ring ! 1

Idle

Call is HELLO
SPEAKING established
1

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-14

Completion of calls to busy subscribers (CCBS): allows a calling mobile subscriber who
encounters a busy called subscriber to be notified by the system operator when the busy
called subscriber becomes free and have the operator re-initiate the call if the caller so
desires.
This feature has to be supported by both the originating and the terminating networks.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-14 January, 2000


Services

Supplementary Services
6 - Advice of Charge

Advice of Charge Information (AoCI)

information on progress
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

of the cost of the call

Advice of Charge Charging (AoCC)

Insert a
SIM credit Card
Completion of call
need charging

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-15

Advice of charge Information (AoCI): informs the user of the real-time information on
progress of the cost of the call.

Advice of charge Charging (AoCC): the mobile may be a money-operated mobile


telephone or a standard mobile station that can display the charging information and can
accept either coins or charge a credit-card.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-15 January, 2000


Services

Intelligent Network Services


IN and CAMEL

Main IN Services:
☎ Personal Number
☎ Virtual Private Network (VPN)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

☎ Sponsored Cell & Call


☎ Prepaid Calling
☎ Location Inquiry
☎ Geo Zone

The aim of the CAMEL (Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced
Logic) is to provide GSM network operators with the ability to create specific
services in their home network, and export these services to their subscribers
when roaming outside the home network.
CAMEL introduces the ability to provide location dependent IN type of services
to mobiles subscribers.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-16

The Intelligent Network or IN is a switching network concept.


Its idea is to make GSM services system an open system; that is to say new services
modules can always be added on the previous system without changing its architecture.
Basic call processing is performed by the switch and when it recognizes that a call requires
an IN service, this service processing is provided by another entity, located either in the
same site or in a remote site.
This concept allows to implement numerous new services such as:
• Personal Number: gives the GSM subscribers more control over incoming calls,
• Virtual Private Network: a set of corporate services that enables similar functions to
those of private network, among a group of GSM subscribers,
• Sponsored Cell and Call: allows a third party, as sponsor, to play announcement at the
beginning of the call,
• Prepaid Calling: allows subscriber to pay in advance for the calls they will make.
To communicate between Intelligent Network platforms, GSM specifications define CAMEL
(Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic).
The aim of the CAMEL is to provide network operators with the ability to create specific
services in their home network, and export these services to their subscribers when roaming
outside the home network.
CAMEL introduces the ability to provide location dependent IN type of services to mobiles
subscribers: Location Enquiry and Geo Zone.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-16 January, 2000


Services

IN Services: Virtual Private Network


Closed User Group

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

X 25 c/min 5696
X

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom


c
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9

Location & Time


o+
*
4197
** 0 #
7PRS8TUV9WXY
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

dependant screening 4GHI 5JKL 6MNO


1 2ABC3DEF

Corporate Numbering Plan


4446 Wireline Access
25 c/min Lower rate for on-net calls
4197 25 c/min
5696

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom


4446
Location & Time
dependant routing
c

Speed Dialing
1 2 3
4 5 6

London
7 8 9

* o+

Bristol 50 c/min 924 63256


Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom


Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-17

Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a set of corporate services that enables private network like
features among a group of GSM subscribers and wireline users; thus, corporations can
distribute GSM phones to their employees, providing them with many of the services that
they use on their existing corporate network:
• Private Numbering Plan: subscribers can reach all members of the corporate private network,
GSM as well as wireline, by dialing their usual internal number instead of the longer, harder to
remember, public number.
• Off Net Calling: subscribers are allowed to call public numbers that are outside the corporate
private network.
• Forced On Net Calling: when a subscriber makes a call to a member of the corporate private
network using their public number (he must also be provisioned with Off Net Calling), the feature
recognizes the call as a private call and treats it as such (appropriate billing, etc.).
• White (/Black) List Screening: subscribers with White (/ Black) List, can only (/ can not) place
calls to numbers listed on it.
• Geographic Routing: specific numbers can be configured to route calls differently depending on
the location of the caller.
• Time Screening (/ Routing): some specific numbers can be configured to restrict access (/ to
route calls differently) depending on the time of the day, day of the week, day of the year or
whether the day is a statutory holiday.
• Privileged Routing: specific numbers can be configured to route calls differently depending on
the identity of the caller.
• Closer user group (CUG): provides the possibility for a group of subscribers, connected to the
GSM network and or to the PSTN/ISDN, to communicate only among themselves or receive
external calls; emergency calls still are available.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-17 January, 2000


Services

IN Services: Prepaid Calling

RANK1ONE Las
5542 1139 1464 228 99494
cos t call
Newts $ 0.5 Your account
VALID DATES
6/91 6/99

is $ bala 0
SCOOBY DOO
balance
24.5 nce is $ 24.50
0

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom


Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Account status
enquiry and
Multiple recharging options notification

✓ Multiple Tariff Plans

✓ Tariffs using fixed charge, CC, NC, distance, time & day, roaming
charges...

✓ Possible language selection by subscriber

Flexible features for easy


✓ Bulk account loading for easy provisioning
service packaging

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-18

Prepaid Calling enables subscribers to control their phone call expenditure, by deciding how
much to spend and limiting themselves to that amount if required.
Subscribers pay in advance for their calls and get their calls released when the balance
becomes null; thus, subscribers get a cost-control (useful for rental companies, hotels,
special events, parents wanting to give mobiles to their children).
With Prepaid Calling, subscribers are able to:
• make and receive calls (service is totally transparent to the subscriber during normal
use),
• be notified of a low balance or a pending expiry date (if the threshold is reached, the
subscriber can be notified by warning tones before the call is taken down),
• use Voice Mail,
• query the status of their account at any time from any phone and recharge their
account.
The subscriber can also be informed of his account balance and of the cost of his last call, at
the end of each call, via a short message.
Additionally, the Operator can apply different rates to calls and manage the life of prepaid
subscriptions.
Nortel’s prepaid solution currently supports all major recharging options, for increased
service usage and enhanced customer satisfaction:
• automatically, by vouchers (e.g. scratch card),
• automatically, by credit card,
• manually (through Customer Services), by any means of payment.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-18 January, 2000


Services

IN Services: Sponsored Cell & Call

Calls from this


location are

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom


sponsored. Today, up to 50 % off
Today buy one on handbags !
dinner at Bellini’s on Sponsors can
Keith Street, near the
cinemas, and get one target specific
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

free!
customers
by sponsoring
some of their Sponsors can also change their
calls... announcements on the phone

...made from

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom


specified

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom


Your next two minute calling
locations is brought to you free today by
The leather Shop located on
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

at predefined first level of the Central


Shopping Centre.
times of day Come and visit us
Today, up to 50 % off on
handbags !
Service can be offered via access
code or through subscription

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-19

Sponsored Cell & Call allows a third party (the sponsor) to play a promotional
announcement at the beginning of a call and for this service, pays for part of the ongoing
call.
The main features of Sponsored Cell & Call are:
Choice to sponsor the call & choice of sponsor based on one or more of the following:
• the calling party location,
• the calling party profile (age ...),
• time of day, day of week,
• destination (emergency, freephone ...).
Sponsor can change his announcement on the phone.
User can specify certain destinations as not sponsored.
User can have the choice of having his call sponsored or not.
User can cut through the announcement, but the call is not sponsored.
User can be prevented from cutting through the announcement.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-19 January, 2000


Services

IN Services: Location Inquiry

The closest restaurants are:


The Wind Jammer
on 132 Flinton Street
Sea food
Phone 55 1968 Promotional
press 1 to connect Informations:
The Palace call #15
on 11 Bourke Street
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Chinese food
Phone 55 0407
press 2 to connect

The closest restaurants are:


The Tower, Tower Hill,
Phone 56 4589,
Press 1 to connect
The Anchor
Today’s special at

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom


St Catherine Dock
The Anchor is Maine
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Phonce 56 2548
Press 2 to connect lobster soup

Be the first ten caller and


get a free cocktail !

Cell dependent information Possible customization of announcement


Direct connection to advertisers directly by the advertiser

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-20

Location Inquiry provides GSM subscribers with information on where to locate useful
services in their current vicinity.
It enables easy connection to any service they are interested in and wish to talk to.
However, while GSM subscribers are out of the office or away from home, they do not have
access to this information easily e.g. yellow pages, guides.
Most of time, they may be even more reliant on this information because they often are in a
foreign environment, e.g. in another part of town or out of town.
The Location Inquiry service brings in a third party known as the “Advertiser” who seeks to
sell their products/services using the operator’s network.
Location Inquiry may also list services such as hospitals, doctors, pharmacies, etc. and be
promoted as a personal security service.
The main features of Location Inquiry are:
• location dependent information based on subscriber’s cell,
• possible customization of the announcement by the advertiser (special offer of the day
...).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-20 January, 2000


Services

IN Services: Geo Zone


1 - Outgoing Calls

This call is being


made outside of your
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

home zone.

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom Wait to complete it or


hang-up now.
C o p y r ig h t ©
1996
N o r th e r n
T e le c o m

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Wide Area
Office Zone Cellular Home Zone
Notification of current
15 c/min 50 c/min 10 c/min zone before call set-up:

Specific rates applied to calls made from Home/Office zone • when in home/office zone
and/or
• when out of zones
Multiple zones can be defined

Different rates applied to calls made from specific locations


PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-21

The main features of the outgoing side of Geo Zone are:


• zone dependent tariffing of outgoing calls:
- up to 4 zones per subscriber,
- each zone has its own tariff,
• information on the current zone available to the subscriber via:
- announcement or tones at the beginning of the call,
- optionally by a display on the mobile (in which case it must support it, which
means specific development on the handset).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-21 January, 2000


Services

IN Services: Geo Zone


2 - Incoming Calls

Calling the “fixed” number You are going to be


charged 5 c/min for
this call.
When you are at home, When you are away from home,
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Wait to accept it or
you are called directly you decide if the call is routed to: hang-up now.
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Voice mail
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

OR
Notification of current
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

zone before incoming


With Notification call is connected:
Your Caller pays when in home/office zone
Your Caller pays Your Caller pays fixed line rate
fixed line rate and/or
fixed line rate You pay the • when out of zones
You pay nothing You pay nothing “forwarding leg”

Fixed network service with built-in mobility


PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-22

The main features of the incoming side of Geo Zone are:


• routing of incoming calls according to the subscriber’s location:
- if the subscriber is in his Geo Zone, the call is routed to his mobile handset, thus
he does not have to pay anything,
- if the subscriber is out of his Geo Zone, the call can be either routed to his voice-
mail, or to his mobile handset; in the last case the subscriber pays for the
forwarding leg,
• information on the current zone available to the subscriber, when receiving a call via:
- announcement or tones before the call is connected.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-22 January, 2000


Services

Check Your Learning

1- What are the three categories of services defined in GSM?


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What are the two types of short messages?

3- What are the two required pieces of equipment for data exchanges in
GSM (one in the MS, the other in the MSC)?

4- What are the user data rates which were selected for GSM?

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-23

1- What are the three categories of services defined in GSM?

2- What are the two types of short messages?

3- What are the two required pieces of equipment for data exchanges in GSM (one in the MS,
the other in the MSC)?

4- What are the user data rates which were selected for GSM?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-23 January, 2000


Services

Check Your Learning (continue)

5- What is the CLIP supplementary service?


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

6- What is the CoLP supplementary service?

7- What is the MPTY supplementary service?

8- What is the call forwarding supplementary services?

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-24

5- What is the CLIP supplementary service?

6- What is the CoLP supplementary service?

7- What is the MPTY supplementary service?

8- What is the call forwarding supplementary services?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-24 January, 2000


Services
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-25 January, 2000


Services
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 4-26 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Section 5
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Cellular Principles

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-1 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Objectives

Provide an introduction to the concept


of cellular radio networks.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to:


• Explain what a radio cell is
• List the various types of cells
• Explain what a clutter is
• Have basic notions on Link Budget
• Explain what an Erlang is
• Explain what a frequency reuse pattern is
• Have basic notions on Link Budget

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-2 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Radio Design

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-3

The first step in designing a GSM cellular network consists in dimensioning the cells which
are the basic elements of the system.
The size of the cell is dependant on several parameters and must be determined on a case
per case basis at the implementation stage, even if the preliminary design stage takes few
cell models.
Both technical and economical aspects influence the design.
The first layer of the above drawing indicates that before implementing a network, an
operator will list and use his locations as much as possible, for economical reasons. As a
result the given position and height of the location will influence the range of the cell. The
exact situation and height of the pole and antennas can also be determined or imposed by
the microwave links.
The marketing requirements are translated into coverage areas with their associated quality
of service and traffic needs.
The operator is given a limited number of radio channels which leads to limited resources in
a given cell, depending on the chosen frequency reuse policy.
It appears then that a cell is determined by two factors: one is radio range depending on
antenna height, environment, quality of service… and the other is traffic or subscribers per
cell.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-3 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Erlang Concept
Erlang is the unit of statistical resource use.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Average number of busy channels


during the period of observation
(usually, the peak hour).
Example:
One user speaking on the phone for three minutes out of one hour will need:
3/60 = .05 ERLANG or 50 mErl

Erlang B:
At some time some users can need the resource simultaneously:
the use of the resource is associated with a blocking rate.

Erlang C:
When users request the resource at the same time, instead of rejecting the extra calls,
users are requested to wait some time before getting the line.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-4

The Erlang B formula used to compute the resource number is quite complicated:
AN
Br = N!
A AN
1+ + ... +
1! N!

A good approximate result can be obtained by using the following formula:


N = A + kA1/2 where:
N is the number of resources needed to provide A Erlangs with the Br,
Blocking Rate expressed in 10 at power -k: Br = 10-k
For Erlang C, the concept of blocking rate is no more used. The calls instead of being
rejected, when no resource is available, are held for a given time, queuing is used. That is to
say, the user has a probability of waiting more than a given time before getting the line.
As an example, using the first formula, 117 resources provide 100 Erlangs at 1% blocking
rate. If the approximate formula is used, 117 become 120.
When queuing is implemented, 1% blocking is converted into 1% probability of waiting more
than 0.1 second or 1‰ probability of waiting more than 0.38 second.
Generally the values used for a mobile subscriber are in the 20 to 50 mErl range at 1% to
5% blocking rate.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-4 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Fading

Example of Field Strength Variation for GSM 1800


-10

-20 Zoom on
Short Term Fading
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

-30 Measurement
Free Space
Field Strength (dBm)

≅ λ/2
-40
±2m
-50

-60

-70
Long Term Fading
-80

-90
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
-100
Distance (m)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-5

Information exchanged between MS and BTS is transported by means of radio waves which
are attenuated, reflected or diffracted, on their path.
The received signal is the sum of different signals resulting from these effects, sometimes
constructive, sometimes destructive.
Free-space loss is calculated using the following formula:
Loss (dB) = 32.4 + 20*log(d) + 20*log(f) where d is the distance between BTS and MS
expressed in km and f the frequency expressed in MHz.
In practice, the radio waves are not in free-space propagation conditions and the term
depending on distance can vary from 20*log(d) for free space to 40*log(d) for very dense
urban, depending on the environment.
Practical expressions of path loss are given here, depending on frequency and environment.
They come from several measurements, are statistical and represent the mean variation to
which short term and long term fading have to be added:

Rural (BTS antenna at 100 m) Urban (BTS antenna at 50 m)

GSM 900 90.7 + 31.8log(d) 123.3 + 33.7log(d)

Rural (BTS antenna at 60 m) Urban (BTS antenna at 50 m)


GSM 1800 100.1 + 33.3log(d) 133.2 + 33.8log(d)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-5 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Coverage or Traffic Limitations


TRAFFIC
LIMITED
AREA COVERAGE
(10000 LIMITED
subscriber AREA
per km2) (-75 dBm
at cell edge)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

COVERAGE
LIMITED
AREA
(-70 dBm
at cell edge)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-6

At the advent of GSM, subscribers were very few, and the radio resources available in each
cell were sufficient to cope with the call requests.
As subscriber numbers grew, some dense urban cells became congested, and the need of
extra radio resources appeared. The solution was to add extra sites to provide extra
channels even if the radio coverage was good enough. This is called cell splitting.
For radio coverage, the use of a link budget calculation sheet is necessary. The size of the
cell in this case is determined by the signal strength necessary at the edge of the cell.
For capacity limited areas, the BTS manages a given maximum number of subscribers. To
determine the number of sites necessary to provide the service is simply to divide the
amount of subscribers located in the area by the number of subscribers managed by one
site.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-6 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Cell Sectorization

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

OMNI
TRI
BI
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-7

Three types of site coverage are shown, on the same scale: omni, bi and tri.
Each site is equipped with optimum antennas.
Sectorization provides higher cell range thus allowing reduction of number of sites and
easier frequency reuse.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-7 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Omnidirectional Site Antennas

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-8

These pictures show one omni antenna as well as an omni site with space diversity.
On the right are printed the vertical radiation patterns with no electrical tilt (top) and with
electrical tilt (bottom).
Mechanical tilt is not used on omni antennas.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-8 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Bi and Trisectorial Site Antennas

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-9

These two pictures illustrate bi and trisector sites with space diversity.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-9 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Calculated Cell Coverage (Trisectorial Site)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-10

This coverage map coming from a trisectorial site, illustrates the statistical representation. It
more obviously appears that an hexagon is not sufficient to represent a cell.
Some areas can be provided with coverage very far away from the average range of the cell
in line of sight conditions which can cause interference.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-10 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Calculated Cell Coverage

P
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1
P’

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-11

To be able to make a GSM call, the first condition is to get sufficient signal strength. But this
is not enough, this signal must be understandable by the mobile which means not to receive
two similar signals from two different BTS using the same frequency.
As an example points P or P’ on the picture may receive good signal from sites 1 and 2, but
depending on the relative levels and frequencies, the communication can be performed
successfully or not.
Interference can occur at the MS side where two or more BTSs having the same frequency
are received with similar levels. Similarly at the BTS side when two mobiles communicating
with two different BTS can be received by one with similar levels.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-11 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Clutters

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-12

Radio waves behave differently depending on the environment, and the radio range can vary
from few hundred meters to several kilometers.
It is then important to classify the different types of environment included in the area to be
provided with GSM service.
As an example the map presented above shows a city and its surroundings, classified into
fourteen types of environment or clutters.
A link budget is established for each clutter, defining a specific cell size.

Example of Dense Urban clutter


Areas within urban perimeter. This includes dense urban areas
with dense development where built-up features do not appear
distinct from each other. It also includes built-up features of the
downtown district with heights below 40 m.

Example of Mean Urban clutter


Areas with urban perimeter. The mean urban clutter should have
mean street density with no pattern, the major streets are visible,
the built-up features appear distinct from each other. Some small
vegetation could be included. Average height is below 40 m.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-12 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Link Budget Presentation


Parameters
Antenna Gain (65°)
18 dBi Frequency 1800 MHz
Jumper Loss Base Height 40.0 m
0.5 dB Mobile Height 1,5 m
Environment Urban
Feeder Loss
3 dB
Penetration Factor 15 dB
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Sensitivity Body Loss 3 dB


-110 dBm

Antenna Gain
Coupling system Outdoor Minimum Field -2 dB
Cable Loss
95%: -80 dBm 0 dB
Tx loss
4.5 dB Coverage Range RX TX
95%: 810 m
Output Power
RXm RXd 30 dBm

Sensitivity
-100 dBm
Max TX Output Power
Options
44.8 dBm
Rx Diversity Gain: 5 dB
Mobile
Base Station Overlapping Margin: 0 dB

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-13

The purpose of the link budget calculation is to determine the range of the cell with
given equipment and quality of service in a specific environment.
• First of all the technical characteristics of the BTS and the MS are taken into account:
output power and input sensitivity as well as the feeder losses and antenna gain on the
BTS side and body losses and antenna gain on the MS side.
• Secondly, quality of service is specified using various elements: percentage of area
covered inside the cell (ex: 95%), indoor penetration losses (ex: 18 dB), overlapping
margin (ex: 3 dB).
• Thirdly, environment is specified (ex: urban) with antennas height, for both BTS and MS.
Radio wave propagation losses are dependent on frequency (GSM 900 or 1800), and
environment. This is taken into account in the link budget.
The above diagram illustrates all the elements used in the link budget for determining the
maximum path loss for the radio waves, from BTS to MS (downlink) and from MS to BTS
(uplink).
The worst case or lowest path loss allowed will be used to calculate the cell range in the
specified conditions.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-13 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Cochannel Interference

Power Wanted signal


Power
Interfering signal
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Frequency
f1
Frequency
f1

Power
combined
signal
The two signals are
superimposed

Frequency
f1
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-14

Cochannel interference occurs when two signals are being transmitted by two different cells
on the same frequency and both are received by the same telephone mobile.
The two signals are then superimposed, interfering with one another and creating a signal
that cannot be recognized.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-14 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

The Frequency Reuse Distance

Reuse distance D
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Frequency Frequency
Group A1 Group A1
Other Other
frequencies frequencies
R R

Wanted signal

Interfering signal

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-15

γ
C 1æDö
= ç
I 6 èR

C = "useful" signal
I = Interfere signal
γ = Constant depending on the environment type.
Ex: down-town γ=4
rural γ = 2.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-15 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Interference Limits

Ia2 (+41dB)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C (0 dB)
Ia1 (+9 dB)
Ic (-9 dB)

F1 + 200 kHz + 400 kHz

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-16

GSM specifications state that system and equipment must operate with specific ratios of
carrier to interference:
• C/Ic or useful signal over interfering signal at same frequency may be as low as 9 dB,
• C/Ia1 or useful signal over interfering signal at ± 200 kHz may be as low as -9 dB,
• C/Ia2 or useful signal over interfering signal at ± 400 kHz may be as low as -41
dB,
• C/Ia3 or useful signal over interfering signal at ± 600 kHz may be as low as -49
dB.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-16 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Frequency Reuse Pattern

A4 C3 B3 A4 C3 B3 A4 C3

Trisectorial
Site B4 A1 C4 B4 A1 C4 B4
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A2 C1 B1 A2 C1 B1 A2 C1

A3 B2
Distance of B2 A3 C2 B2 C2
4*3 Reuse
frequency reuse Pattern
A4 C3 B3 A4 C3 B3 A4 C3 of 12 cells

B4 A1 C4 B4
A1 C4 B4

A2 C1 B1 A2 C1 B1 A2 C1

B2 A3 C2 B2 A3 C2 B2

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-17

Channels are reused at regular distance intervals. The mechanism that governs this process
is called frequency planning.

The slide shows an example of N =12 frequency plan where the available frequencies of a
GSM network are placed.

This set of 12 cells is called a frequency reuse pattern and is generally used for BCCH
frequency plan.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-17 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Frequency Plan

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-18

A practical example of 4*3 reuse frequency pattern is displayed here, one color represents a
frequency group.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-18 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Different Types of Cells


EXTENDED - CELL: CONCENTRIC - CELL:
macro cell with system coverage macro cell with system coverage
≤ 120 km) for coasts...
extension (≤ limitation inside another macro

MACRO - CELL:
antenna radiating ‘above’ roofs
≤ 35 km)
---> Wide Coverage (≤
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• High sensitivity to
interference
• Requires "secured"
Frequency reuse pattern

PICO-CELL:
Antenna inside building MICRO-CELL: • High isolation from
Antenna ‘below’ the roofs interferences
---> Very small coverage • A few Frequencies
---> small coverage
intensively reused

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-19

As capacity needs increase, various solutions have to be implemented to provide local extra
capacity.
Micro cells provide coverage to one or several streets as well as indoor coverage
improvement.
Pico cells provide specific service in given buildings, shopping malls, conference halls…
Concentric cells allow provision of extra capacity close to the site by adding TRXs with
system limitations reducing their coverage range.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-19 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Cell Layering

Macrocell
Antenna

Macrocell
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Umbrella cell

2 layers
model
Microcell
Antenna µ cell 1 Microcell
µ cell 2 Pedestrian

Slow speed
Fast speed vehicle after
vehicle direction change

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-20

Micro-cells can be seen as an efficient design for mobile network to improve:


• indoor propagation,
• network capacity.

The actual solution consists in creating a two layers model:


• macro-cell or ‘umbrella’ cell layer dedicated in priority to fast speed users,
• micro-cells layer, dedicated to slow speed mobile (pedestrian, traffic jam).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-20 January, 2000


Cellular Principles

Frequency Reuse Pattern


Exercise

A1 A1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C1 B1 A2 C1 B1 A2

A3 C2 B2 A3 C2 B2

C3 B3 A4 C3 B3

C4 B4

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-21

This exercise depicts the advantages of the frequency reuse pattern assuming the following
data for bandwidth, and number of cells, over the same service area to be covered.
Assumptions:
• Operator bandwidth: 9.6 MHz (48 freq.).
• 36 cells (12 tri-sectorial sites).
• Channel spacing: 200 kHz.
• TDMA: 8 channels per carrier.

Questions:
What are the number of channels available within this area for these two cases:
• 1° case: reuse pattern = 12 cells?
• 2° case: reuse pattern = 9 cells?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-21 January, 2000


Cellular Principles
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-22 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Section 6
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Radio Interface

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-1 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Objectives

Provides an introduction to the Radio Interface


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to:


• Explain the purposes of the radio interface
• Show how GSM organizes its radio channels
• Identify the physical channels and the logical channels
• Relate basic steps that GSM must perform for the successful
transmission over the radio interface
• Explain how GSM use its logical channels at call setup

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-2 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Functions of the Radio Interface

• Speech and user's data


• Signaling
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS

BTS-1 BTS-2

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-3

The radio interface in the GSM system is responsible for maintaining communication between
the fixed network and mobile subscribers.
The radio interface serves two major functions in the GSM system.
• To transport user information, both speech and data:
- Bi-directional speech transmission at rate of 13 kbps (full rate).
- Bi-directional data transmission: 300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 bps.
• To exchange signaling messages between the mobile station and the network (e.g. call in
progress indication and preparation and execution of handovers).
• Signaling by preemption over the existing communication.
- Signaling over a dedicated channel.

The transmission resource used to fulfill this radio need is the channel.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-3 January, 2000


Radio Interface

GSM Uses Paired Radio Channels


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission". Case of GSM 900

Uplink Downlink BTS

890 MHz Frequency 915 MHz 935 MHz Frequency 960 MHz

0 channel # 124 0 channel # 124


Example:
Channel 48

Duplex spacing = 45 MHz


Frequency band spectrum = 2 x 25 MHz
Channel spacing = 200 kHz

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-4

A pair of channels are used for full duplex communications. Thus GSM uses both the uplink
and the downlink bands of a given spectrum.
In other words, a channel refers to a pair of frequencies used for a cellular radio talk path.
One is used for cell site to mobile transmission while the other is used for mobile to cell site
transmission.
GSM signal requires channels spacing of 200 kHz.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-4 January, 2000


Radio Interface

GSM Band Allocations (MHz)

GSM systems Uplink Downlink Band Duplex Duplex


Spacing channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

GSM 900 890-915 935-960 2x25 45 124


E-GSM (900) 880-915 925-960 2x35 45 174
R-GSM (900) 876-915 921-960 2x39 45 194

GSM 1800 1710-1785 1805-1880 2x75 95 374


GSM 1900 1850-1910 1930-1990 2x60 80 299

Frequencies are in MHz

Carrier frequency = ARFCN = Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-5

The carrier frequency is designated by the Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
(ARFCN).
If we call Fl(n) the frequency value of the carrier ARFCN n in the lower band, and Fu(n) the
corresponding frequency value in the upper band, we have:
P-GSM 900: Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n (1 ≤=n ≤=124) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45,
E-GSM 900: Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n (0 ≤=n ≤=124) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45,
Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*(n -1024) (955 ≤=n ≤=1023) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45,
R-GSM 900: Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n (0 ≤=n ≤=124) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45,
Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*(n -1024) (955 ≤=n ≤=1023) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45,

GSM 1800: Fl(n) = 1710.2 + 0.2*(n-512) (512 ≤=n ≤=885) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 95,
GSM 1900: Fl(n) = 1850.2 + 0.2*(n-512) (512 ≤=n ≤=885) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 80.
Frequencies are in MHz.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-5 January, 2000


Radio Interface

GSM Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)


Frame and Physical Channels

Time-slot TDMA frame TDMA frame

TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(frames repeat continuously)

Time
0 4.615 ms 9.23 ms

Physical channel # 2 = recurrence of time-slot # 2

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-6

A frame (TDMA), 8 successive Time-Slots (TS), has a duration of 60/13 ms or 4.615385 ms.
A TS, has a duration of 15/26 ms or 0.576923 ms.
A physical channel is made of the recurrence of the same TS taken from successive frames.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-6 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Physical Channel
BTS
time

n+1
TDMAs
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

7
n TS
0

n-1 MS1

MS2

MS3

0 //
FDMA 1 123 ARFCN
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-7

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-7 January, 2000


Radio Interface

GSM Delays Uplink TDMA Frames


BTS side The start of the uplink TDMA
is delayed of three time-slots TDMA Frame (4.615 ms)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
R R R R R R R R
Downlink TDMA
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS
T T T T T T T T

Down Up
MSs side link link

MS1 R T

R T
MS2

Fixed transmit
delay of three
time-slots
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-8

The start of an uplink TDMA frame is delayed with respect to downlink by a fixed period of
three Time Slots. Why?
Staggering TDMA frames allows the same TS number (TN) to be used in both the down and
uplink while avoiding the requirement for MS to transmit and receive simultaneously.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-8 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Propagation Delays
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

M2 d2 d1>>d2 M1

BTS Frame reference TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7

Propagation Delay τp
Bits Overlapping
MSs transmit

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-9

On the radio path, propagation delays can not be ignored. Indeed, 1 km corresponds to a
propagation delay of 3.33 µs (compare to a bit period of 48/13 = 3.7 µs).
But the BTS receives continuously, and has its own scheduling. The mobile station must itself
balance the propagation delay, in order to avoid overlapping in the frame received by the
BTS.
This is why the system takes into account these timing delays and orders the mobile station to
transmit with an anticipation called the Timing Advance.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-9 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Logical Channels
Traffic and Control Channels

TDMA frame TDMA frame

TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(frames repeat continuously)

Voice transmitted over the physical channel #2


defines a logical traffic channel

Information (e.g. to set up a call) transmitted over


the physical channel #1 defines a logical control channel

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-10

The specific type of information carried on a physical channel are known as a logical channel.
Logical channels can be split into two main categories:
• Traffic channels full rate (TCH/ F) and half rate (TCH/ H) which carry user’s data and
speech.
• Signaling channels, also known as control channel.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-10 January, 2000


Radio Interface

From Physical Channel to Logical Channels

Time Slot LOGICAL


TDMA Frame Logical CHANNELS
= 4.615 ms channels
multiplexing
• Traffic
0 12 345 67 01 234 56 701 23 45 67 • Broadcasted signaling
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TS = 577 µs • Dedicated signaling


• Associated signaling

different
MESSAGE TYPE message
types
Physical Channel =
different
logical
channels

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-11

A Physical Channel (a TS, defined by a fixed position (0-7) on a given TDMA frame) is used
to broadcast messages containing different kinds of information:
• traffic messages for speech and data,
• signaling messages for different procedures and supplementary services,
• synchronization messages for synchronization between the mobile station and the BTS,
• measurements messages for uplink report of the downlink measurements,
• control messages to manage the access to the network.
All these kinds of messages are classified and separated in Logical Channels.
Depending on the quantity of information to transmit and on their consistency, several logical
channels may be grouped into one physical channel, in order to occupy its successive TS as
much as possible (optimization of the resources number by maximizing the occupancy time of
each).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-11 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Traffic Channels (TCHs)

BSS

sp
BSC ee
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

ch
MSC BTS
or
TC da
H ta
sp TC
ee H
ch
o rd
ata

Full rate TCH carries:


• speech (13 kbps)
• user’s data (300 bps up to14.4 kbps)
Half rate TCH carries:
• user’s data (300 bps up to 4.8 kbps)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-12

Traffic Channels (TCH) are intended to carry either encoded speech or user data both in the
up and downlink directions in a point to point communication.
There are two type of Traffic Channels (TCHs) that are differentiated by their traffic rates as
follows:
• A full rate TCH that carries information (speech and data) at a gross rate of 22.8
kbps. The raw data rate for each TCH is 13 kbps for speech.
• A half rate TCH (TCH / H) carries information (encoded speech or data) at half of the full
rate channel with a gross rate of 11.4 kbps.
The allowed combining of user data rate with full and half rate are as follows:
• Full rate speech (TCH /F).
• Half rate speech (TCH /H), not available at the present time.
• 14.4 kbps full rate data (TCH / F14.4).
• 9.6 kbps full rate data (TCH / F9.6).
• 4.8 kbps full rate data (TCH / F4.8).
• 2.4 kbps full rate data (TCH / F2.4).
• 4.8 kbps half rate data (TCH / H4.8).
• 2.4 kbps half rate data (TCH / H2.4).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-12 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Control Channels

GSM Channels

Traffic Channels Control Channels


(TCHs)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Broadcast Common Control Dedicated Control


Channels Channels Channels
(BCHs) (CCCHs) (DCCHs)

(down uplink)
Full Half
Downlink Downlink Uplink
rate rate
Fast Slow

TCH /F TCH /H FCCH SCH BCCH PCH AGCH CBCH RACH SDCCH FACCH SACCH

Traffic Multiframing Signaling Multiframing Traffic Multiframing

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-13

Control channels are intended to carry signaling or synchronization data. Three are defined: Broadcast Channels
(BCHs), Common Control Channels (CCCHs), Dedicated Control Channels (DCCHs).
Broadcast channels are point to multipoint unidirectional (downlink) control channels from the the fixed
subsystem to the mobile telephone.
• First, BCHs include a Frequency Control Channel (FCCH) that allows an MS to accurately tune to a Base
Transceiver Station (BTS).
• Then BCHs contain the Synchronization Channel (SCH), which provide TDMA frame oriented
synchronization data to a MS.
• Last, BCHs include the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) intended to broadcast a variety of information
to MSs, including cues necessary for the MS to register in the network.
Common Control Channels (CCCHs) are point to multipoint channels that is primarily intended to carry
signaling information for access handling functions. The CCCHs include:
Paging Channel (PCH), which is down channel used to page (call terminating) MSs.
• Access Grant Channel (AGCH) that is a downlink channel used to assign a MS to a specific Dedicated
Control Channel (DCCH).
• Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH), which is down channel used to broadcast miscellaneous short
messages to the MSs.
• Random Access Control Channel (RACH) is an uplink channel which allows MS to initiate a call.
Dedicated Control Channels are point to point, bi-directional control channel. Two types of DCCHs are used:
• Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channels (SDCCH) whose allocation is not linked to the assignment of a
traffic channel (TCH). It bears information about authentication, location updates, and assignment to traffic
channels (TCHs).
• Otherwise, Associated Control Channels are linked to the allocation of a traffic channel (TCH). The Fast
Associated Control Channel (FACCH) or burst stealing is a control channel obtained by preemptive
dynamic multiplexing on a TCH. The Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH), also know as a
continue data stream, is allocated together with a TCH or a SDCCH.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-13 January, 2000


Radio Interface

The Logical Channels on Radio Interface


TS 01234567

BTS MS
FCCH TCH
Frequency correction Traffic (speech-data)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SCH FACCH
Synchronization Associated Signaling
BCCH
Broadcast control
Radio Measurement + SMS
RACH SACCH
Access request SDCCH
Dedicated Signaling
PCH
Subscriber paging CBCH
Broadcast info
AGCH
Answer to Access request
FCCH
CBCH
Broadcast info SCH
M.S. Pre-synchronization
SDCCH
Dedicated Signaling BCCH
SACCH
Sys InFo 5, 6 + SMS RACH
Access request
PCH
Traffic (speech data) Subscriber paging
TCH
AGCH
Associated Signaling Answer to Access request
FACCH
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-14

Three groups of logical channels:


1. Traffic channels (TCH), and associated channels (FACCH, SACCH):
Number computed from Erlang B law, starting from offered traffic, according to the
traffic model.
2. Dedicated signaling channels (SDCCH, SACCH, CBCH):
Number computed from Erlang B law, using figures given by the traffic model.
The CBCH is optionally used; when activated, it uses permanently one SDCCH
resource.
3. Common channels (CCCH), BCCH and synchronization channels (FCCH, SCH)
Theoretical studies on message exchanges on radio interface have shown that one
common channel is sufficient, whatever the offered traffic on CELL.
“BCCH combined”: common channel pattern for small capacity cells (O1):
- Signaling channels SDCCH/SACCH are included in same frame as common
channels:
AGCH : Access Grant CHannel PCH : Paging CHannel
BCCH : Broadcast Control CHannel RACH : Random Access CHannel
CBCH : Common Broadcast CHannel SACCH : Slow Associated Control CHannel
CCCH : Common Control CHannel SCH : Signaling CHannel
FACCH : Fast Associated Control CHannel SDCCH : Stand-alone Dedicated Control
CHannel
FCCH : Frequency Control CHannel TCH : Traffic CHannel

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-14 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Logical Channel Description (1/2)

SDCCH MESSAGES TCH MESSAGES


• Request for a SDCCH assignment • Full rate speech at 13 kbit/s
• Request for the end of channel • Half rate speech at 6.5 kbit/s
assignment
• Full rate data at 9.6, 4.8, or 2.4 kbit/s
• Order of commutation from SDCCH to
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TCH • Half rate data at 4.8 or 2.4 kbit/s


• Handover Access message (uplink)

FACCH MESSAGES
SACCH MESSAGES
• Connection establishment from
SDCCH to TCH • System Information 5, 5bis, 5ter and 6
(connected mode)
• End validation of a SDCCH-TCH
commutation • Measures:
- power level of the communication
• Characteristics of the future used BS - quality level of the communication
after handover - level on the beacon frequency of
• Connection establishment to BS after the neighboring cells
handover • Timing Advance
• Validation of an handover • Power Control

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-15

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-15 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Logical Channel Description (2/2)

FCCH MESSAGES AGCH MESSAGES

• no message is sent (all bits 0) • For dedicated channel assignment:


- frequency number
- slot number
SCH MESSAGES - frequency hopping description
- Timing Advance (1st estimation)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• Frame Number - MS identification


• Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)
RACH MESSAGES
BCCH MESSAGES • Service request:
- emergency call
• System Information type 1, 2, 2bis, - answer to an incoming call
2ter, 3, 4, 7, 8 - outgoing call
(idle mode) - short message
- call re-establishment
- inscription
CBCH MESSAGES
PCH MESSAGES
• Specific information
• messages containing a mobile
For example:
- weather identity for a call, a short message
- road information or an authentication

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-16

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-16 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Traffic and Control Multi-Framing

Traffic channel Control channel


Frame
4.615 ms

TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

26 traffic frames = 120 ms 51 control frame = 235.38 ms

0 1 2 3 4 21 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 46 47 48 49 50

1326 0 1 2 3 4 51 x 26 traffic frames = 6.12 s 46 47 48 49 50


frames
0 1 2 3 26 x 51 control frames = 6.12 s 22 23 24 25

0 1 2 3 4 5 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047

1 Hyperframe = 2,715,648 frames= 3h 28 min. 53 s 760 ms


PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-17

Introducing to Multi Framing


Higher order frames, called traffic multiframes, consist of 26 TDMA frames and have a duration of
120 ms (26 x 4.615 ms). This 26 DTMA multiframe carries Traffic Channels (TCHs), Slow Associated
Control Channel (SACCH), and Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH).
Similarly, a 51-frame multiframe, called a control multiframe, has a duration of 235.365 ms (51 x
4.615 ms) and supports Common Control Channels (CCCHs), Broadcast Channels (BCHs) and Stand
Alone Control Channels (SDCCHs).
One Superframe consists of 51 traffic multiframes or 26 control multiframes, in other words contains
51 x 26 TDMA frames with a total duration of 6.12 seconds (51 x 120 ms).
The highest order frame is called a hyperframe and consists of 2,048 superframes, or 2,715,648
frames (2048 x 51 x 21). The time duration of the hyperframe is 3 hrs, 28 min., and 52.76 sec
(2,715,648 x 4.615 ms). This long period of hyperframe is called the GSM time.
Thus to organize the information transmitted on each carrier, GSM defines several time intervals
ranging from 0.9 µs (exactly the time duration of a quarter of one bit) to a hyperframe interval of more
than three hours (GSM time).
As we have just seen, the cycle of a multiframe and superframe is different for speech and control
channels.
This arrangement enables a receiver to decode all the control channels along with the traffic channel
(TCHs) because of the timing of the traffic multiframe always moving in relation to the control channel
multi frame. Otherwise, if two multiframes were exact multiples of each other, the control channel time
slot would be permanently masked by the TCH time slot activities.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-17 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Traffic Channels Combination


Logical Channel Mapping (1/5)

Full Rate - Downlink & Uplink


26 frames = 120 ms
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

T T T T T T T T T T T T A T T T T T T T T T T T T time

Half Rate - Downlink & Uplink


26 frames = 120 ms

T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 A 0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 A 1 time

T : TCH Ti : TCH A : SACCH Ai :sub-channel


SACCH
n° i
: IDLE
sub-channel n° i

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-18

Full rate speech transmission


When a Mobile Station is in communication mode, speech is coded every 20 ms in blocks.
These blocks are coded in 8 half-bursts, whose information quantity is equivalent to 4 entire
bursts.
Then, one burst has to be delivered every 5 ms. But in reality a burst is transmitted every
4.615 ms.
So, in 26 frames lasting 120 ms, 24 bursts are used for speech transmission. One free burst
is used for SACCH. The other one is an idle burst. During this burst, the mobile is not idle, but
it uses this time to monitor the neighboring cells frequencies.

Half rate speech transmission (not often used because of lower quality)
When the half rate speech transmission is in use, the 26 frames of a given time slot can be
separated between two users, since only 12 coded speech bursts are used per user.
So, in 26 frames lasting 120 ms, the odd burst numbers are restricted to one user, and the
other numbers are for the other one. SACCH bursts are in the 13th and 26th positions. In this
case, the monitoring is more frequent.

Full rate speech: 13 kbit/s Half rate speech: 5.6 kbit/s

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-18 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Dedicated Signaling Channels Combination


Logical Channel Mapping (2/5)

Downlink
51 frames = 235 ms

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A0 A1 A2 A3
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A4 A5 A6 A7
time

Uplink
51 frames = 235 ms

A5 A6 A7 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A0

A1 A2 A3 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A4
time

A : SACCH D : SDCCH : IDLE

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-19

The dedicated channels are combined into two multiframes of 51 frames. In the uplink and the
downlink directions, the configuration is almost the same one, only shifted by 15 frames.
The dedicated channels combination broadcasts a group of 8 SDCCH frames (2 groups of 4
consecutive SDCCH frames), each of them is associated to 4 consecutive SACCH frames.
Each different group is used by a different dedicated communication. The multiframe
configuration is shown on the above figure.
So 8 users can use the same physical channel simultaneously, and the different
communications associated to their SACCH signaling are spread on a cycle of 102 frames (2
51-multiframes). In such a multiplexing cycle, 6 frames are unused (idle TS).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-19 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Physical Channel and Logical Channels


Common Channels Combination

Multiframe m

Multiframe Multiframe
m-1 51 frames = 235.38 ms m+1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C FS B C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS B

Frames repeat continuously time

PCH/AGCH
BTS Physical Channel MS
SCH BCCH
ARFCN (n) TS (s)
FCCH

Logical Channels F : FCCH S : SCH B : BCCH C : PCH/AGCH : IDLE

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-20

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-20 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Common Channels Combination


Logical Channel Mapping (3/5)

Downlink
51 frames = 235 ms
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

FS B C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS C C
time

Uplink
51 frames = 235 ms
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
time

: AGCH
F : FCCH S : SCH B : BCCH C /PCH R : RACH : IDLE

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-21

Downlink way
The downlink direction is used to combine FCCH, SCH, BCCH, PCH and AGCH:
• FCCH and SCH are always transmitted consecutively (SCH always follows FCCH). Over
51 frames, the pairs are located at the 0-1, 10-11, 20-21, 30-31 and 40-41 positions.
• BCCH uses 4 frames per multiframe (Frame Number 2 to 5) and sometimes 4 other
frames (6 to 9) for BCCH ext (see p. 2-22).
• PCH and AGCH form the CCCH blocks (9 groups of 4 frames). They can have different
configurations, depending on the cell capacity and are dynamically defined in SI Type 3
(management of these channels).
• The 51th frame is unused.

Uplink way
The uplink direction is reserved for RACH. The configuration is simple: all the 51 frames
broadcast RACH messages. So all the mobile station can request a dedicated resource to
access the network on each TS 0 of a specific TDMA frame in the cell.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-21 January, 2000


Radio Interface

BCCH Combined
Logical Channel Mapping (4/5)

Downlink
51 frames = 235 ms

FS B C FS C C FS D0 D1 FS D2 D3 FS A0 A1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

FS B C FS C C FS D0 D1 FS D2 D3 FS A2 A3
time

Uplink
51 frames = 235 ms

D3 RR A2 A3 RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR D0 D1 RR D2

D3 RR A0 A1 RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR D0 D1 RR D2
time

: AGCH
F : FCCH S : SCH B : BCCH C /PCH R : RACH A : SACCH D : SDCCH : IDLE

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-22

In the case of a low capacity cell, it is possible to combine on the same physical channel
some dedicated channels with some common control channels.
Their configuration is done on 2x51 frames and is indicated in the SI type 3.
This combination contains all the channels of dedicated and common combinations: FCCH,
SCH, BCCH, PCH, AGCH, SDCCH, SACCH and RACH.

Downlink way
From a common control combination, FCCH, SCH and BCCH keep their configuration
(FCCH+SCH: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40; BCCH: 2 to 5) for both multiframes.
PCH and AGCH are still dynamically configured but only on the bursts: 6-9 (except when
extended BCCH are used), 12-15 and 16-19, for both multiframes.
On the bursts left, 4 blocks of 4 SDCCH TSs, each of them associated with a SACCH block of
4 TSs, and one idle TS at the end of each multiframe. Each different group is used by a
different sub-channel.

Uplink way
On 102 frames, 27 RACH frames are kept and the other ones are replaced by 4 blocks of 4
SDCCH TSs, each of them associated with a block of 4 SACCH TSs.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-22 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Why 26 and 51 Frames per Multiframe?


0 1 10 20 30 40 50 0 1

FS B C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS

TTTTTTTTTTTTATTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTT TTTTTTTATTTTTTTTTTTT


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

01 12 25 0 1 12 25

Downlink message

Uplink message

Mobile activity Rx Tx Rx Rx Tx Rx Rx Tx
(n) (n)

Neighboring BTS
(downlink)
Measurement Window
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-23

During a communication, the Mobile Station has to listen to the beacon frequency of the
neighboring cells (which list is provided to the MS through SACCH) in order to get pre-
synchronized with the neighboring sites.
This pre-synchronization is useful for an eventual handover, so that the mobile station can
access the assigned channel.
The MS can decode beacon frequency information only during the idle window of the TCH
multiframe. Indeed, during data exchanges, the mobile has not enough time to decode
information between receipt, broadcast (3 TSs later), and new receipt (5 TSs later), since it
has to change the frequency and to process some data.
However, between transmission and reception (4 TSs), the MS is able to perform level
measurement on a neighboring cell.
But the MS must find time to decode the synchronization information broadcasted on SCH of
the neighboring cells and read and decode BCCH information for new cells. For this, the MS
uses the idle TS (TS 26 on the traffic multiframe) that provides a larger observation window
and processing time.
Since 26 and 51 have no common divider and 26*2=51+1, the idle slot of the TCH multiframe
shifts forward a frame in the 51-multiframe: 0, 26, 1, 27, 2,...
We are sure that the MS has been able to pre-synchronize with a neighboring site
(FCCH+SCH decoding) after at most 11 successive decoding at the idle TS level.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-23 January, 2000


Radio Interface

From Speech to Radio Transmission


Speech
Speech

Digitizing and Source


Step 1 source coding decoding

Channel Channel
Step 2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

coding decoding

Interleaving De-interleaving

Step 3
Burst deformatting
Burst formatting

Deciphering
Step 4 Ciphering

Demodulation
Modulation equalization
Step 5

Diversity
Step 6 Transmission

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-24

From speech to radio signal, several operations are performed. The reverse transformations
are performed on the receiver side.
Main operations are the following:
• Digitizing: Speech blocks are first digitized to obtain digital blocks: 20 ms speech = 260 bits.
• Source coding uses low bit rate code for air interface.
• Channel coding uses codes enabling detection and correction of signals errors. The result is a flow of code
words (456 bits long).
• Interleaving and burst formatting spread the bits of several code words to expand data of the same block
in different bursts. The results is a succession of blocks, one block for each channel burst.
• Ciphering modifies the contents of these block through a "secret recipe" known only by the mobile
telephone and the Base Transceiver Station, thus protecting data from eavesdropping.
• Modulation transforms the binary signal into an analog signal at the right frequency and moment using
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK).
• Transmission amplifies and radiates the resulting signal as radio waves via an antenna.
• Diversity are different techniques used to provide the reception quality.
• Demodulation: From the radio waves captured by the antenna, the portion of the received signal which is
of interest to the receiver is demodulated.
• Deciphering reverses the encryption "secret recipe".
• Burst de-formatting and de-interleaving puts the bits of the different burst back in order to rebuild the code
words.
• Channel Decoding reconstructs the source information from the output of the demodulator using added
redundancy to detect or correct possible errors.
• Speech decoding operates as suitable filters receiving the voice parameters, then performs them out
analog speech.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-24 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Speech Quality - Source Coding

Codec Type Mean Opinion Score Rate (kb/s)


(MOS)

PCM A law 4.25 64


GSM EFR 4.2 12.2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CDMA 13 4.2 13
D-AMPS 4 8
GSM FR 3.8 13
CDMA 8 3.4 8

Quality MOS Listening Effort Required

Excellent 5 Complete relaxation possible, no effort.


Good 4 Attention necessary, no appreciable effort.
Fair 3 Moderate effort.
Poor 2 Considerable effort.
Bad 1 No meaning understood with feasible effort.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-25

Since each telecommunication system has its own intrinsic characteristics and limitations,
specific voice CODECs have been designed for each system with the objective of achieving
the best trade-off between voice quality, robustness to errors and network capacity. As a
result, the voice quality differ from one system to another.
The advent of new speech compression codecs for wireless systems has provoked intense
interest in comparisons of subjective voice quality over these codecs. Estimates of
subjective quality are typically given as Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) obtained from listening
tests.
Voice quality is a subjective parameter. By asking a group of normal telephone listeners to
rate the quality of telephone speech samples, we can obtain an estimate of the quality that
would be achieved on various types of connections.
In particular, we use subjective listening tests to characterize the voice quality of speech
compression codecs used in wireless and other systems where bandwidth efficiency is at a
premium, because there are no objective measures that can estimate voice quality effectively.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-25 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Channel Processing
Overview
20 ms Speech blocks 20 ms 20 ms
A B C

260 bits 260 bits 260 bits


Source coding
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Channel coding

A 456 bits B 456 bits C 456 bits

A A A A B B B B B B B B 8 Sub blocks C C C C
5 6 7 8 Interleaving 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4
of 57 bits

A5 A6 A7 A8 B5 B6 B7 B8
8 Bursts B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4

Normal 3 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits 3


burst
Tail Information CRL Training CRL Information Tail
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-26

After having transformed speech blocks (20 ms) into digital blocks, channel coding adds
redundancy.
The purpose of channel coding is to improve poor transmission quality due to disturbances
such as noise, interference, or multipath propagation (resulting from the reflections of the
transmitted signal from buildings, etc.).
Channel coding consist in adding, some redundant information, to the source data calculated
from this source information:
• Convolutional codes and block codes: for correction purposes.
• Fire code: detection and correction of “bursty” errors.
• Parity code: error detection.
Each channel has its own coding and interleaving scheme.
A common structure of 456 coded bit is interleaved and mapped onto bursts.
The blocks are interleaved and spread into segments which are combined with flags and a
training sequence to build up the burst.
Ciphering is applied to these burst and the resulting data is used to modulate the carriers.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-26 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Interleaving: TCH Full Rate


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ... 452 453 454 455 456
coded bits
Divide 456 bits in 8 sub-blocks

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

57 Rows
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 reordering
•• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• &
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• • • • • • • • partitioning
448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 out

4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3

diagonal
interleaving

bit
interleaving

burst
b0 b1 b56 b0 b1 b56
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-27

After channel coding, speech coded information (TCH Full rate) are classified into 456 bits
blocks. See how they are spread into bursts.
These 456 bits are reordered into a 8 x 57 array, line by line. The initially close bits are
separated. The array is split into 8 columns of 57 bits. In this way, each 57 bits block contains
bits which were all distant each other.
Each 57 bits block shall be grouped with another one in order to create a burst which contains
114 information bits. Each of the 4 first blocks is grouped with each of the 4 last blocks of the
previous segment. In the same way, each of the 4 last blocks is grouped with each of the 4
first blocks of the next segment.
In a burst, containing 2 57 bits blocks, it is possible to increase bit spreading. The first block
uses the even positions and the second one uses the odd positions inside the burst. The
proximity of initially successive bits are now destroyed.
Each speech block of 456 bits (20 ms) is so spread over 8 bursts.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-27 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Burst Formatting
Normal Burst

1 frame:
4.615 ms

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Training Guard
DATA S S DATA
sequence Band

3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25

Burst
148 bits
Guard

156.25 bits
0.577 ms

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-28

A basic unit of measure in transmission on a radio path is a burst, a series of 114 modulated
bits of information. Bursts have a finite duration and occupy a finite part of the radio spectrum.
Bursts are sent in time and frequency windows called slots.
The normal burst shown in this slide is made of:
• Tail bits: three "0" bits at the beginning and end to help avoid loss of synchronization.
• Information: speech, data, and signaling.
• A training sequence: a list of bits known by the receiver allowing it to demodulate the burst.
• Stealing flags (S): indicate if information is either user's data (includes speech) or signaling data
for call in state.
• A guard band: bits where nothing is transmitted to allow for overlap due to the variable distance
from the mobile telephone to the Base Transceiver Station. This is necessary if the timing
advance is not exactly right.
• Normal Burst bears traffic channels, its associated channel (slow and fast), Stand Alone, and the
broadcast Control Channels (BCCHs).
Other burst are defined with regard to their time-amplitude profile:
• Access burst: used in the uplink direction during initial phase of transmission when propagation
delay (timing advance) between the mobile telephone is not yet known. The training sequence
and tail are longer than those of a normal burst to increase the probability of demodulation
success.
• Frequency correction burst: to enable the mobile telephone to find and demodulate a
synchronization burst to the same cell.
• Synchronization burst: time synchronization of the mobile station, the first burst a mobile
telephone needs to be able to demodulate.
• Dummy burst: dummy sequence to replace data if there is nothing to transmit, for example,
Broadcast Control Channel filling.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-28 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Burst Formats

Frequency Correction Burst


(FCCH) Guard
Tail Data Tail Period
3 bits 142 fixed bits (0) 3 bits 8.25 bits
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

Synchronization Burst
(SCH) Guard
Tail Data Extended Training Sequence Data Tail Period
3 bits 39 encrypted bits 64 synchronization bits 39 bits 3 bits 8.25 bits

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-29

Frequency correction burst


A frequency correction burst contains 142 fixed bits for the frequency correction and 3 tail bits
at the beginning and the end. The guard period corresponds to a transmission time of 8.25
bits.
It is used on FCCH in order to enable the mobile to find and demodulate a synchronization
burst in the same cell. Its structure is simple, since its bits are all equal to 0 (no information is
transmitted). When this burst is modulated, the result is a pure sine wave at the carrier
frequency plus 1625/24 Hz due to the modulation. This frequency is in fact the information
carried by this burst. It provides the frequency needed to understand the following bursts of
the same physical channel.

Synchronization burst
A synchronization burst contains 64 bits for the training sequence, twice 39 for the
information, 3 tail bits at the beginning and the end. The guard period corresponds to a
transmission time of 8.25 bits.
It is used on SCH, in the downlink direction, for time synchronization of the mobile station. It is
the first burst a mobile needs to be able to demodulate. It is the reason why its training
sequence is longer than the one of other bursts.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-29 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Burst Formats

Normal Burst
Tail Data Training Sequence Data Tail Guard
Period
3 bits 57 encrypted bits 1 26 bits 1 57 encrypted bits 3 bits 8.25 bits
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

Dummy Burst
Guard
Tail Dummy Sequence Training Sequence Dummy Sequence Tail Period

3 bits 58 mixed bits 28 midamble bits 58 mixed bits 3 bits 8.25 bits

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

Access Burst
Training
Tail Sequence Data Tail Guard Period

8 bits 41 synch bits 36 encrypted bits 3 bits 68.25 bits

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)


PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-30

Normal burst
A normal burst contains 26 bits for the training sequence, plus 2 times 58 bits for information.
More precisely, there are twice 57 information bits and two stealing flags, which indicate if
information is traffic or signaling. There are also out three tail bits, and 8.25 bits for the guard
period.
Dummy burst
The dummy burst structure is the same as for the normal burst. But information bits are
replaced by mixed bits: this burst is used to replace data if there is nothing to transmit. It is
the case for BCCH and TCH filling when they are transmitted on the beacon frequency.
Access burst
An access burst contains 41 bits for the training sequence, 36 bits for the information, 8 and 3
tail bits at respectively the beginning and the end of the burst. The guard period is of 68.25
bits.
It is used on RACH, in the uplink direction, during initial phase of transmission when the
propagation delay between the mobile station and the BTS is not yet known. The training tail
sequences are longer than those of a normal burst to increase the probability of demodulation
success.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-30 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Ciphering

Burst to be
Data S S Data
transmitted

Plain data: 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0.....


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Ciphering sequence: 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0.....


XOR:
Ciphered data (transmitted): 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0.....
Ciphered sequence: 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0.....
XOR:
Recovered data: 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0.....

Received Data S
Training
S Data
burst sequence

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-31

Ciphering, or encryption, is a procedure that provides additional security for the subscriber.
Ciphering is not a channel coding. It is performed after the encoding and interleaving of
different channel and is done independently of whether the channel is a signaling channel or a
traffic channel. Ciphering is only done on the two data segments.
Thus ciphering is achieved by performing an exclusive OR (XOR) operation between a
pseudo-random bit sequence (which was computed through A5 algorithm by the ciphering key
allowed to user for a call and the burst number) and the 114 useful bits of a normal burst.
Deciphering, in turn, applies exactly the same operation, since XOR twice with the same data
leads back to the original value.
Last, it is worth noting that the whole specification of the encryption algorithm (A5) is
distributed under conditions by the Association of European Operators which have signed the
GSM Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). GSM uses two A5 types of algorithm:
• Encryption algorithm A5-1 which contains European and United States technical software
that could not directly or indirectly exported to any either embargoed or restricted country.
• Encryption algorithm A5-2 which contains software that do not require license or
approval.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-31 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Modulation
GMSK Modulation

Bit 0 phase shift + 90 °


Bit 1 phase shift - 90 °
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Ωt + ϕ)
I = sin (Ω Q
'1' - 90 ° + 90 ° '0'
GMSK GMSK
Modulator Signal

Ωt + ϕ)
Q = cos (Ω
I

Carrier
Frequency

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-32

GSM modulation GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) is a “constant envelope”


modulation scheme.
This choice has been mainly made to avoid specific need of linear amplifier.
GMSK relies on MSK scheme using Gaussian low pass filtering.
MSK
MSK is a continuous phase shift. It allows the RF vector to rotate during one bit period on a
circle (constant amplitude) from one phase state to the other:
• phase shift = + 90 ° when bit b = 0,
• phase shift = - 90 ° when bit b = 1,
As a result, the phase shift of +90 ° or -90 ° during one bit period by MSK is equivalent to a
frequency shift so MSK also can be seen as FSK (Frequency Shift Keying).
MSK has steady phase transitions however with a dip at any bit change caused by rapid
change of the frequency (+/- Df). This leads to a very broad RF spectrum.
Gaussian filter
The data signal is base band filtered by a Gaussian filter to obtain GMSK modulation.
The phase transition does not have dips any more and the bandwidth of the spectrum has
considerably decreased.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-32 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Discontinuous Transmission Features

speech
Hearpiece From receiver
decoder
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Digital to
Analog
Converter Comfort
noise
function

Microphone speech
To transmitter
encoder

Analog to
Digital
Converter Voice Activity
Detection

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-33

Pauses in normal speech occur at a rate that makes speech appear to have about 50 per
cent activity. This means that a telephony channel is only used for speech transmission about
half the time a speaker is using the phone.
Since transmit time is further reduced when Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is used, the
power consumption of hand-held terminals is reduced, which gives users the option of fitting
their terminal with smaller batteries. Furthermore these functions tend to reduce interference
in adjacent cells and to mobile station close to the base transmitters when suspending radio
transmission when the coder detects a speech pause.
The GSM speech coder features this with:
• Voice Activity Detection (VAD) that determines the presence or absence of speech at the
microphone. Note this function has to work well even when there is high level of
background noise, such as in a car.
• Confort Noise function: The total absence of sound in the ear piece would annoy the user
at the receiving end of a radio channel and the handset appears to be dead. Thus the
users tend to speak too loudly when there is total silence in the ear piece. There needs to
be a minimum of conventional background noise present during pause. This is
accomplished by transmitting silent descriptor (SID) frames at a rather slow rate of once
every 480 ms. Then upon receiving this SID frame, the receiving speech decoder has to
fake an existing wireline connection by generating some background noise.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-33 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Check Your Learning

1- Why does GSM use paired radio channels?


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- How many time-slots does a GSM TDMA contain?

3- What is a GSM physical channel?

4- Why does GSM delay the uplink TDMA frame?

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-34

1- Why does GSM use paired radio channels?

2- How many time-slots does a GSM TDMA contain?

3- What is a GSM physical channel?

4- Why does GSM delay the uplink TDMA frame?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-34 January, 2000


Radio Interface

Check Your Learning (continue)

5- What are the logical channels?


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

6- What does a traffic channel carry?

7- Why does GSM use the channel coding?

8- Why does GSM use the interleaving?

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-35

5- What are the logical channels?

6- What does a traffic channel carry?

7- Why does GSM use the channel coding?

8- Why does GSM use the interleaving?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-35 January, 2000


Radio Interface
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-36 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Section 7
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-1 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Objectives

After completing this lesson you will be able to:


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• List the 3 sub-systems of a GSM system and their interfaces;


• List the different equipment in each GSM sub-system;
• Indicate functions for each equipment;
• List the interfaces in each sub-system, indicate if it is standard or not
and identify the main protocol used on it.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-2 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Basic Elements of a Cellular System

Exchange
To another service area
To another PSTN exchange
service area
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PSTN Switch

To another
To another PSTN exchange
service area

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-3

Today's wireless communications systems are based on a composite wireless and wired
system as shown in this slide where the wireless segment of the communication system is
shown as a cluster of seven hexagonal cells.
Each cell is essentially a radio communication center where a mobile subscriber establishes
a call with a land telephone through the switch and the Public Switching Telephone Network
(PSTN).
This composite platform enables us to communicate with anyone at any time, from
anywhere within the service area.
Switch and PSTN are essentially multiple points serving as system intelligence.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-3 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Architecture of a GSM System

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)


ISDN, PSDN

Signaling System No.7 SS7


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Network and MSC


GMSC HLR-AUC
Switching VLR VLR
Sub-system EIR

A-interface
BSS
Base
OMN interface (X.25)
Station TRAU
Sub-system
BSC
Operation
Cell 3 Abis Interface
Um (radio) Sub-
interface Cell 1
BTS System OMC-R OMC-S
Cell 2
BTS

MS

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-4

A GSM system is basically designed as a combination of three major sub-systems: the


Network and Switching Sub-system (NSS), the radio sub-system called the Base Station
Sub-system (BSS), and the Operation Sub-System (OSS).
The Network and Switching Sub-system includes the equipment and functions related to
end-to-end-calls, management of subscribers, mobility, and interfaces with the fixed network
(PSTN).
In particular, the NSS consist of Mobile Switching Centers (MSC), Visitor Location Registers
(VLR), Home Location Registers (HLR), Authentication Center (AUC), and Equipment
Identity Register (EIR).
The Base Station Sub-system includes the equipment and functions related to the
management of the connection on the radio path.
It mainly consists of one Base Station Controller (BSC), and several Base Transceiver
Stations (BTSs), linked by the Abis interface.
An optional equipment, the Transcoder / Rate Adapter Unit (TRAU) so called TransCoder
Unit (TCU) within Nortel BSS products, is designed to reduce the amount of PCM links.
The Operation Sub-System is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to
the BSC. OSS mainly contains Operation and Maintenance Center for NSS (OMC-S) and
Operation and Maintenance Center devoted to the Radio subsystem (OMC-R).
In order to ensure that network operators will have several sources of cellular infrastructure
equipment, GSM decided to specify:
• the radio interface (or air interface or Um interface), between the BTS and the MS,
• the A interface, between the NSS and the BSS.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-4 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

BSS Architecture

MSC
Radio
TCU Interface
A Interface
S2000H&L
NSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS

Ater Interface
Public Telephone Network

Abis Interface S8000 MS


OMC-R BSC Outdoor
BTS

Radio
Interface

OMN Interface

Sun
S8000
StorEdge A5000
Indoor
BSS BTS
MS
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-5

The Base Station Sub-system (BSS) is a set of equipment (aerials, transceivers and a
controller) that is viewed by the Mobile Switching Center through a single A interface as
being the entity responsible for communicating with mobile telephones (MSs) in a certain
area.

The radio equipment of a BSS may be composed of one or more cells, such a BSS may
contain one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs).

The interface between the BSC and the BTSs is called an Abis interface.

The BSS includes two types of equipment:


• the Base Transceiver Station (BTS functionally includes also the TRAU) in contact with
the Mobile Stations through the radio interface,
• the BSC, the latter being in contact with the Mobile Switching Center.

A BSS contains only one Base Station Controller (BSC).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-5 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

BTS General Architecture and Functions


BTS

- Interface between Antennas Antenna


Transmission coupler
and TRXs of each cell

Duplexer
COUPLING SYSTEM
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

- Encodes, encrypts, modulates, Reception coupler


feeds the RF signal to the antenna
- Decrypts and equalizes the signal
then demodulates TRX
- Mobile call detection (Transceiver-Receiver)
- Uplink channel measurements
- Timing advance
- Frequency hopping BCF
(Base Common Functions)
Abis
interface

BSC - Multiplexes speech and user's data channels to BSC.


- Multiplexes signaling channels to BSC.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-6

As stated, the primary responsibility of the BTS is to transmit and receive radio signals from
a mobile unit over the air interface Um.
To perform this function completely, the signals are encoded, encrypted, multiplexed,
modulated, and then fed to the antenna system at the cell site.
In order to keep the mobile synchronized, BTS transmits frequency and time
synchronization signal over a devoted channel called a Frequency Correction Channel.
Functions performed by a BTS are:
• encodes, encrypts, multiplexes, modulates and feeds the RF signals to the antenna,
• time and frequency synchronization signals transmitted from BTS,
• voice communication through a full rate or half rate (enable) speech channel,
• the received signal from the MS is equalized, decoded, and decrypted before
demodulation,
• timing advance computation,
• uplink radio channel measurements,
• mobile random access detection,
• Frequency Hopping management.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-6 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

BSC General Architecture and Functions

- Radio Resource management BSC


for its BTSs
- Intercell hand-over Processing X.25
Unit controller
O&M
- Allocation of channels for
communication
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

- Reallocation of frequencies Switching


among BTSs matrix
- Time and frequency
synchronization to BTSs
- Controls frequency hopping
PCM PCM
controller controller

To Network
BTS A interface SubSystem
Abis interface

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-7

BSC architecture mainly involves a processor unit, a switching matrix, and trunk control
units (PCM and X.25).
Note that through the Processing Unit and the X.25 controller, the BSC downloads new
software releases from the O&M Center. In turn, all data of interest to the O&M is buffered
and forwarded to the O&M Center when being asked or transmitted periodically.
The Base Station Controller (BSC) is connected to the Mobile Switching Center on one side
and to the BTSs on the other.
Functions performed by a BSC are:
• performs the Radio Resource (RR, explained below) management for the cells under its
control. It assign and release frequencies for all MSs in its own area,
• performs the Intercell hand-over for MSs moving between BTSs in its control,
• reallocates frequencies to the BTSs in its area to meet locally heavy demands during
peak hours or on special events,
• controls the power transmission of both BTSs and MSs in its area,
• provides the time and frequency synchronization reference signals, broadcast for each
BTS.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-7 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

TRAU Architecture and Functions


Converts the 13 kbps GSM speech frame either Routes the users' data stream
into a 64 kbps T1 PCM µ-law or into an E1 PCM A-law to suitable Inter-working function

TRAU
Transcoder
Controller
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

T1 trunk
up to 92 user's
and T1 trunk = up to
control channels Transcoder
24 user's channels

A
Ater
External PCM
BSC MSC
Interface
interface
interface

E1 trunk
up to 120 user's E1 trunk = up to
channels 31 user's channels

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-8

Depending on the relative cost of transmission plan, there is some benefit in having the
Transcoder/ Rate adapter Unit (TRAU) at the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) location.
Moreover, in that case, the TRAU is still considered functionally as a part of the Base
Station SubSystem (BSS).
The TRAU is a device that takes 13 kbps speech (or data) multiplexes and two of them, to
convert into standard 64 kbps data:
• within the BTS, the 13 kbps speech (or data) are brought up to level of 16 kbps by
inserting additional synchronizing data to make up the difference between a 13 kbps
speech or lower data rate,
• the TRAU converts the 13 kbps speech into 64 kbps T1 µ-law or E1 A-law PCM time
slots,
• furthermore the TRAU routes the users' data stream to a suitable device that inter-works
with the recipient modem.

It is worth noting that:


• four traffic channels are multiplexed on a 64 kbps PCM circuit at the Ater interface,
• one T1 trunk carries up to 92 traffic and control channels,
• one E1 trunk carries up to 120 traffic and control channels.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-8 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

NSS Architecture

Site 1 Site 2
AUC
H
HLR
BSS D D BSS
VLR VLR
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

G-interface
B-interface B-interface
C-interface
A-interface MSC A-interface
GMSC

Other GSM, Other GSM,


PSTN, ISDN E-interface PSTN, ISDN

F F

E EIR
E
IWF IWF

Billing SMS-SC Billing


Server Server

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-9

The distributed architecture of the Network and Switching Sub-system is organized with MSCs,
servers and data bases, linked by interfaces normalized (B to G).
There are two types of MSC to provide switching services to a defined part of the PLMN:
• MSC, used to establish traffic channels and to switch signaling messages between PLMN
entities and other GSM networks or fixed networks,
• Gateway MSC (GMSC), is a specialized MSC managing the central data base HLR, containing
permanent and dynamic subscriber data.
All the information requested by the different functions is stored in four types of data bases
connected to (or included in) the MSCs:
• HLR or Home Location Register: permanent data specific to each subscriber, including service
profile, location and billing options,
• VLR or Visitor Location Register: in order to minimize access to the HLR, MSC uses this data
base, which contains working data for subscribers moving within its coverage area (LAs),
• Network security and access control are provided by the Authentication Center (AUC) and by
the Equipment Identity Register (EIR):
- AUC: to ensure that only authorized users have access to the network,
- EIR: to maintain lists of stolen, faulty and valid equipment identities.
NSS includes also specific equipment such as:
• Inter-Working Functions (IWF): to provide the different bearer services offered by the network,
• Short Message Services-Service Center (SMS-SC): used to store and forward point to point
short messages,
• Billing Server.
These equipment or software elements are running applications more or less operator dependent.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-9 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Home Location Register

HLR
Subscriber
Management
Permanent records
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Center
- MSISDN
- IMSI
- Subscriber's service provision

Temporary records
- VLR address
- Ciphering items
(Kc, Sres, Rand)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-10

The Home Location Register (HLR) is a database that holds information upon the
subscribers. It performs the following functions:
• Handling of permanent subscribers data:
- Identification: IMSI, MSISDN.
- Subscription information: related services options (Teleservices, Bearer Services
and Supplementary Services).
- Service limitations (e.g. roaming limitation).
• Handling of temporary subscribers data:
- Current VLR address where the subscriber roams.
- Provide VLR with 5 ciphering items.
• Dialogue with the AUC database (see next slide).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-10 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Authentication Center

AUC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Ciphering Triplets
Ki RAND 5

HLR Request

Security SRES, Kc, RAND


A3, A8 algorithms
IMSI

AUC provides

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-11

The Authentication Center (AUC) is a database that contains the secret authentication key
Ki of each subscriber and generates security related parameters to protect the network
operator and subscribers against fraud.
The same Ki is to be found in the subscribers SIM card and is used to generate these
ciphering items named triplets:
• a RANDom number RAND,
• a Signature RESponse SRES, using A3 algorithm,
• a ciphering Key Kc, using A8 algorithm and computed each time authentication is
performed.

Software keys Kc and SRES are never passed over the air interface.

The two algorithms A3 and A8 are operator dependent.

For security reason AUC has often an internal interface with the HLR. However this is a
choice of implementation, it is up to HLR to start security algorithms located in AUC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-11 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Visitor Location Register

VLR
LA1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Permanent records
- IMSI
- Subscriber’s service provision

LA3
LA2 Temporary records
- Ciphering items
(Kc, Sres, Rand)
- LAI - TMSI

LA4

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-12

When a mobile station enters the LA borders, it signals its arrival to the MSC that stores its
identity in the Visitor Location Register (VLR).

The information necessary to manage the MS is contained in the HLR and is transferred to
the VLR so that it can be easily retrieved if so required.

The Location Registration procedure allows the subscriber data to follow the movements of
the MS. For such reason the data contained in the VLR and in the HLR are more or less the
same. Nevertheless, the data are present in the VLR only as long as the MS is registered in
the area related to that VLR.

The VLR supports a mobile paging, and tracking subsystem in the local area where the
mobile is presently roaming.

The detailed functions of VLR are as follows:


• Works with the HLR and AUC on authentication.
• Relays cipher key from HLR to BSS for encryption and decryption.
• Controls allocation of the new TMSI numbers that can be periodically changed to secure
a subscriber's identity.
• Supports paging (incoming calls).
• Tracks the state of all mobile in its area.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-12 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Equipment Identity Register

EIR
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Black list
(barred ME)
IMEI

White list
(valid ME)
Mobile
Equipment Gray list
(faulty ME)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-13

The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database that performs a screening function
within the network. It keeps track of all valid and invalid Mobile Equipment by storing their
International Mobile Equipment Identities (IMEI). Data for the Equipment Identity Register
are provided by:
• Manufacturers of Mobile Equipment which provide complete lists of IMEI for the Mobile
Stations that they produce.
• Other network operators which provide lists of malfunctioning Mobile Equipment.
• Police organizations which provide lists of stolen Mobile Equipment.

The Equipment Identity Register actually maintains three lists of International Mobile
Equipment Identities:
• The black list contains a list of all Mobile Equipment (ME) that are barred from using the
network (e.g.: stolen).
• The white list contains a list of all the serial numbers of International Mobile Equipment
Identities that have been allocated in the Global System for Mobile Communications
countries.
• The gray list contains a list of faulty Mobile Equipment. This equipment will be logged
but not barred.

The GSM Recommendations state that the service providers should decide how often they
wish to check the validity of the Mobile Equipment with the EIR.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-13 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

InterWorking Function

Mobile
Switching
Center
BSS PSTN
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Modem
MS

Data +
DTE signals
Rate
adaptation
Modem

DTE
signaling
IWF
Land-DTE

DTE
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-14

Because of GSM providing a wide range of data services to its subscribers, GSM interfaces
with the various public and private data networks currently available. It is the aim of the
Inter-Working Function (IWF) to provide this interfacing capability. Networks to which IWF
presently provides interface as follows:
• PSTN,
• ISDN,
• Circuit-switched public data networks (CSPDN),
• Packet-switched public data networks (PSPDN).

It provides the subscriber with access to data rate and protocol conversion facilities so that
data can be transmitted between GSM Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and a land line DTE
(the recipient).

Furthermore it allocates a suitable modem from its modem bank when required. This is the
case when a GSM DTE, a Fax machine, exchange data with a land Fax machine which
works over analog modem (V32).

The IWF also provides direct connect interfaces for customer-provided equipment such as
X.25 PADs.

Different protocol conversion may be required for signaling and traffic messages. This
includes data rate adaptation and the addition of signaling bits reformatting.

The IWF is a part of the Mobile Switching Center.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-14 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Protocol Model

MS NSS

CM CM I
M
A S
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MM P U
MM P
BTS BSC
RR /
O&M O&M BSSAP BSSAP T
R B C T
D B RR D S A U
R S T S P
RR RSM R T S M P
S M A
A A
M A P P
P P
L L L L SCCP SCCP SCCP
A A A A
P P P P
D D D D MTP3 MTP3 MTP3
m m
MTP2 MTP2 MTP2

RADIO RADIO PCM PCM PCM E1/T1 MTP1

Um Abis
A-Interface
Interface Interface

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-15

Connection Management (CM) and Mobility Management (MM) messages are transparent
to the BSS, they are delivered at end-to-end users (MS and NSS) by the relaying of
underlaying protocols (LAPDm, LAPD, SS7).
To establish a connection with the MS, CM must require MM, which in turn requires RR to
open the radio connection.
The RR procedures handles set-up, re-establishment, handover, TCH mode modify and
release of calls.
The MM procedures provides registration, location and authentication of MS.
The CM procedures provides:
• Supplementary Services (SS).
• Call Control (CC).
• Short Message Service (SMS).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-15 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Radio Interface
Protocols Involved
Level 3
Connection
ConnectionManagement
Management

Mobility
MobilityManagement
Management
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Radio
RadioResource
ResourceManagement
Management

Level 2 = LAPDm
Logical Channels

Multiplexing

PCH
RACH BCCH AGCH SDCCH FACCH SACCH

Level 1
TC0 TC11 SACCH TC13 TC24 IDLE
Physical Channels
(example)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-16

This Interface located between MS and BTS (also called the Radio interface) has these
features:
• Totally normalized.
• Full inter-operability between Mobile Stations and infrastructure from different
manufacturers.
Organized in 3 levels:
• Level 1 physical support:
- Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) frame and FDMA.
- Logical channel multiplexing.
• Level 2 LAPDm Protocol (modified from LAPD):
- No flag.
- No error retransmission mechanism due to real time constraints (window = 1).
• Level 3 Radio interface layer (RIL3) Protocol involves three sub-layers:
- Radio Resource Management (RR): paging, power control, ciphering execution,
handover.
- Mobility Management (MM): security, location, IMSI attach/detach.
- Connection Management (CM): Call Control (CC), Supplementary Services (SS)
Short Message Services (SMS), Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) facilities.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-16 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Abis Interface
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission". 1 - Presentation

Speech 1 TS = 4 channels

PCM

PCM
Data 300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400,
4800, 9600, 14400 bit/s

• Radio
LAPD • O&M

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-17

Message exchanges between the BTS and the BSC:


• Traffic exchanges.
• Signaling exchanges for call set up and BTS operation and maintenance.
Physical access between BTS and BSC: PCM digital links at 2.048 Mbit/s (E1) or 1.544
Mbit/s (T1), carrying 32 or 24 timeslots at 64 kbit/s.
Speech:
• Conveyed in timeslots at 4 x 16 kbit/s (remote transcoders).
Data:
• Conveyed in timeslots at 4 x 16 kbit/s.
• The initial user rate, which may be 300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400, 4800 9600 or 14400 bit/s
is adjusted to 16 kbit/s.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-17 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Abis Interface
2 - Protocols
BTS side BSC side
TRX
BCF
RSM = Radio Subsystem
Management
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Level 3 RSM O&M


RSM O&M O&M layer O&M = Operation and
Maintenance

RSL = Radio Signaling


LAPD Link
Level 2 RSL OML OML = Operation and
RSL OML
layer
Maintenance
Link

Level 1 layer

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-18

This interface located between BTS and BSC has these features:
• Partly normalized.
• No inter-operability (currently) proprietary.

Organized in 3 levels:
• Level 1 PCM transmission (E1 or T1):
- Speech coded at 16 kbit/s and sub-multiplexed in 64 kbit/s time slots.
- Data which rate is adapted and synchronized.
• Level 2 LAPD protocol: Standard HDLC procedure:
- RSL = Radio Signaling Link.
- OML = Operation and Maintenance Link.
• Level 3 application protocols:
- RSM = Radio Subsystem Management.
- O&M = Operation and Maintenance procedure.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-18 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

LAPD and LAPDm Frames

0 to 260 octets

F FCS Information Control Address F

LAPD
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

N (R) N (S) TEI SAPI

End of Start of
frame 0 to 21 octets
frame

information Control Address

LAPDm

N (R) N (S) SAPI

FCS : Frame Check Sequence


F : Flag
SAPI : Service Access Point Identifier
TEI : Terminal Equipment Identifier

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-19

For each BSC and related BTS terminal port (TEI), three types of links may be activated
depending on the SAPI parameter value:
The Radio Signaling Link:
• Radio resource management procedures SAPI = 0.
• Short messages, point to point SAPI = 3.
The Operation and Maintenance Link: O&M procedures SAPI = 62.
LAPD messages:
• downlink:
- OML: software download, channel configuration,
- RSL: paging, HO command,
• uplink: OML notification (event report), and RSL channel requirement.
LAPDm frames are derived from LAPD frames:
• no flags for synchronization,
• without TEI and FCS,
• with shorter address,
• with shorter control field.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-19 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Ater Interface
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission". 1 - Presentation

Speech 1 TS = 4 channels

Data 300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400,


4800, 9600, 14400 bit/s

LAPD • O&M

SS7

X.25

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-20

Purpose
Handling messages between BSC and TCU (TransCoder Unit).

Characteristics
Physical access at 1.544 Mbit/s or 2.048 Mbit/s (24 or 32 time slots at 64 kbit/s) carrying:
• Reserved signaling channels according to CCITT No. 7 (CCS7).
• Speech and data channels (16 kbit/s).
• BSC - TCU signaling link (LAPD).
• O&M data to OMC-R (X.25) via MSC (through the Network only).

Ater interface links carry up to:


• 120 communications (E1).
• 92 communications (T1).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-20 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Ater Interface
2 - Traffic Channel and Signaling Links

Ater interface A interface

TCU
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

LAPD TS 1
O&M
SS7 TS SS7 TS MSC

BSC Speech TS Speech TS


Transcoding

Data TS Rate Data TS


Adaptation

OMC
X.25 TS 2 * X.25 TS 2 *
PCM link PCM link

* if used

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-21

Signaling messages are carried on specific timeslots (TS):


• LAPD signaling TS between the BSC and the TCU.
• SS7 TS between the BSC and the MSC.
• X.25 TS 2 reserved for specific configurations.
TS 1 carries LAPD protocol and is reserved for management messages between the BSC
and the TCU. It is used by the BSC for:
• TCU monitoring (mixer, PCM interface, transcoder and control units, LAPD signaling
terminal, etc.).
• TCU configuration (BSC-TCU signaling link, A-interface PCM, semaphore channels, A-
interface circuits, synchronization and transcoding functions).
• TCU initialization.
• TCU software downloading.
• A and Ater interfaces management.
• Synchronization management.
• Transcoding management.
SS7 TS is intended for BSC-MSC link and is dedicated for BSSAP messages transportation.
TS 2 is reserved if the O&M data are transmitted to the OMC-R via a PCM link’s TS,
managed by the A-interface.
Signaling messages on the LAPD TS 1 are processed only by the TCU. SS7 TS and TS 2, if
they are reserved, are switched by the TCU but remain transparent to it.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-21 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

A Interface
1 - Presentation

BSS NSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Speech/Data 1 TS = 1 channel

SS7

X.25

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-22

Message exchanges between the MSC and the BSS (TCU):


• Users traffic transport (speech + data).
• Signaling transport.
Physical access BSS MSC: PCM digital links.

User’s traffic transport


Each time slot corresponds to a traffic channel on the radio interface.
The 64 kbit/s speech rate adjustment (A-law or µ-law) and the 64 kbit/s data rate adaptation
are performed at the TCU.

Signaling transport
CCITT signaling system 7 (SS7).
Two parts:
• The Message Transfer Part (MTP).
• The Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-22 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

A Interface
2 - Protocols

BSS A-interface NSS


To other
processes
within the BSS
Other applications,
To air
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

interface BSS BSS (eg call control)


DTAP MAP DTAP
transmission MAP
equipment
Distribution Distribution
function function

SCCP SCCP To other users


of the SCCP
and MTP
MTP MTP

Physical layer

DTAP: Direct Transfer Application Part SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part BSS: Base Station Subsystem
BSSMAP: BSS Management Application Part MTP: Message Transfer Part MSC: Mobile services Switching Centre

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-23

This Interface located between TRAU and MSC has these features:
• Totally normalized to allow multivendor equipment.
• Full interoperability in most cases and after testing.

Based on CCS7 protocol (either ETSI or ANSI).

The MTP layers (2 to 3) provide the basic transport system for all CCS7 signaling messages and are
responsible for signaling network management and signaling message handling:
• Level 1: defines the physical characteristics for a 64 kbit/s signaling data link.
• Level 2: ensures secure signaling link by providing error detection and correction, signaling link
alignment and error monitoring.
• Level 3: ensures that signaling messages are routed through the network in correct sequence
and without loss or duplication even in case of link failure.

So, MTP finds the destination signaling point and SCCP will deliver the message.

The SCCP addressing allows routing to the application within the same network (through the
address) or to an external network (through Global translations) using class 0 for connection mode
and class 2 for connection oriented mode.

A distribution function is added on top of the SCCP to discriminate the BSSMAP from DTAP.

The BSSAP is a GSM CCS7 protocol and handles signaling involving MS, the BSS and the MSC.
The BSSAP is divided into two parts:
• The BSSMAP which consists of messages to be processed either by MSC or BSC (RR).
• The DTAP which consists of messages to be transmitted transparently regarding the BSS (MM,
CM).
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-23 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

PSTN/ISDN/PSDN Interface

GMSC Toll offices


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TUP ISUP DUP Application layer TUP ISUP DUP

Message transfer
MTP MTP

Physical layer

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-24

Interface between MSC and:


• Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
• Integrated Service Data Network (ISDN).
• Packet Switched public Data Network (PSDN).
Normalization:
• Country dependent.
• Inter-operability after local adaptations.
The User part is built on services of the MTP to provide connectionless signaling for setting
up, monitoring and clearing down the voice or data trunks of GSM CCS7 calls at the PSTN
interface taking into consideration that it is connection-oriented at the A interface due to
SCCP functions.
The User part transports signaling messages associated with the connection between two
users in a network.
It supplies the trunk signaling capabilities which enable network-wide feature transparency
for some network services.
There are three main families of user part protocol depending on the application:
• The Telephone User Part (TUP) interface with PSTN network.
• The ISDN User Part (ISUP), interface with ISDN network.
• The Data User Part (DUP), interface with PAD on PSDN network.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-24 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

General Packet Radio Service

GSM/ PSTN/ISDN
NSS

BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

GGSN

PCU GPRS/ Internet


NSS or Intranets
SGSN

New standard for efficient data packet routing and transport to and
from Packet Data Networks.
Service offering includes:
– direct IP connectivity
– Point-to-Point or Point-to-Multipoint
Add-on to GSM, using existing BSS infrastructure
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-25

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet radio access technique based on GSM
radio to transfer data in an efficient manner optimizing the use of network resources. It
provides packet radio access to external Packet Data Networks, for instance to the Internet.
It offers direct IP connectivity, in a Point-To-Point (PTP) or Point-To-Multipoint (PTM) data
transmission mode.
GPRS is an add-on to existing GSM networks, i.e., it makes use of the existing GSM radio
infrastructure.
With Nortel’s GPRS core nodes, Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS
Support Node (GGSN), the upfront investment for operators for initial deployment of GPRS
services is limited.
Nortel is currently developing the building blocks of GPRS, including:
• Packet Control Unit Support Node (PCUSN),
• Serving Gprs Support Node (SGSN),
• Gateway Gprs Support Node (GGSN).

PCUSN and SGSN entities are hosted both on Nortel Magellan Passport, and GGSN on
Contivity Extranet Switch 4500.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-25 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Check Your Learning

1- What are the three components of a GSM system?


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What does a BSS consist of?

3- What are the external interfaces and the internal interfaces of a


BSS?

4- What are the main functions of a BTS?

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-26

1- What are the three components of a GSM system?

2- What does a BSS consist of?

3- What are the external interfaces and the internal interfaces of a BSS?

4- What are the main functions of a BTS?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-26 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Check Your Learning (continue)

5- Which technique does help saving links between BTS and BSC?
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

6- What are the main functions of the BSC?

7- What does the NSS contain?

8- What are the main function of a MSC?

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-27

5- Which technique does help saving links between BTS and BSC?

6- What are the main functions of the BSC?

7- What does the NSS contain?

8- What are the main function of a MSC?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-27 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols

Check Your Learning (continue)

9- What is the role of the HLR?

10- What is the role of the VLR?


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

11- What are the three entities of layer 3 involved in the radio
interface?

12- What is the layer 2 protocol involved in the Abis interface?

13- What is the Mobile Application Part?

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-28

9- What is the role of the HLR?

10- What is the role of the VLR?

11- What are the three entities of layer 3 involved in the radio interface?

12- What is the layer 2 protocol involved in the Abis interface?

13- What is the Mobile Application Part?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-28 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-29 January, 2000


Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 7-30 January, 2000


Procedures

Section 8
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Procedures

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-1 January, 2000


Procedures

Objectives

Learning the basic procedures, the main call procedures,


mobility and roaming features that GSM operates.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to:


• List the GSM procedures that can be activated
from MS switch-on until MS switch-off
• Explain the main procedures: cell selection, location update,
call set-up, call release, handover

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-2 January, 2000


Procedures

Contents

1- Descriptors that GSM uses.

2- GSM ’s actors
3 - Procedures:
• Cell selection
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• Immediate Assignment
• Location updates
- Registration
- Intra-VLR and Inter-VLR
- IMSI attach/detach
• Authentication
• Ciphering
• Mobile Originating call
• Mobile Terminating call
- Paging
- End to end
• Call release
- MS initiated
- PSTN initiated
• Handovers

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-3

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-3 January, 2000


Procedures

Descriptors Stored in SIM-Card

Global GSM Mobility


Card
MNC The Smart Card to use
MCC
=
=
01 (FTM)
208 (France)
10 (SFR)
234 (G-B) GSM
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

20 (Bytel)

IMSI = 15 digits max

Mobile Mobile Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN)


Country Network
Code Code
8 digits: H1 H2 X X X X X X
3 digits 2/3 digits

LAI NMSI

Mobile Mobile Temporary Mobile


Country Network Location Area Code Subscriber Identity
Code Code
LAC 4 octets
3 digits 2/3 digits
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-4

These descriptors are used in different phases of call setup:


• International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the proprietary identifier of the
mobile subscriber within the GSM network and is permanently assigned to him; it
consists of MCC, MNC and MSIN:
- Mobile Country Code (3 digits) is allocated to the operator country,
- Mobile Network Code (2 or 3 digits) is allocated to each operator,
- Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (8 digits) is allocated by the GSM
network (HLR).
• GSM network can assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) to identify
the mobile on a local basis (within VLR), allocated to visiting mobile subscribers and
correlated with IMSI.
• Location Area Identity (LAI) defines a part of a MSC/VLR service area in which a MS
can move freely without updating location; it consists of MCC, MNC and LAC.
• National Mobile Subscriber Identity (NMSI) consists of the MNC and the MSIN.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-4 January, 2000


Procedures

Descriptors Stored in the Network


MS-ISDN

Country National Subscriber Number (SN)


Must be dialed to
Code Destination M1 M2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X make a call to
CC Code mobile subscriber
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MSRN

Roaming Number (RN) Is a PSTN-like


Country National
number used to
Code Destination
reach a roaming
CC Code
MS

Is a PSTN-like
Country National number to track
Code Destination HO-number the MS which
CC Code hands over to
another MSC during
NDC = 607, 608, 604 (FTM) call-in-state
CC = 33 (France)
= 609, 603 (SFR)
= 660, 661, 618 (Bytel)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-5

The Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MS-ISDN) is the number that the calling party dials
in order to reach the GSM subscriber. It is used by the land networks to route calls toward
an appropriate GSM network. MSISDN is stored in HLR.

The Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN) is allocated on a temporary basis when
the MS roams into another numbering area. Thus the MSRN shall have the same structure
as international ISDN number in the area in which it is allocated. Visited MSC allocates a
MSRN upon the VLR request which in turn was requested by the HLR. Upon reception of
the MSRN, HLR sends it to the GMSC, which can now route the call to the MSC/VLR
exchange where the called subscriber is currently registered.

HO number is used for inter-MSC Handovers, to establish a circuit from the serving MSC to
the new MSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-5 January, 2000


Procedures

Descriptor Embodied in the MS

IMEI enables the operator to check


the Mobile Equipment Identity
at call setup and make sure
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

that no stolen or unauthorized MS


is used in the GSM network

PE ED
TY OV
PR
AP
TAC FAC SNR SP

Type Approval Serial NumbeR (SPare)


Code Final Assembly
Code

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-6

Stored inside the Mobile Equipment.


Used instead of IMSI or TMSI when both are unavailable (example: Emergency calls without
SIM card) or when required by the network (for maintenance).
Can be used for EIR database updating (when it exists):
• TAC = 6 digits describing the type of equipment.
• FAC = 2 digits for identification of the factory.
• SNR = 6 digits for the serial number of the device.
IMEI may be temporary stored within MSC/VLR to minimize signaling within the Network.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-6 January, 2000


Procedures

GSM ’s Actors

NSS

BSS
MSC Public
Switched
BSC Telephone
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Network
BTS
VLR HLR

AUC
Fixed subscriber
Mobile subscriber

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-7

These are the GSM actors that are involved in the following procedures.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-7 January, 2000


Procedures

Cell Selection

Purpose: get synchronization


with the GSM network
prior establishing any communication.
1
1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS-5
1 BTS-4 1

H 2
FCC
1 3
BTS-3 5 SCH
4
CH
BC BTS-1

This cell
BTS-2

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-8

1- MS scans the whole spectrum and stores the strongest level carriers (30 in GSM 900, 40
otherwise).
2- MS tunes to the frequency correction channel (FCCH) of the strongest carrier (BTS-1).
3- MS reads data from the synchronization channel (SCH).
4- MS reads data from broadcast channel (BCCH).
5- MS camps on this BCCH if it is suitable for the MS; otherwise it tries selection on the next
strongest beacon carrier.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-8 January, 2000


Procedures

Immediate Assignment

MS BTS BSC MSC

CHANNEL REQUEST
1 CHANNEL REQUIRED
RACH 2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CHANNEL ACTIVATION
3 Immediate
4
CHANNEL ACTIVATION Assignment
ACK.

IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT


5
5 COMMAND
AGCH

CM SERVICE REQUEST
6
SDCCH or TCH
OR
LOCATION UPDAT. REQU.
6
SDCCH or TCH

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-9

The Immediate Assignment procedure is always initiated by the MS and may be triggered by
a Paging Request or by a Mobile Originating Service request.
Procedure
1- The MS sends a CHANNEL REQUEST message (RACH).
2- The BTS decodes this message and indicates it to BSC through CHANNEL
REQUIRED message.
3- The BSC asks BTS to activate a dedicated channel: SDCCH or TCH (if no SDCCH
available).
4- Acknowledgement by BTS
5- The BSC sends an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message to the MS (via
the BTS); the MS has to seize the indicated dedicated channel including these values:
initial Timing Advance and initial maximum transmission power.
6- Then the MS can request a service on the dedicated channel through:
• SERVICE REQUEST message including the access reason (call setup, paging
etc.),
• LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message for location.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-9 January, 2000


Procedures

Registration: the Very First Location Update

1
1
BSS
IMSI 2
2 3 MSC
3 BSC TMSI
5
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TMSI 6
5 BTS 2
Release
6
3 TMSI
5

LAI HLR VLR


IMSI 4 IMSI
VLR id TMSI
LAI

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-10

1- Channel allocation (Connection request procedure):


• the MS sends (on RACH) a CHANNEL REQUEST message,
• the network responds with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT (on dedicated channel).
2- The MS sends to BSS a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message with IMSI.
3- The VLR triggers and monitors the Authentication procedure and can also activate
Ciphering procedure.
4- The VLR stores the LA of the MS and informs the HLR which:
• stores VLR identity,
• downloads the subscriber profile, if the MS is allowed to roam.
5- The VLR may assign a TMSI and sends it to the MS in the LOCATION UPDATING
ACCEPT message.
6- The MSC releases the connection.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-10 January, 2000


Procedures

Intra-VLR Location Update

1 1
BSS
TMSI + old LAI 2
2 MSC
BSC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

new TMSI 3
3
BTS 4
4 2
New TMSI
TMSI
3

New LAI VLR


IMSI
TMSI
LAI

IMSI not Required

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-11

1- Channel allocation (Connection request procedure).


2- The MS sends to the BSS a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message (with TMSI
and old LAI), relayed to the VLR through the MSC.
3- The VLR stores the new Location Area Identity, then if required assigns a new TMSI and
responds to the MS with LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message.
4- The MSC releases the connection.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-11 January, 2000


Procedures

Inter-VLR Location Update

1 BSS 1
2
TMSI + old LAI
2 BSC 5 MSC
newTMSI
5
BTS 7
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

7 2
TMSI New TMSI
5
New LAI Old VLR New VLR
IMSI, TMSI 3 IMSI,TMSI
Old LAI LAI
RAND, SRES, 4 RAND, SRES,
Kc Kc

IMSI not Required HLR subscriber


6 data
new
VLR id

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-12

1- Channel allocation (connection request procedure).


2- The MS sends to BSS a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message, (with TMSI + old
LAI) relayed to the VLR through MSC.
3- The new VLR asks the old VLR for MS identity and ciphering items.
4- The old VLR backs new VLR IMSI, RAND, SRES, Kc.
5- The new VLR assigns a TMSI and sends it to the MS over a LOCATION UPDATING
ACCEPT message (with cipher mode if required).
6- The new VLR informs the HLR which sends subscriber data and asks the old VLR to
erase the previous MS data.
7- The MSC releases connection.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-12 January, 2000


Procedures

IMSI Attach

CHANNEL
1
REQUEST BSS
IMMEDIATE
2
ASSIGNMENT

3 LOCATION UPDATING BSC


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

REQUEST (IMSI Attach) 3


Authentication 4
Procedure
4 BTS MSC
LOCATION UPDATING
5
5
ACCEPT (LAC, TMSI)

VLR

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-13

The IMSI attach procedure is used (if required by the network), to indicate the IMSI as
active in the network and is performed by using the Location updating procedure.
Procedure
1- MS requests (on RACH) a dedicated channel with CHANNEL REQUEST message
using a random number.
2- BSS assigns a dedicated channel (on AGCH) with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
message using this random number.
3- MS sends (over this dedicated channel) a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST
message including its identity and the IMSI Attach cause.
4- Authentication procedure (if required by the network).
5- MSC responds by sending a LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message.
6- In the VLR, a flag is set to indicate that the subscriber is active.

This procedure is used only if the update status is updated and if the stored LAI is the same
as the one which is actually broadcast on the BCCH of the current serving cell.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-13 January, 2000


Procedures

IMSI Detach

CHANNEL
1 BSS
REQUEST
IMMEDIATE
2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

ASSIGNMENT
BSC MSC
3 IMSI DETach
IMSI DETach
3 INDication
INDication BTS
CHANNEL
4
RELEASE

VLR

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-14

The IMSI detach procedure may be invoked by a MS:


• if the MS is switched off,
• if the SIM card is detached.
Procedure
1- MS requests (on RACH) a dedicated channel with CHANNEL REQUEST message.
2- BSS assigns a dedicated channel (on AGCH) with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
message.
3- The MS sends IMSI DETach INDication message to the VLR.
4- The VLR sets a flag to indicate that this MS is no longer available; no paging will be
done to that MS until IMSI ATTach occurs.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-14 January, 2000


Procedures

Authentication
1 - Principle

Global GSM Mobility


MS BSS NSS (RAND, SRES, Kc)
Card Radio
The Smart Card to use
Interface AUC
GSM
RAND (128 bits) (A3 and A8)
SIM card
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Ki (128 bits) Ki (128 bits)


Ki RAND Ki

A3 A3
A3 A3

SRESm
SRES
A8 =? A8
A8 SRESm A8
(32 bits) OK
CIPHER
MODE Kc
RAND = RANDom number
SRES = Signed RESponse Kc
Kc = Ciphering Key
Ki = Identification Key

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-15

Purpose: authentication of the subscriber, to prevent access of unregistered users:


• Authentication is performed by requiring from an algorithm A3 the correct answer to a
random number input.
• Eavesdropping recording of signaling is inefficient since there is never twice the same
request.
• A3 algorithm is operator-dependent.
Principle
• The NSS transmits a non-predictable number RAND to the MS.
• The SIM card and the NSS compute the signature SRESm, using algorithm A3, from
the RAND and a secret key Ki.
• The MS transmits its signature SRESm to the NSS.
• The NSS tests the two SRES for validity.
• Each time authentication A3 algorithm runs, concurrently A8 algorithm is used to
produce a ciphering key Kc.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-15 January, 2000


Procedures

Authentication
2 - Procedure
BSS RAND
RAND 4
4
SRESm SRESm MSC
BSC 6
6
Ciphering
CIPHER 7
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

7 BTS Command
MODE 6

RAND
SRESm
Purpose:
4 Avoid logging of lost,
6 4
stolen or HLR 7
forgery SIM-Cards.
1 VLR
Triplets SRESm = SRES ?
Ki RAND 3
1

5 A3
3
SRESm (RAND, SRES, Kc)
2 AUC
(A3 and A8)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-16

Procedure
1- The VLR sends a Map Send Parameters message to the HLR which relays this
message to the AUC.
2- The AUC then generates some RAND numbers and applies algorithms A3 and A8 to
provide the authenticated signature SRES and the cipher key Kc.
3- The AUC returns the triplets (RAND, SRES, Kc) to HLR which relays them to the VLR.
4- The VLR now sends a Map Authenticate message to the MSC which in turn sends to
the MS an AUTHENTICATION REQUEST message containing Rand; the Kc is also
sent but stops at the BTS.
5- The SIM-Card calculates the required response SRESm, using RAND, algorithm A3
and authentication key Ki.
6- The MS returns SRESm to VLR in AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE.
7- VLR checks SRES = SRESm, then sends to the MSC a MM Service accept
message; otherwise VLR denies access: the MS will receive an AUTHENTICATION
REQUEST.

* The operator can modify the period of activation through parameters: for example, he can
authenticate every five requests (for each subscriber).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-16 January, 2000


Procedures

Ciphering
1 - Principle

MS BTS
Frame Number Radio Frame Number
(22 bits) interface (22 bits)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A5 A5
Kc (64 bits) Kc (64 bits)

Block Block Block Block


(114 bits) (114 bits) (114 bits) (114 bits)

Data to transmit Received data


+ +
Ciphered
Received data data Data to transmit
+ +
+ : exclusive-or
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-17

Radio path ciphering, in particular ciphering of all subscriber information, aims to prevent
third party tapping (eavesdropping).
What is encrypted?:
• Signaling (Subscriber Id.).
• Speech or data.
The encryption of signaling and user speech or data, is performed at the MS as well as at
the BTS (symmetric encryption) using the same Kc and the A5 algorithm.
Each time a Mobile Station is authenticated, this MS and the Network also compute the
ciphering key Kc (algorithm A8) with the same inputs RAND and Ki as for the SRES
(algorithm A3). The Frame Number FN of the current TDMA frame (within a hyperframe) is
another input for the A5 besides the Kc.
The output of Encryption algorithm A5 is a ciphering sequence of 114 bits. Exclusive OR
operation is applied between data to be ciphered and the ciphering sequence in order to
produce either ciphered or deciphered data.
Algorithm A5 is not operator dependent to achieve international roaming between any
Mobile Station and BSS infrastructure whatever the operator.Two types of ciphering
algorithms are available: A5/1 et A5/2, but only one ciphering algorithm A5 is supported at a
time in a BTS.
The BSC checks the availability of the A5 algorithms in the MS. If the BSS does not support
the same ciphering algorithm as the MS, the calls will be unencrypted.
The ciphering BSS capability is an O&M parameter defined for all the BTS of the BSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-17 January, 2000


Procedures

Ciphering
2 - Procedure
BSS
CIPHER MODE COMMAND
3
Kc
2
CIPHER MODE COMPLETE BSC
CIPHER MODE MSC
4 Kc 6 COMPLETE
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Ciphered BTS
+ data
5

A5
Purpose: avoid communication to be tapped. SET CIPHER MODE
(Kc)
Kc
TDMA# ✁❁❚❅❒✟▼❃❙◆❉ 1
❐✟▲❄❒✁❆✟✝❊
▲❄❆✁✟✝❏❋❇❑❈
(Rand, SRES, Kc)

Ki Rand VLR
A8

Kc

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-18

Ciphering is normally required for all user transactions over the RF link when the subscriber
has been authenticated by the system. It is worth noting that this is an optional feature and it
is dependent of the operator.
Procedure
1- Ciphering begins with the VLR sending the MSC a SET CIPHER MODE (MAP
message) containing the value of Kc.
2- The MSC sends the ciphering key to the BSS (actually the BTS) in a CIPHER MODE
COMMAND (BSSMAP message).
3- The BSS in turn sends an CIPHERING MODE COMMAND (RR message) to the MS.
4- The MS switches to encrypted transmission and reception, then sends back to BSS an
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE (RR message).
5- After the BSS receives this message, it switches to encrypted transmission and
reception for subsequent burst.
6- The BSS then sends a CIPHER MODE COMPLETE (BSSMAP message) to the MSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-18 January, 2000


Procedures

Mobile Originating Call

MS BSS MSC PSTN


CHANNEL REQUEST VLR
Dialing 1
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CM SERVICE REQUEST CM SERVICE REQUEST


2 2

3 Authentication procedure

3 Ciphering procedure

Sending SETUP (basic) or SETUP


4 4
Number EMERGENCY 5
IAM
CALL PROCEEDING 6 Ring
CALL PROCEEDING 7
7
Ringing
7 Assignment procedure
ACM
ALERTING 8
Ringing 9
ANM
Path CONNECT 10
11
Established
CONNECT ACKnowledge ACM = Address Complete Message
11 ANM = ANswer Message
IAM = Initial Address Message
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-19

1- The MS originates the call by sending a CHANNEL REQUEST message (on RACH).
2- Immediate assignment: channel allocation with TCH / FACCH or SDCCH.
3- The VLR launches authentication (if required) and completes ciphering.
4- The MS initiates call establishment by sending a SETUP message (called party
number) to the MSC.
5- The MSC in turn checks mobile subscriber capabilities with VLR for desired service.
6- If it agrees, the MSC relays the called number over an ISUP Initial Address Message.
7- The MSC also sends a CALL PROCEEDING message to the MS (assigning TCH /
FACCH EA in case of Early Assignment).
8- Recipient PSTN switch rings the land telephone and returns an ISUP Address
Complete Message to the MSC.
9- Upon receiving this message, the MSC alerts the MS with an ALERTING message.
10- Called party goes off hook, thus PSTN sends to the MSC an ISUP ANswer Message.
MSC then connects MS (assigning a TCH in case of OACSU).
11- Call is accepted (CONNECT/CONNECT ACK) and the conversation starts.

In case of Emergency MO Call, the SETUP message (basic call) is replaced by the
EMERGENCY one.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-19 January, 2000


Procedures

Mobile Terminating Call


1 - Paging Principle

LA1

6 BSC1 4
BTS11
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

5
3 1
BTS12 MSC/ PSTN
6 GMSC
5 VLR
BSC2
BTS21
2
BTS22
HLR
LA2
BTS23 BSC3

BTS31

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-20

Main difference with MO Call procedure is the Paging of the Mobile Station.
When the MS is in Idle mode, the network do not knows the cell but only the Location Area
where the MS is located.
Since RR sessions are only established at the initiative of the MS, the role of the Paging
procedure is to trigger that operation.
Principle
1- A call from the fixed network (PSTN) is switched to the Gateway MSC (GMSC).
2- The GMSC reads in the HLR the identity of the MSC/VLR (or Visitor MSC) handling
the Location Area of the Mobile Station.
3- The GMSC routes the call to the VMSC.
4- The VMSC reads the LA where the MS is located, into its VLR.
5- The VMSC sends instructions to one or several BSC (BSC1 and BSC2) to page the
MS in the different cells of LA1.
6- BSC1 and BSC2 page the MS in the BTSs of the Location Area LA1. (BTS11, BTS12,
BTS21).

GMSC and VMSC are software functions.


Use of MSRN = only case of GSM where a circuit is established before is answered.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-20 January, 2000


Procedures

Mobile Terminating Call


2 - Detailed Paging Procedure

Visitor PLMN Home PLMN


International
SS7
VLR HLR
Provide Roaming Number
4
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

(IMSI)

Roaming Number
5 (MSRN)
9 6
Send info Send 1
PAGING PAGE Routing Routing
to I/C
REQUEST (TMSI + LA) Information Information MSISDN
(MSRN)
(TMSI) (MSRN) (MSISDN)
11 8 3
PAGING IAM (MSRN)
REQUEST VMSC IAM ISDN
BSS 10 7 GMSC 2
(TMSI + LA) (MSISDN)
PN

IMSI : International Mobile Subscriber Identity


IAM : Initial Address Message
GMSC : Gateway MSC
MSISDN : Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital network Number
VMSC : Visitor MSC
MSRN : Mobile Station Roaming Number
TMSI : Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-21

Procedure
1- The caller subscriber access the ISDN by dialing the called MS-ISDN number.
2- Transmission of MS-ISDN number to GMSC through IAM (Initial Address Message).
3- Transmission of MS-ISDN number to HLR through SRI (Send Routing
Information).
4- The HLR interrogates the VLR (Visitor MSC) that is currently serving the user.
5- The VLR returns a routing number (MSRN) to the HLR, which passes it back to the
GMSC.
6- The MSRN is transmitted to GMSC (address of appropriate VMSC).
7- The GMSC calls VMSC through IAM (with MSRN).
8- The MSC asks VLR to establish where the called party is located.
9- The VLR gives location information (LA) to MSC with PAGE message.
10- The VMSC alerts with PAGING REQUEST message, all BSCs in charge of cells
belonging to this LA.
11- All the BTS page the MS over PCH; depending upon the paging type message, up to
four different TMSI may be contained in the page command.
There are three types of PAGING REQUEST message:
• Type 1: sent on the PCH to up two MSs, to trigger channel by these; MSs are
identified by their TMSI or IMSI.
• Type 2: sent on the PCH to two or three MS; two of the MS are identified by their
TMSI while the third is identified either by its IMSI or its TMSI.
• Type 3: sent on the PCH to four MS which are identified by their TMSIs.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-21 January, 2000


Procedures

Mobile Terminating Call


3 - End to End Procedure
MS BSS VMSC GMSC PSTN

IAM
IAM 1 Dialing
PAGING REQUEST 2 (MSISDN)
PAGING REQUEST 3 (MSRN)
4 (TMSI or IMSI, LA)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CHANNEL REQUEST
5
(LAC, Cell ID)

IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT 6
(SDCCH or TCH)

CM SERVICE REQUEST
7 PAGING RESPONSE
(Paging Response) 7
(TMSI or IMSI, LA)

8 Authentication procedure

9 Ciphering procedure
Ringing
10 Setup, Assignment, Alerting Address Complete Message
11
CONNECT ANswer Message
12 Path
12
Established

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-22

Procedure
1- PSTN sends an IAM (with the MSISDN) to the GMSC.
2- GMSC sends an IAM (with the MSRN) to the VMSC.
3- The VMSC sends a PAGING REQUEST MM message to the BSS.
4- The BSS sends a PAGING REQUEST (with IMSI or TMSI) to the MS.
5- The MS must request a channel (CHANNEL REQUEST message with paging cause)
over the RACH, within 0.5 second.
6- The BSS complies and assigns (on AGCH) a dedicated channel to the MS with
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message.
7- The MS sends a PAGING RESPONSE to the VMSC via the BSS.
8/9- Authentication and Ciphering procedures (if required).
10- Setup, Assignment, Alerting procedures (see MS Originating Call).
11- Alerting is sent to PSTN with an ACM (ISUP message).
12- CONNECT and ANM messages are sent to the PSTN: call is completed.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-22 January, 2000


Procedures

Call Release
1 - Mobile Initiated
MS BSS MSC PSTN

1 Call in progress
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

DISCONNECT
2 DISCONNECT
2

RELEASE RELEASE
3
3

RELEASE COMPLETE
4
Release
CHANNEL RELEASE 6 5

RELEASE INDICATION
7

RF Channel Release
procedure 8
Release
9
tone

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-23

Call release can be initiated by either the PSTN user or the mobile user.
BSC is responsible for BSS resources, MSC is responsible for NSS and PSTN connection.
Procedure
1- Call is currently in progress.
2- The MS initiates the release of a call by sending a DISCONNECT message to the
MSC.
3- The MSC returns to the MS a RELEASE message.
4- The MS acknowledges with a RELEASE COMPLETE message.
5- The MSC can send the Release message to the PSTN without waiting for the
RELEASE COMPLETE MM message from the MS.
6- The BSC requests the MS to return to Idle mode with CHANNEL RELEASE message.
7- The BTS informs the BSC with RELEASE INDICATION that signaling link is
disconnected.
8- BSC requests BTS to de-activate RF Channel (TCH): Channel Release.
9- The PSTN informs the land terminal with appropriate tone.

Abnormal termination is monitored by a set of timers (operator configurable) to ensure


resources are not unused/unavailable.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-23 January, 2000


Procedures

Call Release
2 - PSTN Initiated

1
BSS 1 1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

3 3 REL
MSC 2
4 BSC 4 PSTN
RLC
5 6
BTS 5

1
2
Purpose:
informs the mobile
then releases radio
and network resources.

On hook

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-24

Procedure
1- The call is in progress.
2- The release process starts with an ISUP Release message from the land network.
3- Upon receiving this message, the MSC initiates the release of the call by sending a
DISCONNECT message to the MS.
4- MS replies by sending a RELEASE CHANNEL message to the MSC.
5/6- MSC in turn, backs to the MS a RELEASE COMPLETE message and sends to the
PSTN a Release Complete message.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-24 January, 2000


Procedures

Reasons for Handover

Rescue Prevention

Signal strength Distance


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Quality Maintenance

Lack of resources: Power budget


Directed Retry
Micro cellular
environment

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-25

Decision criteria
• Bad quality.
• Weak signal strength.
• Cell boundaries (Distance).
• Power budget (optimization).
• Traffic constraints.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-25 January, 2000


Procedures

Mobility and Handover


The Five Types of Handover

MSC-A MSC-B
BSC-C
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS
C1
BSC-A BSC-B

BTS
B1 5

BTS
1 A2
BTS
A1
4 1- Intra-Cell HO
2- Intra-BTS HO
2 3 3- Intra-BSC HO
4- Inter-BSC HO
5- Inter-MSC HO

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-26

1- Intra-Cell Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on the same cell, under
the same BTS.
2- Intra-BTS Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on a different cell, under
the control of the same BTS.
3- Intra-BSC Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on a different cell, under
the control of a different BTS of the same BSC.
4- Inter-BSC Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on a different cell, under
the control of a different BSC of the same MSC.
5- Inter-MSC Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on different cell, under
another MSC of the same PLMN.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-26 January, 2000


Procedures

Handover Preparation

BSC MSC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

r
he
s ot els
n
BTS-1
Me an an
as sc ch
u
re rem MS con BTS-2
a
su
lts ent be

Cell 1

Cell 2

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-27

To avoid losing a call in progress, when the Mobile Station leaves the radio coverage of the
cell in charge.
Procedure: Three steps:
• Handover decision (based on measurements results).
• Choice of the target cell.
• Handover execution.
Handover topology
• Intra BTS (intra and inter cell).
• Inter BSC.
• Inter MSC including (subsequent).
• Microcellular environment.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-27 January, 2000


Procedures

Handover Decision

Decision criteria:
- bad quality,
- weak signal strength,
- cell boundaries,
- etc. BSC MSC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

e
bl r
i ta ove
su d 6)
of han =
i st for um
L s
ll x im
ce (ma

BTS-1

BTS-2

Cell 1

Cell 2

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-28

Handover is initiated by the network based on radio subsystem criteria (RF level, quality,
distance) as well as network directed criteria (current traffic loading per cell, maintenance
requests, etc.).
In order to determine if a handover is required, due to RF criteria, the MS shall take radio
measurements from neighboring cells; these measurements are reported to the serving cell
on a regular basis.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-28 January, 2000


Procedures

Handover Execution

d BSC MSC
an
m S
m
Co he M
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

HO to t

Co to th
mm e M
an S
ds
HO
BTS-1

BTS-2

Cell 1

Cell 2

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-29

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-29 January, 2000


Procedures

Intra-BSC Handover

MS BTS1 BTS2 BSC MSC


HO INDICATION
1
HO CHANNEL ACTIVATE
Initiation 2
CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK
3
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

HO COMMAND
HO COMMAND 4
5
HO ACCESS *
6
HO DETECTION
7
PHYSICAL INFO **
8
HO
ESTABLISH INDICATION
Execution 9

HandOver COMPLETE
10 HO COMPLETE
11 HO COMPLETE
HO 12
Acknowledg. RF CHANNEL RELEASE
13

RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK


14

* this message may be repeated up to 4 times


** only if Handover asynchronous

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-30

1- The BTS1 triggers HandOver by sending a HandOver INDICATION message to the


BSC.

2- The BSC allocates if available a new channel from the BTS2.

3- The BTS2 establishes this channel, and responds to the BSC.

4/5- The BSC sends a HandOver COMMAND to the MS (on the FACCH) via the BTS1,
assigning a new channel, its characteristics, the power level to use, the frequency
hopping set, the Timing Advance TA if possible, and whether to use synchronous or
asynchronous HO.

6a- In synchronous mode, MS sends to the BTS2 in successive multiframe slots (on the
FACCH) four HandOver ACCESS messages. It then activates the new channel in both
directions.

6b- In asynchronous mode, MS starts sending to the BTS2 a continuous stream of


HandOver ACCESS messages, by sending access bursts on TCH until it receives the
TA to apply.

8- In asynchronous mode, MS receives the TA.

10/11- In both cases, MS replies with a HandOver COMPLETE message to the BSC over
the new FACCH.

13/14- BSC in turn directs BTS1 to release the previous channel by sending a RF
CHANNEL RELEASE message with ACKnowledgment from the BTS1.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-30 January, 2000


Procedures

Inter-BSC Handover

MS BTS1 BSC1 MSC BSC2 BTS2


HO INDICATION
1 HO REQUIRED
HO 2 HO REQUEST
3 CHANNEL ACTIVATE
Initiation 4
CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK
HO REQUEST ACK 5
6
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

HO COMMAND
HO COMMAND 7
HO COMMAND 8
9
HO ACCESS *
10
HO HO DETECTION
HO DETECTION
11
Execution 12
PHYSICAL INFO
13
ESTABLISH INDICATION 14

HandOver COMPLETE
15
HO HO COMPLETE
HO COMPLETE 16
Acknowledg. CLEAR COMMAND 17
RF CHANNEL RELEASE 18
19
RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK
20 CLEAR COMPLETE
21

* this message may be repeated up to 4 times

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-31

A communication is established between the mobile subscriber and another user.


The Mobile Station moves towards another cell (BTS1 to BTS2).
The MSC controls the call, the mobility management and the radio resources, before, during
and after the HO.
1- The BTS1 triggers HO by sending a HandOver INDICATION message to the BSC1.
2/3- The BSC1 makes a channel allocation request to the BSC2, via the MSC;
HANDOVER REQUIRED shall contain a list of cells, or a single cell, to which the MS
can be handed over.
4/6- The BSC2 allocates a channel if available, and responds to the MSC.
7/9- The MSC requests the MS (via BSC1 and BTS1) to connect to the BTS2.
10- The MS requests a radio resource to BTS2: HO ACCESS.
11/12- The BTS2 informs the MSC that it accept the handover.
13- The BTS2 establishes the connection with the MS.
14- The BTS2 orders the BSC2 that the radio link with the MS is established.
15- The MSC switches the call to the MS, (via BSC2 and BTS2) and the MS
acknowledges with HO COMPLETE.
16/17- The BTS2 (via BSC2) informs the MSC that the connection is successful.
18- The MSC informs the BSC1 to release radio resource with BTS1: CLEAR
COMMAND.
19/21- The BSC1 releases BTS1 radio resource: RF CHANNEL RELEASE.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-31 January, 2000


Procedures

Inter-MSC Handover

BSC 1 MSC 1
1a
BTS
1
1b Terrestrial link
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS
BSC 2
2a
BTS PSTN
2b
2 3
BTS
BSC 3 MSC 2
BTS 3a

3b 3

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-32

A communication is established between the mobile subscriber and another user.


• The Mobile Station moves towards another cell (BTS 2b to BTS 3a).
• The BTS 2b sends an HANDOVER INDICATION to BSC2 which informs MSC1.
• The MSC1 sends a Transfer Request to MSC2.
• The MSC2 requests the BSC3 to allocate a traffic channel (TCH).
• The MSC2 informs the MSC1 that the channel has been successfully allocated.
• The MSC1 requests the BSC2 to hand over the call.
• The BSC2 requests the MS, via BTS 2b, to connect via BSC3 to BTS 3a.
• The MS establishes a connection with BTS 3a via BSC3.
• The BSC3 informs the MSC2 that the connection is successful.
• The MSC1 is informed too, via MSC2.
• The MSC1 switches the call to MSC2.
• The MSC2 routes the call to the MS, via BSC3 and BTS 3a.
• The MSC1 releases BSC2 radio resources.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-32 January, 2000


Procedures

Exercise

Cite the GSM procedures successively involved in the following situations


(the IMSI Attach/Detach function is enabled).
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Indicate the radio channels types used in every procedure.

1- Switch-on the MS and move in Idle mode from one LA to an other one.
2- Establish a call and move in communication from one cell to an other.
3- MS in Idle mode. Reception of a Short Message.
4- Switch-off the MS.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-33

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-33 January, 2000


Procedures
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 8-34 January, 2000


Base Transceiver Station Functions

Section 9
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Base Transceiver Station Functions

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Base Transceiver Station Functions 9-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 9-1 January, 2000


Base Transceiver Station Functions

Objectives

After completing this lesson you will be able to :


• Cite the main functions of a BTS;
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• Cite the three functional parts of one BTS and their role;
• Indicate the three different connection modes of a BTS and their
benefits/drawbacks;
• Describe the BCF module;
• Describe the TRX;
• Describe the coupling system.

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Base Transceiver Station Functions 9-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 9-2 January, 2000


Base Transceiver Station Functions

BSS Architecture

MSC
Radio
TCU Interface
A Interface
S2000H&L
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

NSS BTS

Ater Interface
Public Telephone Network

Abis Interface S8000 MS


BSC Outdoor
OMC-R BTS

Radio
Interface

OMN Interface

Sun
S8000
StorEdge A5000
Indoor
BSS BTS
MS
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Base Transceiver Station Functions 9-3

The BSS radio subsystem contains the following units:


• one Base Station Controller (BSC),
• one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS),
• one to seven remote transcoders, in one or more transcoder unit (TCU) cabinets,
preferably located on the MSC premises.

These different units are linked together through specific BSS interfaces:
• each BTS is linked to the BSC by an Abis interface,
• the TCUs are linked to the BSC by an Ater interface,
• the A interface links the BSC/TCU pair to the MSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 9-3 January, 2000


Base Transceiver Station Functions

Capabilities of a BTS

Traffic Features at the radio interface


Reception Signal processing
DDDDDDDD DDDD DD DD
12345678 1234 56 78
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Transmission
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Coding Ciphering
Speech Interleaving
00 00 Q
2 2 - 90° + 90°
0 1
10 10
4 4
01 01
7 7 I
A MESSAGES IS
PENDING. PLEASE
11 11
CONTACT NBR
452 587 65
3 3 GMSK

Demodulation Modulation

Call clearing
Power
Control Measurement
preprocessing
Frequency Handover

Data hopping
Short messages Coupling system L1M (Call sustaining)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Base Transceiver Station Functions 9-4

Information transmission:
• Speech.
• Data.
• Short messages.

Features at the radio interface


• Signal processing:
- Modulation/demodulation, equalization.
- Ciphering/deciphering.
- Coding/decoding, interleaving/de-interleaving.
• Frequency hopping.
• Coupling system:
- Space diversity (reception diversity).
• Layer 1 management:
- Radio measurements preprocessing
- Handover.
- Power control.
- Call clearing.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 9-4 January, 2000


Base Transceiver Station Functions

Capabilities of a BTS (continue)

Links and Sites optimization Defense


LAPD

LAPD

LAPD
Control and Control and
Switching Switching
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Unit A Unit B

Multi-cell LAPD
site concentration
Synchro Synchro
A B

Duplication

(Full multi-drop) DSC


DSC
DSC + DSC
Drop and Insert techniques

COM COM COM COM


1 2 3 4 Time Slot
PCM

n+1 redundancy
Automatic reconfiguration
Links optimization

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Base Transceiver Station Functions 9-5

Links and sites optimization


• Management of multicell sites.
• Drop & insert techniques.
• Remote transcoders (optimization of A and Abis interface dimensioning).
• LAPD signaling channels concentration.
Defense
• The core functions of the BTS are duplicated against failures thank to duplication of
some modules.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 9-5 January, 2000


Base Transceiver Station Functions

Functional Architecture

Antenna
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

COUPLING SYSTEM Radio


Interface

TRX
(Transceiver Equipment)
MS

BSC
Abis interface BCF
(Base Common Functions)

PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Base Transceiver Station Functions 9-6

The Base Transceiver Station BTS can be split into three functional parts or entities:
• one Base Common Functions module (BCF): performing all common functions of the
site,
• coupling system (one per cell),
• one or several transceivers TRX (one per TDMA frame).
These different entities are housed into one or several cabinets, their number depends on
radio channels to be implemented, the type of BTS, and the structure of the site: single-cell
or multi-cell.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 9-6 January, 2000


Base Transceiver Station Functions

Generic Architecture

BTS (site)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TRX n TRX n

Coup syst Coup syst

Coup syst Coup syst


TRX n

Coup syst Coup syst


TRX n-1 TRX n-1 TRX n-1

BSC
TRX 2 TRX 2 TRX 2

TRX 1 TRX 1 TRX 1

BCF

Base cabinet Extension cabinets


PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Base Transceiver Station Functions 9-7

A BTS consists of one or more cabinets:


• the cabinet that contains the BCF (plus TRXs and coupling systems) is called Base
cabinet,
• the other cabinet (containing TRXs and coupling systems) is called Extension
cabinet.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 9-7 January, 2000


Base Transceiver Station Functions

BCF

Abis interface
management
Alarms management

Audible
BSC alarm
Fans
BTS GSM time
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Power
Signaling supply
concentration
Tempe-
rature Warning

Operation and Maintenance Self-defense

Switch A Switch B
Out of order

In service Synchro Syn