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Mathematics K-12 Academic Standards

2007 version
This official standards document contains the mathematics standards
revised in 2007 and put into rule effective September 22, 2008
Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics

The Minnesota Academic Standards in Mathematics set the expectations for achievement in mathematics for K-12 students in
Minnesota. This document is grounded in the belief that all students can and should be mathematically proficient. All students should
learn important mathematical concepts, skills, and relationships with understanding. The standards and benchmarks presented here
describe a connected body of mathematical knowledge that is acquired through the processes of problem solving, reasoning and proof,
communication, connections, and representation. The standards are placed at the grade level where mastery is expected with the
recognition that intentional experiences at earlier grades are required to facilitate learning and mastery for other grade levels.

The Minnesota Academic Standards in Mathematics are organized by grade level into four content strands: 1) Number and Operation,
2) Algebra, 3) Geometry and Measurement, and 4) Data Analysis and Probability. Each strand has one or more standards, and the
benchmarks for each standard are designated by a code. In reading the coding, please note that for 3.1.3.2, the first 3 refers to the third
grade, the 1 refers to the Number and Operation strand, the next 3 refers to the third standard for that strand, and the 2 refers to the
second benchmark for that standard.

Strand Standard No. Benchmark
3 Number &
Operation
Understand meanings and uses of fractions in real-world and
mathematical situations.
3.1.3.1 Read and writefractions with words and symbols. Recognizethat fractions
can beused to represent parts of a whole, parts of a set, points on a number
line, or distances on a number line.

For example: Parts of a shape(
3
/
4
of a pie), parts of a set (3 out of 4
people), and measurements (
3
/
4
of an inch).
3 Number &
Operation
Understand meanings and uses of fractions in real-world and
mathematical situations.
3.1.3.2 Understand that thesizeof a fractional part is relativeto thesizeof the
whole.

For example: One-half of a small pizza is smaller than one-half of a large
pizza, but both represent one-half.
3 Number &
Operation
Understand meanings and uses of fractions in real-world and
mathematical situations.
3.1.3.3 Order and compareunit fractions and fractions with likedenominators by
using models and an understanding of theconcept of numerator and
denominator.


Please refer to the Frequently Asked Questions document for the Academic Standards for Mathematics for further information. This
FAQ document can be found under Academic Standards on the Website for the Minnesota Department of Education at MDE
Webpage.



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September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
K Number &
Operation
Understand therelationship between quantities and whole
numbers up to 31.
K.1.1.1 Recognizethat a number can beused to represent how many objects arein a set
or to represent theposition of an object in a sequence.

For example: Count students standing in a circleand count thesamestudents
after they taketheir seats. Recognizethat this rearrangement does not changethe
total number, but may changetheorder in which students arecounted.
K Number &
Operation
Understand therelationship between quantities and whole
numbers up to 31
K.1.1.2 Read, write, and represent wholenumbers from0 to at least 31. Representations
may includenumerals, pictures, real objects and picturegraphs, spoken words,
and manipulatives such as connecting cubes.

For example: Represent thenumber of students taking hot lunch with tally
marks.
K Number &
Operation
Understand therelationship between quantities and whole
numbers up to 31
K.1.1.3 Count, with and without objects, forward and backward to at least 20.
K Number &
Operation
Understand therelationship between quantities and whole
numbers up to 31
K.1.1.4 Find a number that is 1 moreor 1 less than a given number.
K Number &
Operation
Understand therelationship between quantities and whole
numbers up to 31
K.1.1.5 Compareand order wholenumbers, with and without objects, from0 to 20.

For example: Put thenumber cards 7, 3, 19 and 12 in numerical order.
K Number &
Operation
Useobjects and pictures to represent situations involving
combining and separating.
K.1.2.1 Useobjects and draw pictures to find thesums and differences of numbers
between 0 and 10.
K Number &
Operation
Useobjects and pictures to represent situations involving
combining and separating.
K.1.2.2 Composeand decomposenumbers up to 10 with objects and pictures.

For example: A group of 7 objects can bedecomposed as 5 and 2 objects, or 2
and 3 and 2, or 6 and 1.
K Algebra Recognize, create, complete, and extend patterns. K.2.1.1 Identify, create, complete, and extend simplepatterns using shape, color, size,
number, sounds and movements. Patterns may berepeating, growing or
shrinking such as ABB, ABB, ABB or ,,.
K Geometry &
Measurement
Recognizeand sort basic two- and three-dimensional shapes;
usethemto model real-world objects.
K.3.1.1 Recognizebasic two- and three-dimensional shapes such as squares, circles,
triangles, rectangles, trapezoids, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders and spheres.
K Geometry &
Measurement
Recognizeand sort basic two- and three-dimensional shapes;
usethemto model real-world objects.
K.3.1.2 Sort objects using characteristics such as shape, size, color and thickness.
K Geometry &
Measurement
Recognizeand sort basic two- and three-dimensional shapes;
usethemto model real-world objects.
K.3.1.3 Usebasic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in thereal-world.

For example: A cylinder can beused to model a can of soup.

Another example: Find as many rectangles as you can in your classroom. Record
therectangles you found by making drawings.
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September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
K Geometry &
Measurement
Compareand order objects according to location and
measurableattributes.
K.3.2.1 Usewords to compareobjects according to length, size, weight and position.

For example: Usesame, lighter, longer, above, between and next to.

Another example: Identify objects that arenear your desk and objects that arein
front of it. Explain why theremay besomeobjects in both groups.
K Geometry &
Measurement
Compareand order objects according to location and
measurableattributes.
K.3.2.2 Order 2 or 3 objects using measurableattributes, such as length and weight.
1 Number &
Operation
Count, compareand represent wholenumbers up to 120, with
an emphasis on groups of tens and ones.
1.1.1.1 Useplacevalueto describewholenumbers between 10 and 100 in terms of tens
and ones.

For example: Recognizethenumbers 21 to 29 as 2 tens and a particular number
of ones.
1 Number &
Operation
Count, compareand represent wholenumbers up to 120, with
an emphasis on groups of tens and ones.
1.1.1.2 Read, writeand represent wholenumbers up to 120. Representations may
includenumerals, addition and subtraction, pictures, tally marks, number lines
and manipulatives, such as bundles of sticks and base10 blocks.
1 Number &
Operation
Count, compareand represent wholenumbers up to 120, with
an emphasis on groups of tens and ones.
1.1.1.3 Count, with and without objects, forward and backward fromany given number
up to 120.
1 Number &
Operation
Count, compareand represent wholenumbers up to 120, with
an emphasis on groups of tens and ones.
1.1.1.4 Find a number that is 10 moreor 10 less than a given number.

For example: Using a hundred grid, find thenumber that is 10 morethan 27.
1 Number &
Operation
Count, compareand represent wholenumbers up to 120, with
an emphasis on groups of tens and ones.
1.1.1.5 Compareand order wholenumbers up to 120.
1 Number &
Operation
Count, compareand represent wholenumbers up to 120, with
an emphasis on groups of tens and ones.
1.1.1.6 Usewords to describetherelativesizeof numbers.

For example: Usethewords equal to, not equal to, morethan, less than, fewer
than, is about, and is nearly to describenumbers.
1 Number &
Operation
Count, compareand represent wholenumbers up to 120, with
an emphasis on groups of tens and ones.
1.1.1.7 Usecounting and comparison skills to createand analyzebar graphs and tally
charts.

For example: Makea bar graph of students' birthday months and count to
comparethenumber in each month.
1 Number &
Operation
Usea variety of models and strategies to solveaddition and
subtraction problems in real-world and mathematical contexts.
1.1.2.1 Usewords, pictures, objects, length-based models (connecting cubes), numerals
and number lines to model and solveaddition and subtraction problems in part-
part-total, adding to, taking away fromand comparing situations.
1 Number &
Operation
Usea variety of models and strategies to solveaddition and
subtraction problems in real-world and mathematical contexts.
1.1.2.2 Composeand decomposenumbers up to 12 with an emphasis on making ten.

For example: Given 3 blocks, 7 moreblocks areneeded to make10.
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Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
1 Number &
Operation
Usea variety of models and strategies to solveaddition and
subtraction problems in real-world and mathematical contexts.
1.1.2.3 Recognizetherelationship between counting and addition and subtraction. Skip
count by 2s, 5s, and 10s.
1 Algebra Recognizeand createpatterns; userules to describepatterns. 1.2.1.1 Createsimplepatterns using objects, pictures, numbers and rules. Identify
possiblerules to completeor extend patterns. Patterns may berepeating, growing
or shrinking. Calculators can beused to createand explorepatterns.

For example: Describerules that can beused to extend thepattern 2, 4, 6, 8, ,
, and completethepattern 33, 43, , 63, , 83 or 20, , , 17.
1 Algebra Usenumber sentences involving addition and subtraction basic
facts to represent and solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; createreal-world situations corresponding to number
sentences.
1.2.2.1 Represent real-world situations involving addition and subtraction basic facts,
using objects and number sentences.

For example: Oneway to represent thenumber of toys that a child has left after
giving away 4 of 6 toys is to begin with a stack of 6 connecting cubes and then
break off 4 cubes.
1 Algebra Usenumber sentences involving addition and subtraction basic
facts to represent and solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; createreal-world situations corresponding to number
sentences
1.2.2.2 Determineif equations involving addition and subtraction aretrue.

For example: Determineif thefollowing number sentences aretrueor false

7 =7
7 =8 1
5 +2 =2 +5
4 +1 =5 +2.
1 Algebra Usenumber sentences involving addition and subtraction basic
facts to represent and solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; createreal-world situations corresponding to number
sentences
1.2.2.3 Usenumber senseand models of addition and subtraction, such as objects and
number lines, to identify themissing number in an equation such as:

2 +4 =
3 + =7
5 = 3.
1 Algebra Usenumber sentences involving addition and subtraction basic
facts to represent and solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; createreal-world situations corresponding to number
sentences
1.2.2.4 Useaddition or subtraction basic facts to represent a given problemsituation
using a number sentence.

For example: 5 +3 =8 could beused to represent a situation in which 5 red
balloons arecombined with 3 blueballoons to make8 total balloons.
1 Geometry &
Measurement

Describecharacteristics of basic shapes. Usebasic shapes to
composeand decomposeother objects in various contexts.
1.3.1.1 Describecharacteristics of two- and three-dimensional objects, such as triangles,
squares, rectangles, circles, rectangular prisms, cylinders, cones and spheres.

For example: Triangles havethreesides and cubes haveeight vertices (corners).
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Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
1 Geometry &
Measurement
Describecharacteristics of basic shapes. Usebasic shapes to
composeand decomposeother objects in various contexts.
1.3.1.2 Compose(combine) and decompose(takeapart) two- and three-dimensional
figures such as triangles, squares, rectangles, circles, rectangular prisms and
cylinders.

For example: Decomposea regular hexagon into 6 equilateral triangles; build
prisms by stacking layers of cubes; composean icecreamconeby combining a
coneand half of a sphere.

Another example: Usea drawing programto find shapes that can bemadewith a
rectangleand a triangle.
1 Geometry &
Measurement

Usebasic concepts of measurement in real-world and
mathematical situations involving length, timeand money.
1.3.2.1

Measurethelength of an object in terms of multiplecopies of another object.

For example: Measurea tableby placing paper clips end-to-end and counting.
1 Geometry &
Measurement
Usebasic concepts of measurement in real-world and
mathematical situations involving length, timeand money.
1.3.2.2 Tell timeto thehour and half-hour.
1 Geometry &
Measurement
Usebasic concepts of measurement in real-world and
mathematical situations involving length, timeand money.
1.3.2.3 Identify pennies, nickels and dimes; find thevalueof a group of thesecoins, up
to onedollar.
2

Number &
Operation
Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 1000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.
2.1.1.1 Read, writeand represent wholenumbers up to 1000. Representations may
includenumerals, addition, subtraction, multiplication, words, pictures, tally
marks, number lines and manipulatives, such as bundles of sticks and base10
blocks.
2 Number &
Operation

Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 1000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.

2.1.1.2 Useplacevalueto describewholenumbers between 10 and 1000 in terms of
hundreds, tens and ones. Know that 100 is 10 tens, and 1000 is 10 hundreds.

For example: Writing 853 is a shorter way of writing

8 hundreds +5 tens +3 ones.
2 Number &
Operation

Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 1000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.

2.1.1.3 Find 10 moreor 10 less than a given three-digit number. Find 100 moreor 100
less than a given three-digit number.

For example: Find thenumber that is 10 less than 382 and thenumber that is 100
morethan 382.
2 Number &
Operation

Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 1000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.

2.1.1.4 Round numbers up to thenearest 10 and 100 and round numbers down to the
nearest 10 and 100.

For example: If thereare17 students in theclass and granola bars come10 to a
box, you need to buy 20 bars (2 boxes) in order to haveenough bars for
everyone.
2 Number &
Operation
Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 1000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.
2.1.1.5 Compareand order wholenumbers up to 1000.
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Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
2 Number &
Operation

Demonstratemastery of addition and subtraction basic facts;
add and subtract one- and two-digit numbers in real-world and
mathematical problems.
2.1.2.1 Usestrategies to generateaddition and subtraction facts including making tens,
fact families, doubles plus or minus one, counting on, counting back, and the
commutativeand associativeproperties. Usetherelationship between addition
and subtraction to generatebasic facts.

For example: Usetheassociativeproperty to maketens when adding

5 +8 =(3 +2) +8 =3 +(2 +8) =3 +10 =13.
2
22
Number &
Operation

Demonstratemastery of addition and subtraction basic facts;
add and subtract one- and two-digit numbers in real-world and
mathematical problems.
2.1.2.2 Demonstratefluency with basic addition facts and related subtraction facts.
22
2
Number &
Operation

Demonstratemastery of addition and subtraction basic facts;
add and subtract one- and two-digit numbers in real-world and
mathematical problems.
2.1.2.3 Estimatesums and differences up to 100.

For example: Know that 23 +48 is about 70.
2

Number &
Operation

Demonstratemastery of addition and subtraction basic facts;
add and subtract one- and two-digit numbers in real-world and
mathematical problems. corresponding to number sentences.
2.1.2.4 Usemental strategies and algorithms based on knowledgeof placevalueand
equality to add and subtract two-digit numbers. Strategies may include
decomposition, expanded notation, and partial sums and differences.

For example: Using decomposition, 78 +42, can bethought of as:

78 +2 +20 +20 =80 +20 +20 =100 +20 =120

and using expanded notation, 34 - 21 can bethought of as:

30 +4 20 1 =30 20 +4 1 =10 +3 =13.
2 Number &
Operation

Demonstratemastery of addition and subtraction basic facts;
add and subtract one- and two-digit numbers in real-world and
mathematical problems.
2.1.2.5 Solvereal-world and mathematical addition and subtraction problems involving
wholenumbers with up to 2 digits.
2

Number &
Operation

Demonstratemastery of addition and subtraction basic facts;
add and subtract one- and two-digit numbers in real-world and
mathematical problems.
2.1.2.6 Useaddition and subtraction to createand obtain information fromtables, bar
graphs and tally charts.
2 Algebra

Recognize, create, describe, and usepatterns and rules to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.

2.2.1.1 Identify, createand describesimplenumber patterns involving repeated addition
or subtraction, skip counting and arrays of objects such as counters or tiles. Use
patterns to solveproblems in various contexts.

For example: Skip count by 5s beginning at 3 to createthepattern
3, 8, 13, 18, .

Another example: Collecting 7 empty milk cartons each day for 5 days will
generatethepattern 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, resulting in a total of 35 milk cartons.
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Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
2 Algebra

Usenumber sentences involving addition, subtraction and
unknowns to represent and solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; createreal-world situations corresponding to number
sentences.

2.2.2.1 Understand how to interpret number sentences involving addition, subtraction
and unknowns represented by letters. Useobjects and number lines and create
real-world situations to represent number sentences.

For example: Oneway to represent n +16 =19 is by comparing a stack of 16
connecting cubes to a stack of 19 connecting cubes; 24 =a +b can be
represented by a situation involving a birthday party attended by a total of 24
boys and girls.
2 Algebra

Usenumber sentences involving addition, subtraction and
unknowns to represent and solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; createreal-world situations corresponding to number
sentences.

2.2.2.2 Usenumber sentences involving addition, subtraction, and unknowns to
represent given problemsituations. Usenumber senseand properties of addition
and subtraction to find values for theunknowns that makethenumber sentences
true.

For example: How many moreplayers areneeded if a soccer teamrequires 11
players and so far only 6 players havearrived? This situation can berepresented
by thenumber sentence11 6 =p or by thenumber sentence
6 +p =11.
2 Geometry &
Measurement
Identify, describeand comparebasic shapes according to their
geometric attributes.
2.3.1.1 Describe, compare, and classify two- and three-dimensional figures according to
number and shapeof faces, and thenumber of sides, edges and vertices
(corners).
2 Geometry &
Measurement
Identify, describeand comparebasic shapes according to their
geometric attributes.
2.3.1.2 Identify and namebasic two- and three-dimensional shapes, such as squares,
circles, triangles, rectangles, trapezoids, hexagons, cubes, rectangular prisms,
cones, cylinders and spheres.

For example: Usea drawing programto show several ways that a rectanglecan
bedecomposed into exactly threetriangles.
2 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand length as a measurableattribute; usetools to
measurelength.
2.3.2.1 Understand therelationship between thesizeof theunit of measurement and the
number of units needed to measurethelength of an object.

For example: It will takemorepaper clips than whiteboard markers to measure
thelength of a table.
2 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand length as a measurableattribute; usetools to
measurelength
2.3.2.2 Demonstratean understanding of therelationship between length and the
numbers on a ruler by using a ruler to measurelengths to thenearest centimeter
or inch.

For example: Draw a linesegment that is 3 inches long.
2 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetimeand money in real-world and mathematical situations. 2.3.3.1 Tell timeto thequarter-hour and distinguish between a.m. and p.m.
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Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
2 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetimeand money in real-world and mathematical situations. 2.3.3.2 Identify pennies, nickels, dimes and quarters. Find thevalueof a group of coins
and determinecombinations of coins that equal a given amount.

For example: 50 cents can bemadeup of 2 quarters, or 4 dimes and 2 nickels, or
many other combinations.
3 Number &
Operation
Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 100,000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.
3.1.1.1 Read, writeand represent wholenumbers up to 100,000. Representations may
includenumerals, expressions with operations, words, pictures, number lines,
and manipulatives such as bundles of sticks and base10 blocks.
3 Number &
Operation
Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 100,000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.
3.1.1.2 Useplacevalueto describewholenumbers between 1000 and 100,000 in terms
of ten thousands, thousands, hundreds, tens and ones.

For example: Writing 54,873 is a shorter way of writing thefollowing sums:

5 ten thousands +4 thousands +8 hundreds +7 tens +3 ones
54 thousands +8 hundreds +7 tens +3 ones.
3 Number &
Operation
Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 100,000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.
3.1.1.3 Find 10,000 moreor 10,000 less than a given five-digit number. Find 1000 more
or 1000 less than a given four- or five-digit. Find 100 moreor 100 less than a
given four- or five-digit number.
3 Number &
Operation
Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 100,000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.
3.1.1.4 Round numbers to thenearest 10,000, 1000, 100 and 10. Round up and round
down to estimatesums and differences.

For example: 8726 rounded to thenearest 1000 is 9000, rounded to thenearest
100 is 8700, and rounded to thenearest 10 is 8730.

Another example: 473 291 is between 400 300 and 500 200, or between
100 and 300.
3 Number &
Operation
Compareand represent wholenumbers up to 100,000 with an
emphasis on placevalueand equality.
3.1.1.5 Compareand order wholenumbers up to 100,000.
3 Number &
Operation
Add and subtract multi-digit wholenumbers; represent
multiplication and division in various ways; solvereal-world
and mathematical problems using arithmetic.
3.1.2.1 Add and subtract multi-digit numbers, using efficient and generalizable
procedures based on knowledgeof placevalue, including standard algorithms.
3 Number &
Operation
Add and subtract multi-digit wholenumbers; represent
multiplication and division in various ways; solvereal-world
and mathematical problems using arithmetic.
3.1.2.2 Useaddition and subtraction to solvereal-world and mathematical problems
involving wholenumbers. Usevarious strategies, including therelationship
between addition and subtraction, theuseof technology, and thecontext of the
problemto assess thereasonableness of results.

For example: Thecalculation 117 83 =34 can bechecked by adding 83 and
34.
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September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
3 Number &
Operation
Add and subtract multi-digit wholenumbers; represent
multiplication and division in various ways; solvereal-world
and mathematical problems using arithmetic.
3.1.2.3 Represent multiplication facts by using a variety of approaches, such as repeated
addition, equal-sized groups, arrays, area models, equal jumps on anumber line
and skip counting. Represent division facts by using a variety of approaches,
such as repeated subtraction, equal sharing and forming equal groups. Recognize
therelationship between multiplication and division.
3 Number &
Operation
Add and subtract multi-digit wholenumbers; represent
multiplication and division in various ways; solvereal-world
and mathematical problems using arithmetic.
3.1.2.4 Solvereal-world and mathematical problems involving multiplication and
division, including both "how many in each group" and "how many groups"
division problems.

For example: You have27 peopleand 9 tables. If each tableseats thesame
number of people, how many peoplewill you put at each table?

Another example: If you have27 peopleand tables that will hold 9 people, how
many tables will you need?
3 Number &
Operation
Add and subtract multi-digit wholenumbers; represent
multiplication and division in various ways; solvereal-world
and mathematical problems using arithmetic.
3.1.2.5 Usestrategies and algorithms based on knowledgeof placevalue, equality and
properties of addition and multiplication to multiply a two- or three-digit number
by a one-digit number. Strategies may includemental strategies, partial products,
thestandard algorithm, and thecommutative, associative, and distributive
properties.

For example: 9 26 =9 (20 +6) =9 20 +9 6 =180 +54 =234.
3 Number &
Operation
Understand meanings and uses of fractions in real-world and
mathematical situations.
3.1.3.1 Read and writefractions with words and symbols. Recognizethat fractions can
beused to represent parts of a whole, parts of a set, points on a number line, or
distances on a number line.

For example: Parts of a shape(3/4 of a pie), parts of a set (3 out of 4 people), and
measurements (3/4 of an inch).
3 Number &
Operation
Understand meanings and uses of fractions in real-world and
mathematical situations.
3.1.3.2 Understand that thesizeof a fractional part is relativeto thesizeof thewhole.

For example: One-half of a small pizza is smaller than one-half of a largepizza,
but both represent one-half.
3 Number &
Operation
Understand meanings and uses of fractions in real-world and
mathematical situations.
3.1.3.3 Order and compareunit fractions and fractions with likedenominators by using
models and an understanding of theconcept of numerator and denominator.
3 Algebra Usesingle-operation input-output rules to represent patterns and
relationships and to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems.
3.2.1.1 Create, describe, and apply single-operation input-output rules involving
addition, subtraction and multiplication to solveproblems in various contexts.

For example: Describetherelationship between number of chairs and number of
legs by therulethat thenumber of legs is four times thenumber of chairs.
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Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
3 Algebra Usenumber sentences involving multiplication and division
basic facts and unknowns to represent and solvereal-world and
mathematical problems; createreal-world situations
corresponding to number sentences
3.2.2.1 Understand how to interpret number sentences involving multiplication and
division basic facts and unknowns. Createreal-world situations to represent
number sentences.

For example: Thenumber sentence8 m =24 could berepresented by the
question "How much did each ticket to a play cost if 8 tickets totaled $24?"
3 Algebra Usenumber sentences involving multiplication and division
basic facts and unknowns to represent and solvereal-world and
mathematical problems; createreal-world situations
corresponding to number sentences
3.2.2.2 Usemultiplication and division basic facts to represent a given problemsituation
using a number sentence. Usenumber senseand multiplication and division
basic facts to find values for theunknowns that makethenumber sentences true.

For example: Find values of theunknowns that makeeach number sentencetrue
6 =p 9
24 =a b
5 8 =4 t.

Another example: How many math teams arecompeting if thereis a total of 45
students with 5 students on each team? This situation can berepresented by
5 n =45 or
45
/
5
=n or
45
/
n
=5.
3

Geometry &
Measurement
Usegeometric attributes to describeand createshapes in
various contexts.
3.3.1.1 Identify parallel and perpendicular lines in various contexts, and usethemto
describeand creategeometric shapes, such as right triangles, rectangles,
parallelograms and trapezoids.
3

Geometry &
Measurement
Usegeometric attributes to describeand createshapes in
various contexts.
3.3.1.2 Sketch polygons with a given number of sides or vertices (corners), such as
pentagons, hexagons and octagons.
3 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand perimeter as a measurableattributeof real-world
and mathematical objects. Usevarious tools to measure
distances.
3.3.2.1 Usehalf units when measuring distances.

For example: Measurea person's height to thenearest half inch.
3 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand perimeter as a measurableattributeof real-world
and mathematical objects. Usevarious tools to measure
distances.
3.3.2.2 Find theperimeter of a polygon by adding thelengths of thesides.
3 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand perimeter as a measurableattributeof real-world
and mathematical objects. Usevarious tools to measure
distances.
3.3.2.3 Measuredistances around objects.

For example: Measurethedistancearound a classroom, or measurea person's
wrist size.
3 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetime, money and temperatureto solvereal-world and
mathematical problems.
3.3.3.1 Tell timeto theminute, using digital and analog clocks. Determineelapsed time
to theminute.

For example: Your trip began at 9:50 a.m. and ended at 3:10 p.m. How long
wereyou traveling?
Page11 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
3 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetime, money and temperatureto solvereal-world and
mathematical problems.
3.3.3.2 Know relationships among units of time.

For example: Know thenumber of minutes in an hour, days in a week and
months in a year.
3 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetime, money and temperatureto solvereal-world and
mathematical problems.
3.3.3.3 Makechangeup to onedollar in several different ways, including with as few
coins as possible.

For example: A chocolatebar costs $1.84. You pay for it with $2. Givetwo
possibleways to makechange.
3 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetime, money and temperatureto solvereal-world and
mathematical problems.
3.3.3.4 Usean analog thermometer to determinetemperatureto thenearest degreein
Fahrenheit and Celsius.

For example: Read thetemperaturein a roomwith a thermometer that has both
Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. Usethethermometer to compareCelsius and
Fahrenheit readings.
3 Data Analysis Collect, organize, display, and interpret data. Uselabels and a
variety of scales and units in displays.
3.4.1.1 Collect, display and interpret datausing frequency tables, bar graphs, picture
graphs and number lineplots having a variety of scales. Useappropriatetitles,
labels and units.
4 Number &
Operation
Demonstratemastery of multiplication and division basic facts;
multiply multi-digit numbers; solvereal-world and
mathematical problems using arithmetic.
4.1.1.1 Demonstratefluency with multiplication and division facts.
4 Number &
Operation
Demonstratemastery of multiplication and division basic facts;
multiply multi-digit numbers; solvereal-world and
mathematical problems using arithmetic.
4.1.1.2 Usean understanding of placevalueto multiply a number by 10, 100 and 1000.
4 Number &
Operation
Demonstratemastery of multiplication and division basic facts;
multiply multi-digit numbers; solvereal-world and
mathematical problems using arithmetic.
4.1.1.3 Multiply multi-digit numbers, using efficient and generalizableprocedures,
based on knowledgeof placevalue, including standard algorithms.
4 Number &
Operation
Demonstratemastery of multiplication and division basic facts;
multiply multi-digit numbers; solvereal-world and
mathematical problems using arithmetic.
4.1.1.4 Estimateproducts and quotients of multi-digit wholenumbers by using rounding,
benchmarks and placevalueto assess thereasonableness of results.

For example: 53 38 is between 50 30 and 60 40, or between 1500 and
2400, and
411
/
73
is between 5 and 6.
4 Number &
Operation
Demonstratemastery of multiplication and division basic facts;
multiply multi-digit numbers; solvereal-world and
mathematical problems using arithmetic.
4.1.1.5 Solvemulti-step real-world and mathematical problems requiring theuseof
addition, subtraction and multiplication of multi-digit wholenumbers. Use
various strategies, including therelationship between operations, theuseof
technology, and thecontext of theproblemto assess thereasonableness of
results.
Page12 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
4 Number &
Operation
Demonstratemastery of multiplication and division basic facts;
multiply multi-digit numbers; solvereal-world and
mathematical problems using arithmetic.
4.1.1.6 Usestrategies and algorithms based on knowledgeof placevalue, equality and
properties of operations to dividemulti-digit wholenumbers by one- or two-digit
numbers. Strategies may includemental strategies, partial quotients, the
commutative, associative, and distributiveproperties and repeated subtraction.

For example: A group of 324 students is going to a museumin 6 buses. If each
bus has thesamenumber of students, how many students will beon each bus?
4 Number &
Operation
Represent and comparefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations; useplacevalueto understand how
decimals represent quantities.
4.1.2.1 Represent equivalent fractions using fraction models such as parts of a set,
fraction circles, fraction strips, number lines and other manipulatives. Usethe
models to determineequivalent fractions.
4 Number &
Operation
Represent and comparefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations; useplacevalueto understand how
decimals represent quantities.
4.1.2.2 Locatefractions on a number line. Usemodels to order and comparewhole
numbers and fractions, including mixed numbers and improper fractions.

For example: Locate
5
/
3
and 1
3
/
4
on a number lineand givea comparison
statement about thesetwo fractions, such as "
5
/
3
is less than 1
3
/
4
."
4 Number &
Operation
Represent and comparefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations; useplacevalueto understand how
decimals represent quantities.
4.1.2.3 Usefraction models to add and subtract fractions with likedenominators in real-
world and mathematical situations. Develop a rulefor addition and subtraction of
fractions with likedenominators.
4 Number &
Operation
Represent and comparefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations; useplacevalueto understand how
decimals represent quantities.
4.1.2.4 Read and writedecimals with words and symbols; useplacevalueto describe
decimals in terms of thousands, hundreds, tens, ones, tenths, hundredths and
thousandths.

For example: Writing 362.45 is a shorter way of writing thesum:

3 hundreds +6 tens +2 ones +4 tenths +5 hundredths,

which can also bewritten as:

threehundred sixty-two and forty-fivehundredths.
4 Number &
Operation
Represent and comparefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations; useplacevalueto understand how
decimals represent quantities.
4.1.2.5 Compareand order decimals and wholenumbers using placevalue, a number
lineand models such as grids and base10 blocks.
4 Number &
Operation
Represent and comparefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations; useplacevalueto understand how
decimals represent quantities.
4.1.2.6 Read and writetenths and hundredths in decimal and fraction notations using
words and symbols; know thefraction and decimal equivalents for halves and
fourths.

For example:
1
/
2
=0.5 =0.50 and
7
/
4
=1
3
/
4
=1.75, which can also bewritten as
oneand three-fourths or oneand seventy-fivehundredths.
Page13 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
4 Number &
Operation
Represent and comparefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical Number & Operation situations; useplace
valueto understand how decimals represent quantities.
4.1.2.7 Round decimals to thenearest tenth.

For example: Thenumber 0.36 rounded to thenearest tenth is 0.4.
4 Algebra Useinput-output rules, tables and charts to represent patterns
and relationships and to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems.
4.2.1.1 Createand useinput-output rules involving addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division to solveproblems in various contexts. Record theinputs and outputs
in a chart or table.

For example: If theruleis "multiply by 3 and add 4," record theoutputs for
given inputs in a table.

Another example: A student is given thesethreearrangements of dots:


Identify a pattern that is consistent with thesefigures, createan input-output rule
that describes thepattern, and usetheruleto find thenumber of dots in the10
th

figure.
4 Algebra Usenumber sentences involving multiplication, division and
unknowns to represent and solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; createreal-world situations corresponding to number
sentences.
4.2.2.1 Understand how to interpret number sentences involving multiplication, division
and unknowns. Usereal-world situations involving multiplication or division to
represent number sentences.

For example: Thenumber sentencea b =60 can berepresented by the
situation in which chairs arebeing arranged in equal rows and thetotal number
of chairs is 60.
4 Algebra Usenumber sentences involving multiplication, division and
unknowns to represent and solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; createreal-world situations corresponding to number
sentences



4.2.2.2 Usemultiplication, division and unknowns to represent a given problemsituation
using a number sentence. Usenumber sense, properties of multiplication, and the
relationship between multiplication and division to find values for theunknowns
that makethenumber sentences true.

For example: If $84 is to beshared equally among a group of children, the
amount of money each child receives can bedetermined using thenumber
sentence84 n =d.

Another example: Find values of theunknowns that makeeach number sentence
true:

12 m =36
s =256 t.
Page14 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Name, describe, classify and sketch polygons. 4.3.1.1 Describe, classify and sketch triangles, including equilateral, right, obtuseand
acutetriangles. Recognizetriangles in various contexts.
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Name, describe, classify and sketch polygons. 4.3.1.2 Describe, classify and draw quadrilaterals, including squares, rectangles,
trapezoids, rhombuses, parallelograms and kites. Recognizequadrilaterals in
various contexts.
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand angleand area as measurableattributes of real-
world and mathematical objects. Usevarious tools to measure
angles and areas.
4.3.2.1 Measureangles in geometric figures and real-world objects with a protractor or
angleruler.
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand angleand area as measurableattributes of real-
world and mathematical objects. Usevarious tools to measure
angles and areas.
4.3.2.2 Compareangles according to size. Classify angles as acute, right and obtuse.

For example: Comparedifferent hockey sticks according to theanglebetween
thebladeand theshaft.
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand angleand area as measurable attributes of real-
world and mathematical objects. Usevarious tools to measure
angles and areas.
4.3.2.3 Understand that thearea of a two-dimensional figurecan befound by counting
thetotal number of samesizesquareunits that cover a shapewithout gaps or
overlaps. J ustify why length and width aremultiplied to find thearea of a
rectangleby breaking therectangleinto oneunit by oneunit squares and viewing
theseas grouped into rows and columns.

For example: How many copies of a squaresheet of paper areneeded to cover
theclassroomdoor? Measurethelength and width of thedoor to thenearest inch
and computethearea of thedoor.
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand angleand area as measurableattributes of real-
world and mathematical objects. Usevarious tools to measure
angles and areas.
4.3.2.4 Find theareas of geometric figures and real-world objects that can bedivided
into rectangular shapes. Usesquareunits to label area measurements.
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetranslations, reflections and rotations to establish
congruency and understand symmetries.
4.3.3.1 Apply translations (slides) to figures.
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetranslations, reflections and rotations to establish
congruency and understand symmetries.
4.3.3.2 Apply reflections (flips) to figures by reflecting over vertical or horizontal lines
and relatereflections to lines of symmetry.
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetranslations, reflections and rotations to establish
congruency and understand symmetries.
4.3.3.3 Apply rotations (turns) of 90 clockwise or counterclockwise.
4 Geometry &
Measurement
Usetranslations, reflections and rotations to establish
congruency and understand symmetries.
4.3.3.4 Recognizethat translations, reflections and rotations preservecongruency and
usethemto show that two figures arecongruent.
4 Data Analysis Collect, organize, display and interpret data, including data
collected over a period of timeand data represented by fractions
and decimals.
4.4.1.1 Usetables, bar graphs, timelines and Venn diagrams to display data sets. The
data may includefractions or decimals. Understand that spreadsheet tables and
graphs can beused to display data.
Page15 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
5 Number &
Operation
Dividemulti-digit numbers; solvereal-world and mathematical
problems using arithmetic.
5.1.1.1 Dividemulti-digit numbers, using efficient and generalizableprocedures, based
on knowledgeof placevalue, including standard algorithms. Recognizethat
quotients can berepresented in a variety of ways, including a wholenumber with
a remainder, a fraction or mixed number, or a decimal.

For example: Dividing 153 by 7 can beused to convert theimproper fraction
153
/
7
to themixed number 21
6
/
7
.
5 Number &
Operation
Dividemulti-digit numbers; solvereal-world and mathematical
problems using arithmetic.
5.1.1.2 Consider thecontext in which a problemis situated to select themost useful
formof thequotient for thesolution and usethecontext to interpret thequotient
appropriately.

For example: If 77 amusement ridetickets areto bedistributed equally among 4
children, each child will receive19 tickets, and therewill beoneleft over. If $77
is to bedistributed equally among 4 children, each will receive$19.25, with
nothing left over.
5 Number &
Operation
Dividemulti-digit numbers; solvereal-world and mathematical
problems using arithmetic.
5.1.1.3 Estimatesolutions to arithmetic problems in order to assess thereasonableness of
results.
5 Number &
Operation
Dividemulti-digit numbers; solvereal-world and mathematical
problems using arithmetic.
5.1.1.4 Solvereal-world and mathematical problems requiring addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division of multi-digit wholenumbers. Usevarious strategies,
including theinverserelationships between operations, theuseof technology,
and thecontext of theproblemto assess thereasonableness of results.

For example: Thecalculation 117 9 =13 can bechecked by multiplying 9 and
13.
5 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparefractions and decimals;
recognizeand writeequivalent fractions; convert between
fractions and decimals; usefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations.
5.1.2.1 Read and writedecimals using placevalueto describedecimals in terms of
groups frommillionths to millions.

For example: Possiblenames for thenumber 0.0037 are:

37 ten thousandths
3 thousandths +7 ten thousandths;

a possiblenamefor thenumber 1.5 is 15 tenths.
5 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparefractions and decimals;
recognizeand writeequivalent fractions; convert between
fractions and decimals; usefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations.
5.1.2.2 Find 0.1 morethan a number and 0.1 less than a number. Find 0.01 morethan a
number and 0.01 less than a number. Find 0.001 morethan a number and 0.001
less than a number.
Page16 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
5 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparefractions and decimals;
recognizeand writeequivalent fractions; convert between
fractions and decimals; usefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations.
5.1.2.3 Order fractions and decimals, including mixed numbers and improper fractions,
and locateon a number line.

For example: Which is larger 1.25 or
6
/
5
?
Another example: In order to work properly, a part must fit through a 0.24 inch
widespace. If a part is
1
/
4
inch wide, will it fit?
5 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparefractions and decimals;
recognizeand writeequivalent fractions; convert between
fractions and decimals; usefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations.
5.1.2.4 Recognizeand generateequivalent decimals, fractions, mixed numbers and
improper fractions in various contexts.

For example: When comparing 1.5 and
19
/
12
, notethat 1.5 =1
1
/
2
=1
6
/
12
=
18
/
12
, so
1.5 <
19
/
12
.
5 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparefractions and decimals;
recognizeand writeequivalent fractions; convert between
fractions and decimals; usefractions and decimals in real-world
and mathematical situations.
5.1.2.5 Round numbers to thenearest 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001.

For example: Fifth gradestudents used a calculator to find themean of the
monthly allowancein their class. Thecalculator display shows 25.80645161.
Round this number to thenearest cent.
5 Number &
Operation
Add and subtract fractions, mixed numbers and decimals to
solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
5.1.3.1 Add and subtract decimals and fractions, using efficient and generalizable
procedures, including standard algorithms.
5 Number &
Operation
Add and subtract fractions, mixed numbers and decimals to
solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
5.1.3.2 Model addition and subtraction of fractions and decimals using a variety of
representations.
For example: Represent
2
/
3
+
1
/
4
and
2
/
3
+
1
/
4
by drawing a rectangledivided into
4 columns and 3 rows and shading theappropriateparts or by using fraction
circles or bars.
5 Number &
Operation
Add and subtract fractions, mixed numbers and decimals to
solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
5.1.3.3 Estimatesums and differences of decimals and fractions to assess the
reasonableness of results.

For example: Recognizethat 12
2
/
5
3
3
/
4
is between 8 and 9 (since
2
/
5
<
3
/
4
).
5 Number &
Operation
Add and subtract fractions, mixed numbers and decimals to
solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
5.1.3.4 Solvereal-world and mathematical problems requiring addition and subtraction
of decimals, fractions and mixed numbers, including thoseinvolving
measurement, geometry and data.

For example: Calculatetheperimeter of thesoccer field when thelength is 109.7
meters and thewidth is 73.1 meters.
5 Algebra Recognizeand represent patterns of change; usepatterns,
tables, graphs and rules to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems.
5.2.1.1 Createand userules, tables, spreadsheets and graphs to describepatterns of
changeand solveproblems.

For example: An end-of-the-year party for 5
th
gradecosts $100 to rent theroom
and $4.50 for each student. Know how to usea spreadsheet to createan input-
output tablethat records thetotal cost of theparty for any number of students
between 90 and 150.
Page17 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
5 Algebra Recognizeand represent patterns of change; usepatterns,
tables, graphs and rules to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems.
5.2.1.2 Usea ruleor tableto represent ordered pairs of positiveintegers and graph these
ordered pairs on a coordinatesystem.
5 Algebra Useproperties of arithmetic to generateequivalent numerical
expressions and evaluateexpressions involving wholenumbers.
5.2.2.1 Apply thecommutative, associativeand distributiveproperties and order of
operations to generateequivalent numerical expressions and to solveproblems
involving wholenumbers.

For example: Purchase5 pencils at 19 cents and 7 erasers at 19 cents. The
numerical expression is 5 19 +7 19 which is thesameas (5 +7) 19.
5 Algebra Understand and interpret equations and inequalities involving
variables and wholenumbers, and usethemto represent and
solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
5.2.3.1 Determinewhether an equation or inequality involving a variableis trueor false
for a given valueof thevariable.

For example: Determinewhether theinequality 1.5 +x <10 is truefor x =2.8, x
=8.1, or x =9.2.
5 Algebra Understand and interpret equations and inequalities involving
variables and wholenumbers, and usethemto represent and
solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
5.2.3.2 Represent real-world situations using equations and inequalities involving
variables. Createreal-world situations corresponding to equations and
inequalities.

For example: 250 27 a =b can beused to represent thenumber of sheets of
paper remaining froma packet of 250 sheets when each student in aclass of 27 is
given a certain number of sheets.
5 Algebra Understand and interpret equations and inequalities involving
variables and wholenumbers, and usethemto represent and
solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
5.2.3.3 Evaluateexpressions and solveequations involving variables when values for the
variables aregiven.

For example: Using theformula, A=w, determinethearea when thelength is 5,
and thewidth 6, and find thelength when thearea is 24 and thewidth is 4.
5 Geometry &
Measurement
Describe, classify, and draw representations of three-
dimensional figures.
5.3.1.1 Describeand classify three-dimensional figures including cubes, prisms and
pyramids by thenumber of edges, faces or vertices as well as thetypes of faces.
5 Geometry &
Measurement
Describe, classify, and draw representations of three-
dimensional figures.
5.3.1.2 Recognizeand draw a net for a three-dimensional figure.
5 Geometry &
Measurement
Determinethearea of triangles and quadrilaterals; determine
thesurfacearea and volumeof rectangular prisms in various
contexts.
5.3.2.1 Develop and useformulas to determinethearea of triangles, parallelograms and
figures that can bedecomposed into triangles.
Page18 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
5 Geometry &
Measurement
Determinethearea of triangles and quadrilaterals; determine
thesurfacearea and volumeof rectangular prisms in various
contexts.
5.3.2.2 Usevarious tools and strategies to measurethevolumeand surface area of
objects that areshaped likerectangular prisms.

For example: Usea net or decomposethesurfaceinto rectangles.

Another example: Measurethevolumeof a cereal box by using a ruler to
measureits height, width and length, or by filling it with cereal and then
emptying thecereal into containers of known volume.
5 Geometry &
Measurement
Determinethearea of triangles and quadrilaterals; determine
thesurfacearea and volumeof rectangular prisms in various
contexts.
5.3.2.3 Understand that thevolumeof a three-dimensional figurecan befound by
counting thetotal number of same-sized cubic units that fill a shapewithout gaps
or overlaps. Usecubic units to label volumemeasurements.

For example: Usecubes to find thevolumeof a small box.
5 Geometry &
Measurement
Determinethearea of triangles and quadrilaterals; determine
thesurfacearea and volumeof rectangular prisms in various
contexts.
5.3.2.4 Develop and usetheformulas V =wh and V =Bh to determinethevolumeof
rectangular prisms. J ustify why basearea B and height h aremultiplied to find
thevolumeof a rectangular prismby breaking theprisminto layers of unit
cubes.
5 Data Analysis Display and interpret data; determinemean, median and range. 5.4.1.1 Know and usethedefinitions of themean, median and rangeof a set of data.
Know how to usea spreadsheet to find themean, median and rangeof a data set.
Understand that themean is a "leveling out" of data.

For example: Theset of numbers 1, 1, 4, 6 has mean 3. It can beleveled by
taking oneunit fromthe4 and threeunits fromthe6 and adding themto the1s,
making four 3s.
5 Data Analysis Display and interpret data; determinemean, median and range 5.4.1.2 Createand analyzedouble-bar graphs and linegraphs by applying understanding
of wholenumbers, fractions and decimals. Know how to createspreadsheet
tables and graphs to display data.
6 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiverational numbers
expressed as fractions, decimals, percents and ratios; write
positiveintegers as products of factors; usethese
representations in real-world and mathematical situations.
6.1.1.1 Locatepositiverational numbers on a number lineand plot pairs of positive
rational numbers on a coordinategrid.
6 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiverational numbers
expressed as fractions, decimals, percents and ratios; write
positiveintegers as products of factors; usethese
representations in real-world and mathematical situations.
6.1.1.2 Comparepositiverational numbers represented in various forms. Usethe
symbols <, = and >.

For example:
1
/
2
> 0.36.
6 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiverational numbers
expressed as fractions, decimals, percents and ratios; write
positiveintegers as products of factors; usethese
representations in real-world and mathematical situations.
6.1.1.3 Understand that percent represents parts out of 100 and ratios to 100.

For example: 75% corresponds to theratio 75 to 100, which is equivalent to the
ratio 3 to 4.
Page19 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
6 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiverational numbers
expressed as fractions, decimals, percents and ratios; write
positiveintegers as products of factors; usethese
representations in real-world and mathematical situations.
6.1.1.4 Determineequivalences among fractions, decimals and percents; select among
theserepresentations to solveproblems.

For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, shewill makean
additional $2.50 an hour, because$2.50 is
1
/
10
or 10% of $25.
6 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiverational numbers
expressed as fractions, decimals, percents and ratios; write
positiveintegers as products of factors; usethese
representations in real-world and mathematical situations.
6.1.1.5 Factor wholenumbers; express a wholenumber as a product of primefactors
with exponents.

For example: 24 = 2
3
x 3
6 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiverational numbers
expressed as fractions, decimals, percents and ratios; write
positiveintegers as products of factors; usethese
representations in real-world and mathematical situations.
6.1.1.6 Determinegreatest common factors and least common multiples. Usecommon
factors and common multiples to calculatewith fractions and find equivalent
fractions.

For example: Factor thenumerator and denominator of a fraction to determinean
equivalent fraction.
6 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiverational numbers
expressed as fractions, decimals, percents and ratios; write
positiveintegers as products of factors; usethese
representations in real-world and mathematical situations.
6.1.1.7 Convert between equivalent representations of positiverational numbers.

For example: Express
10
/
7
as
(7+3)
/
7
=
7
/
7
+
3
/
7
=1
3
/
7
.
6 Number &
Operation
Understand theconcept of ratio and its relationship to fractions
and to themultiplication and division of wholenumbers. Use
ratios to solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
6.1.2.1 Identify and useratios to compare quantities; understand that comparing
quantities using ratios is not thesameas comparing quantities using subtraction.

For example: In a classroomwith 15 boys and 10 girls, comparethenumbers by
subtracting (thereare5 moreboys than girls) or by dividing (thereare1.5 times
as many boys as girls). Thecomparison using division may beexpressed as a
ratio of boys to girls (3 to 2 or 3:2 or 1.5 to 1).
6 Number &
Operation
Understand theconcept of ratio and its relationship to fractions
and to themultiplication and division of wholenumbers. Use
ratios to solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
6.1.2.2 Apply therelationship between ratios, equivalent fractions and percents to solve
problems in various contexts, including thoseinvolving mixtures and
concentrations.

For example: If 5 cups of trail mix contains 2 cups of raisins, theratio of raisins
to trail mix is 2 to 5. This ratio corresponds to thefact that theraisins are
2
/
5
of
thetotal, or 40% of thetotal. And if onetrail mix consists of 2 parts peanuts to 3
parts raisins, and another consists of 4 parts peanuts to 8 parts raisins, then the
first mixturehas a higher concentration of peanuts.
6 Number &
Operation
Understand theconcept of ratio and its relationship to fractions
and to themultiplication and division of wholenumbers. Use
ratios to solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
6.1.2.3 Determinetheratefor ratios of quantities with different units.

For example: 60 miles for every 3 hours is equivalent to 20 miles for every one
hour (20 mph).
Page20 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
6 Number &
Operation
Understand theconcept of ratio and its relationship to fractions
and to themultiplication and division of wholenumbers. Use
ratios to solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
6.1.2.4 Usereasoning about multiplication and division to solveratio and rateproblems.

For example: If 5 items cost $3.75, and all items arethesameprice, then 1 item
costs 75 cents, so 12 items cost $9.00.
6 Number &
Operation
Multiply and dividedecimals, fractions and mixed numbers;
solvereal-world and mathematical problems using arithmetic
with positiverational numbers.
6.1.3.1 Multiply and dividedecimals and fractions, using efficient and generalizable
procedures, including standard algorithms.
6 Number &
Operation
Multiply and dividedecimals, fractions and mixed numbers;
solvereal-world and mathematical problems using arithmetic
with positiverational numbers.
6.1.3.2 Usethemeanings of fractions, multiplication, division and theinverse
relationship between multiplication and division to makesenseof procedures for
multiplying and dividing fractions.

For example: Just as
12
/
4
=3 means 12 =3 4,
2
/
3

4
/
5
=
5
/
6
means
5
/
6

4
/
5
=
2
/
3
.
6 Number &
Operation
Multiply and dividedecimals, fractions and mixed numbers;
solvereal-world and mathematical problems using arithmetic
with positiverational numbers.
6.1.3.3 Calculatethepercent of a number and determinewhat percent onenumber is of
another number to solveproblems in various contexts.

For example: If J ohn has $45 and spends $15, what percent of his money did he
keep?
6 Number &
Operation
Multiply and dividedecimals, fractions and mixed numbers;
solvereal-world and mathematical problems using arithmetic
with positiverational numbers.
6.1.3.4 Solvereal-world and mathematical problems requiring arithmetic with decimals,
fractions and mixed numbers.
6 Number &
Operation
Multiply and dividedecimals, fractions and mixed numbers;
solvereal-world and mathematical problems using arithmetic
with positiverational numbers.
6.1.3.5 Estimatesolutions to problems with wholenumbers, fractions and decimals and
usetheestimates to assess thereasonableness of results in thecontext of the
problem.

For example: Thesum
1
/
3
+0.25 can beestimated to bebetween
1
/
2
and 1, and
this estimatecan beused to check theresult of a moredetailed calculation.
6 Algebra Recognizeand represent relationships between varying
quantities; translatefromonerepresentation to another; use
patterns, tables, graphs and rules to solvereal-world and
mathematical problems.
6.2.1.1 Understand that a variablecan beused to represent a quantity that can change,
often in relationship to another changing quantity. Usevariables in various
contexts.

For example: If a student earns $7 an hour in a job, theamount of money earned
can berepresented by a variableand is related to thenumber of hours worked,
which also can berepresented by a variable.
6 Algebra Recognizeand represent relationships between varying
quantities; translatefromonerepresentation to another; use
patterns, tables, graphs and rules to solvereal-world and
mathematical problems.
6.2.1.2 Represent therelationship between two varying quantities with function rules,
graphs and tables; translatebetween any two of theserepresentations.

For example: Describetheterms in thesequenceof perfect squares
t =1, 4, 9, 16, ... by using therulet = n
2
for n =1, 2, 3, 4, ....
Page21 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
6 Algebra Useproperties of arithmetic to generateequivalent numerical
expressions and evaluateexpressions involving positiverational
numbers.
6.2.2.1 Apply theassociative, commutativeand distributiveproperties and order of
operations to generateequivalent expressions and to solveproblems involving
positiverational numbers.

For example:
32 5 2 16 5
32 5 16 5 16 2
15 6 15 6 3 5 3 2 9 2 5 9

= = = =

.

Another example: Usethedistributivelaw to write:
( )
9 15 9 15 3 5 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1
2 3 2 8 2 3 2 3 8 2 2 8 8 8
+ = + = + = = .
6 Algebra Understand and interpret equations and inequalities involving
variables and positiverational numbers. Useequations and
inequalities to represent real-world and mathematical problems;
usetheidea of maintaining equality to solveequations. Interpret
solutions in theoriginal context.
6.2.3.1 Represent real-world or mathematical situations using equations and inequalities
involving variables and positiverational numbers.

For example: Thenumber of miles m in a k kilometer raceis represented by the
equation m =0.62k.
6 Algebra Understand and interpret equations and inequalities involving
variables and positiverational numbers. Useequations and
inequalities to represent real-world and mathematical problems;
usetheidea of maintaining equality to solveequations. Interpret
solutions in theoriginal context.
6.2.3.2 Solveequations involving positiverational numbers using number sense,
properties of arithmetic and theidea of maintaining equality on both sides of the
equation. Interpret a solution in theoriginal context and assess the
reasonableness of results.

For example: A cellular phonecompany charges $0.12 per minute. If thebill was
$11.40 in April, how many minutes wereused?
6 Geometry &
Measurement
Calculateperimeter, area, surface area and volumeof two- and
three-dimensional figures to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems.
6.3.1.1 Calculatethesurfacearea and volumeof prisms and useappropriateunits, such
as cm
2
and cm
3
. J ustify theformulas used. J ustification may involve
decomposition, nets or other models.

For example: Thesurfacearea of a triangular prismcan befound by
decomposing thesurfaceinto two triangles and threerectangles.
6 Geometry &
Measurement
Calculateperimeter, area, surface area and volumeof two- and
three-dimensional figures to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems.
6.3.1.2 Calculatethearea of quadrilaterals. Quadrilaterals includesquares, rectangles,
rhombuses, parallelograms, trapezoids and kites. When formulas areused, be
ableto explain why they arevalid.

For example: Thearea of a kiteis one-half theproduct of thelengths of the
diagonals, and this can bejustified by decomposing thekiteinto two triangles.
6 Geometry &
Measurement
Calculateperimeter, area, surface area and volumeof two- and
three-dimensional figures to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems.
6.3.1.3 Estimatetheperimeter and area of irregular figures on a grid when they cannot
bedecomposed into common figures and usecorrect units, such as cmand cm
2
.
Page22 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
6 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand and userelationships between angles in geometric
figures.
6.3.2.1 Solveproblems using therelationships between theangles formed by
intersecting lines.

For example: If two streets cross, forming four corners such that oneof the
corners forms an angle of 120, determine the measures of the remaining three
angles.

Another example: Recognizethat pairs of interior and exterior angles in polygons
havemeasures that sum to 180.
6 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand and userelationships between angles in geometric
figures.
6.3.2.2 Determinemissing anglemeasures in a triangleusing thefact that thesumof the
interior angles of a triangle is 180. Use models of triangles to illustrate this fact.

For example: Cut a triangleout of paper, tear off thecorners and rearrangethese
corners to forma straight line.

Another example: Recognizethat themeasures of thetwo acuteangles in a right
triangle sum to 90.
6 Geometry &
Measurement
Understand and userelationships between angles in geometric
figures.
6.3.2.3 Develop and useformulas for thesums of theinterior angles of polygons by
decomposing theminto triangles.
6 Geometry &
Measurement
Chooseappropriateunits of measurement and useratios to
convert within measurement systems to solvereal-world and
mathematical problems.
6.3.3.1 Solveproblems in various contexts involving conversion of weights, capacities,
geometric measurements and times within measurement systems using
appropriateunits.
6 Geometry &
Measurement
Chooseappropriateunits of measurement and useratios to
convert within measurement systems to solvereal-world and
mathematical problems.
6.3.3.2 Estimateweights, capacities and geometric measurements using benchmarks in
measurement systems with appropriateunits.

For example: Estimatetheheight of a houseby comparing to a 6-foot man
standing nearby.
6 Data Analysis
& Probability
Useprobabilities to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; represent probabilities using fractions, decimals and
percents.
6.4.1.1 Determinethesamplespace(set of possibleoutcomes) for a given experiment
and determinewhich members of thesamplespacearerelated to certain events.
Samplespacemay bedetermined by theuseof treediagrams, tables or pictorial
representations.

For example: A 6x6 tablewith entries such as (1,1), (1,2), (1,3), , (6,6) can be
used to represent thesamplespacefor theexperiment of simultaneously rolling
two number cubes.
Page23 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
6 Data Analysis
& Probability
Useprobabilities to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; represent probabilities using fractions, decimals and
percents.
6.4.1.2 Determinetheprobability of an event using theratio between thesizeof the
event and thesizeof thesamplespace; represent probabilities as percents,
fractions and decimals between 0 and 1 inclusive. Understand that probabilities
measurelikelihood.

For example: Each outcomefor a balanced number cubehas probability
1
/
6
, and
theprobability of rolling an even number is
1
/
2
.
6 Data Analysis
& Probability
Useprobabilities to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; represent probabilities using fractions, decimals and
percents.
6.4.1.3 Performexperiments for situations in which theprobabilities areknown,
comparetheresulting relativefrequencies with theknown probabilities; know
that theremay bedifferences.

For example: Heads and tails areequally likely when flipping a fair coin, but if
several different students flipped fair coins 10 times, it is likely that they will
find a variety of relativefrequencies of heads and tails.
6 Data Analysis
& Probability
Useprobabilities to solvereal-world and mathematical
problems; represent probabilities using fractions, decimals and
percents.
6.4.1.4 Calculateexperimental probabilities fromexperiments; represent themas
percents, fractions and decimals between 0 and 1 inclusive. Useexperimental
probabilities to makepredictions when actual probabilities areunknown.

For example: Repeatedly draw colored chips with replacement froma bag with
an unknown mixtureof chips, record relativefrequencies, and usetheresults to
makepredictions about thecontents of thebag.
7 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiveand negative
rational numbers, expressed as integers, fractions and decimals.
7.1.1.1 Know that every rational number can bewritten as theratio of two integers or as
a terminating or repeating decimal. Recognize that is not rational, but that it
can beapproximated by rational numbers such as
22
/
7
and 3.14.
7 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiveand negative
rational numbers, expressed as integers, fractions and decimals.
7.1.1.2 Understand that division of two integers will always result in a rational number.
Usethis information to interpret thedecimal result of a division problemwhen
using a calculator.

For example:
125
/
30
gives 4.16666667 on a calculator. This answer is not exact.
Theexact answer can beexpressed as 4
1
/
6
, which is thesameas4.16. The
calculator expression does not guaranteethat the6 is repeated, but that
possibility should beanticipated.
7 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiveand negative
rational numbers, expressed as integers, fractions and decimals.
7.1.1.3 Locatepositiveand negativerational numbers on a number line, understand the
concept of opposites, and plot pairs of positiveand negativerational numbers on
a coordinategrid.
7 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiveand negative
rational numbers, expressed as integers, fractions and decimals.
7.1.1.4 Comparepositiveand negativerational numbers expressed in various forms
using the symbols < , > , = , , .

For example:
-1
/
2
<
-
.36.
Page24 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
7 Number &
Operation
Read, write, represent and comparepositiveand negative
rational numbers, expressed as integers, fractions and decimals.
7.1.1.5 Recognizeand generateequivalent representations of positiveand negative
rational numbers, including equivalent fractions.

For example:
40 120 10
3.3
12 36 3
= = = .
7 Number &
Operation
Calculatewith positiveand negativerational numbers, and
rational numbers with wholenumber exponents, to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems.
7.1.2.1 Add, subtract, multiply and dividepositiveand negativerational numbers that
areintegers, fractions and terminating decimals; useefficient and generalizable
procedures, including standard algorithms; raisepositiverational numbers to
whole-number exponents.

For example:
( )
2
4 81 1
3
2 4
= .
7 Number &
Operation
Calculatewith positiveand negativerational numbers, and
rational numbers with wholenumber exponents, to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems.
7.1.2.2 Usereal-world contexts and theinverserelationship between addition and
subtraction to explain why theprocedures of arithmetic with negativerational
numbers makesense.

For example: Multiplying a distanceby -1 can bethought of as representing that
samedistancein theoppositedirection. Multiplying by -1 a second timereverses
directions again, giving thedistancein theoriginal direction.
7 Number &
Operation
Calculatewith positiveand negativerational numbers, and
rational numbers with wholenumber exponents, to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems.
7.1.2.3 Understand that calculators and other computing technologies often truncateor
round numbers.

For example: A decimal that repeats or terminates after a largenumber of digits
is truncated or rounded.
7 Number &
Operation
Calculatewith positiveand negativerational numbers, and
rational numbers with wholenumber exponents, to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems.
7.1.2.4 Solveproblems in various contexts involving calculations with positiveand
negativerational numbers and positiveinteger exponents, including computing
simpleand compound interest.
7 Number &
Operation
Calculatewith positiveand negativerational numbers, and
rational numbers with wholenumber exponents, to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems.
7.1.2.5 Useproportional reasoning to solveproblems involving ratios in various
contexts.

For example: A recipecalls for milk, flour and sugar in a ratio of 4:6:3 (this is
how recipes areoften given in largeinstitutions, such as hospitals). How much
flour and milk would beneeded with 1 cup of sugar?
7 Number &
Operation
Calculatewith positiveand negativerational numbers, and
rational numbers with wholenumber exponents, to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems.
7.1.2.6 Demonstratean understanding of therelationship between theabsolutevalueof a
rational number and distanceon anumber line. Usethesymbol for absolute
value.

For example: |-3| represents thedistancefrom-3 to 0 on a number lineor 3 units;
thedistancebetween 3 and
9
/
2
on thenumber lineis | 3 -
9
/
2
| or
3
/
2
.
Page25 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
7 Algebra Understand theconcept of proportionality in real-world and
mathematical situations, and distinguish between proportional
and other relationships.
7.2.1.1 Understand that a relationship between two variables, x and y, is proportional if it
can beexpressed in theform
y
/
x
= k or y = kx. Distinguish proportional
relationships fromother relationships, including inversely proportional
relationships (xy = k or y =
k
/
x
).

For example: Theradius and circumferenceof a circleareproportional, whereas
thelength x and thewidth y of a rectanglewith area 12 areinversely
proportional, sincexy =12 or equivalently, y =
12
/
x
.
7 Algebra Understand theconcept of proportionality in real-world and
mathematical situations, and distinguish between proportional
and other relationships.
7.2.1.2 Understand that thegraph of a proportional relationship is a linethrough the
origin whoseslopeis theunit rate(constant of proportionality). Know how to use
graphing technology to examinewhat happens to a linewhen theunit rateis
changed.
7 Algebra Recognizeproportional relationships in real-world and
mathematical situations; represent theseand other relationships
with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and graphs; solve
problems involving proportional relationships and explain
results in theoriginal context.
7.2.2.1 Represent proportional relationships with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols,
equations and graphs; translatefromonerepresentation to another. Determine
theunit rate(constant of proportionality or slope) given any of these
representations.

For example: Larry drives 114 miles and uses 5 gallons of gasoline. Suedrives
300 miles and uses 11.5 gallons of gasoline. Useequations and graphs to
comparefuel efficiency and to determinethecosts of various trips.
7 Algebra Recognizeproportional relationships in real-world and
mathematical situations; represent theseand other relationships
with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and graphs; solve
problems involving proportional relationships and explain
results in theoriginal context.
7.2.2.2 Solvemulti-step problems involving proportional relationships in numerous
contexts.

For example: Distance-time, percent increaseor decrease, discounts, tips, unit
pricing, lengths in similar geometric figures, and unit conversion when a
conversion factor is given, including conversion between different measurement
systems.

Another example: How many kilometers aretherein 26.2 miles?
7 Algebra Recognizeproportional relationships in real-world and
mathematical situations; represent theseand other relationships
with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and graphs; solve
problems involving proportional relationships and explain
results in theoriginal context.
7.2.2.3 Useknowledgeof proportions to assess thereasonableness of solutions.

For example: Recognizethat it would beunreasonablefor a cashier to request
$200 if you purchasea $225 itemat 25% off.
Page26 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
7 Algebra Recognizeproportional relationships in real-world and
mathematical situations; represent theseand other relationships
with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and graphs; solve
problems involving proportional relationships and explain
results in theoriginal context.
7.2.2.4 Represent real-world or mathematical situations using equations and inequalities
involving variables and positiveand negativerational numbers.

For example: "Four-fifths is threegreater than theoppositeof a number" can be
represented as
4
/
5
=-n +3, and "height no bigger than half theradius" can be
represented ash
r
/
2
.

Another example: "x is at least -3 and less than 5" can berepresented as
-3 x <5, and also on a number line.
7 Algebra Apply understanding of order of operations and algebraic
properties to generateequivalent numerical and algebraic
expressions containing positiveand negativerational numbers
and grouping symbols; evaluatesuch expressions.
7.2.3.1 Useproperties of algebra to generateequivalent numerical and algebraic
expressions containing rational numbers, grouping symbols and wholenumber
exponents. Properties of algebra includeassociative, commutativeand
distributivelaws.

For example: Combineliketerms (usethedistributivelaw) to write

3x 7x +1 =(3 7)x +1 =-4x +1.
7 Algebra Apply understanding of order of operations and algebraic
properties to generateequivalent numerical and algebraic
expressions containing positiveand negativerational numbers
and grouping symbols; evaluatesuch expressions
7.2.3.2 Evaluatealgebraic expressions containing rational numbers and wholenumber
exponents at specified values of their variables.

For example: Evaluatetheexpression
1
/
3
(2x 5)
2
at x =5.
7 Algebra Apply understanding of order of operations and algebraic
properties to generateequivalent numerical and algebraic
expressions containing positiveand negativerational numbers
and grouping symbols; evaluatesuch expressions
7.2.3.3 Apply understanding of order of operations and grouping symbols when using
calculators and other technologies.

For example: Recognizetheconventions of using a caret (^raiseto a power) and
asterisk (* multiply); pay careful attention to theuseof nested parentheses.
7 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations with variables. Solveequations symbolically, using
theproperties of equality. Also solveequations graphically and
numerically. Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.
7.2.4.1 Represent relationships in various contexts with equations involving variables
and positiveand negativerational numbers. Usetheproperties of equality to
solvefor thevalueof a variable. Interpret thesolution in theoriginal context.

For example: Solvefor w in theequation P =2w +2 when P =3.5 and
=0.4.

Another example: To post an Internet website, Mary must pay $300 for initial set
up and a monthly feeof $12. Shehas $842 in savings, how long can shesustain
her website?
Page27 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
7 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations with variables. Solveequations symbolically, using
theproperties of equality. Also solveequations graphically and
numerically. Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.
7.2.4.2 Solveequations resulting fromproportional relationships in various contexts.

For example: Given thesidelengths of onetriangleand onesidelength of a
second trianglethat is similar to thefirst, find theremaining sidelengths of the
second triangle.

Another example: Determinethepriceof 12 yards of ribbon if 5 yards of ribbon
cost $1.85.
7 Geometry &
Measurement
Usereasoning with proportions and ratios to determine
measurements, justify formulas and solvereal-world and
mathematical problems involving circles and related geometric
figures.
7.3.1.1 Demonstratean understanding of theproportional relationship between the
diameter and circumferenceof a circleand that theunit rate(constant of
proportionality) is . Calculatethecircumferenceand area of circles and sectors
of circles to solveproblems in various contexts.
7 Geometry &
Measurement
Usereasoning with proportions and ratios to determine
measurements, justify formulas and solvereal-world and
mathematical problems involving circles and related geometric
figures.
7.3.1.2 Calculatethevolumeand surfacearea of cylinders and justify theformulas used.
For example: Justify theformula for thesurfacearea of a cylinder by
decomposing thesurfaceinto two circles and a rectangle.
7 Geometry &
Measurement
Analyzetheeffect of change of scale, translations and
reflections on theattributes of two-dimensional figures.
7.3.2.1 Describetheproperties of similarity, comparegeometric figures for similarity,
and determinescalefactors.

For example: Corresponding angles in similar geometric figures havethesame
measure.
7 Geometry &
Measurement
Analyzetheeffect of changeof scale, translations and
reflections on theattributes of two-dimensional figures.
7.3.2.2 Apply scalefactors, length ratios and area ratios to determinesidelengths and
areas of similar geometric figures.

For example: If two similar rectangles haveheights of 3 and 5, and thefirst
rectanglehas a baseof length 7, thebaseof thesecond rectanglehas length
35
/
3
.
7 Geometry &
Measurement
Analyzetheeffect of changeof scale, translations and
reflections on theattributes of two-dimensional figures.
7.3.2.3 Useproportions and ratios to solveproblems involving scaledrawings and
conversions of measurement units.

For example: 1 squarefoot equals 144 squareinches.
Another example: In a map where 1 inch represents 50 miles,
1
/
2
inch represents
25 miles.
7 Geometry &
Measurement
Analyzetheeffect of changeof scale, translations and
reflections on theattributes of two-dimensional figures.
7.3.2.4 Graph and describetranslations and reflections of figures on a coordinategrid
and determinethecoordinates of thevertices of thefigureafter the
transformation.

For example: Thepoint (1, 2) moves to (-1, 2) after reflection about they-axis.
Page28 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
7 Data Analysis
& Probability
Usemean, median and rangeto draw conclusions about data
and makepredictions.
7.4.1.1 Design simpleexperiments and collect data. Determinemean, median and range
for quantitativedata and fromdata represented in a display. Usethesequantities
to draw conclusions about thedata, comparedifferent data sets, and make
predictions.

For example: By looking at data fromthepast, Sandy calculated that themean
gas mileagefor her car was 28 miles per gallon. Sheexpects to travel 400 miles
during thenext week. Predict theapproximatenumber of gallons that shewill
use.
7 Data Analysis
& Probability
Usemean, median and rangeto draw conclusions about data
and makepredictions.
7.4.1.2 Describetheimpact that inserting or deleting a data point has on themean and
themedian of a data set. Know how to createdata displays using a spreadsheet to
examinethis impact.

For example: How does dropping thelowest test scoreaffect a student's mean
test score?
7

Data Analysis
& Probability
Display and interpret data in a variety of ways, including circle
graphs and histograms.
7.4.2.1 Usereasoning with proportions to display and interpret data in circlegraphs (pie
charts) and histograms. Choosetheappropriatedata display and know how to
createthedisplay using a spreadsheet or other graphing technology.
7 Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and reason about probabilities using
proportions to solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
7.4.3.1 Userandomnumbers generated by a calculator or a spreadsheet or taken froma
tableto simulatesituations involving randomness, makea histogramto display
theresults, and comparetheresults to known probabilities.

For example: Usea spreadsheet function such as RANDBETWEEN(1, 10) to
generaterandomwholenumbers from1 to 10, and display theresults in a
histogram.
7 Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and reason about probabilities using
proportions to solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
7.4.3.2 Calculateprobability as a fraction of samplespaceor as a fraction of area.
Express probabilities as percents, decimals and fractions.

For example: Determineprobabilities for different outcomes in gamespinners by
finding fractions of thearea of thespinner.
7 Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and reason about probabilities using
proportions to solvereal-world and mathematical problems.
7.4.3.3 Useproportional reasoning to draw conclusions about and predict relative
frequencies of outcomes based on probabilities.

For example: When rolling a number cube600 times, onewould predict that a 3
or 6 would berolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times.
Page29 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark

8
Number &
Operation
Read, write, compare, classify and represent real numbers, and
usethemto solveproblems in various contexts.
8.1.1.1 Classify real numbers as rational or irrational. Know that when a squareroot of a
positiveinteger is not an integer, then it is irrational. Know that thesumof a
rational number and an irrational number is irrational, and theproduct of a non-
zero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.
For example: Classify thefollowing numbers as wholenumbers, integers,
rational numbers, irrational numbers, recognizing that somenumbers belong in
morethan onecategory:
6
/
3
,
3
/
6
, 3.6,
2

, 4 , 10 , 6.7 .
8 Number &
Operation
Read, write, compare, classify and represent real numbers, and
usethemto solveproblems in various contexts.
8.1.1.2 Comparereal numbers; locatereal numbers on a number line. Identify thesquare
root of a positiveinteger as an integer, or if it is not an integer, locateit as a real
number between two consecutivepositiveintegers.

For example: Put thefollowing numbers in order fromsmallest to largest:
2, 3, -4, -6.8, 37 .

Another example: 68 is an irrational number between 8 and 9.
8 Number &
Operation
Read, write, compare, classify and represent real numbers, and
usethemto solveproblems in various contexts.
8.1.1.3 Determinerational approximations for solutions to problems involving real
numbers.

For example: A calculator can beused to determinethat 7 is approximately
2.65.
Another example: To check that 1
5
/
12
is slightly bigger than 2 , do the
calculation
( ) ( )
2 2
5 17 289 1
1 2
12 12 144 144
= = = .
Another example: Knowing that 10 is between 3 and 4, try squaring numbers
like3.5, 3.3, 3.1 to determinethat 3.1 is a reasonablerational approximation of
10 .
8 Number &
Operation
Read, write, compare, classify and represent real numbers, and
usethemto solveproblems in various contexts.
8.1.1.4 Know and apply theproperties of positiveand negativeinteger exponents to
generateequivalent numerical expressions.

For example:
( ) ( )
( )
3
5 3 1 2 1
3 27
3 3 3

= = = .
Page30 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
8 Number &
Operation
Read, write, compare, classify and represent real numbers, and
usethemto solveproblems in various contexts.
8.1.1.5 Express approximations of very largeand very small numbers using scientific
notation; understand how calculators display numbers in scientific notation.
Multiply and dividenumbers expressed in scientific notation, express theanswer
in scientific notation, using thecorrect number of significant digits when
physical measurements areinvolved.

For example: (4.2 10
4
) (8.25 10
3
) =3.465 10
8
, but if thesenumbers
represent physical measurements, theanswer should beexpressed as 3.5 10
8
becausethefirst factor, 4.2 10
4
, only has two significant digits.
8

Algebra

Understand theconcept of function in real-world and
mathematical situations, and distinguish between linear and
nonlinear functions.
8.2.1.1 Understand that a function is a relationship between an independent variableand
a dependent variablein which thevalueof theindependent variabledetermines
thevalueof thedependent variable. Usefunctional notation, such as f(x), to
represent such relationships.

For example: Therelationship between thearea of a squareand thesidelength
can beexpressed as f (x) =x
2
. In this case, f (5) =25, which represents thefact
that a squareof sidelength 5 units has area 25 units squared.
8 Algebra

Understand theconcept of function in real-world and
mathematical situations, and distinguish between linear and
nonlinear functions. Understand theconcept of function in real-
world and mathematical situations, and distinguish between
linear and nonlinear functions.
8.2.1.2 Uselinear functions to represent relationships in which changing theinput
variableby someamount leads to a changein theoutput variablethat is a
constant times that amount.

For example: UncleJ imgaveEmily $50 on theday shewas born and $25 on
each birthday after that. Thefunction f (x) =50 +25x represents theamount of
money J imhas given after x years. Therateof changeis $25 per year.
8 Algebra

Understand theconcept of function in real-world and
mathematical situations, and distinguish between linear and
nonlinear functions.
8.2.1.3 Understand that a function is linear if it can beexpressed in theform
f (x) =mx +b or if its graph is a straight line.

For example: Thefunction f (x) =x
2
is not a linear function becauseits graph
contains thepoints (1,1), (-1,1) and (0,0), which arenot on a straight line.
8 Algebra

Understand theconcept of function in real-world and
mathematical situations, and distinguish between linear and
nonlinear functions.
8.2.1.4 Understand that an arithmetic sequenceis a linear function that can beexpressed
in theformf (x) =mx +b, wherex =0, 1, 2, 3,

For example: Thearithmetic sequence3, 7, 11, 15, , can beexpressed as
f (x) =4x +3.
8 Algebra

Understand theconcept of function in real-world and
mathematical situations, and distinguish between linear and
nonlinear functions.
8.2.1.5 Understand that a geometric sequenceis a non-linear function that can be
expressed in theformf (x) =ab
x
, wherex =0, 1, 2, 3,.

For example: Thegeometric sequence6, 12, 24, 48, , can beexpressed in the
formf (x) =6(2
x
).
Page31 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
8 Algebra Recognizelinear functions in real-world and mathematical
situations; represent linear functions and other functions with
tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and graphs; solveproblems
involving thesefunctions and explain results in theoriginal
context.
8.2.2.1 Represent linear functions with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols, equations
and graphs; translatefromonerepresentation to another.
8 Algebra Recognizelinear functions in real-world and mathematical
situations; represent linear functions and other functions with
tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and graphs; solveproblems
involving thesefunctions and explain results in theoriginal
context.
8.2.2.2 Identify graphical properties of linear functions including slopes and intercepts.
Know that theslopeequals therateof change, and that they-intercept is zero
when thefunction represents a proportional relationship.
8 Algebra Recognizelinear functions in real-world and mathematical
situations; represent linear functions and other functions with
tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and graphs; solveproblems
involving thesefunctions and explain results in theoriginal
context.
8.2.2.3 Identify how coefficient changes in theequation f (x) =mx +b affect thegraphs
of linear functions. Know how to usegraphing technology to examinethese
effects.
8 Algebra Recognizelinear functions in real-world and mathematical
situations; represent linear functions and other functions with
tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and graphs; solveproblems
involving thesefunctions and explain results in theoriginal
context.
8.2.2.4 Represent arithmetic sequences using equations, tables, graphs and verbal
descriptions, and usethemto solveproblems.

For example: If a girl starts with $100 in savings and adds $10 at theend of each
month, shewill have100 +10x dollars after x months.
8 Algebra Recognizelinear functions in real-world and mathematical
situations; represent linear functions and other functions with
tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and graphs; solveproblems
involving thesefunctions and explain results in theoriginal
context.
8.2.2.5 Represent geometric sequences using equations, tables, graphs and verbal
descriptions, and usethemto solveproblems.

For example: If a girl invests $100 at 10% annual interest, shewill have
100(1.1)
x
dollars after x years.
8 Algebra Generateequivalent numerical and algebraic expressions and
usealgebraic properties to evaluateexpressions.
8.2.3.1 Evaluatealgebraic expressions, including expressions containing radicals and
absolutevalues, at specified values of their variables.

For example: Evaluater
2
h when r =3 and h =0.5, and then usean
approximation of to obtain an approximateanswer.
8 Algebra Generateequivalent numerical and algebraic expressions and
usealgebraic properties to evaluateexpressions.
8.2.3.2 J ustify steps in generating equivalent expressions by identifying theproperties
used, including theproperties of algebra. Properties includetheassociative,
commutativeand distributivelaws, and theorder of operations, including
grouping symbols.
8 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve
equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically.
Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.

8.2.4.1 Uselinear equations to represent situations involving a constant rateof change,
including proportional and non-proportional relationships.

For example: For a cylinder with fixed radius of length 5, thesurfacearea
A =2(5)h +2(5)
2
=10h +50, is a linear function of theheight h, but the
surfacearea is not proportional to theheight.
Page32 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
8 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve
equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically.
Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.

8.2.4.2 Solvemulti-step equations in onevariable. Solvefor onevariablein a multi-
variableequation in terms of theother variables. J ustify thesteps by identifying
theproperties of equalities used.

For example: Theequation 10x +17 =3x can bechanged to 7x +17 =0, and
then to 7x =-17 by adding/subtracting thesamequantities to both sides. These
changes do not changethesolution of theequation.

Another example: Using theformula for theperimeter of a rectangle, solvefor
thebasein terms of theheight and perimeter.
8 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve
equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically.
Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.

8.2.4.3 Express linear equations in slope-intercept, point-slopeand standard forms, and
convert between theseforms. Given sufficient information, find an equation of a
line.

For example: Determinean equation of thelinethrough thepoints (-1,6) and (
2
/
3
,
-
3
/
4
).
8 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve
equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically.
Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.

8.2.4.4 Uselinear inequalities to represent relationships in various contexts.

For example: A gas station charges $0.10 less per gallon of gasolineif a
customer also gets a car wash. Without thecar wash, gas costs $2.79 per gallon.
Thecar wash is $8.95. What arethepossibleamounts (in gallons) of gasoline
that you can buy if you also get a car wash and can spend at most $35?
8 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve
equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically.
Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.

8.2.4.5 Solvelinear inequalities using properties of inequalities. Graph thesolutions on a
number line.

For example: Theinequality -3x <6 is equivalent to x >-2, which can be
represented on thenumber lineby shading in theinterval to theright of -2.
8 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve
equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically.
Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.

8.2.4.6 Represent relationships in various contexts with equations and inequalities
involving theabsolutevalueof a linear expression. Solvesuch equations and
inequalities and graph thesolutions on a number line.

For example: A cylindrical machinepart is manufactured with a radius of 2.1
cm, with a toleranceof
1
/
100
cm. Theradius r satisfies theinequality
|r 2.1| .01.
Page33 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
8 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve
equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically.
Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.

8.2.4.7 Represent relationships in various contexts using systems of linear equations.
Solvesystems of linear equations in two variables symbolically, graphically and
numerically.

For example: Marty's cell phonecompany charges $15 per month plus $0.04 per
minutefor each call. J eannine's company charges $0.25 per minute. Usea system
of equations to determinetheadvantages of each plan based on thenumber of
minutes used.
8 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve
equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically.
Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.

8.2.4.8 Understand that a systemof linear equations may haveno solution, onesolution,
or an infinitenumber of solutions. Relatethenumber of solutions to pairs of
lines that areintersecting, parallel or identical. Check whether a pair of numbers
satisfies a systemof two linear equations in two unknowns by substituting the
numbers into both equations.
8 Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear expressions. Solve
equations and inequalities symbolically and graphically.
Interpret solutions in theoriginal context.

8.2.4.9 Usetherelationship between squareroots and squares of a number to solve
problems.

For example: If x
2
=5, then
5
x

= , or equivalently,
5
x

= or
5
x

= . If x is
understood as theradius of a circlein this example, then thenegativesolution
should bediscarded and
5
x

= .
8 Geometry &
Measurement

Solveproblems involving right triangles using thePythagorean
Theoremand its converse.
8.3.1.1 UsethePythagorean Theoremto solveproblems involving right triangles.

For example: Determinetheperimeter of a right triangle, given thelengths of
two of its sides.
Another example: Show that a trianglewith sidelengths 4, 5 and 6 is not a right
triangle.
8 Geometry &
Measurement

Solveproblems involving right triangles using thePythagorean
Theoremand its converse.
8.3.1.2 Determinethedistancebetween two points on a horizontal or vertical linein a
coordinatesystem. UsethePythagorean Theoremto find thedistancebetween
any two points in a coordinatesystem.
8 Geometry &
Measurement
Solveproblems involving right triangles using thePythagorean
Theoremand its converse.
8.3.1.3 Informally justify thePythagorean Theoremby using measurements, diagrams
and computer software.
8 Geometry &
Measurement
Solveproblems involving parallel and perpendicular lines on a
coordinatesystem.
8.3.2.1 Understand and apply therelationships between theslopes of parallel lines and
between theslopes of perpendicular lines. Dynamic graphing softwaremay be
used to examinetheserelationships.
8 Geometry &
Measurement

Solveproblems involving parallel and perpendicular lines on a
coordinatesystem.

8.3.2.2 Analyzepolygons on a coordinatesystemby determining theslopes of their
sides.

For example: Given thecoordinates of four points, determinewhether the
corresponding quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
Page34 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
8 Geometry &
Measurement

Solveproblems involving parallel and perpendicular lines on a
coordinatesystem.

8.3.2.3 Given a lineon a coordinatesystemand thecoordinates of a point not on the
line, find lines through that point that areparallel and perpendicular to thegiven
line, symbolically and graphically.
8 Data Analysis
& Probability
Interpret data using scatterplots and approximatelines of best
fit. Uselines of best fit to draw conclusions about data.
8.4.1.1 Collect, display and interpret datausing scatterplots. Usetheshapeof the
scatterplot to informally estimatea lineof best fit and determinean equation for
theline. Useappropriatetitles, labels and units. Know how to usegraphing
technology to display scatterplots and corresponding lines of best fit.
8 Data Analysis
& Probability
Interpret data using scatterplots and approximatelines of best
fit. Uselines of best fit to draw conclusions about data.
8.4.1.2 Usea lineof best fit to makestatements about approximaterateof changeand to
makepredictions about values not in theoriginal data set.

For example: Given a scatterplot relating student heights to shoesizes, predict
theshoesizeof a 5'4" student, even if thedata does not contain information for a
student of that height.
8 Data Analysis
& Probability
Interpret data using scatterplots and approximatelines of best
fit. Uselines of best fit to draw conclusions about data.
8.4.1.3 Assess thereasonableness of predictions using scatterplots by interpreting them
in theoriginal context.

For example: A set of data may show that thenumber of women in theU.S.
Senateis growing at a certain rateeach election cycle. Is it reasonableto usethis
trend to predict theyear in which theSenatewill eventually include1000 female
Senators?
9,
10,
11

Algebra Understand theconcept of function, and identify important
features of functions and other relations using symbolic and
graphical methods whereappropriate.
9.2.1.1 Understand thedefinition of a function. Usefunctional notation and evaluatea
function at a given point in its domain.

For example: If ( )
2
1
3
f x
x
=

, find f (-4).
9,
10,
11
Algebra Understand theconcept of function, and identify important
features of functions and other relations using symbolic and
graphical methods whereappropriate.
9.2.1.2 Distinguish between functions and other relations defined symbolically,
graphically or in tabular form.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Understand theconcept of function, and identify important
features of functions and other relations using symbolic and
graphical methods whereappropriate.
9.2.1.3 Find thedomain of a function defined symbolically, graphically or in a real-
world context.

For example: Theformula f (x) =x
2
can represent a function whosedomain is
all real numbers, but in thecontext of thearea of a circle, thedomain would be
restricted to positivex.
9,
10,
11

Algebra Understand theconcept of function, and identify important
features of functions and other relations using symbolic and
graphical methods whereappropriate.
9.2.1.4 Obtain information and draw conclusions fromgraphs of functions and other
relations.

For example: If a graph shows therelationship between theelapsed flight timeof
a golf ball at a given moment and its height at that samemoment, identify the
timeinterval during which theball is at least 100 feet abovetheground.
Page35 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11

Algebra Understand theconcept of function, and identify important
features of functions and other relations using symbolic and
graphical methods whereappropriate.
9.2.1.5 Identify thevertex, lineof symmetry and intercepts of theparabola
corresponding to a quadratic function, using symbolic and graphical methods,
when thefunction is expressed in theformf (x) =ax
2
+bx +c, in theform
f (x) =a(x h)
2
+k , or in factored form.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Understand theconcept of function, and identify important
features of functions and other relations using symbolic and
graphical methods whereappropriate.
9.2.1.6 Identify intercepts, zeros, maxima, minima and intervals of increaseand decrease
fromthegraph of a function.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Understand theconcept of function, and identify important
features of functions and other relations using symbolic and
graphical methods whereappropriate.
9.2.1.7 Understand theconcept of an asymptoteand identify asymptotes for exponential
functions and reciprocals of linear functions, using symbolic and graphical
methods.
9,
10,
11

Algebra Understand theconcept of function, and identify important
features of functions and other relations using symbolic and
graphical methods whereappropriate.
9.2.1.8 Makequalitativestatements about therateof changeof a function, based on its
graph or tableof values.

For example: Thefunction f (x) =3
x
increases for all x, but it increases faster
when x >2 than it does when x <2.
9,
10,
11

Algebra Understand theconcept of function, and identify important
features of functions and other relations using symbolic and
graphical methods whereappropriate.
9.2.1.9 Determinehow translations affect thesymbolic and graphical forms of a
function. Know how to usegraphing technology to examinetranslations.

For example: Determinehow thegraph of f (x) =|x h| +k changes as h and k
change.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Recognizelinear, quadratic, exponential and other common
functions in real-world and mathematical situations; represent
thesefunctions with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and
graphs; solveproblems involving thesefunctions, and explain
results in theoriginal context.

9.2.2.1 Represent and solveproblems in various contexts using linear and quadratic
functions.

For example: Writea function that represents thearea of a rectangular garden
that can besurrounded with 32 feet of fencing, and usethefunction to determine
thepossibledimensions of such agarden if thearea must beat least 50 square
feet.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Recognizelinear, quadratic, exponential and other common
functions in real-world and mathematical situations; represent
thesefunctions with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and
graphs; solveproblems involving thesefunctions, and explain
results in theoriginal context.
9.2.2.2 Represent and solveproblems in various contexts using exponential functions,
such as investment growth, depreciation and population growth.
9,
10,
11
Recognizelinear, quadratic, exponential and other common
functions in real-world and mathematical situations; represent
thesefunctions with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and
graphs; solveproblems involving thesefunctions, and explain
results in theoriginal context.
9.2.2.3 Sketch graphs of linear, quadratic and exponential functions, and translate
between graphs, tables and symbolic representations. Know how to usegraphing
technology to graph thesefunctions.
Page36 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11
Algebra Recognizelinear, quadratic, exponential and other common
functions in real-world and mathematical situations; represent
thesefunctions with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and
graphs; solveproblems involving thesefunctions, and explain
results in theoriginal context.

9.2.2.4 Express theterms in a geometric sequencerecursively and by giving an explicit
(closed form) formula, and express thepartial sums of a geometric series
recursively.

For example: A closed formformula for theterms t
n
in thegeometric sequence
3, 6, 12, 24, ... is t
n
=3(2)
n-1
, wheren =1, 2, 3, ... , and this sequencecan be
expressed recursively by writing t
1
=3 and
t
n
=2t
n-1
,

for n 2.

Another example: Thepartial sums s
n
of theseries 3 +6 +12 +24 +... can be
expressed recursively by writing s
1
=3 and
s
n
=3 +2s
n-1
,

for n 2.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Recognizelinear, quadratic, exponential and other common
functions in real-world and mathematical situations; represent
thesefunctions with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and
graphs; solveproblems involving thesefunctions, and explain
results in theoriginal context.
9.2.2.5 Recognizeand solveproblems that can bemodeled using finitegeometric
sequences and series, such as homemortgageand other compound interest
examples. Know how to usespreadsheets and calculators to exploregeometric
sequences and series in various contexts.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Recognizelinear, quadratic, exponential and other common
functions in real-world and mathematical situations; represent
thesefunctions with tables, verbal descriptions, symbols and
graphs; solveproblems involving thesefunctions, and explain
results in theoriginal context.

9.2.2.6
Sketch thegraphs of common non-linear functions such as ( ) f x x = ,
( ) f x x = , ( )
1
x
f x = , f (x) =x
3
, and translations of thesefunctions, such as
( )
2 4 x x f = + . Know how to usegraphing technology to graph these
functions.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Generateequivalent algebraic expressions involving
polynomials and radicals; usealgebraic properties to evaluate
expressions.

9.2.3.1 Evaluatepolynomial and rational expressions and expressions containing
radicals and absolutevalues at specified points in their domains.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Generateequivalent algebraic expressions involving
polynomials and radicals; usealgebraic properties to evaluate
expressions.

9.2.3.2 Add, subtract and multiply polynomials; dividea polynomial by a polynomial of
equal or lower degree.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Generateequivalent algebraic expressions involving
polynomials and radicals; usealgebraic properties to evaluate
expressions.

9.2.3.3 Factor common monomial factors frompolynomials, factor quadratic
polynomials, and factor thedifferenceof two squares.

For example: 9x
6
x
4
=(3x
3
x
2
)(3x
3
+x
2
).
9,
10,
11
Algebra Generateequivalent algebraic expressions involving
polynomials and radicals; usealgebraic properties to evaluate
expressions.

9.2.3.4 Add, subtract, multiply, divideand simplify algebraic fractions.

For example:
1
1 1
x
x x
+
+
is equivalent to
2
2
1 2
1
x x
x
+

.
Page37 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11
Algebra Generateequivalent algebraic expressions involving
polynomials and radicals; usealgebraic properties to evaluate
expressions.

9.2.3.5 Check whether a given complex number is a solution of a quadratic equation by
substituting it for thevariableand evaluating theexpression, using arithmetic
with complex numbers.

For example: Thecomplex number
1
2
i +
is a solution of 2x
2
2x +1 =0, since
( )
2
1 1
2 2 1 1 1 0
2 2
i i
i i




+ +
+ = + + = .
9,
10,
11
Algebra Generateequivalent algebraic expressions involving
polynomials and radicals; usealgebraic properties to evaluate
expressions.

9.2.3.6 Apply theproperties of positiveand negativerational exponents to generate
equivalent algebraic expressions, including thoseinvolving n
th
roots.

For example:
1 1 1
2 2 2
2 7 2 7 14 14 = = = . Rules for computing directly
with radicals may also beused:
3 3 3
2 2 x x = .
9,
10,
11
Algebra Generateequivalent algebraic expressions involving
polynomials and radicals; usealgebraic properties to evaluate
expressions.

9.2.3.7 J ustify steps in generating equivalent expressions by identifying theproperties
used. Usesubstitution to check theequality of expressions for someparticular
values of thevariables; recognizethat checking with substitution does not
guaranteeequality of expressions for all values of thevariables.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear, quadratic,
exponential and n
th
root functions. Solveequations and
inequalities symbolically and graphically. Interpret solutions in
theoriginal context.
9.2.4.1 Represent relationships in various contexts using quadratic equations and
inequalities. Solvequadratic equations and inequalities by appropriatemethods
including factoring, completing thesquare, graphing and thequadratic formula.
Find non-real complex roots when they exist. Recognizethat a particular solution
may not beapplicablein theoriginal context. Know how to usecalculators,
graphing utilities or other technology to solvequadratic equations and
inequalities.

For example: A diver jumps froma 20 meter platformwith an upward velocity
of 3 meters per second. In finding thetimeat which thediver hits thesurfaceof
thewater, theresulting quadratic equation has a positiveand a negativesolution.
Thenegativesolution should bediscarded becauseof thecontext.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear, quadratic,
exponential and n
th
root functions. Solveequations and
inequalities symbolically and graphically. Interpret solutions in
theoriginal context.
9.2.4.2 Represent relationships in various contexts using equations involving
exponential functions; solvetheseequations graphically or numerically. Know
how to usecalculators, graphing utilities or other technology to solvethese
equations.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear, quadratic,
exponential and n
th
root functions. Solveequations and
inequalities symbolically and graphically. Interpret solutions in
theoriginal context.
9.2.4.3 Recognizethat to solvecertain equations, number systems need to beextended
fromwholenumbers to integers, fromintegers to rational numbers, fromrational
numbers to real numbers, and fromreal numbers to complex numbers. In
particular, non-real complex numbers areneeded to solvesomequadratic
equations with real coefficients.
Page38 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11
Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear, quadratic,
exponential and n
th
root functions. Solveequations and
inequalities symbolically and graphically. Interpret solutions in
theoriginal context.
9.2.4.4 Represent relationships in various contexts using systems of linear inequalities;
solvethemgraphically. Indicatewhich parts of theboundary areincluded in and
excluded fromthesolution set using solid and dotted lines.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear, quadratic,
exponential and n
th
root functions. Solveequations and
inequalities symbolically and graphically. Interpret solutions in
theoriginal context.
9.2.4.5 Solvelinear programming problems in two variables using graphical methods.
9,
10,
11

Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear, quadratic,
exponential and n
th
root functions. Solveequations and
inequalities symbolically and graphically. Interpret solutions in
theoriginal context.
9.2.4.6 Represent relationships in various contexts using absolutevalueinequalities in
two variables; solvethemgraphically.

For example: If a pipeis to becut to a length of 5 meters accurateto within a
tenth of its diameter, therelationship between thelength x of thepipeand its
diameter y satisfies theinequality | x 5| 0.1y.
9,
10,
11
Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear, quadratic,
exponential and n
th
root functions. Solveequations and
inequalities symbolically and graphically. Interpret solutions in
theoriginal context.
9.2.4.7 Solveequations that contain radical expressions. Recognizethat extraneous
solutions may arisewhen using symbolic methods.

For example: Theequation 9 9 x x = may besolved by squaring both sides
to obtain x 9 =81x, which has thesolution
9
80
x = . However, this is not a
solution of theoriginal equation, so it is an extraneous solution that should be
discarded. Theoriginal equation has no solution in this case.

Another example: Solve
3
1 5 x + = .
9,
10,
11
Algebra Represent real-world and mathematical situations using
equations and inequalities involving linear, quadratic,
exponential and n
th
root functions. Solveequations and
inequalities symbolically and graphically. Interpret solutions in
theoriginal context.
9.2.4.8 Assess thereasonableness of a solution in its given context and comparethe
solution to appropriategraphical or numerical estimates; interpret a solution in
theoriginal context.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Calculatemeasurements of planeand solid geometric figures;
know that physical measurements depend on thechoiceof a
unit and that they areapproximations.
9.3.1.1 Determinethesurfacearea and volumeof pyramids, cones and spheres. Use
measuring devices or formulas as appropriate.

For example: Measuretheheight and radius of a coneand then usea formula to
find its volume.
Page39 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Calculatemeasurements of planeand solid geometric figures;
know that physical measurements depend on thechoiceof a
unit and that they areapproximations.
9.3.1.2 Composeand decomposetwo- and three-dimensional figures; usedecomposition
to determinetheperimeter, area, surfacearea and volumeof various figures.

For example: Find thevolumeof a regular hexagonal prismby decomposing it
into six equal triangular prisms.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Calculatemeasurements of planeand solid geometric figures;
know that physical measurements depend on thechoiceof a
unit and that they areapproximations.
9.3.1.3 Understand that quantities associated with physical measurements must be
assigned units; apply such units correctly in expressions, equations and problem
solutions that involvemeasurements; and convert between measurement
systems.

For example: 60 miles/hour =60 miles/hour 5280 feet/mile1 hour/3600
seconds =88 feet/second.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Calculatemeasurements of planeand solid geometric figures;
know that physical measurements depend on thechoiceof a
unit and that they areapproximations.
9.3.1.4 Understand and apply thefact that theeffect of a scalefactor k on length, area
and volumeis to multiply each by k, k
2
andk
3
, respectively.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Calculatemeasurements of planeand solid geometric figures;
know that physical measurements depend on thechoiceof a
unit and that they areapproximations.
9.3.1.5 Makereasonableestimates and judgments about theaccuracy of values resulting
fromcalculations involving measurements.

For example: Supposethesides of a rectanglearemeasured to thenearest tenth
of a centimeter at 2.6 cmand 9.8 cm. Becauseof measurement errors, thewidth
could beas small as 2.55 cmor as largeas 2.65 cm, with similar errors for the
height. Theseerrors affect calculations. For instance, theactual area of the
rectanglecould besmaller than 25 cm
2
or larger than
26 cm
2
, even though 2.6 9.8 =25.48.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Construct logical arguments, based on axioms, definitions and
theorems, to provetheorems and other results in geometry.
9.3.2.1 Understand theroles of axioms, definitions, undefined terms and theorems in
logical arguments.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Construct logical arguments, based on axioms, definitions and
theorems, to provetheorems and other results in geometry.
9.3.2.2 Accurately interpret and usewords and phrases such as "ifthen," "if and only
if," "all," and "not." Recognizethelogical relationships between an "ifthen"
statement and its inverse, converseand contrapositive.

For example: Thestatement "If you don't do your homework, you can't go to the
dance" is not logically equivalent to its inverse"If you do your homework, you
can go to thedance."
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Construct logical arguments, based on axioms, definitions and
theorems, to provetheorems and other results in geometry.
9.3.2.3 Assess thevalidity of a logical argument and givecounterexamples to disprovea
statement.
Page40 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Construct logical arguments, based on axioms, definitions and
theorems, to provetheorems and other results in geometry.
9.3.2.4 Construct logical arguments and writeproofs of theorems and other results in
geometry, including proofs by contradiction. Express proofs in a formthat
clearly justifies thereasoning, such as two-column proofs, paragraph proofs,
flow charts or illustrations.

For example: Prove that the sum of the interior angles of a pentagon is 540
using thefact that thesumof theinterior angles of a triangle is 180.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Construct logical arguments, based on axioms, definitions and
theorems, to provetheorems and other results in geometry.
9.3.2.5 Usetechnology tools to examinetheorems, makeand test conjectures, perform
constructions and develop mathematical reasoning skills in multi-step problems.
Thetools may includecompass and straight edge, dynamic geometry software,
design softwareor Internet applets.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Know and apply properties of geometric figures to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems and to logically justify
results in geometry.
9.3.3.1 Know and apply properties of parallel and perpendicular lines, including
properties of angles formed by a transversal, to solveproblems and logically
justify results.

For example: Provethat theperpendicular bisector of a linesegment is theset of
all points equidistant fromthetwo endpoints, and usethis fact to solveproblems
and justify other results.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Know and apply properties of geometric figures to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems and to logically justify
results in geometry.
9.3.3.2 Know and apply properties of angles, including corresponding, exterior, interior,
vertical, complementary and supplementary angles, to solveproblems and
logically justify results.

For example: Provethat two triangles formed by a pair of intersecting lines and a
pair of parallel lines (an "X" trapped between two parallel lines) aresimilar.



9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Know and apply properties of geometric figures to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems and to logically justify
results in geometry.
9.3.3.3 Know and apply properties of equilateral, isosceles and scalenetriangles to solve
problems and logically justify results.

For example: Usethetriangleinequality to provethat theperimeter of a
quadrilateral is larger than thesumof thelengths of its diagonals.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Know and apply properties of geometric figures to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems and to logically justify
results in geometry.
9.3.3.4 Apply thePythagorean Theoremand its converseto solveproblems and logically
justify results.

For example: When building a wooden framethat is supposed to havea square
corner, ensurethat thecorner is squareby measuring lengths near thecorner and
applying thePythagorean Theorem.
Page41 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Know and apply properties of geometric figures to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems and to logically justify
results in geometry.
9.3.3.5 Know and apply properties of right triangles, including properties of 45-45-90
and 30-60-90 triangles, to solveproblems and logically justify results.

For example: Use30-60-90 triangles to analyzegeometric figures involving
equilateral triangles and hexagons.

Another example: Determineexact values of thetrigonometric ratios in these
special triangles using relationships among thesidelengths.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Know and apply properties of geometric figures to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems and to logically justify
results in geometry.
9.3.3.6 Know and apply properties of congruent and similar figures to solveproblems
and logically justify results.

For example: Analyzelengths and areas in a figureformed by drawing a line
segment fromonesideof a triangleto a second side, parallel to thethird side.

Another example: Determinetheheight of a pinetreeby comparing thelength of
its shadow to thelength of theshadow of a person of known height.

Another example: When attempting to build two identical 4-sided frames, a
person measured thelengths of corresponding sides and found that they matched.
Can theperson concludethat theshapes of theframes arecongruent?
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Know and apply properties of geometric figures to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems and to logically justify
results in geometry.
9.3.3.7 Useproperties of polygonsincluding quadrilaterals and regular polygonsto
definethem, classify them, solveproblems and logically justify results.

For example: Recognizethat a rectangleis a special caseof a trapezoid.

Another example: Givea conciseand clear definition of a kite.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Know and apply properties of geometric figures to solvereal-
world and mathematical problems and to logically justify
results in geometry.
9.3.3.8 Know and apply properties of a circleto solveproblems and logically justify
results.

For example: Show that oppositeangles of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle
aresupplementary.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Solvereal-world and mathematical geometric problems using
algebraic methods.
9.3.4.1 Understand how theproperties of similar right triangles allow thetrigonometric
ratios to bedefined, and determinethesine, cosineand tangent of an acuteangle
in a right triangle.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Solvereal-world and mathematical geometric problems using
algebraic methods.
9.3.4.2 Apply thetrigonometric ratios sine, cosineand tangent to solveproblems, such
as determining lengths and areas in right triangles and in figures that can be
decomposed into right triangles. Know how to usecalculators, tables or other
technology to evaluatetrigonometric ratios.

For example: Find thearea of a triangle, given themeasureof oneof its acute
angles and thelengths of thetwo sides that formthat angle.
Page42 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Solvereal-world and mathematical geometric problems using
algebraic methods.
9.3.4.3 Usecalculators, tables or other technologies in connection with thetrigonometric
ratios to find anglemeasures in right triangles in various contexts.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Solvereal-world and mathematical geometric problems using
algebraic methods.
9.3.4.4 Usecoordinategeometry to represent and analyzelinesegments and polygons,
including determining lengths, midpoints and slopes of linesegments.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Solvereal-world and mathematical geometric problems using
algebraic methods.
9.3.4.5 Know theequation for thegraph of a circlewith radius r and center (h, k),
(x h)
2
+(y k)
2
=r
2
, and justify this equation using thePythagorean Theorem
and properties of translations.
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Solvereal-world and mathematical geometric problems using
algebraic methods.
9.3.4.6 Usenumeric, graphic and symbolic representations of transformations in two
dimensions, such as reflections, translations, scalechanges and rotations about
the origin by multiples of 90, to solve problems involving figures on a
coordinategrid.

For example: If thepoint (3,-2) is rotated 90 counterclockwise about the origin,
it becomes thepoint (2, 3).
9,
10,
11
Geometry &
Measurement
Solvereal-world and mathematical geometric problems using
algebraic methods.
9.3.4.7 Usealgebra to solvegeometric problems unrelated to coordinategeometry, such
as solving for an unknown length in a figureinvolving similar triangles, or using
thePythagorean Theoremto obtain a quadratic equation for a length in a
geometric figure.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Display and analyzedata; usevarious measures associated with
data to draw conclusions, identify trends and describe
relationships.
9.4.1.1 Describea data set using data displays, including box-and-whisker plots;
describeand comparedata sets using summary statistics, including measures of
center, location and spread. Measures of center and location includemean,
median, quartileand percentile. Measures of spread includestandard deviation,
rangeand inter-quartilerange. Know how to usecalculators, spreadsheets or
other technology to display data and calculatesummary statistics.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Display and analyzedata; usevarious measures associated with
data to draw conclusions, identify trends and describe
relationships.
9.4.1.2 Analyzetheeffects on summary statistics of changes in data sets.

For example: Understand how inserting or deleting a data point may affect the
mean and standard deviation.

Another example: Understand how themedian and interquartilerangeare
affected when theentiredata set is transformed by adding a constant to each data
valueor multiplying each data valueby a constant.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Display and analyzedata; usevarious measures associated with
data to draw conclusions, identify trends and describe
relationships.
9.4.1.3 Usescatterplots to analyzepatterns and describerelationships between two
variables. Using technology, determineregression lines (lineof best fit) and
correlation coefficients; useregression lines to makepredictions and correlation
coefficients to assess thereliability of thosepredictions.
Page43 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Display and analyzedata; usevarious measures associated with
data to draw conclusions, identify trends and describe
relationships.
9.4.1.4 Usethemean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution
(bell-shaped curve) and to estimatepopulation percentages. Recognizethat there
aredata sets for which such a procedureis not appropriate. Usecalculators,
spreadsheets and tables to estimateareas under thenormal curve.

For example: After performing several measurements of someattributeof an
irregular physical object, it is appropriateto fit thedata to a normal distribution
and draw conclusions about measurement error.

Another example: When data involving two very different populations is
combined, theresulting histogrammay show two distinct peaks, and fitting the
data to a normal distribution is not appropriate.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Explain theuses of data and statistical thinking to draw
inferences, makepredictions and justify conclusions.
9.4.2.1 Evaluatereports based on data published in themedia by identifying thesource
of thedata, thedesign of thestudy, and theway thedata areanalyzed and
displayed. Show how graphs and data can bedistorted to support different points
of view. Know how to usespreadsheet tables and graphs or graphing technology
to recognizeand analyzedistortions in data displays.

For example: Displaying only part of a vertical axis can makedifferences in data
appear deceptively large.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Explain theuses of data and statistical thinking to draw
inferences, makepredictions and justify conclusions.
9.4.2.2 Identify and explain misleading uses of data; recognizewhen arguments based
on data confusecorrelation and causation.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Explain theuses of data and statistical thinking to draw
inferences, makepredictions and justify conclusions.
9.4.2.3 Design simpleexperiments and explain theimpact of sampling methods, bias
and thephrasing of questions asked during data collection.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and apply probability concepts to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.
9.4.3.1 Select and apply counting procedures, such as themultiplication and addition
principles and treediagrams, to determinethesizeof a samplespace(thenumber
of possibleoutcomes) and to calculateprobabilities.

For example: If onegirl and oneboy arepicked at randomfroma class with 20
girls and 15 boys, thereare20 15 =300 different possibilities, so the
probability that a particular girl is chosen together with a particular boy is
1
/
300
.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and apply probability concepts to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.
9.4.3.2 Calculateexperimental probabilities by performing simulations or experiments
involving a probability model and using relativefrequencies of outcomes.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and apply probability concepts to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.
9.4.3.3 Understand that theLaw of Large Numbers expresses a relationship between the
probabilities in a probability model and theexperimental probabilities found by
performing simulations or experiments involving themodel.
Page44 of 45
September 22, 2008

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Mathematics


Strand Standard No. Benchmark
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and apply probability concepts to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.
9.4.3.4 Userandomnumbers generated by a calculator or a spreadsheet, or taken froma
table, to performprobability simulations and to introducefairness into decision
making.

For example: If a group of students needs to fairly select oneof its members to
lead a discussion, they can usea randomnumber to determinetheselection.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and apply probability concepts to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.
9.4.3.5 Apply probability concepts such as intersections, unions and complements of
events, and conditional probability and independence, to calculateprobabilities
and solveproblems.

For example: Theprobability of tossing at least onehead when flipping a fair
coin threetimes can becalculated by looking at thecomplement of this event
(flipping threetails in a row).
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and apply probability concepts to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.
9.4.3.6 Describetheconcepts of intersections, unions and complements using Venn
diagrams. Understand therelationships between theseconcepts and thewords
AND, OR, NOT, as used in computerized searches and spreadsheets.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and apply probability concepts to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.
9.4.3.7 Understand and usesimpleprobability formulas involving intersections, unions
and complements of events.

For example: If theprobability of an event is p, then theprobability of the
complement of an event is 1 p; theprobability of theintersection of two
independent events is theproduct of their probabilities.

Another example: Theprobability of theunion of two events equals thesumof
theprobabilities of thetwo individual events minus theprobability of the
intersection of theevents.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and apply probability concepts to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.
9.4.3.8 Apply probability concepts to real-world situations to makeinformed decisions.

For example: Explain why a hockey coach might decidenear theend of the
gameto pull thegoalieto add another forward position player if theteamis
behind.

Another example: Consider therolethat probabilities play in health care
decisions, such as deciding between having eyesurgery and wearing glasses.
9,
10,
11
Data Analysis
& Probability
Calculateprobabilities and apply probability concepts to solve
real-world and mathematical problems.
9.4.3.9 Usetherelationship between conditional probabilities and relativefrequencies in
contingency tables.

For example: A tablethat displays percentages relating gender (maleor female)
and handedness (right-handed or left-handed) can beused to determinethe
conditional probability of being left-handed, given that thegender is male.

Page45 of 45
September 22, 2008