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:EDWI.~ L. HMSLE'r is Ex.ecuUve Director" DepartmJmlt of Alumni Re'maHOUih U'1DiV>e<mty o.f Minnesota,.

H~ was hmnedy DOOling Cla<:~ and Asii'lltantPnuessor of Physit'3!] Educatiio:ll and. R.e~tjo:n tJu~:re, a,lweJI as: Dil'ectoI' of 'the Northwest GOMen. Glows" -

BOXIN'G

BY'

Fm'm,~r Boxitlg CQad~, Unitu!rsUy of Mitl'fU:SQt.a D,i~,ed'Q"i NrJ'n/jwe.Si~~ Golden Glow

THE RONALD PRESS COMPANY N.EW YORK

PREFACE

THH mooK.~sthe ,outgl'owth of sjmen ye3:tS~ dose 8!$sodat~o:llJl with oo:dng,. It is fhe answe:r~o' the evident need for a book wMch would present simply" oondsely, and graJlh~caUythe teihniqufl o£ boxing., BM:iDg~S Ma:inly~n die ield of' moto:r learHing~whiCh m~l1s habit fio,r.mat[:o~ andUie devilopmef!!t oif stilt n~$ Important then that each .. skill rooeives the pr(lpe:r emph~is at tJne rrg~t t-imf:. Incorrect methOOt OOiether withhnpwpetteaching sequenee, ~jallywhe:n hierar(h~CiS, of ski11mu~t be developed, dei~itely Urnit thepossjjbnlties Oiflear.niug. The automatiziljlit;mQf skills and e~emen.ts 1)£ .skmsin. ~hej:r proper seqru,en~ is aibso~u~ely ~ss{lfitial~o t.heg:rMliest uldma,t.e d~ve:lopme:!1t.

The pw'bl@m in boxing is, Dot o:nly whiCh skins ,a,ndtecl1niql,l.es to fearn, but when and how to learn them, L~~e:tatur~ In the field at the p:reM~ttime ~emiH:g'ly Ignores this problem. In afruY field where continued dev~lap:me:tl.t re$ts upon the m,astery (If ,eaCh el~e.T.l.tinrts correet place, the leandtlgsequena'l is an importa~t.. Gr.eat skill in boxing can result only through masllery of each.ooC:htl:iqu~ in its preper place,

--' - - '"

nere is a pliOpel l<!!anting sequence ill bo~ng which., If fo[lQwed.t

a:l!k!,.ws a na~~~,a~ d.evelopment to result, Ignore it and. the dlW'cl(lipme,nt. of skill is, de!lil:'ljte~y '~~mibed.

The .~earning sequence .he:l'ein. presented lsthe result of expe.rime;;nt. and ~pedence. It is not perfecr and no doubt iUrLM:[ ,expe:de~e wnI bring constructive changes, It Is, .bowever, a sequence whitb. ~e~m1il to h:rhr the '. uhl'·est 11\, 'l~' ad - .. ~,~ ~\'~!I] --c"t·h- .-.- .-, .. ' . . ·t· t

,. ,g _ _ q ~ __ c' _ esu_~s a__ gl:'eall\;s~ S~"d, WI ,3. nnmroum au _pu_.

of tlt:l1f: and ene1r.e;y. Followed dosely, :it enables the student of boxing t\(l 'OOfitLfiU.e a:;. far as .~5 de~;ired., abU~ry and detetm~naUQn being the lonly limiting factors.

Acknowledgment Is made to my wife~ Ma:r~ JI,1,argar..et, fOl the techB~cal ,edIting of this book, and toPhU Bratn .of theU rlJ]v!I'ln:lty of Mtnfifisota for the photographs U.1?01l which the dralilriIlg$ are based ..

CONTENTS

- -

CIfAHIiI,

I" The FwdamentaJ!. Position .'

'1

IV. F'uDl:liameDta~ FootW'Qrk ..

39

vn. The Elimlenti o~ .Auack

6S

vnI. T.~t CO;l),Oter Attack

X. lUng Craft and. Ring Gem~ralshlp •

94

Index; .,

u:9

THE PUNDAMiE,NTAL :POSJTION

TDEF\iI.Nli!A.ME'N'FAL bomg posiUon is that ~j.tlQIl. mQ~t ta¥orable to' the mechaniCail. e~eoo,tjG:1l ,of ~e ~ec~~~qjue$ and sk~ns w~ic:h. make up bo::dt'!:g.. ]t allows (Gmp~ebel:!e]aatalio~ yet at the same time g~ves a: muscle OO:~us most fav'ol'aJibIDe ·~oql[[kkreat'tiQntffime.1 t helps to oo(l:r'(!;i~ BaJ't,e handls andf:eet so tba:tm~:llm speed and effilde:l:lJCywUI I~ult,. wbieh in ~11i.~rwpe:rR'il~~sthe gtlea:test possibiliries for ewfbe:r 3i!ttaclL or detense. IthliSlUe.s tlh~t tle£eet are alwaysu~d~[ the body IWdi the;r~ ~ol1e~~a:~ the oody~s. always in ba:rua~ce .

. EXPLANAT~ON

PI. .~qu.a.re stance wii!S used d~r~figl±le G!Iledan. pl!r~Qd,t~al is, the le:ft ail'~.w;ag~olded bjgllDJand ~ruQse ~Q the body ,~~!iiea. prima.r.rIDy for de(~fiSWV@ purposes wh~le tlu~t~~~ .!liITt!. \11'8$ ~~ed. .~~ .. ~hooking, ~w.[~,ging morv~me~t.

En EtJ:gla~d. ~heboocins: positioll. ~eeW!$ to h~Vle djeVle]~.from the fend~g ~Iti.~n!. w~M1J the right foo~ and h!:li~d ,carl'iooforwacfdtwlth the ~e:f~ sIDde of th@r.oOiy back.~· As ~he d~[re dev~~aped, lohit w~th both hau]IDd!sj' the :5q13liliille and then Braduallythe' presentse-cslled 'Q[thod,Ocl'( stil!!l!lite ,evoru.V1tld], Cruar!ke ,~ :SQsg~ststhe rf;la~@~ ito be' th:at~e left .h_d W31S fQud t{l .~ bS~f!r than the dgbt h~dfrom the !iiquare stance.

Thrue~s litt!'~ doubt tha:~ the Plr·ese:o:t odhQdG-xp!}sition r,e-suited because Qfllt'.~lwt~.oond.~d mtt[~, .For anym.oveme~t 'Qf the fighthatlid in w!l1rkb pc'wer~s noodJ~dJ ~t fu 'o~~yna~ura[ to sta~d with the left. fOOit iorw,a~d.. It i$~fu~ :na[~r'almQve[nent in all thr(l·wing events ~ and [~ is ~be pi!lsiti:o:~oftbe bJ:ack:Sffi!~~h wbensw.[~,g~~g a s.],edge. Because mos~. poople arer.igffiaJt~h~)IiJldedl· it~s nOOfSS!:lLry to shift the left footfolW<ll'd in Qrdelt' ~Ol Qbta:ffi~~Ql!IVer in.r.~t·haJ!ded blows.

i NOimlll!1'1 OI:arik.>ej. HoW' to Bo»: N,ew YOl>k: Do:ran, a:nd ComJpany, IQ:;IS·,p. 42, ~ UH:'.Ii'n.

laXING

USE

Theprimsry put];XiSe fifo ooxing is. hitting. Tile:felore,. tbe use' ·of the fundamental pos:ition is to obtain the mos,tfavor<l!b~e p!)Sition fo:r~ittffin.g. To. bit effecti\!ely it is nec:e.sGry to .oift the weigh:t ()o~sta~tly [flOm on:el.eg t.o· the othe:r. This means perfect oomroI Gif body balan~e. Balance is thoe: ID'(lst important oODS'i,dle!!:'ation. of the f:lUid!l\!menta:~ posJtio.n .

. BaJance is Ilic1lleved only through eoerect body alignment. The· feelj; tbel~J the trunk,. 'the head. are aWW important in creating and maintaining !Jba:man~d position. T.1le S!ifRUl. ~Te~m.porunJt. only because dll;ey are t~: vehides; of body foree, They on]y g:ive~-pre-ss~GiI1 ~o; body iOll"ce when the: body is. m pitOpef alignment. A position. olf the hatnds .aMl' aJrmg, which f.acilitabes easy body expression is impo~tant. T.hef,oot position .is the most in1'portaot p,hase of' balance. Keeping the feet .in p~oper :reJation to ea;ch ·other as well as to the body Jile]ps to mawntain coned 'body alJgnm.ent..

. 'too w~die: a stance prevents PIT:O[lel" body llignment, destro,yw!IlJi.g balance but obtain~ng solidlarity and power at the· oost of' speed and ICiffiJdent mo,wHloent. A 5hlOlt stance prevents balat'1~e as, .i~. doe-s not g~ve .11 basis ~["(Im whi:ch to work. Speed results but at .a:Woss of pow-eland hallan(le.

The secret of the properstan(l[! is ~o· kee:p,tbe feet aJ~.ways, directly under the 'body which meana that the ~eelt dl,ouild be al ~ed~~m dilS,., tance: apW't. Either the weig;!wt is balanced ovef: ootb :~egs O.r thewe:~li',;ht Iscarrlfd. sUghtWy :forwud 'Ovef a !!t[a~ght lift leg wtth thll! left s~de ·(!If the body fo:rm~ng' a straigh.t line .from. the left hee] tgl tbeUp oi the: left shOUlder .. This position. permits rel'axatiofi, speed~ balance, and easy :movt'mef:lt as weU as fII meChanical advantage', ntakhilg' possibte· t:remendous power.

'THE TECHNIQUE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL .POSITION TuE. FEET

From ,a. na.tuIa:~ standing' posidoD sbUt the weight directly over the right leg until the d'gbt side ·af the bOOy forms, a slraigbtUflf:'; the~ r.Mse the left foot slightly Glff the fl!oo~. R.otatetbe: w.hO:le left leg' inward~ and place the left f··oo1 00, the floor wit~ di:e' left me t(Jud'll~~g the ~oe of the rtgbt foot on about a for~y-degl',ee ang1e (F.~gl.1re It pag~ 3). Widtwt altedng the,reWadve· footpositious, takie ene step, forward. with.

THE FUNDAMENTAL POSmON' ,5

die' .eftfMtt s1Jlftinl tile· weipt to, ·lht .Idt.lq. 'nt.left, fCMllt II now Oat lOB 'dIe 8oer .. :mtatedmw .. d OD about I fiorty.:d .... ogle. 1bI1eft leg ~d .Ieft .sid~ olf' the body Illoul:d f!0fDl1 :a :straight linet .lItboqh the . left kn~' is lOOsel and easy; neitbu lodlednor bent. As, the weight is shined

"IG·3

tl)the·ten le.S, the right heel [.1riSieS off the :1001: .andthe dgb~kn~ is ~nt. ~~tmw the toe: o:f the right~(lotpo:inting directly forward (Figure 2,

page i)· . . _ . '. . ... . '. . ..__

- Thi'S :posld08M!ii(Y be tOOD!U'row .The~efore, . ~ make. ~ \ride~ base,

mQlV'e the ri,bt foot tbrceeo<rf,ourinches ·to tb.e .r'i:gbt rn:akmg su.re thai.!

,~1I1~f f'OQ1i'

~U~JlT floOT

1ti'.IG. 4

iDiagam il),fPr'(IfIel" FGOtPcsid·O,n

BOXlNC

·the foot hi, moved directly 'to the riPt andinOl bac'kwud ,( Figure~ 3 and 4,pa«e 3) • Thus a 'meba:se bi, obtained wi.tbout, sacrifidng speed or power.

Tn TII.lJINK

The ~,ition o;i t~e trunk is eon:t.roUedi p:rima~ly' by the pos.ido:lil ,of \. the :left, {{lot and~g. :If the l~f;t foot, and :~eg is,,~n tM: corre~ posi!t~O'llI~, " the trunk automatIcally assumes the proper pI1slU'on. The OM .ihllpodacnrt"" thing about the U'unk is that it should. forma, straight line w~tb. the~eft leg (F.igure 5).,

Fm., 5

The Fundame·~ta.l PQsit~on

As the hdt foot and meg is, turned inwam!, the body rO't~te.s 'to t1le, rlght~ whkh presents a narrow targe,t, to the 0ppoItum,t, If. hOlW'ever 1 ,the left foot and~eg Is :mtate~ outward, the body ~ s.quafed tow,am the opponent presecJ!ting a large ta:rget. For de:fen~h,e purposes the nal'KlW target :i:s ad,vlntagoous, while th~ sq-uare position, lends ibeU better 'to attack.

THE LEFt' ARIlil AND HANII'

Ho~d the left~ arm ffina. f'olded positi.o:n~, elbow dlown. aJli'lId ~nfrO:f,)t oi the shor,t rlbs, Cawry dM'~, left hand ,aibnrL sn.oiJ.lifd~r .be:ig~t and 1(11 the ],eft shoulder te th.e le~t as f'ar W3, possible without ra~S:~mIDg 'the: left elbow'. Pllace tbe :left handfOTWlU'd e:ighrt to tell: inches from t:M left shou~derJ the ,ami relaxed.iii1nd easy, at rest because ,of the pruxiimity 'of the trieeps, to the la:tissilnus ;m.usde. Tum the band! ;so that the thumib side

is up~, :knudJes tllw,aJd the outsi'deJthe hand r;elDed and open I( Figure 5~ pa:gl 4)··

THE RroH1:' ARM: ANI!) HA;ND' ._

Place: we right e:lbo"v"" directly down aed infronto,f t:ne shor~ nbs, holdingilierig~~ hand open with pa1m~m theopPORe'Dt ~nd .. dlfeC?Y kii '~wmnrt. O'~ the :n!!:ht shouldet', K'eep the T.~gh.t hand forward. m Ime Wlt~ the le# shm.lIDd~T'.. The ar-m :s'hould be [le]axtd and 'easy, [,eady tn ,3"t,tack

'0'1' def@nd (Fig~[ie s. :pillg~ 4).

'THE HEAD

- In boxing" the :hem. is. 'uea:fJed as Hit-welle a pil:'rt of the trunk wi~ :no

independienlt a.ctiOB of its, own. It should be ,canieid iOTward, with the ,ch~n pinned down to the breast-bone. This position mtlist tt!{!ver vary' no mla~ter hor'w thebodiy sbifts. Ifthe body tums, the headturns.

The ,ch~n 15 not ~~tu.c~edn be'biud the ~eft shoulder except in an el:.~ treme defells~¥e: p05~Uon. '~~Tucking'~ the ehtn ~nt,o, 'me _leit s~o~tdel turns die neck into an unnatural po:slt~O'n~ takes ,away the support of ~~e mU5'cles~ ,~d preven~ st[,a~gbt bone :aUg~ment .. It ailso tenses tbe .~eU sboulder ,and ann" pr,ev,enung :£ree action :and causing fatigue.

With the chin dropped ,directly forward and pinned tight to tb~ breast-bone the muscles and bone structure are in the best po~sible .a~lgnm.ent, ;aud only thetop of the bead Is presented, t~ ~ ,o~poneQt mak~ng it ~Mp"ssiMe to ~~t a mJ~.lO 0(1 t-ne point (If the dun (F~g:U!re'5;

~1l4).

TH~ UNO'Elm:oOOX p:osrnON

- The le'ft .. ,banded boxeli ~ :1 j'so'Uthpaw~J lin the pada~ce ,of the: :rinSt

:shuwd take the esaet opposite of the erthodox pos~tiO'n de:scdbed above. Hold the right hand ,and right foot .~orwaJd. 'Do no,t try to chaug:~ to tbeofthodo~pos~tion untnthis uno.rtbodo,)!C style ;i:s mastered. Then it is ad.v~sable' to leamthe ortbodo']l:fo,r.m so that eventual,y both positions ,can, be used.

FiUNDAMENTALS OF FORM

I,. 'f.R left foot .~ Hat Ion the loo.t ,a~d ~~r.ned in. at an angle of f~,rty' degrees.

::I. The Fe:ft :~eg II :s~r,a:i,gh~ bUll the knee is :1'!J.'ot locked.

3,. Theri:.!bt heel is, raised ,sibQut ~wo inches off the floor, with the dgp' 'knee 'beRt.

BoXING

Weilbt. :is, either b~ between ~t:b legs orsMftoo sUptf, t.OI thefrQl1t leg.

-The l~ftside of the bodIy :for.ms, ,a. straight line with the le:rt leg, Both ,elbows are ca:rried down and~n front of the short rihs,

The, left :band! is, earned down almos;t s'bo'Uld.er he~ght7 ei~ht to ten iDc:bes :in flont Q,i the bodYJ and tolhe Idt as far as po:ssiiMe liVidilO!!IJ~ raiSing: die left eHxrw.

The ris:ht hand :is carded Up". piilI]m opeD toward the oppone~~, and. dillectly in fro'liit of' the right sho,u~def.

; .. The chin is, dropped fO'lward. to, the breast-bone and tightly ptnn.ed..,

T.HE ART OF HITTING

'. DBF.INITION

THE ~ Hl1:'TlNG is the -art of 'o'b~jning maximl1,m.1 paw'et; in blows wiitb a nti:nimll!iiBli 0'1' ,effort" :Because ooWfig is a sport in, wblch ,one COD,~es!tanJ1t. atlilempts to OUlthit the IOth@t by means of welMim,ed and

, maneu'Jeredblocws., hitting .is, the~oundatiQn oiboxiog ..

EXPLANATION

HirM:in.g is t~ly an art i,ol It is the systematic study of how whit :st'raig'tilrt ,and fast most ,ef[:ec,ny,ely while 'Using body power r,atber than meq' arm pow,~J' ..

The abiilily UlI hit stratg't. ff'O~ the idw'uld.e[ is not anatural a'Cit.

It eaaaot be leeraed by e~ance and le,~dence does not teach it. Stra:ig~tfliiiUin!h with, body powell' behind lea.eh b~o,w, is ag art that takes years, of' s,tudy and.pr,actice to perfect,

T.he Jooords ,oif ms,to:ry tel. us that ,eady boxing 'WillS done ahnost en~ til'ely w~tb the bent arm,~at is, by swingi:n:g and.bookin,g. Such a lIlI.t,thod seems, to be' D81WI,e'S way 'of hitth'lg as evidel'lCOO frQrn a study of wild me. Botth the Icat ,aJDd the bear f,amiU~s slap and cull" The :qaJtul'al temde~cy for an tUltrained.person when :fig'hrt~~~s to swing. Sb",ai!!lhtbiitting" ~ben" mU:!i~, be sJt.lIJJd~ed. ltiQlbe lear.ned.

Straight hiM~nl!l was ,est;a:bUshed during ~e iGoilden Age of the Prize lUng:, but wasbro.ught, to its bjgb.es~ d~VfilO<pment by James J. CO!1'beu in Amedca. It ~s inruportant because it ~, much faster and more aooUl'ate than C'urved hitting, for ,ii., s.tt'aigbt brow win ,c,beatti' a boo,t, or a swing .in ,ev,ery instance. There is less chance '0:( :m'iissing wi.th a straIght. blow Ind because o~ the g~eater f:requency ,of hit!! more da.ma,ge can be done. Because bal!an(ei!l~eS's d:isturbooJ s.traight hiJting .is s8i:ferl• surer tiJInd easier.

Str,IEgiut hittlm;g is based U]JI!!lI:n an uDd!ets:!tand\[~ of Tbody structure aJl!d the valu€! of' '~",et'a:p. n~s an atte.pt tn use 'body wlJ!ight ill ev~ry b~Q!w I' hitti1l:gwi'th,t~e body ~ the arms being merely the wfiilcle of feree, AmI action a1011!.e: is insuffide'D!t togiy,e veal! power to bmows,. Real power,

'1

8'

,

BOXING

quick ,ud attUf,lII~el ~,be ,o,btained onlybf siMf:tiQ,g: the weight in ;sucb a manner that the 1Dp, and shou~der precede tb:e artm to ~e ~en,W line of the bodly~ Otb~7at tlIe :moment (if impald there win Mt be fujm body weight behin.d tke blo,w. There are only two ~~~oos whrkh oh~lIfjIl a oomp~,ete !l'~Ut o~weijgbt~. One 'medl0d ;5 apiv,ot 0.1' quict turn of thewaist ,alh),wing tbebip and snou]deT te Jlirocede th.e arlil1!" the ,other 'being a full body pivot, shimng the weight from one leg: ,to the odIe!. The waist pivot is faster and easier to Jearn ,and ~s !!.IiSW, as, the b~i!!, ,of t.eaching the aft of 4rltHng.

T,o, see a boxer 'h~t str,aigbt, 'frQmthe s~'O'~ld~iI.' loo'lts very Shi!Ulpte:i ye~, it is t'h-e most difficult technique of aU bO'xing; to le'8lnll.

Hitti:ng does notmeacn p:y:sh:ing:. TruehlrUing may be. UkeMd bJ' a snap' of a whi:P--aU the ,energy is s.lowly ronce:ntraled and then .sudden(y released with a tremendous outpouring (If' poiWer., Pushing is ,e:Xa4l:dytbe oppo:sJ,te, with the oon{lentr:at«ldfOT~ ,at t!at!: seart (1,1 the blow aJ~d a subslKiueot loss oi ,power asthearm le<lv'es, the: booy. In, real biitting die Ieet are aMways dixecdy under the body. I~ p~s.hitlg" the body is, '~Jfte~ ol.,balance as the: force of the bruOiW does ncot come fw-'om ~, ,ivo~ of ~be body but fr(llll, a, push GIl: the dgb~, toe.

The t:heo,ry o:f hltt~ng finay best be ,grasped ,tb:fQugb. analogy .. fk,turre' if you wm a boatdj two inches by 1twe~ve incbes" and two, feet 11!;l~. Tbrough th'e reI1i~e:t of' this beard ll;, p']aJ.c~d ill, rod. on wbkb the bOal,fdl. will turn easily hom side to ~~de:. Hil'i:ged~tI,tbe upper two COn~e,TS 'oli the ooafdare two 'sma]] pii,pes. Ordinarily~, the p~pes, wO'wd.hapg direct'~y down, but :lus,tead,ima2;.l.ne that they are M~d fQtw,aoo ,at right ,an,gmes to the ooa:m .. Now, by tu.rnhlg the board on the rod ene of die'pl,pes wnl be :For«d. out s.traight ahead ~ while the' other pipe: wii~W.l'ecede: directly backward. When the board is t\!lirned~p die~ opposite dl~r,ecttQ~) the acUoo is. reversed.

That is the correct p'l'il'lciple' I)'" hitting., Tbe board oorrespo'nd!! ~O' the trunk of theltmdry .d the two, pipes the arms, Emagwne a rod placed directly through. the, tenter line of the body; that ;8, the spinai~ cohmtn. NQW ~ ~u~.n to the left, then to tOe dWit, and illS dre shoulder reaches tne center line of: the body one arm is fOrcibly ex.tended w'iWe the other arm is folded close to, the body.,

Power in :OUting COtnes fro~ a quick tw~st oif tbe: watstt nota sw~~g· ~ng~ swaying m.ovement, but a pi,lI'oto1ver the strarnght left leg .• o!\s, lo".!!; as, this straight 'nne is maintalned~ as long as th.e lI~ps ar,e relaxed and free to swi:og, as long as the, 'shoulders are turned through b) the 'c~n;ter

UDe, ,of the '~ beiorce t:he,arm-s ... l~iI '~'wm result ami mttilmg 'wilJ 'beaD, art., Once the :stMibt llilne ,ot' tl:I:e mIt side of the b0dy is, broken; 'PO'W'eF is 'Iostb~se the straight left side of the body is (he Mlch~" thepiv.ot 'point, the bin,p from w,bkh: poWer and force is gene:l"ated '~o' its g;lIytesltheigbt.

So great is, the PjWf!!r liliat may 'be altaiued in. this manner that a real al'tis,t,inbodngcan deWiV1eI'II knoe~out, 'blow without taking a si.ngle step forward, ot ,d~&playing3!llilY app.aren't effort.

USE

Tille purpose ,of ,hiUlng~n boxin,g is obvious. As Wong as the wboIDeidea of boxing is tob~,tthe ,opponent without being bit in retu!rDt then the p,rimary purpose of hitting ~s robe aible: to hit bard and fUlt 3ifid to preveDit tite' oPfiO,nent f'i)O"MbmtJtJing' ba(;k~t.hus sc(lrIrag poin,b;, ,and winIlii~ 'the' ll1~kh.

THE TECHNIQUE OF HITTINO THE TURN OR PIViOi'

Stand '€!:lie£t, feet on ;aliDe1~oes forw,arn., one natural stance apart.

ArMS sho1lliM hang fl'iee :and easy at. me sides. Imagine' a rod placed ,d~r,ecdiy~'~rOUJgb the '~(iad i' diJiWn ~be SfIinel, andtnto tbeft,ooir. A rod. so plaeed wOlIDi~dI WlowG'aliy on.e mWB'lnent, :aturning er piy,oting; of the booy ~eft ot right. Themd would prevent :swin,gingJ s,waying o.r bending in ,amy directiOn ,( Figurt 6" p~ge 10).

WW,thtbe bo~y in. the ,abovepositioR, turn left ,and rfghtaUowmgthe arms ~o' s,wing.Be sure that the waist U.Ii!m;S the ,arms, 1I10t ~atme arms tum the w,aJist .. The arms wwUsw;~g 'O'l!i!t. freely w.wtb ,ey,ery tur,n of the 'body. lllrmg the sbouhletwe~~ IliwUnd 0'0 every 'turn Witbthe hips sw.~~n.g:f:ree1y .. Continue tumingf[m:n~eft to right until this mOll,ement is firmly estab~[shedi (Figures 7'and 8, page .1U» •.

ThE ,CLOSE-ELBOW 'FURN

Without altering the stance" bend. the arWl.iS at the elbows, open t'be handis, _d 'briRg them to a pOS:~j;,ion eight roten in.ches direcdy ~n ([lont 01 the ey'es, (F.w8llire 9jpage re). The ,e']ibows otR' down (lQse in iront 'olf l~ebodly t the fo:rear:-ms fotnting a sU;,a_ght lin.efrorn the ,eJllbow to the tip of tIre·filllgt!il's.

NQw, turn the bod!y as .in the pfle'\iollS eJ!ercise using the waist to Itum ,J:.hebody wen~hrougb wit'lhout .any sw.inging 'Oil' swaying. The turn,

I'I~. '] F~~. 8 :F]~. '9

n:e ,Body Turn 0:1' .PIDvot

OM .~~ body ~s a str,a~nt. pivo~, Theposidoill o~ theh!l!J:!l!dls dO~Iil(lt change du~~q thJs mo,veM>e"nt.iC.eep't;h.e chinOlo'wli'I ,on the breast·roQue as if it w,e'fe pililined there. Can.thl!~e t~~se:xe:l'c:iSe un.tll i:t canbe ea:s:i(y p~r£o ... med,

TImA!W .EXUNSION, PALlIIS 'UP'

Again. aMum[ng ~he aoove posjtio:l:1.,. reaM out with the~eit!U'Tll~paJiIiIll ~pj' to a point infron.t of the b(ldy w~ldl re,pl'e:se!!!!tstlite medhmo[[' oonterUne. Th.erlghtbanO!, palm.llIp~ is h,e~dI ,on tihe, cThn.e$tlru~~ed. UPI d~ftctWy behind. the l~:ft hand, so that a stnrugbtnne ~ay besh~~~ed between ~e tWQ!hands. Tum (hebod.y to the left and wmle turnilQg d[i'Vethe rigbt .ha:nd to the exact :!ipoll vM:<lwdb,y ~e:~ef't (.Pigu'rlel OJ, p"ge 10). As the rIg~th3i~d dirives out, In.to ,e!Xtens~n~ Ithe~.efta!rm io1lds, tn 'the bodYl e~ltm'w d!QWDJ palm ~n amd eyf!~ev,eL O:/m;Hnu.e ~1I:lImtng U!J1!til tbe a~.ms. can be driven fiolLw!3!!I'lltlike pis.1i:om.

Tile P:l'tDcrplle~ o~ the red should notlile: f:oil.'gm:teu. The tW.istOif the wa:ist~s a direct tun~ from right to left".wUh nOI swingblg or swaying" The elbows are in, patlllS. ~p and 'open. 'Each af. tti!ustli>e! oom,~et:eIDy e:ttelJlded on .. ev,e:.ry tl!J!rD of the bod:y.TIH! ann m1l!ls~,be eXitend.ed OD ,I.

T.HE ART' .oF :HITDNG :1.

:s~raigbtUiu~ ddvin,g sJi8htlJ upW'udJand rcelumed oatH samestr.aight Une.~. od!er woras'J ·the 'pl!n.e of ·the :fist.n.evervlries and. tbeelbow

DeY e. iF,.' Id.;.rop .•.. :CS .1lIuik. _.,t .. ' ..•••. (1iIe .• ~ .. ~ .. '--.!bOO,f .Ime.

How '1'0' "MMfJ./J. Fin

Befiom ;ilit~emptiq ~o mtwiitb ,1I,i cm~ fist,.lt wessen.tial 00 lea!l'.nhow to· :r.U"(Ip!rIDy denrliJJ tbebitDd tGmlate a 651t. Improper denching ~f!be hand, uwe.l~. astlle! laCko:f lrullW~edge !l!!~ how~o 'l!JSe ·theist. for hItting 'pu;rposes",3;COOl!I!flJt$ farm<lst of tle~bro,k;OO'I. and db;figuroo hands.

To~e a tigbtistp~a£>e th.efil1lers intbe ce~~e:r 'of the palmand ,dm.e~e thulilll.bovel' and. across, thepha:lan,ges o~ the seooRd ~d. third :bgers so thatt~e thll.ulitb·side of theha1flld isper.flect~y flat (F:igUl:'el ~. page.u) ..

DmrlNG .Bom &NDS 1'lJliO'UGH

N,o,w ass,.n~rne the fU!!ildl!!!Men~a:J pOO~ltiOD. P~donn tbe same :irltHng a~J:lcise as, be~ore but w~. de~ed.llsts. En the f~Qdaro.en~a)position 'theist. isbeM se ~ha~, the ~lim1ffilS:~OJe wsupward •. As the body is turaed to ther;fgbrt~ and the b~if~.ar~ driven into ex~em;~on~~he wrist .rs tUf.Md Ul!Wi8i!!:'d, so. iliaJlt 31tate ~ODle~t IOif impact the~u:rnlb s~de of the hand is io"k;n.lUCkle.s up .. T.iItws q,uader tum. ·of the w.nst is a: natural mov\e_~~-flIt lof theMnlIa~d!. ghres ;1t smruap ta~e blow impooolble to obtain ~n any OilieI' manner .e

W'j!m the l~f:t.m now' :hekl. out i~~o oomple~e lenen'S:i:onj . .tine the tight _d up d~"ctWy behtind it. Q!ukldy tl1r!!il~e bOOyb;il th.e~en,d!rivi~g the ri8~th_d.in,to ~{llMple~e l~ens~o:lilJthe left am1l.fiold~n.g to the booy~ lel'Mw d!OWfij• ,~llIiIdJ up ad. ~DI .~~.posUion. (!Ii guard (Figu[!~ll and~.3~p.ap ![ 2:.). !(loJil~~1H: this, 1~!I"rueQtil :It be£~Mes 3UJtom3:!tic .in.e.x!ecu-

11

tlon. lte:rnei!nbetr, if the €lbows are carded close, I ~ the han~,aille'carded higb, U' the: plane oftbe D$t,neV'():!: nli:fes~ if the bOod.yta:kes the elbow ~ if the twist of the wQlis,tfuro.isnes the p~opulsi:on for ~beblow, i~the princi.ple ,of the rod is (:MefiE.dIDyobse:rvledl ~r P,f'Mtice rusOOQ.Unuecl.u!1ul skl1lbf!oom.es autematie, th.!l!'Ili hitt~RI wi]] be an art in the £U~me!l!t sense.

FUNDAMEN'l' AI..S OF FORM

~. Hitting ~s ,d-Q~e with u.ne bmly, not ate arms; the .ilI1'nUil are me're~y 'the verud~ 'Q.fio[!'ce.

~ .lh:lI:my ,nw~jtlng mMI1S a slitapb]o\y, not a push .

.3. P.orwer Inlw~hl:g is, obta~lJJed. t~rough. .Ii!. stFaiglhit. tum or tw~st. (If the wa~st wit.h~he 5bQukl.e[ and hip f!'JUQw~ng ~hwq' to the (lfl(nt.er: line of ~he body.

4. The prJncip1.t! of the rod M!lst be observed !l.t ,aU ~jm:es,n'llswjngjn.g~, 1'10 s.w,ay·,iDg~ no pi[lsM~ olwIt;b, the rlg~t foo~.

j. 'The len side 01 the body an.d. tlle~eft, leg should mainralu ,I. s~ra~gh,t liue, T.Ms Is the· hinge <ii,o~nd wmcb. bodY weigbt. ,a~d pO'Wle;r l'ota.res.

6. Affi'.I exte:m;jon takes plate only afteil: the ,h~p and. .s:h~;mLd.erare tllrnedi ~hwugh lathe cen.ter line' of theoodY.

7. The plane (Iii d!1Le fislt should. never vary. In omer WOillM., drive the ann stl'3iig):.l.t fQ'I a p!)~nt and re:turni,tthmugh the sa.e pm.e ..

'THE OF

8. 11Ie elbows ue foMed to 01:' taken by the. ~. Elibl:nfs never drop

Qcilw.tw:JJ ],&t 'the mediaJ.Une O'f 'the 'body. . ,

9'0 mmaUl!I8: ,It. 'C(m'iool 5h ;the-t!lumlb..side ,of ,~ hand. ispet:f'eetly

0& r . '.

I'Q, T .. 'le. '.~ han .. ' .. 11 ... ·., J,o.ta~.';a. mle~ .. _ .. uru:te.~~,'r ·.t .. mI. ruin.ward. ,as t~e' farm isexoond~ SOl (bat at thililomeill!t ,o;f.l!M.padc, .. lmutkles are up and the thumh-

:sme of the ist blwa;FIiI .•

u. ]Iml~eadw~the, .bit there is a dei~i~e :progre~km t~at must be f)ohwe~e pri~~.e Mt~ tum, ~e dose elbQwtllinJthe ~nn 'extens~on~paJIWJJ U$l:~the)~akwq ,oif afist~ and dr.~vio.g both .hands tDrougb ..

DEFINITION

FUNnAMEN'I'ALb~ows. 2:lIe these wffiaJ~ch are d~dive[oo straight froM the sl:u;1Il1der ~ using a qu1ck. twis.t o.f the wa~st.w;. the p·r;,ope1Uirlgfiorce.

Fundamenral bmQ~ks are those de{ews:[we m~UJres wmcih ~eq'1!WWlle a minimum. ,of skUl 'and. a]]owa maxt1lJ;ll,ml oi pr'Drtectio.n.

.EXPLANATION

. . St~atg~t bk'W5 a;re the iQundati()[1l. Gfooxw~gs~lt They '~veilloped ~atein bi:ii®ory ~d therefo:re are the pmdlu!i;:t, (If c!!ireful thoqght. Re.. quirmg s,eed and h!JiteJl[ge11lce~Gtuse,. they tr.a\v.elless ,diisL3;Met~an~e reundaem bklws and wm. t'f!i'iIch the Muk fil's.t. Straight rMor'ws. ·a~,e MO~ aeeurate th3!Il hooks and swings anda:1ilo.w fun tISe· I!)f the arm's fe3itb ..

Jobin Jack:mn~ ~!tb.e Ge~t~emB.Boil«'lr~l~ wu their.st expon@iI\I~, of the stra.:i~ht left Je.ad .. l H.owe\i'flr!. Its :~eat:est diev.e1opmen,t cao:teait the time of Jim Corbett.,

. The,stralght r:igbt wru;,used lang befio,r,e the l.eft ,~ab. nW3S, ~f!i~ dQ~b~edly used In. some form d.udngthe' days ,of Gr,oo~e.~ Belil! B.raill. is.supposedto'haw~el1 thefa~~e!r 'of. the s~]'a~gbJt rrng~lt!' (iE'7,86)~ alth.oup it wa!ipirobab~y used long befor€: MS dme.

USE

.. Tke.~ele J(l'~]S a: ("f,eeler/j'U is. a Ugh.t, @E.y bJ(¥W,. a~~ho1Qb It st~Q.g$~~a:rs,' and a.lltlo,ys. kh1! ~ootb~ll w:bef~ ·th@:Qli4i(,kile play :is ~.he basis for a: wbo1e seq;ue:noe ofp:~ay:s~ SQ ill bo.;d~ ~~e left jab lS, .tM. basis (If .. all other; blows.. It is effu:uvle in .keephlig Ute opponent off bala:n(e and cr:.e1l:t:itJg Opil~~rogs .for ,Qitbe;r b~ows. It lS, awhip:r&ili.er

than a club. .

Used oor,rec:tly it is '~~lg~. of the sdenti:6.c ooler., wh~ uses s.tr;.a1tegy [aMlIet· HI_ fQI'ce., It. can beusoo.fotooth defense and o:ffern::e. n

oj' &xirJg', p. 62.

lo~ .01 lI~&enk; S:rildie:s~~, 22: 2 ... ry OJ Brifts~ Bum,. p. '6~.

I:';

.advantqe:i5 tOt body .~ g,not atyrbed. Thelen. jib is simple in. execut1cm bemDgmewy I. qWI:H.e:r 'rum of the: body to tie' r:lgbt. and the exkm!ion oldie Idtum.

1'b'fl ,8~"'lli.ll,-t R~li~,me ,~;~e ,of the left jab. i1it~sdteb.ea~y ,U'uUe:ry .. It shoulld be usectspariiQgJyand. orill,fcoc aWla~ent opem.ng$.

I~ .. ii der~ve .. red ... ~ a~s.t. ,of ~e. WI.'ist. and.·1 .~.,.f(i~.e~ul ... exoo .•.... · .... B .... S.£OAfif.lb.. e .. nfl1~t ,ann,. Af..,Iie,m.omenli (II un:pact. t!le,we~s~,t sbUtsfiQ!l'w.d to ~he

I.eft leg wJiliii!b.gives. .~. (!!QWer nec.essaryfo:r .Y:Se as a fhw[sbing bJO;w •.

T,iresecmt of POW~iBUU;~ s'ka~gbl [.~giht i!l~Slng the left side of the bOOy .a:i a hi!!lg;e a:nd all(iWI~g the :right side of the body too swing bee. n ,is the :same jd~a .. asiin slammlitq;il ,doo~ .. ~~ Sam Langford was ,asked. tbe secret ,of ,~~shi~rting power he r~p~~ed., ~~ 'Ta~ntt no HC!!let, all E do, is pu,t. my bip.s .inbl' them plul.dtes/!l .

:n~ shGliI~ciI.beno~edtha,tthe r~g~t :is eiienti~]]y a ooun:~er b~o'w.. It :mnld. not be leO!. I~stbecause in. sod!o~ng the whole bod~' tgr~!i~e~t~ 1!L1l0000vering many vitalpans.whldb are dIMDU~lt~o, <COVie:t.. ThlQis~ for all geifileTa) p~~~s,it is best not tQ 'Wtad. wffithl:h<!! tight.

Tie l.eJ.t eo .~he BN,'~i!ii a~ e:ffe<:dv.e b~ow~d to bother the opn.en:tj• and to bdn..gdo,'wn. the 'appo~e~~?:s gl:lar<d. Whi1e.no:t 'Qrd:~~ Mrilya hard. bWwr it ca caJl!.lIse d~stf!ess Ii dr.lven to the solar plexus. :JtlS i_poual!lJt thai! the bOOy £iO~ruo<W theaem. In 'O~~ef wo:rdsj .a blow to t:~bQdy iSn1;()te ·efiediiV1@ and. saleril HIe body is dfopped. to the leve~. (lif~e tMget.

The R;.ght t,(Jthe Bod~ii5 a powe.r or f~foe blow. It Js used ss ,I '(oon~.er ,crafter a PJielbniDaJyfe~~twjth the left 'hand. As in the left ,j'al]) 'k:I the bGd)" the oody~:Orulows.the blow r althoughadd.ed force ca!~.be ,ob~aine:d by a b0dy piwt toa positiiol!! over the leftioot It :is effectiVie! .~~. pulUng down anG¥lpone~esgual)da;~d ca:nbe used with :great. S,1!m!,)Qess ag.a:tllst~~e taU boser.

'l'HE'l'ECHNIQl1E, o.F THE FUNDA1.1EN'lM.

BLOWS, AND ELOCKS

THE LEi'! JAlI

Hel:!erus an .!!!pplkation 0,£ whatha:s a~~eadybeetl ~ea:rned under dile aft ,of bittiq .. The le~t ffiacb is mereIDy one~haU oithat filGV1ementj a qlUal~e:r tU,fiB oJ t~e~e~t s'o~~diel to the rigbtutl.til the oenter line O'f

~ Jad!:'[);e . . .m. . 'Hi' n'_--' "'.. ..".. J i.~ 11>

11 ,'.' .: mlll5.eY" . C!/GW to.. t .n<I:<U, . p" 59, :~ '1!ij,lllJte>!;.I. ".f ,OU.bl;' ,il/@m'lllo', ,et !It,

. 01U ~o J!JOllIiM .1l'Ow til' TmJJl1 ..

BOXING

the 'body isreacbed, and ,then the fuU memion o.f the leJt ,arm (FigufeS[4~ 15,I6~ :page 1,6).,

), fI~ ,

~IG. 15 The .Len Jab

Remember that, as the, left arID eJlteli1.ds, there .is a quader tum 'of the fist inwa:rdJ 5Q' that ,ail, ·the moment of complete ex~ellSionil11,e knuckles are tumed up. The arm must travel Q:ua stra:lght line (sUgbt~y above snOl\ll!tdler heIgM) and return on, a straight line assuming, t~ i'und:am.ental position as .~i returM to the body. '["he :right arm is, b,eld in the' posjUoo, (if' guard, elbow down, bInd up, and o:pe~l in. ir,ont of the dghtshou1der. In. aUbiUiD,l, bldijJd1~, t'h-efe:ft jab" all f,o;r,ce .~!i outward from {he body, tlte arms merely reblJdng and sinkillg !back to the boor rather than bei:ng pill,dled back.,

It should be emphasized at this point that a 'blow is, Revier hie: ,at Ii mark. Itrus driven ii/rough: a mark,. Foltow~lihrough is. Just ,Il!!~ :iIl'lPO'I'~ t~nt i'n. boxin.!!l' as it ws ina;ny OlH!r sport aJiid€ollow-th:rougb tan on~y be obtained, by punching through and beyo,nd the po:int of' attack.

The Jab s,hou]d be a lig;bt" euy movem:e,ot. Ca:r:ry tbe shcndder a.1ll:I. arm. relax.edand reacty a:tan times" Continue the jab uom it is a natural. movement. It requires lOng dili'gent. practic~ to, Dllake, the movement autematle, and to; olbtab'1i speed and power without apparent ~fforJ;. A«uracy sho,u]d be the' main ,oibjoective.,

FVNDAMENTALBLOW.s .ANDI BLO-CKS I'

BLOCKS, -FOR :r:HE LEft' J.o,

Two simple hlods, should 'be :Ieamed at ~ time:

.t't'l' Cl1tcj.,....A,s a boxer :Iea& ,!!I, s1ow~erl jab to the opponent's right ear~, the le'ad '-ould becarugtillt in 'the palm o:~ the opeD rr~g!ht. gliove &ad, 'orced ~1tD.d,oul to. the' rr,ilgih~. This lea'Ves~e def'endant on ~he bDide:guard, "\ pos,i.tion and ready to carry the attack (Figu:re J '1, pap 1.").

. .J

El@. 17. Tie Catch Fro.. 18. The Patry i •

B~QCt:s, fur the Left jab

It is impt)!l'iant thauttbe !!'ligli\,t glove be kept open and !i'Jeboo~d and tIIa,tth'blow is (~llIight ·on the lower put ,nrbutt of the hand. The: movement mJUs~ be ,uP!, dose to' !the body a,t al] tiMes,. Do, not rea,ch wt, ~o clJItdl:me o,ppoliii!nt's lb.(li\w'S,as open:i.ng.s are th$ crea;tedf'(ll'

• coUll,ter attack..

~he' ~ The simp~est dd,ense ag;ain:st a left Jab is the parry ~ .1lieh forces an. Opp(lhIHiit.~:sMt lead across the body to the left with the:f:~~.barRd. The' nil0VteMefil is tight alndea:sy .. Force Is .notm~ ,uilled ..

~, ~: opponent meads, a 1:eft ,Jaib~ fli.cik. the [ls~t hand across t~e opponent's .aipproa(hh~g wrist, thusf,o:rdng'the blow to the left and ~g, tliie lopponent.J:s~ef't s:.ide ,of 'the body exposed (Figure 1St page Ill.

18

BOXING

This, mov,emenJt, ~s majll~Y ofdl:~ wr,Est and .Rand as an, arm movem,enlt, is too slow and heavy. The :dghrt,hagd~ IDolY'ing inward ,fI,o.," the pojnt 0:£ the e~oowJ IiMcks <lU'OSS g,wifdy, as if brugh~ng: ,I fly aw,ay from the ncse, Sp~ed is, e$~ndaI. Tbe right band should $u~tie the opponent's lead em the cd of: the ,g~(lrv,e or o.nthe wrI$t.Theright elbow must r~H!lainstat~Qmuy U the DlOrV,emenlt is to be performed, tCirrett~y.

THE STRAIGHT RIGHi'

or all Ibo,x[ng teroD~que, the s,tra:ight !dl!l~t ms OJle 'o'.f the most eniWy ~ear:ned and execUited.lb~ows.Ho,weveF" it is, O~~Jffi diificuU f'or ltiaestuil.ent to grasp because the fUftldamentaJ p,r~nclple is misunde~rstood,.

In any ,pGwero!l" foeee blow the babe: :stnJ.CJt!!l!!i'e' :Pl.ust be aligned :so as, to form oae straight body sidle (I,r line vibiEch. enah}~, Ml~: bone struetere to, sU;PPO!l't, the weig;ht o~ tb~ body, tblWS freeing: the mu~'~es, te propel the other swde {If the bO'd.y 'fOTWEI,rd. and ,ct:e~Dg ~eil'dfk ~o'rc.e.

One side ,01 the' body nlJ'Ilst always forM a sb'iiI~g,bt line.. Thhi is ,aceiJ.~ i!Usbed, by meroeJy slllfting body w,~gbt O'Iifer a ~straigbt lesl, ~~ngi~g o~e side oif the bod, ~ and b(!e:'lll'g the ,other :!lide :[01( a, foreefumtJuro Qr p~.vot. If po,wev is d.es:ired ~n a. d~h.t,..hand blo;w, the weiightDiJu.st 'be shU ted. to a straight leU '~es in order U~aJt 'the fight ~ide 'Oit the boo-y n'lJay swing: forward. Ii poweliis l'equi.red in ~ .len. hookJ it is obtained by sh~ftlng U1B: weiiht ove!!' .3;, straight r:i:ght leg and. s,winging the.eh; s~de of the body arou.nd. tome rigbt.

The technIque of the straig'M riigiJt. is Just this: Assumethefl.lfida·, menta] position. Shift tbe weisht forward.und1.it ~s, di.recUy over ,me O~eft l~g (Figure 1'9, page 1(9). Tb~s ,aUo,ws, the Dones, oi the left sid.e of the body blform a strai,ght. line, and all Hlliuseular power used ~Q' tulilinl the b~ in o:rde['to Cr@atefof'ce.. Tu,rn the right rup and. shoulder through Withe: center Une· (F~gufle 20/ pi!!8eI9r), and dr.M.ve ~e ri8ht band into comp,le~e extension (Figure ,2'][, pa;g@ iI:'9).

The fist drives ou.t .a.t slwulder height. and 3i~, ~enu)m.ent of :impad the kn.l!liclcles are turned up" The arml~efi I',eia:xes li;nl(:k ~o' the: lunda.-

*The c~l'IItL1!ued ref¢!\f!:Ice "to. ,the C!n:teT fine means the oeD!~e>r o'rmediaoliin.c of the body. Such a l!iDe: is ~ ~me lUi, the S~mliUl!ll., ot' AGSe. 'The tlli:!cmyMmnd ~Hdi., illl from ·the &e:nUr !line of the bcdy b}·tIiJ;e ~iot o.f atta.ci,js that ,a, sttM!!'bt nne ~s the SDo.rte~t d!ista.nceMtVlten two ~. It i5 UJefut@t and ,mod ell~tliye blow di.at., QIfI ~ ~1lJ. It .. u Ute. ';oRtr t.'liI!I .. · 'es,tnilb. t.. blow.,. Many' bosen "1!:h1lllDb ~1Wt I!iOSfl" am, uljl!lil!r wthout bo''imiI the ~, for :1'0 doiq.

FI'G. :20 Th'H S~rrugbtRight

menta] ,po~itjon. The propulsion of the blow rcomes from the: twist of 'the wa~st.. As Itberigbt arm. is (lxteBded1 ~'be '~efta:n~ is lui'fd dose 10 the, ,~\e:ft side, In. the position o~ ,guard. This movement must be praetiCedli!i!i!!tiWit can be euilY7 quickly, Mid correctly performed. The um. sbouifd. dri.vtl:, out with sl1teh fO:1"ooas would seem to pun ·~t CleM of the ~socket. A,pi'R" the blowntust be d.:dven thr()~:gb and MIt Just ~~ ID o'bject..

FIG. ,21

Till GvAUlS 1'01, ''rD, RI,aBT-IlA'ND,Br.ows

'l'heguards fOF ,9, riiKhrt hook ,and :swin<g ate her,eill given together with the ,paJldS fOr a slr,a;igbt right. The beginne:r willfrequtlntty meet diffemlt 'types of' ri,ght':bands" and. it is essenUal that a defense be taught

for: aD. rtypes fl'iOfD tbevery first. . .

Titl, l~lIer6g:e gw,.~Atsume rthe tundamentid.position .. As the oppo.nent lads ,2 s,traigb.tright, straighten the left arm .~ Hinging it fordb&y .., ,8!Dd ltotbe~ef~t. ~ win ta:usetBeann to cross the ,path of th.e ~prmeDlt~ lead. from JOlt!: ,iimid.emd defiect it to th.eoutside, thus

accomp~g ·the desu,td lie8u'llts, (Figure U'., page 2Q). .

~To' 1)e.su'Oc:essful the ;arm 'must be completely stralghtened.,ud the el.bGw locked at.the instant o:f OOIJUd with opponent's lead" lit is bes,t 10, !1m1 the left harftd sUghtly }OWW than onlbli.ril" in 0(.1' to be: aure

20

of ,obtaining the iDsidepositioD. FOllce~s n~ded in, order to make: the ,guard effective, :so that the ,opponent's blow 'wUl DOl. carrythrougb. T.he :right arm is held Gpen, ,and [,eadylo guard 'or attack,

The ,sitQ'IIlder ,l;t.o~k-Assume the fundamenrhll~ pos.mon., As, the 'opponent ~eads a s~ralg~t :r~ght; to the ,chin, rtunru the body to tbe rdgh'lI. :lifli order to intereept th b]ow 0:0 the left de'~~oid, (!II s~o!llildler~w;de:. At the same time tip the l(\!ft SbiO,ll.ddle,r upw,;mI by slhUUq the bOOy weight back to the right leg. The left arm dr,ops to' a positwn a~Jmij;Sit alongside the left leg'. Tbeliight hand, IS, carded 'open and directly ,off the left :;hQtdd!er (Fjgure 2:hpage ze],

FIG. 24., The I)rop-awa'Y B,}(!eb fOr' IUg:htHanded .U,laws

FUNDAMENTA1~ BLOWS, AND' 'BLOCKS

The d"'(j:~IJ,y--isa form ,oif duckiing used to' get ,away from an, overhand ri,gibt. ASSUMe the fundamental, position. As the ,opponent.ang'es, ,and swin,g$, an ,overhandlrigbt~ drep ·out of da'e rang,e of the arc of the bllow b;yql!lfk:kly ,d'foppin,g tilt! 'body iI,om the waist to a posithm dire(:t'ly ft,er~.b~beililt['~!i1l~t IDeg. The w,e:igbt is shifted to the ligh:t leg and 'tbe booJr ~s tumed,aJ1~'o~t tQ the sffid'e:. The left band 1;5 dil\opped loW' pfotD('!d~ng the lef't side, wh;itet~~ il'ig~t haad ~s c~.rr.ioo :h~Sb i,eady for I, left b.ook (Figuve 24~ pa:ge se),

FH~. :25,. Tie SIDJlf10. ~6.T.~e C"().~,$PU",,!

BI:ocb for' :ru,ghtwRlllwded 13loW$,

'I'.hc do;-isa f,oml of de:f,ense in whlch a blow is stopped before: it is started. In this, parti.cuJar case it ~s us-ed. as a ,dde.nse against a r.igbt hook.

Assume 'the fundamental position.. Astbe opponent raises. the' right elbo,w piI',epar,atory to ,deUudDl a rig:ht hook~ drive the: le!fthand into ,wmp!ete ,ex.teo.sioo,. It is the same mov,ement as the j.ahex,tep't that the I!en. b.d is beld open. and placed erther around the ,opponent ts 'b:ik;eps~ 0:[' dlr,iiven to tbt! GflPoln:en,th; shol:dde:r (F:i:gure :2 5;; page n ) ..

In e~t~e'l'ca:s.e :~t Js an. ~He()ti\l,e d,efemie. When dfiven 'to ibe Iltceps it sobroiSes ad batters wti!Aesh that it 'cQmple~.e1y disab'l@s the rigbt arm in, a shOJt time. Dfi.viogtibe IIJPi!'Q left ann like a ra:mr,(j(j to (be llppOJlem;t's, should.erwiH .spin him. off balan.cerender.ing'die hook ineffectilVe aod. ereatm,g an. opening' for a c;ouut"e[ attack.

BOX1NG

The CfDSS ~In t'he parlance of the Idil'l(K" this ~s Q Usuckerf' guard. Itre-qJuires a 'O:Llte:ty of oooifdi~l!iaUon ,and a fines:se and precisilil'riI tbiliit is j:o<und! onlly in, the lDO$~ :skn~ful boxers .. ASSi!llMe the f'Und~~:tItal pos,itio:n .. As the oppoil:le:n~t ]ead:s a ,stra:i:gJbit rightl' [,e~ ()\I\er with the right hand. and brush :the: lead to, the le!ftJ t'us fiO'Tdng U; O!ubide~l!Idl wide of its maJrk. Tbis, s,ho~~d be a lignt and easy mo,vernent'l mere wr.wst. thanaem, The elbow mlo,ves, only s],igl1Uy but is nGt rmsed. 'The .Ie'h. hand is lowered :in order that it wm Dotmnter'f,efle wUh 'the ,CfOSS pa:rry (Fisure 26~ pag@ 21 ) •.

The ~'~suck,e.r~' part or d.ecept~on isthh;: As tJhe cross, patry ;[s perlorm.td~ ·jfm·chJll lsseemingly expoSled loUie opponent"s le~lt hook. If 'the, Q()pQoehiL st.arb to take: this ad.v,lR'!S!8:e:~ mitfely droOp th>e:beu. into the (.Jlook. o~ the r~g)llt arm, thus, d,\Jcikins underWs ~oolkj' and at tke same tim'!'hook the left band to ()~~e!lI.tismh:lsecltion.

THB LEn JAB TO T.HlE BO.D¥'

lIthe pdndpJe is followed. that the body must foltow the arm at all um.esJ no~ difficulty wm be escoantered in executing lbestra~gbt blows tho '''~<I.~

tOc .. e ~-Ji.

~ume ~tibe :fu.tldamental positi.o:n.B.eJ.oFe a. jaJb tOI the bodY eaa be e~J:!!ted, the 'bod-y mIst be on, the same le!!''e1 as 'the: mark t in, ,ol)d\e,r 'that the 'bkr'w' 'W.n~. be stra.l8:bt. T'hef'ef!lf'e~ dr·op tbetirodiy fonwMdf.rnm, dle' 'Waist te a 1l000ltion at rig,ht angles to· t'ffile: IDegs. Keep ~e ldt le,g onl!y smishlt]y bent biillt. the dg'h,. leg mOil'€! comp,le,tely £le~ed .. As the b(!d!y ,drops'l drive the, left, arD'!Jinto, foroeful ,extension toward the: 'OPPOR-e~~':s solar p,Jex!!.IIs. The b.o,w is slightly upwMd., never do,wnward. The right hand is carried high in Ir:oot of the body [,Md.y fot 'the oppooent"s, left h.ool .. "(I,ld the hea,d dOr"w:n sa' that. only the tep of the bead is, v:~siblep 'wbichwiU be protected. by the ext,ended~eft llifmi (F:~gure l: 1, page 23). The head. sheuld be' h.e~d. tlgbt to the I,eft. arm,

THE Sl'ltAm'i:iiT RMORT 'j'0 THE Bi@!D¥

Assume the' fundamental poSiiti.on,. Ul"Gp the body flilrward from. the waist to a position almos,tat rigbt angles totne' ~egs and, wihii,e M doing:, turn t!(,l, the left sotaatthe fish! hip .iis carded lorward,.to, the renteit' line ,0,' the body, and. the rlgbt :dloulder :is on a liine dkeed.y abov,ethe left foot:. When t:hiq, pasilino IS :reached,d!l'.ii.ve tile right. ann mto fot:eduli ,extmsion. TJie,le:ft :band.b lll-P ,and ,open, elbow ';oWD,j'.

I 'IhI ~1d;"iI OLe 'boziII: 'tea used to ,""iptte 'lht IIOkt .~

FUNDAMENTAL BLOWS AND BLOCKS :23

guarding a:gai:nsttbe !o,p'p~utent~s fight hand. The head is down along tffin:erigJiJt ann and thti weU protected (:Figur-e ,28J pa,ge ~ 3 ) ,.

FIG. ;8. $tT6iglll Right toO Body Sualgbt Blows to the Body

THE BIiIlCKS PO:R r:O:E STRAIGHT Br.(lIWSi ro tKIBODY'

... 'I'hg Siep.Awa"........is,,~ ,lief'eMi,\!\e measure whereby the iX"Lllt of all:tJ},ek IS. drawn OUit ofrange: ..

As.sume the fundamenital position . .As the: op-pone:pt leads a blo,W' to thelbo<ly (either a rigbt§ or .1i!ft~hand. blow) extend the left arm to the top, of die' loppoQentls heid"and at the same tim.e s~id!e the lef't foot ba!,1ktOI the right foo~, the weight sbUting en.tirely to the l,e'ft root I allowirli!!8 the righti,oot to S'wingf Re. This movement tilts the pelvis, oo:nttacts 'the ,abdo.mina'] nl'li!.sdes., and brings the body oull Gf the range ·o:f ,attack. The 'right :ba;nd should, be carriedbig'b and. ready f(lr attack 01" d'efetie' ,(Figu;r:e 29'1 page ~4l.

,The' Elbl9W' .b.~,i.......Ass1ilMe~: iu-ndamentalpositi(ln. M the OP]Xio-' IlUIt leads, a, str8J,ight blow to tJbeOOdyn'lfi'llely turn the body SI) that, the blow is ~illn ,on an, e1bow. The elb),w and bod:y are turned as one: (Plpre: 31e} page 24)., OrdioadlYi it, is besttobave the :tight elbow h10ck 81 left ltd, and. the Idtelbowllt09k a 'right lead. How,ever, tbe . ~te e1bow may be·1lHd. The hands, ShoUld :80t drop but :shotild nWatajD,their ,fuooa:me:ntaJ! position.

1']0. 32. TlIie; ,IJnuls·!l~1'

n:liOCks, for S'tr,aigbt Blows, to ·the Body

FIG. SlL. The .p(j.r,e~ arm lnll'ci

FUN,D'A'MENTAL Bl.OWS AND BLOCKS 25

'1'h'e j:(!J,.earm; bloc.k.- This, is ,3; da:~llrO!limS block and should not be ased ~tept. when nec.essary. .It is valuable for ,emergency use o:rtly.

Assumelthe iu!!\dJamenta~ position. ,As an opponent leads .8,\ straight Mow far the body, 'f,oM. thei,o,r,e:a:rms 8CfiOSS themidsectl'01i!1 left arOli U!nderllie rmght, so tbat. the ,abdominal lIegionis oompletely ,covered '(F~~!liei .3 I, pa:g:e ,24). DQ'~ot :f,or-g.et that while the abdo.ifdna~re.~ion b beingpr,otected, tbe chin is exposed, Reready toSomd forward under bJows de~~ver;.edl to the chin.

Tbe b.,.,uS'li~awa~~ the safest and easiest ,d,ef,ense ag;airu;.t stl,aight bJows to the body,.

Ass~me 't~e fund~'mtal position .. As the oppont'uitieads a stratght left to the' body d'rOop, tJle ,open rigl:i:tglov'e in, down and a.CfOSS the ~e:[l;t l'S, wn'stl,thus bros~~n,8: the blow to we ,outs:~de. Tbe elbow hardly ~ove5. Tbe who~e mOlv,ement. is, a dJ)cular m.otiQ!l .inward with, the r.ffight. band and f'orear.m. (.Figur,e 3~r page 24).

It is best to use a right~aDd brush for ,3, left :mead !!i~d vlce versa, H'Qwev,er, a cross bmsll. Ci.i:nbe~edto guoo. advant.age, when a: ccrufiWr bIDg,w is, :p~_~ed.

FUNDAMENTALS OF FORJ.f

'THE LEFT JAB,

!I" We~sb~ Of' balance sfio~ld not be ,dls:tufbm ..

,2" The power ,0;( the l,eft jab eemes from. the quart'er tur.n of the left sll:ouldler tQtheri:ght and the f,oiriceful. estension Oif th.e left arm,

3. Tlhe3if.m .is ddv,eu, sllghtJy upw.ard from the' shoulder and returns dfOUg;b tDeSM'OO' plane.

4. At the moment of impact the knuckles are up.

5. AlJdle: fOl1'Qe oiab~Q!w is aw,~y b:(lM the body j theaem meRly

r.~]axes bac'k to tliie body.

16. Jab tboougb a POiOltJ, 1!I.otat a point.

7. The :rigbt hillilild. is he~d 'open ,and l\eadYJ in the poswtiOlD. 'o,fg!Uard. 8., Tlle~e:ft. side 'o,{ the body should. form a .str~dgnt 1in:e throughout

the ]!l]M.euver. ~

BLOOKS PO'R TIUl JAB, The e,ateh

I. M.ust 'bepedQrmed ,clQse~bl the tMJd,y.

110""- , .. ~~... £.1..~ ~'''R~..I~ .'p

2'. aD.lust~. 'LWi:;. ~ ~.

16 BOXIN'G

3. The k=ft lead should be alUi)t ill the ope:nright ,glove~ down

'w,ward thebuU of the hand.

Tlce; ;arry .. '

!. The DlOrument is mainly of the wnst.

a. The movep't~mlIt, mllllstbe Ught and easy. 3. The ~lg'ht e~ooW'lllust :notbe rm:rved.

THE $.'IJlAIOHl' RmsrT' liO ]i,'HE CHIN.. " ,. '. ' Ii,' ,)

I. Body weight must be shUted drure,diy over the stf~8bt. ~~ft leg"

H.,~ "p'a,'nd shoulder must be tll!!medi through to .th,1 e .oe.n!t.er bnfl'.

~ •. Lll ,

3. Then the right ann.s driven into, c(lmpleteex'eps~oiD.. " '

4. At themome:nt 'o,f bnpac;t the ko,uckles ~u',e up w~tb the thumb-

;idle of the fis,t turned lDwacId.

5,. Th~ plane ,of theist does But val'Y· The b'~o,w is c!l,eUveud! on a

straight ID~,ne: Dd ret.lmed OIi. a s:tr,aj.,g!;lt 'Ir.le. , ',..' ' ... ,

6., A~~f'fifee is, ,away f!."ottI Ule booY'o 'Tb.eam'lt'i rela.xles back to pOSLhon. 1. The leftaem folds to the bodY' in posi,tJioo, oipl!!!!:'d ..

8. Drive the rigkt band t,lIrQugh a ~im;nk/~ not at one.

THE GU.AlWS FOiRTHE STIlA1OH7' RIGHT The leverage guW"d

I. St:art the 'ie:ft, hand low.

::! • Fling the :I~'ft arID fo:rdbly uP', an~ out. .'. _ c

,;3.,. The b~jft 3!iFIJ.I must 'be: «r01p~.ete~y strllgbtenedi _d. ~be ,~lbow

locked. art t;hedme' ,of oomltac:t.

This, guard wil.aUrun the inside pos.]Uo:n~ '., ' .

~: Catty the tig)JJt han.d higha~d in position frol guard '0[" eOli,lp~er',

T.he ~'h(juldet' block:. . " " '_.L ' .'; J.. Thrn the body to tbe tight so ,8;5'0' eatch th'e' bl,ow h~gh en the ~ef~

deltcoid. . ,. , _' " ,d' . ." ~b b -k

Til"t the 1eft shoulder "liIlw,altd by dropplm1ig the bor, wre~g", t , ,II: "

~. ' '~f"

over a stratgbtrignt leg.

,3,. Th.e left arm drops to a 1P081!tio:n along the l,eft leg" f.erady~ol

counieli'"" .' .• 1.1,~

4. Tb.e rigbt hand is curfed high aad o~n, cl.ose to' die left :shO'w~li",

TIn)' drfJtr(l.W6'Y

'I. Use only against an Q¥erhWld swii~S;', . . , " ,. , , • .,'

2 • Mete.I, tum ,and drop' the b~ (Jut of the art: 'of ·the !WI1ng.

FUNUAMENTAL BLOWS AND'BLOCKS 27

3. Drop 'the left band I,ow to protect the.eft side and to be :ready io ~ountler.

4.. H,o$d 'the' right hand. 'oi the lien :shoulder, open and ready ..

'1'1l'fi sl~,t',

I. Tbem.O¥e:mentm.Qst beperfQttIi.ed quh:kly, simllar to the ten jab ..

.2. JK!eep thepa.lm: oi the left 'band open.

3. Drive the open lelt hand to ,oPpoIilf!nt:'s right bIceps" thumb arlound Oil,

4 .. Ddve the hand to ,opPQnenlls fi,ght shoulder ..

The "f'OS,S pa.;,ry

I" Reach over with tb,e rigHt liaRd a!lld~,o[,ce oppone:nt~s straig:hrt

lead: to the outside.

Ol'. 'lhtFiig'iDlt ,ii,rmO'IJust be 'k!€!!l.t elose to the 'bolly., 3. Movement ,is, light and eMY" more wrist than arm. 4; Th4il! ,elbow mOVie! VlerylittleJ and dces Dot raise.

S. The chin is I~d, so bei:iElady f,or opponent's left book.

TID: LEFT JAB 7',0. THE BoDY

I" Power .is obtained, through a, body dr,op horn the waist, to a pls:wUOii'ii over the left foot.

2" 'Th~ bOOymust follow the arm..

J,'r:h~ ,grea~eslt part of the body drropis ohtained thrQ~!I'b a. bend 'of 'th-e rig~t,knee:.

". Th~!eft,legis klept as straight as possible.

S:. The ~en ;ann is drIven straightjrom the shQulder to, the "mark,"

am.d a,t the marnenlt 'of oontact should be; 'pe'rfectly s,uaigbt, !!ii. At the mom.ent of impact t:be knuckles 1[le 'Up.

1. '11m ri,giln hand is he.ldop ,and open, r,eady :for a left hook •. 8" Tht! movl@m:enlt mastbe sudden ad ree-awry immed[at,e.

Igl" T.be leif'lbiilnd lS not dJropped but 'fcUows the body at ,aU times. to\ Tile .bead .is canied w:ell forward and is protler:tedi by tbeexoonded left arm.

THE S'IltAlG'H'r IbGRT TO THE BoDY

I. Power is ,obltainedth...rougb arum oft:hebod...,y to the left and at 'the same time ,I chop, of tbebody fo.rward over a..e leftIes:,

8 BOXING

I

J'. The! body dr.op is 8/ttainedip:!',hna:rily ~w •. a bend 0:£ the rlgbt knee'. The left leg ~s he~d as ,straigbit as ~~ble.

3- As the rigbt Shoulder ~proili~mal)es,a position ,ove'r the left foot:, the :r~!!::ht arm Is dr.Ne:1il :~lIiro, frn'Weil!l!l ,e'lrte~s.i'(ln.

01. The: body follows the aJin'n at all dOles. ,

$. The right ~rM ~s ddven m a ,st[,a~,s:~t line fro:r.n the,slou1ider to dile "mark."

6. At the moment of impact" Imu()[des are Up" thumb-:sid~ of file . istin.

7'" 'The fl!,mda:meh!talpositioB. must be lJesJ1lIimed m~ed!iaJtely. __

8. .In the :reco,v.ery of the fundalJlentai~ POSlUOD1the ,lIifmmru:st~Jonow

the OOdy. TflIe: aJIM mw,t DQt dr,op alit ,;:li!lilll ~~nw. __

The left arm is, heWd in ill ~ition of g1!l!3.rd" wa:i:ting aliJ,d ready 9·

for ,8\ dght (;O'Qnte-T.

10. The head ,~s c~uied f'oll.'WilI!i'd amll;ftgs~de the [.~~tat[M"

BIiJOCK:S ";1 'THE STRA1C:H'E lBlLiOWS,TQ THE Be1.l1l!\"

The ~lep:'(J'fI.i,ay . c

1: _ Plaoe the len. hand diroc.tly on the! ,opponeol's bead and push ..

a, Tilt the :pelv.iis by d;r:opping t1lete'ft~oo(t back. to the riigbt 8'00

soUtfug 'theW-eight to' UJef(!!~~ foot.

3,. TIle right leg swings, free. _ .

4. The right hand ~5 ~a1r,fed ~1~baJnd ~€'BIdy for attack 'or die:feMe'. s. Tbe: sid,estep is, '~i]y e"'oou~ed, foUow~ng: the s<tiil:p"iaway.

T'Iw dbo'W fJl'oc,k

I. D{lfi~t mo've the elbo,w, but tum t.he body a-

. 2. Try to, ]nteKept~ b:~QW directly 'Q~ Ithe le.JlbGw., _ .

3. Ordinarily!, use th.e right embo:w for a ]ef't mead and vice versa .. ,

-I. The ,arm whidl is Dot 'used, tlll block :should. be .held ready for the OO'llti:t;er.

The jOnt:(J'fflt block

I:. Use only wJ!:l,en noo.essM)'.

2. Fold. the left arm under the dght.

3. Nil/Dds :sJwu1d be turned inro thebmad side oi' 'tlle ~:o:r,elilrms, ,!lire rotated ,CJ;1!;ltward.

4- The Chin is exposed" SOl hemad) to foIIl undel aDY 'blows so dir'OCil.ed.

FUNDAMENTAL BLOWS AND BLOCKS ~ 2'9

Tit .. b';lu'h-~"

I. Mo,vemell!lt :tis dOwn and io-walid; with ,either hand.

21, In e'xecutin,g a brus.h~ place the open ,ih_d ac!IOSS o.f ;u,ournd opponent's wri:st,

3· MOlv~: the e:~bow Ollly as mllilcll ·as needed.

4· Ordinarily it .is 'best to use the right brush :fOf le"t leads and vice '\!ersa.

I·, Be .readyto aJlUlii.ter mlth lbe haDd~ot used .as d.rfense •

CHAPTER 1V

FUNDAMENTAL FOOT"WOR.K

D.E.FINET.nON

FUNDAMENl'At footwo!l.'k is the .aib~nty te meve the body eas~ruy and effic,]~.dy so thatbruanoe win~:ot be dfu.turltied. It~n1plie5 tbe~bl~i,ty t~ atJtack. or: defend at an tiMes"

EXPLANATION

F·ootw(l~.k. is a oompa.tative1-Jr new ,d~rveJoiPmA,t in ~~ftg. In. the e-a:rly days ,of GRfWe~ te d~g~ Oil:' :mwea:way lfl'o~. abTaw -was oo~~ s~d!e4'ed an. ~videnC(l of CQwardke.

In. Ellglaoo~ footwork wasIWsed ve-'l'y ~]Ule IDe~(lI',e the dme Oi~ JO:~u JacbanL (I 168) and. it W~ Mt ltO:tH tlu'!beg~~n[ng Gi the Nifi.e~~en.th. (ie:nlury and!. fhe ~cllgol of8~elche:r, .Bendig~ .d Sa:y,e:rthalt moving in tM ring' was used as a means, of def'e~St'l uwen as, a means, ,of ,oo~ sefV~ng (!B~Tgy.~

.FooLw'Ork developed witht~ lUie (I,t the ,g!ove, because it ca~Jed! for speed and ~iki]l.T{ld!a:y~ the ~ssence ofbodng ~s meiKt ~£ R.!QV~~g:, moving in to atta'Ck Or dei'eBd,.I'fiO'ving: 'O:liJ!~.t'O defend ~n upull off'~ I:)aJJ<mce'. The albUity 00 movea,t ~he d~lh!t time ls t~e fo;und8!Jtlh:m ,of g!l'e-a:t sklll inbmdng ..

Footwod{;. Means morvlHig thebady so as W be ~n fhe: best. pm:tiolDl foraUac!t. 0,1," defe~Sf:. It meaMba~fI[!ce-t1ut 1TIo<v,f!Men,t.d bala:n~e toge~e.T.. Ttl! ma:ir.!,tain b3!~_ce wM~,e oonS',tan:tJly s~Uting b~.y w.eight is an art few eVf:!!acqtUlI'e.

Footwork does not mean leg work nOr does it mMn·irij!mpb~g atcnflndi.

I'trneans mov~~g just ,ellQugh tOI .iliCCOmpli~ .aiP!!!Q!~el :lfll Glider t~ make an opponent m.i:ss Or ~o' ~:lellVe[ ,a. OO1iJ!GJ~er bloW'e:ffocrU,'\;l,e:Jy .•

If balanee boo bemaill!taJi~ecl. a,t aU times, it~sa;ilSlOlu~ely necessary that the fee,t be alw.a!Y.s d~r:ectly ~n:de:t the boody. Anym.ovemelilit !!iiI the :led whi.dru tends, to unibai]auce the 'body' m~st be ,eJ]rrlii!i!a!tedi. Th

Story 01 Bl1~& p. ,b.

• ~r:j a: GIIi& til' .Mo~ MdJl)ih.p. 41.

fumilame1'ltaIpos~UO:DI~S one o:f perfecilt 00d¥ baW8i~ce~ and. should. alwl(YS be ma:iililbinedj• especially Wj,rega;rdls the feet.Wides~elP~ or legmovemenbl,wbidb requh:e a (iQns~pt. shUt 'of wl!ligbt~wmomte leg tOme o~!r cnootbeu:sed. D~rlng this shUt 'o·fwe~gil!tthere is a mom.enilwheu b~ance~5 pr~a!l'.~oUis~ and so renders att(ijck. or defense ineiecti:vt!.

The gr,ealut ph:a!Se offi~O~W'(ilrk is the: 'toordina::tiCkIl of the .hands and fed. Men the feet ,!t!:ld hands work to8lethera~~o~atkally t tihe:art iof m.(IIvhwg is, per£if(:~(IIr!. i~U,

There Me ,o~~yf'O~!T moves p!),Sslible in footWlork-adnndngj• retreaH!!!g~. drdinli:' l:eft~a~d d:rd[~ :right. H,Qww,er, there are impodam:t va:riatio~s of advand!!lig!Wd J!ettGatru~g as, W\eU as the. nooe.5lliity of ~O-. o1idi~8ilting ea:ch"~nd:amenta~m;~;n .. em~~t with ~ea!::rns.

lrt hi weU ~(!Ir:eMf!gberthat ll!~ter of footW\o~k can move in a!I~ dk,eetwQn~~ttsual1yrurn a. different dr~ttkln e!l!ch. time. Never usetbe Mme~eihm.qm twrc@ i(l: .succe§~Q~. AJbove ~l th~!!1I,gs~ keep m(llvIn:g~ for a~>oviingt.~t is • ,elusive ,o~e,

USE

The ."o1W(l,d Shu~ls a stow lno<v,ement fo.rward In sum a manner that bot:hf:eet areon thef!iOlll at .a~~ times, w~th tb..f! body ptVisOO fat eiJlhera siudd!en. attack o~a defen!Si.ve R1OlBeuv,el. Its pr[ma,ty purpose ism, ctea,teG;pe~~ngs ad to dr.aw me-ads.

The B4Ck~d Shuffk-~s a slow mOiv,emfifit backward in such a Mlnnet' that both feet. are onthe loora! a:~I.Um.es pe!l:'.mi.tting balance to, be!Mi!:d~tdij,ed. fOlraUack or de~ense.. It is used to (]Jr3i;w leadcS ~r to draw the op;ponentoibadanoeJ thus cl\eatLq: openjn~.

'l'h'e ,Quirk Ad'1J@€e-TMJleareMm.i@swhen .3.. S~QiW aril.va;ficewi1loot aooOIil-J;iliish the purposft:,wh.e:n SJudOJen. ~ipeed and a !qj!.dcJk advgce is oeeesS!I!Q", Th~s the 'QlWlck: almvan.ce, whkb.3Jnows$~dden mOVieMe!l1l.t f~h!a!Td,wi,thol!l,t Jess of body bal.an.oe,

The P,(»'ced .Ret'fiBat-H.e:ret .again,i:s .aoocludquewhk:tlli ma,kes plbfble: :sud'd.eo lIetreMwben the slow shuffle backwa.rd. will not sufttce. It alllWlS a. :sudd.enioir'cefwmQ·ve 1[II~c'kwardwi,tha s~r:e:oess of ba1a!Dce~ alQr'wjmgf~rthe!Rtfeati.f n~ry~ Cl.f as~elp:iq fOfWamtoat~ack If: ,desH,OO.

C'iridmg t~~'~ LeJI-The .ability~ to mQ,ve 'o.r !Circle ertheilKlI left ,or 'ri8bi~ :is aiA enrem.elyimpo:rtant part. (I~fQtlltW(lJk. In, geDe:ra1.~ it istm.e ·that ;~Jtg best. t<0 ~e1e. ·away f:gm .. 'OPPOlIIJbt):s stmngest blow. Ii!!

80X1NG

othe-r wo,rdS" dlicllng to tile left is, 'Moving away from a left, hook~ni)o, tbe OJ>po:rumt's lig:ht. It~s essential, then~njjjjt on~y to :knowbolW." but wh.enoo drde.

C~!rdjDg left :may be used {o 1l1!.dtify' an opponent~s len hook.. :n. may be used to get in'liQ, position for terrific rigbt-~atOd~d. c(l1!!in!~e:T!1I1 and it ca~beused ~othrorw ,Ui opponent off baJ~.IUlce. T~e ~Mpoirltaut~b~~g!i! t'(l :remember are Dot to cress the £.eet whUe drcl~~g~ ~.o UUllVle de. '~ibe'ra'te~ymther than w~~dl~y~ and 'wiilivery lttt~e moti.on ..

CiJrding to th,e R~ght-isused to k~p out of~he range of tight-hand blows p!nd to obtiIJ~n a good posmon f,oc the diUve~y 'of a Wenbooik. and a.]eft jab, I tis sa:fel' brutmoof'e dimcu.lt than drdmng to the left and therefQr~~ should be used mm:e D!ften.

THE TECHNIQUE OFFUNUAMENTAL ~oorrWORK THE FOiRWAJD SHlJl'l!'U

This ]s a :[orw,;u:d ad,nace of the booy' without diiSUil!rblng: oody baJ;;mcewbicb .taD. ooly be performed ;tbl'lough a ser.ie~ o~ sbOllt st~ps f:orw8!:rd. Th~esteps must be ;&0 small thlJ!t lb.€! feet are not nf~edat all., butsUde alolli! the, Aoo,r.

With this pdndple: in mind!~ I.lis~ume the :fUnd~~iIMoel!l~~.posiiUoW!!. Sllde the' left foot -:forward, a,bout two :in(;h:es" followed diroctmyby the dgbt foot~ movrng it tw,g, inches forward. Thekncts 3J)e not kept :sUff, nor are they bent1 but free and loose with a. slight DlIlnfement ,at ,aim dOles" Keep, the left side of' the body in a sU'aigbt line, The 'fe~l foot is, flar~ on the :floor. The toe: Ilil the right fQoll, ~s !placed ftrmlFy ID'H tle floor., Tbe enitEli:e' movement i~ :shuftl.e·.]:ike. Tbe 'f'eet do not leav!e the .ioor. They :s1ide (Fig!ilJf'es 33, 3,4,~ 3 S~ page 3$ ) .

Keep shuffling forward until a flbod,y feer'~sli.lilts. 'The wbo~e bOOy mai.ntai:ns the futidanteDta~ posj.:ti.on thr·Qu.gbout. The key is the mahue .. Dance of thefundaJmefital positio.n whilfe moving g~owly fmward..

ThEEJ,."!CKWAM' SHUl'l'LE

The p,rincipi]e oif~he backward s:h~mews the sante' as till act ,o!f the forward shuffle, that is, a" Sr]OIW hackward.n!lovement without dis,. turba.ll.oe Otf the fundla:meptam pOS~dOll.

Ass'u;me the :fundamentaiposidou.N'oW' slide the right fOOt ibac:k~ wards two inches, followed b, the same moveme,n£ wi!th the ~eft foot. Comiinue,maintainiPg the' :fundamw!tal positio~ at ;DoU times (F'iPJil\1S, 3(1,1, n~ .38, page .;33).

. .

F.~;G. ,33 :rn::, 34 Fro. .3:5

FURda,mental Foot~work-<the Fo:rw,ard Slrmffie

1"116. 36 ifG. :n FIG. 38

.Flmdam.enW FootW!odt-tbeBaekward, Shuffle

'.

34

. THE QUICK ADvANCE

Tllereaol',e times when openings ~f w.bich only can be taken. advantage cd thrnup fast mo,vem.e]]l~: T-be abi1~ty ~o s~ep lnSast, with oo,th feet un&r 'Urebody~ ghres thead.van:tage of be:Elt.g ,a~b'~e t(l scere, and to, followurp.

Assume: the fundamental pGSj.ticm.,P-usin '(lrl5BilMtIDy with tber~g~t foot~ and at t-he sametm..e ,step fQfW31'dl with the left~oot. 'The !left loot- ;is carri~d dose to the Hoor pdtbe r.iijbt. foot is ifnm.ed~at\eIy brorDsht forward. 501 that foot 'Pos:irtionsare eS:~'nUam~y' t:lms.e ,o,f the 'fundame.D.talstance (Figu,l'es 39t 40" 41~ page 3,4). The bodyOattens

FIG. 40 l'le Q1!Iiidt ,AdWiliDC'e

toward the floor ra.,ther tban.~.eap.ing inoo, the air. It .is :notaibop,. in ,8ii~ respects it 'is the same as a wide st:eprfo!l'War·~ loog s,~epwitb We left :foot, brlngi.ng t.he i'~gbt foot imm.edjia~ely into po:sitio:n.

THE QUICK, bI1I.QX

Thiism.wetn.e!ilit i.s essentiaUy a lo:ng bUll qukk step badtw8x:d,. As· s,ume the fundamental position. PUsh. off M.th, the left loot" ami atihe yrue time, step backward with theris\bt, weiPt, shlftiil1i8: 'W the :str,lIigi't

FlIiNDA,MENTAL. FOO'lWQU 35

ri&Jd. leg~ using the left 1-. 1$ & ,drag to :EDainta:inbaJanoe (Figures •

42,4,3" MJJS)., '.,

FIG. ,4\2: FIG. ,43

The Quiet, R.etreat

CIRCLING 110 I'D! LIn

1ft '.is mOr\'ieme!11!t.e leftlq 'be~orm.e!i ,I movaille piV'Ilt. MS'um.e rae, fmtOme.n,tal po:sit['OD. S~ six to e~ht :h!.'c'bes to thete:fli;'With the Ifft,ioot. Tben:,mmgme left .le-gas a pi,YOrt-poin;t, wheel the whale, 'body m.eleft~~til ~i!' ICO,Tlled. posidofll, is resumed. T.he first step wi:tbtbehdt foot may 'be as short or as iO.Dg as nooessary,the ltrnger die step, th-e'greater tb-e. p-iv,ot.. Tht! 'f:undame:ntal position. must be mainta.im.edl :at ,an times, 'The left hand stu wId be earned a Uttle :h~,gber kn 'OIid~naril,in r,eadiness fo.rth!: opponent's right counter.

Ciaa:ING ''fiIr ''IDE bHT

Tbis, :iis :11, m.ore pr'etl!se: .mo,vem:ent requiring shorter steps, A:ssu~ tbef~l!ltlame,Dlt:a:l 'position. Step from fOll:f' to six:. incltes 00 the rigbt with theldt foot ,and! hnm.ediateliyf6Uow with, the right :£oot tethe fmldamenta1 s1tJmc.e()QSiuon.The step with the leftioot must be .sho:rt.1 Orrry tie' right band high" ~ fu the opponenes l~n bool.

BOXING

TRI· CoOD,INATlON 01' HANDS AND FEET

, TIM /OTWtJrd _ baclniuwd slr"6'e flJitA U,e Zeit ja/}'

I. Assumelhe f:tmdameotaJl :positioD. Shuflle forward slowly, jabhing odtwirtb the left bud. Jab c~;ntiDuoMly. Note·that. body balaaee is not disturbed/and the rhythm of the shu8le ;mO. ;M'tI1 'mMfe~ ment doe~ Dot necessarily have to be dIe same.

I. Wbm forward progress i5 :stopped, shufHe backward. Jab ",pile sbuflti·pg.Body balance 'sMuld not be disturbed.

:rie Jorward a;ulbed~VJarrl shuJ}Je using I/;e: st1'rJigltt ,jgJ;~' ..'

I. Assume th.e fundamental position. Shu. forward slowly" driving the right ann i'nooooP'lilliuous extension. BodybMa~. should not be disturbed"

2. Whml the forward prog~ess is, stopped, ~h.e backward" ddVing,

the firbthand jnt'O complete e~teMiOD. ,

3. Now sh:ulk forward, driving first: the left and tileD the: right hand into continuous extel\lsWn. 'Theai'MS silll WQtk indepe.d .. eDtly of the ieet.BalaMeiis not dls.turOOd,.

Tie' qukk adl1aHce 11m/. the forced i'etl'e41 U.ffng ate leJt plJ, "

I. Assume the :[undamental position. Start mo,vmg .{omaN through '& ,series of quick ildvan~s. As the: body ,is moved.fotward euh time, drive ·the left haud into wens-ion" twa ramrod. The len arm works in 'Unison. 'witb the left foot. At the instant the ie1f:t foot touches, the loor, the left hud. ;5 'COlllplete.ly ,uteaded. Con:timre,. uOrtil forward progress is im:petied.

21. Tben .move bw;kward through, a series of forced .. retreats·.Push off wi,th 'the ~,eft foot, ilind. jab with the left Mnd.

3. Same,.excep,t jab first, thenp,ush oflm.w, a forc«d retreat., .

4. Now take one quick. advMce and at the same 'time, jab. Tllen take one quIcltretreat and jab. Ma.k:.e thls, a continuous .~e-'ntt:nt, lanyard. and ba.tk1 bands and feel working tog,ether. Be SUR- that left arm is compktely ex,tended eaeh time.

S. .'MovefoAlard by a series (If quid; ad'varw.esj• driVing the .right band Wo oompiete t!X!tension every' Ume the rigbtfMt. is,moved. Cany tOe left' hand. biglJ. Remember" tberight band and dght I:oot move ".ogether ..

6. Whe~. forward p1IogfW,js, imped.ed,. move backward diMU!~ a aeries, of fotted retFea,ts~ dririDg the right. .hud, mtocmnplete

luteUiOD. 'every time the right :Ioot :ismoved. T.befoot. touches the fool' at the same :mom,eot 'tbe ,handisoomPlete:ly extended,.

The left hand must be bi8~ and ready. ~

Tire quid advance TDi,/I the l'e# and rigid 10 ,the cmn

I. Mov.elorwatd. through a s'U,ccessi'on of ,quick adv,anrest the hands and~eet 'working '~ogether •. As the le',t step 'is taken, Jab with dleleit hand,. As 'the dghtfoot ,i:s moved 'Iorward, ddve with,the right hand .. Continue.

Tile le# jafJ and ,:s.tt,aJ,gh~ rigid (·omlJimd 'Wi#scil'cUn,g le# .t.AsS'!!lme the fuodarmen.udpositian. arcle (10 theteft.As theSeft loot is moved, jab with the left hand. Continue, left handaoo foot. w.o:ddlig 'in unison.

J. ContintleJ only using the sU'aigbt dgblt, As tbe rlghtf:oot is moved, ddvethe dghtarm in~o ,oomp~ete extensIon. Contioue, with the right arm ;and .right le~WQfkjng as one.

3· As tbeleftfootis moved. to the lett, jab with the left hand. As dierigbt foot:iis mov,oo" drive the qgb,t ann int'o complete u .. tension.

,The ,left jah a.mJ ,t,he st"alght right combined withcWc.li"g right

'I. AssliWm.et:h.e '€urnd.amental position" Circl~ totbe right. -As the'i.eft 'ootis moved:, jab with the ~eft hMd. CGfidnue,. J.efthH'd and left foot workin:g,hlgf!the,r.

2 .• CoDtml!i:'e', 'onlyusjng a strai,-ht dg,ht. As the right foot is moved, drive die righ,t armi1ft[,o OOIDplete (l"xten'Sion •. Co~dDu.e, with 't~ riglrt:ha.nd and .right footw:oil'king: together.

3· NOw as the left~oot is, Moved, jab with theieit band .. Asthe dgbt :Ioot is mo:ved1 pivot the 'body to tile left and. driv-e the qght arm into co-mplete ,wensio-n.

FUNDAMENTALS OF, FlOR:M

.-....-'" -

TaeFaawAJID SHUFFtE

I. Body wWght wlilistnot be disturbed.

2 •. ,Foot movement's are ,no mor,eth. two inches in loogth., the fight

foot :ioUowmg the left.. -

3· Both feet are OD. the floor at all times.

4·, The ftmdameotalposition is 'rnaintar.ioed at aU dmes.

THE B.\cKWAItD SHUI'PI.E

I. As above) ocept the rlght foot is lPoved! .fi~st.

Ta:E QUICK A:DY,ANCE

I., Thh;:i::s really ,3,: :~ong sttpf'QtwlBd. It is Dot a bop"

,2., The lefl foot mons fiIS'C~ f~llOwM by the idgh!. Ouf:ooth;, mo

oontad, w.iith the Hoo:r'lI!t all Wn'eS.

3. Push. witb, tberigbt foot ~d step forwud wi~b the left.,

4. The right foot is brought quk;k:myto, iundiame!l!lt;dstan(;e ~I:tion.

5. TIle- body is Battened tow3irdthe ftoo,r.

THE, QUICK RE'lREA,'!

I. It is a sudden ]olOg step backw,;m)I" 'The :right 'foot moyes fi~it, foUomd. by the left.

~. TIle weigh,t is, S:~if'tedl to ,a, ,str~t. right leg. ,3,. 'Th.e reft foot :is used as a dr,ag~

CDa.m'G Lv'!

I,. The left. leg' moves first. and. becomes, a,pivot 1'01" the body.

2 • The body ~s now wheeled to the left, 1iI!E!itil the f:undam.entS!! position is. liegained •

.3. 'rhe left hand is held. big:b.iDreadioes:s for the oppo:neut"sright OOUDrer.

CmC:t'IN'G' R~GHl'

I. The~eft, foot. n1.'O'vesirst, i'our to six :iim::be:stco the rtg't. 2:.. The right ioo,t followsm, position.

3., The right hand, is carried higb ,and ready for' opponent"s, left hook,.

COORD!lNATION O:F HAND'S AND FEBT

'I. Hands and feet. should wo~k tcOg~th.er at all dmes. A left·hand ~ead should b@ used only when. the '~en. 'f,oatis nlolfed. A ri,glilt~ handiead, sbould be used oflily 8lStberigbt foot iSnlGved.

THE ADVANCED BLOWS AND BLOCKS

D·jEFINITION

AnvAN'CED blows, are drose< pe:rfo.rmed: with a ben!t arm. Advanced block$ are· tbe' defensive m:tasURS foJ' bent-ann blows,whicb are most ,easily ami eflicien.dypedormed whi1e~ eidiler guardj~g or blocking.

EXPLANATION

A skUlledwotkmalll. has a ,c.cmt~and of aU the neoessaty know'Wedge Ilid 'Coolstha't the' 'task. d,emmu.'ls. A skilled boxer has the knowledge of a.Bd: ~e ,abttit;y' tope:rf'or.m, sU fund.ame1llm bloW'S and. 'b~ocb. A wortmmliMl'Y 'be: skUrned but wi:tkout the pr~r too]s; he~ cannot do a ~ Job. Neitber can tbe boxer besueeessful wj,t~out me tools of bits badei, the,flll!ndamentaJ s'kllls of'attack ,8il'!d ,defen!!~.

The tool kiit 01 the boxer HlustindudeaJI. blows and blocks w.hich. arc known aod.used. It is poSSible ,to execut,e ·o,gEy two types of h.o~ stnU,ght and bent."ar.!n bJ.O.m. The straigbt blows am 'be used to :Face or body 'with. ,eithe!!:' hanel.. Eacll 10 itself is a oompUcatoed technique, ft. ~ is true ,of bent,."ann blow;s '~ept ther'e are m.ore: of them the "tt 1_; the swing~ and, ~e uppe![\cut. These blowst used w,~th ,either bud to fau or b0d,y;, ~cge.erwith straight hitting, e:maust~l, the pcadiu. possUlIUities 'o:f &iitting.~lt follows that there is ~ittle possibility' of .~ny new blow:s. As~~ght var.i!litirm. in dm[ng or ,combinatiOR. may' mat.e tlie liewlt, .appear W be a. neW' blow', but actuaUy it w.iU be an old. ODe in a new guise.

English styliSts :SieldO'mmate use (j,f bent-Mm b.ows. Used properly, hIp't~arm blows make l)oxiu,g a m.m:e IcompWete and d~fficu'lt. sport. With~ out beJilt."\lJirm blows there are few,er possible combinations"

There is a lIeuo:nwhy be:nt~rm b:~oW!! are a part ,of a oo:x,er's tool kit. No~. only are dley P'O'werful ~o<unter bilow;s~ but ~'hey ate .me means of' opening 1l!p D oppo:ot!nt':s d!efense. As in, :foo,tba!ll. w:he:re wide n~ps 81ld open play are used. to spread the defense, :in bo:1ing oonstant

1Iooki'mg .wW, !crute ope~, lor skai8ih,t blo,ws. ..

11:b.e' (IIIC ,ot!Oer paaihilitl" is the ~d Hi'inc Qr chop •

. 39

Once: abour .has mastered the: .hoot I the' :swing, and ~he I!!:ppercut, 15 weD as the defense for sua blows,he bcacs in (lo:A1I,biIQt~on with his straight blows aU the n~s3iry tools, of nils trade. He winM the journf:y-man wbo can do a good jeb, l!1l(lt yd~sessinM: the skUl, the fines..'i'e, the knowledge (I'i' tile perf eetion of tll,e mas:ter.

USE

The Leit HO(lk-.:is used as accenter and hni.sh.ing blow. Itils a shert blew, r,arely naveHng over six. Inches, and produces tremendous power as the whole body w.eight is behind it. It :should be used judk;i,ol!llSly and! only wilen an aetual opening has been created, It is used best when going in or eoming' out, and .i useful against an overreaching left jab .or SWiIlg, or ,3, straight right or 5wing.

Theoretica lly, the book is a head blow. The so-called 'l:WiJody books are' in nl8.Hty uppercuts Of poorly execut.ed straight blows. The i,eft hook is tlte m.o.st diHku]t blow in boxing to l,e~rn and use properly.

The .RigJzt lltwk~is one of the most dangerous 'C(ll:luter.s i.n. bmdng alt<i ~s oft·eiH referred to incerrectly as the l[rlg~.t cress." It is a fiD~sbi:ng blow and can be used .against an opponent who overreaches and is olif balance. It may be used. aJtet du~king or wl'D:enever an opponent Be'l>j,· tates, The blow carries tc.errific force but SAl1)U Id not be used toe nftea,

The Swings to the. Face or ll@dY---<llre fiat wide blows WMcl1 carry Wittle power. They are used mainly to widen the defe,nseand to bother an opponent. They snould 'be used sp.aringly and with caution so that the hands win not be injured.

The Sho'rtM T"ueUpp~jtuts-a.re used principally as deiens,ive blows ag,aillst crouch~rS:Jand as oounters. Th~y are short, il11si.de bIOW:!l carry~ wli!g cotlsiderabI~ power. Tbey are' used best to the body, al tJitotigh U'U~y may be used occa,si.o.n.alily to the chin. The' right uppeecet is more often used than the left as it is easier h) execete and carries more power.,

The L(}ftg ll"P£,.cut$~ wUh Lett I1nd Right Sle,p-Tbese blows are extremely eff,ective as couaters against a left: jab. There are two dwft',erentforms 'of executiou; first, steppifl\l!t across with the left foot wbichgivfS speed at the less of power; secend, stelYpiug witb tlIe dght foot which gives power but ,at a toss 0.( speed.

I'

THE, TECHNIQUE OF THE ADVANCEl)) .BLO'W'S At'll.D BLOCKS

T:HE L~n HOO.K

. Beca:usepedecil: execution of the left h:ook can~ fOf more cQoOrd'inati.o and predsi(lR dum any (ltner ene blow, it is the 1!OOst difti(;~~t blol to Je'arD, Tbe: left book ~s CQ!11])rfs.ed of three movements, From th fUlldamen tarposit~on (Figure 4-4. page 4 I ) .

L TurWi the left ll.i:p and :shll,u]dler to t:h.e right un til a point ls r,e3lci1e o(lrrespondi,ng to the center line' of tll.e body. The lef [ hamd d~ !lOt move with the bod}'j' but remains in the fUDdament.aJi positi(lI! ... \ t the same time shiH 'the weight over the straight right le (Figure 45" page 4 I ) .

FIG. 45 The LeU Hook

!i • Now w hlp'" the bent lelt arrn j n an arc to the rig;ht sbouldf (lFlgur~ 4,6, pag·e ,,~).

At tll~cO'.fiI~plell;.klll 0 f the blow the wei,gnt ~s OV'IN" the right ~t'ig, r~gi .W1e pointing diredlt to the side, the left side of the body ~s u1Il!r.ne

!Ii The 'w!:.iip of' the IIrm i! caU'~d. by the turning, of the [body .away f:rlIDl lhean ~tlil the range oj ii!iIoye~t in. ~e Ilu~~lde. jiQ.i~~ iscg[f;lpl!te~y used, ~en tlM:afi must tum with tile boody .. ~ted quickly, this eauses the IIIrm tOo wlup forward l U :releaed bom I bow.

towam 'tlKioppone-n,t, and. the left ,1!1ln is ,puUediac:ross meboQ'y, tbe left hand appr:o,ximatin,g the f~ght sbou~dler. 'The rtigbt 8'rm is hemd. inside t:he left ,arm and nearr the~eft shoulder.

THE BI..OCQ :rort 'EUELu'I HOOK

The jt!l'eMm Mock-Assume th.ehulidJamenJtaill [pCsi,\iOon .. As, th~opponellltle~s a short left book. r8ib~e the right IliXrnJ as i.f to :salu:te. The hand should be' nii8~ and dose" k~.trckles out, forearm. stralg~t, end tiS:bt to the body, elbow dloWtl. lntettept, the blow I(ln tbe wrist~ I'er,earm, (II' elbo,w (F.ig:uq 41, page 4·~).

T he ~id:e bl'o(.:i: Assunte: the fUpdlamenta:Epositiop., As the epponeet leads a short left hoo:k, tum. the bod.y in,ward and w the le'fti and at the same tim.e bend !;'Ugb;tlJ :forwam :SO that tbebody~s, carried inside ·the opponenes, book. T"he right hand b, carried tight and dose as :in a fo:reiliffll block. The '~eft hand 'sb.o-uld be plated 'Olil the G[!):ponent's dght (Figure 48, PGiP'42).

BOXiNC

1'],,0,.4'1. Tit/. F(iff!arm ,Block .nG. 48. TIJe Inside ,Fouta"" Block

lUocIts ~0r tnt Left H'ook

THE RIGHT HOOK

The right hook. ~s sii:mila.r to theruef;t,book in e~~uUon~ e:lOOept that

it is easier.

Assume the fundantental pi)S.ition. ShUt the weigllit, ,QY,e:r .tht!. :sttaiight

left leg, tum the [.lgbtsh~ul~[' ,udmp tbiioug,b, to the' aliJiler lUie;

THEADVANCED' BLOWS AND BLOCKS

4S

then raise die rigbt elba,,", and in a half~J1t IPosUlon, whip, lit in" an Irc toward the left shoulder.

TilE BLOCKS POR l'HE R1GHT HooK

Tit,e .$,eO p-.is the most efi'ewve bh:llc'k. fOIl' me f,~ht hook, For a full d,;e:scr.iptlan turn to :pale ;~ I (Pip.re .25., 'page 2 I ) •

Tie $,ie,a'du ,cQ:l',h-J\ssl!!Ime the: fundam.ental.pos:iUon. As the oppt!" mtUiil 'IDeads, a right hook.! m.OIlle' the feft shoullder f'orw'I,rdfio'rming a point llaiRst wll:iictl, the t1!:urnb of the 'optn, right glove m:aybe hooked and thn C01:tch tl!:e blow in the ~ dghtg!loVie.

1':REL£I''l' SWINe AND :BLOCE:S

The lell :wing-iis performed exactl:y U~e the '~eft hook ~c.ept the left arm is fn'st str,aight~ned ,8!Ji :~n a left j;ab, then foUowed by a full sweep .~ the arm] tG the right s.houlder. ][[1, ,deliVlHing the blow the hand is nO:t ,dropped from i~!i fun.de.rmen~a'~ :positio.n. A.t the 'm.o:ment 'O.:fWIll-PId tbe thumb-side of the hand is, up and the dllbt arm is held i'D thepos~tio:G, ·o.iparcd.

T1I.ebl,(jcks .I,or a lele 5WitJ,~ar,e: ,e-:xac,tI,y tbtsa:m.e as those used qunst themeft hook. If the QPPQnen:t makes lIeguJa:r use of theteft swing;, eount,e:r inside wi.lb, ,a 5'traight right I,tad.

TB:£ LEF'1' ANDRIOH! UP:i'ERCUT'S AND BLOCK:S

:T'he le# uPj!ieJ'c:uhMswne the flifidantenta1 pos:ldo!l. B,end diRd.ly 'to,tle len and !iUgbt1yiF'orw .. d~ntil the I,e'ft elbow is tl(lwcbingthe left le,g ,31. few :inches bellow the ~lp bone. The left atm, is in. a :half~betl~ :p!'1Silfufll~ parallel to tbeA~'JIPa1.UP. The ri@lbt elbow is elese to die: liide~ forea:nn, covering the right sidle: of the body and f~. Allow dia: lJelt ~houlder and hip to swing forward) carrying the left arm to tile tenter' mine oltke bod¥. \\'heg the center" Un:eo.f thebodly is rea.ched~ &b',iUgluen and whip the left ann upward in. an arc for the solar :plexus ,or the chilo.

The "g,1tt uppt;rcut=-AsslIme the fundamental position. Bend to the ~bt and. s'Ugbtly forw,ardt so that :r1ght elbo;v islio~chltJ.g the rigbt leg bei~o!w tb.e :h.ip" and the rigbt a:l1fii is, i:11 ,3; baif,·bentpo.sittQn, par,alte'l t.o tlitemoor~ palm 'Up (F:iguL'e ,49; page 44).. :Rota~e the 'body~o me left., tll!.rrning the rlg;bt :h~p and, shoW.der~o the oen~t!(r line (Figure 50, PIP 44r), dien :suddenly' straighten. the body and wihlp~' J.ight hand upw.8irrd~o the soJar pl~,( Figure' S i ,pq:e 44). The, left arm. ,wy,e:rs the, Jeft side of the body ,and face IthrougiDol!l!l.

BOXING

The ma'S" el'ediw de!eme-l'oram uppeu:ut.ils mere., m.wiDga flew inches ba.:,kward ont of rang~ .. HOwe:veF I the:bfuMIaway I nlellely dr!op.. pin,g the open glove across the OpflQmmtJ.swr1st, isverYleBeedve:. n ·~s best to, 'use the dgbt brus'h :for tire len, Upptkut ,and viteversa.

PIG. 4<)1

f!~G. 50' The U'PpeI'curt's,

THE LotNG UPPERcut ANII) j,I.OCXS,

With ~. l'e# Seep-AJ!~j;1lme! thcfundaroen.ml posi;twll. As the o~nent, jabs a left lead, parry to the outside plsitjo!l1wim, a r.igll1t b;wdf-a,t. th'C! same time taking a quick siIi.ep with the left foot. DrOp the left ,arm, til a po~it,io'n petpendi,cll.d~u 10 the floor (Figure 52, p~e 4·5.).. A,s,the weight shifts tOI the left~egj' whip the leift band upward to the oppo~ ne-nt's abdomen (Figure 53 j pauge' 45).·

With a right $,f,e,.....Assume the fundfil.mentail position. Using 'ther:ight band to p;!.l'l'Y O'ppO'J1e!l!lt':s len lead toOiie ou,ts!i.de guard.pos~tion, drop the le'£t arm so a 'POS~~iOD. pe~d!~cu)afto, ~he flIoor I' pa~m upw_d, and. step brisk.~.y one step 8tde;ward. and. 'forward :willi tbe right foot (Figure' 54,!, page 45)., .As, the''We~bt S~lUts~OI the rigbt lest wlliiip' fhe: lefl arm up,ward, to oppo,nmt's;, 3!hdlmnen. Af:t~r' ilhepmryJ the right hand, is .. h'l:1d high and off the: ~eft shouJider.

THE, ADVANCED BLOWS AND BLOCKS

]),'[0. 5;.11,. With Rigid Slep The Long Upper"C!.Jts

The mod eRective delense-is te merely dflOp at! opiin gl'ovei:n and dOw.Dw,am across opponent's foteanIlJ forcing the blow to the outside. It is 'best to. use ther:~ght h:rusbfQI the left uppercut and 'vice 'Versa.

FUNDAMENT,ALS OF roRM

''fB£LuT HOOK.

II. Tum the .Ieftbip amI s:boulid@t through to the center ~ine, away from the' ieftarm wbiic;l) retains its lor.iginalposition.;o

J" Sbiftth:e!welgbt 'baCk to, the straight dght Weg,

BOXJNG

J. Turn the body to me rigbtand whipl tle left hand ,in ,an. arc

to the right shoulder.,

4,. Dr~ve' t1l,ough the "mark," not, tf)W'fI"a it"

s.. The left hand ~s rult 'Eowertld 0'[' '~I'b~1(!8j['iIIPffitedu in I!In'Ymanner.

6. Kwu,ddes are po,iDung oue, palm.iinwilird ,all:, the m:omewt (li,~ impact" The thumb-side ,of 't~ hand lS, up.

7. The right hand is u:rrfed off t~ :len sho,u~de:r, opemil. and in po6~tiO'n of guard.

BLeCKS POR THE LEFT HoocIC:

Tie /orfJwm, lll'ock

(., The mo'vementis similar tOI !Jj, ~~~~te.

,2'., The arm nwu:st be ~eld close and, qght to tb.e bOoiily~ ,eibo'VI' dOlWD, • .;. C;b.in $~o~l\d be w,ell tllc~ed.

.,..,r, .~~~J. I '. "-] Ii :.1 rie :ii'mui/;l . o.,ee,:m r)~oc', ,

I. Ttlm the bQd!y with the bOOck, drop~blg 's1~gbUy '~(lrwaird :incS'ide the hook.

2. K!ee:p the e:rbow do:wn~f or~a1'mI tight ag~igst the body .e

THE RmHT' HOOK

I.. ShUt the weight over a s;t.raigbtWef:t meg.

2 • Turn. the right hip aed shtmlder dlrolltigh ®Ill the' center nne ..

.3. R.al~: the dsht e~bolW and wit'~, ar~ in a half -be~t. POS.iiUOID, whip,~t, h~ an ,are t'olWard the rigJl!Jt shoulder.

,4,. At lber.nQment Off imp8ictf lm:,ucldes sh-ould. be tur~ed. '01lli~, [burnt!. sidle of the bandl!lip.

5. Wrist. must be kept :s,traight.

,6. Thet·eft arm :is held in position of guard ..

THE :EI,WCKS, "Q'R 'IHE R.1GR'I ROO'K The stop'

I. As·tli.e IO(rpmtel'llt iita~HS, his elbow, drive the open left mm.d~o, his bi~eps.

a , The arM :rnust be c:omplie,tety strarg~ileDed!, th.uab :awu:nd. the

bicoeps.

s. Carry the ri,ghthand high ,and. :reeJd!y t,o' block or counleiE' ,. The sboulder catd.

I.. Hu..nCh tb.e lleift :shoulderf:Ofwa;ni, hOOkin,S tbeihumb ,of the right 'hand into crook ,O,f the SbDWldel" ..

THE ADVANCED SLOWS AND B,L.oCKS

2'. CatCh ,oppllm.ent's right hook in IOpen, dglrtglove.

3. T.he lef'thand is, lowe-lied smjgbtly, ~eady '0 ol)U1:tter o""'e[ 'opponen:t!srighit.

THE :LU'T' SWINIG,

:1. The left aem SbOldd. 'be cOMp:~ete:~y extiend'ed as :in ,I le/f'tjaib" ,2. 'Turn th.e :~en hip ,and body t,oward the opponent.

3. Shih. the body w,e-ight back to the straight right leg.

4. Whip. the :ldt arm~na full are tow,ard the Jis-lit shoulder. ,5. The . band: is, not lQWItl:',ed or I!teWegr.aphed.H in any w,ary.

6. At the mement of impact the band is tUE;net! ~othait. the thuml).. side ,ofthti band is up.

THE, LEFT: A:NDRro,H! U~PER,C'u:n,

I.,. Be~dthe body snd!.tly~,ofwal'd and dlh:~ctly to the side. . .

2. Tbe'a:rm should be in a half.-bent 'Pos~tlonj p.ar,aUel to the HOOit.1 palm up.

,3 •. 'Body is then pivoted to 'the Icenterline.

4. Suddenly straighten the body and whip the arm to the soia\' p1lex:us.

THE, BLOCKS POR 'fIlE UnERCUTS

I. S®eiJl:pi~g Olllt oirangea,f·ew in.ches. .

2. Dl'oppiD;g the .open, glove inward ,and dOWfiwaro across oppOtU~:lIttSW:rlSt 'Of ioreanlt, forcing 'the b~o,w to, the lillJrts:id.e.

THE :WNG UPPDCUTS 'With ,(I left s,te'P'

I. Use the rlgbt hand to patry opponent's Jlaib. . .' •

2'. Step acm~s the body w~th, the lelt foot to, a pesition outsIde

0' OPpoFi:enfs 1ei,t foot., .

.3. At tb.e same time dr-op theieft band perpendicular to the B.oor.

4. As t~'wf!lght sThw~fb~'Qrwalldl~ wbiptb~ left hand, palm up, to

oppanellilt~ so1aT' ple_s. .'

S,. 'The rig~t band. is h~ld. oft' the left 5!bou'lder in 'Pos~t:i(liD .0:( ,g:UlIild.

With ,Il rigla stgp ~

I. As abov,e ,except step is 'taken wiith tberight foot, one fun step

f'OfW,alld and tol. the side.

THE ELE,MENTS OF DEFENSE

DEFINITION

·fin!:EE.~EN'l'S OF nKII'~NSE are ,aU tecbniqnes wb~ch. al,e' de'~,en5wve in purpose and togethe[ give the wholeo:ilDoept of d!e:f,ense.

EXPLANATION

Ihl~ing asa spll,rt is chillra:cted:zed illy' a C-(l~s;tailJt s.b'wft between attack lIInd defe'Dse, each be~ng important, and, depending upo~ theother for' sueeesstul execution. Wlth,out attack there is IIQ n~essity f(iil ,defeMe'1 and w,ltiwlll!t defense th~re w!:ndd be no attack. That a st!!"ODg ofi,ense is ~upposed~y 'lire best d~f~nse is In g,@:nerru true, espeda:r~y Iii,"' deiens:iv,e skill is tllef,olll!nda.tio,n of attack. Wlt"b~t urulerlyin,g def'encSlv,'e! s~t~~Sitb there always (omes a tim~ when a good attaek Meets, ,a, rturtteil.' o.n'l:!'. Then it is too, late,

While hit.ting is the b~s,is, of 3i~Wboxing, $,km in. defiensiv:e ta.ctlics, makes it ]X'I'SSiible fOir the bo'X€irr to ,il/Uack atlbe pl[oper time. Defense then is ~he keynote of a.ttack:, and sbo,u~d. 'be: dev,eloped! before anack.

USE

Blo'C kl~gis theirs.! line of' de~e:nse. It mel~s ~~king a 10mOW' O.n ,some: part oi' the body wbkh. is ~ess, suscepdb~e! ~Q' iinju1'Y. H:o,wevem: ~ CiO~s1derable resistance iisn-e«ssary to block. a baJ.rd bfolw w.bic:h (arose'S, contuston ,gf the tissue, nerves; and bone. Blocking" the~efiOre'; tends, 'to, weake:n.rathe!!' tban conserve bodily ~Of:ces., A 'weU delivered. blow, even Wi blocked" wnl dis~~m;b ba:lan~ej' pre,wH,t. QouillIteriDg, and crease openings j'o,r othe!ll blows.

B]Qck~ng May 'be usoo, ,against all types, of blows" i,tther ~O! face! 'Of body. It sholllild be Iearned first and, learned weU. :I.at,e,r it should, be used ,only when necessary.,

GlIarding: is using, the arms illS levers tQ dispel ·the fMC€: of 'the opponent's blows and to obtaWD. the, ,ins:idteposition. Such movements requi.11! !!ubtIDe j~~nt~ speed" and ClOOrdiMtirm for thei[ eDO'IiI~io:m. &m.e roJl!t:usion takes place" but Dot ~1Ji tliI.e :same degree as in blocld:gg.

.... '

THEELEM'ENTS OF' .DEF.ENlSE

Gu:a:rding ;~s used ,lI!galn$t straiight blows. and often as ,1~ead . .;Wp tOI a, ,~unter .. attm.

p,(j;fr~g is a, sudden mov~ment of the hand iflom the inside (I,r out~ If&!1 onto an. oncoming b~Q'w, flo deflect the 'blow from its. original path. It is a '~ight, Ie-asy mo,v,ement depending on tim~ng rathee than farce. A. blow is never p!.l.!!':rieduntil the last moment ,and alwa;ys when dose to the bl'lldy,. 1'0 reach out to parry a b10w nnt only mms apen~ng5 for ,COUJ:Ilt..e:1i blOW,Sl' but e~ab~es the (lppo.~'~mt to change the d.h:,ecdon of bis Wow.Pany late I,ather than ,early.

Parrying is Ml ,extn!m.ely u~eflJl form ef defense. It is easily leamed~ and leasUy per.foIl'"Iil.ed!, and shou~d be usedwhenever posslble, Advantageous openings are c:r~!,I;ted 'wb~chalie essential to counterfi,gOtting.

S~I~ppmg is we pinning o~ an opponen:Cs hand 0'1' arm 50 that he is, unalb~~ ~o' del~ver iii bloW'. It may be used as a preventlve measure when sW~pping 0'1.' ,oou:nt~dngr or when an. opponent actually i.nt.en<hi to ,demivera blow .. Used In 'this manll,@r, it requires a knowledge of wben, an lopponent wS8oi:ng, to lead; and depends on ,speed. a..nd skin for e~ution.

,S,'lip/)it#gi:s a.v;oidhlg' a bl,owwithQ~t Ictuany mov~"g the body out ,of ~,a:~e'. I~ i.s,~~d pfimad~ya,!!laip~t str,alght teads mlid eounters. It 'cslls,f,or exact dmlqa~d. judgr.a:w~t and to be effec;tive n:l!lmst be: ~xecut,ed :50, tb3iJl the b[o,w is escaped only by the sma:tmes.t fraction. Perfo.rmed tuddlenly the s~ip contains an element of surprise and lel:l,\v,esthe oppon.e.oltwide open ,at tbe :m.eocy ,of a terrific ceunter-sttaek,

]h~cause sripping [eaves borh hands ir,ee to ,counter, it is the method pnf~rred by 'j(b~ ,e~ert.

It is possible to stwp e:[~he,T a left or ,I· right ~ead,. 3lthough more often used and safer against a, .len lead. The out:skl,e slip, tha,t ls, tethe right of an opponenes, lefttea.d, arlo tbe~eft of '],11 opponent's right IUd!, is the safest poslHon, leavin,gtbe oppon.ent unable to defend agai!n;st iii OQunter attack"

.s\!ipping ;5 ,b invaluable I':echn[,que,th!erear basis ofcounter-.f1gh:ti:ng upon wm.'Cb. depends the .sde.noe o{ attack,

Due k-ing is dt'Op'pi·ng tlu'! bodyf,orwar,d. u~die1' hooks and. sw~ngs to tile head., l~ ,is u:stIdi as ,a, m.eaas of escaping blow,s. allowing the boxer to 'remain iD l'ang,e fota cm'lnter--atta:ck., Neither duclti.og~ slipping, Mfwe'avfog should, be practiced "Without mtn.»gor ooltutering.

It is j!lllst u~sary to litHo. t:o druck ,swings as it is tlO alip straight

- -

BOXING,

p!!,uu::bes,. BoODI al,e 'used far the, same p,'ll.lirpo:se~ and 'both aile bportMlrt ~n counter-atta(:!k.

We,avingis anadeaneed dil:feMive t.:ootk whkffill m,eaM, '~~~ing the body in, out, and ar,ound a sUaJgbl~ead to tbe head" Pilil.kiing Ule opponent m~ssaoo tJs~ng' tbe opening' thus, created as the'start ofa two-nsted ceuntee-ettack, We'al,ving is based on. ,sltpPJng:a~d tbiJ!i!S imill.sbery 0f sUpping :bel:ps to obtain skU] in weaving. It is more d~fficu~t than sUpping but a very eff'ecdve dele:llse rnane'llliVf!r once perf;eded.. It lSa: circular mov.en"Jient of the u.pper t[un!lk ,3ind head J :rlg:bt 0:1' :~e'ft es desired.

R oiling means nullif'ying: the force of a [dow bymowiIl!1!J the body with, the blow. Aga;inst a :straight blow ~ the m,ovementlS backward; aga:i.nsthooks, to either std@; and ,ag,ainst up~rcu,tsJ it ~sbackward and, a,way.

RoIling is often practiced by the exper~, and ~t $s almost .w.possib~e for a. novice to m,t an expert who is, w;;ing; it. It is, a tedmiqll1lle WOIl'th perfecting.,

- $ide;ste"p;ng is shifting the we:igbt 3ffid changing tbe feet w~th01i!t disturbing balance. It is, used to aJ~id s~I:a~gh!t ru~bes f,orw.afd,aJ~d to move -qu1ddy ,(I~t af :range of attaek, It ~s iii safe, sure, and. V:3ih,!!aib~e deieDsw~ tadk. It 'can be used 'to frustral!iean attack .. simp.ly·~ IDiloVillg every time an opponent geMi "set" to hit. It may be' used as a Medllod. of !j!.\'oiding b~ows Olr creati.ng, open~qs fora c(r'!lJn~er·,att~c:'k ..

Sidest~ping may' be performed byshlhin,g the body f;QfWaiiJd wllieb is, called a fQ!tw~,l'd dro,p. T~is is, t~e' satest posi~won~n b([lxrngt tbaJlt is" carryiog the body and head to. ,apWate d'irec~y beneacth the Oopponent's chest. Here, Wltn the' hei!Jd~n dose" the banrlls (llIuied b~gh aad rud)y to pe.fform <I. double ~stO'p', is an area that is absoluiwly salfe ..

The S!1IUle step may ~ds:o :be pedotnued d~recdy to, therjgh.t or ,directly back, d!epencl~ng on tne deg:re'e of sai ety ne-eded. or' 'the plan o£ a:ct.kifl,. The sidestep should be: pedected by every bo~r.

Clincking- means ,ho~di:ng Ithe oppcmenes arms, in suc.ba manner that 'he is unable to :stdke a blow. It is, used as, protootwo,n afte:!:'rniss~iIilg: a blow, when hllrt or fatigued. However ~ It :sh.OIl,dd be used only as, a last resort It s~o,ws Up' 3. match and makes, .c:leaPJ £ast1 :skiUf'g~ iOOodng hnpossii"~e:.

There are many m~ans of ,eJincmug but (iln~y ,one whicb~s !.iliSO.1uUl~y safe and sure, All types should. be practiced butliMs ,one :shouid. be, pedooted.

THE EUMENTS, OF DEFBNSE

lC'o",,e;,,ingjs,m.aIlY ti)m.esn:!ferredi tQ as the safetybloc:k. It is the 'h(l~diDs: of tbeh1!ad. in die (!look oitbe fight. Rt'mj while plating the left .rID ,over the aildom.en., It ~s nota, l:Ieoommeiflded proood;ure a:ndhas H 'place,lutb'e toolkit of th~e skillful bo.xer.

The Roc,kaway means ~ockingthe 'body away ii'iom a strai:gh,t blow mougb~o, Mp!~e the opponent miss and as 't~e: opponent's, arm relaxes 'to tbebOdy 'it ~s plssibfe to move in with sUi' ,counters. Thls is lit. very effec:~ tive"ec:hflliQue again'St (Ij, ten. jab and mayalso be used as the basis of !be om.e-'tW'O ,cmnbiDIillUon blow.

THE TIDCHN.IQUE OF UEF.ENSE

Tms tcecltniq,uebas been p.revIl1us[y c(I,vel'ed.Howeve:r., because it is ofmeelem.~nl:S of defense, it is beroein induded as a review. Bladdng ,with a ,gio've ~s ,caJled a catch Husedagainst 3. left jab. ""I"piili'jj',tinf'l i!!i! i.ts, teclu1!iqlll!e is ,given in Chapter HI I piiige .1 7 (Figure , • A:gaiDst ,~m"ilht hooJk it is called a shou~d,eT catch. Insttuction in 'fclclmiqu~' t:s gi:Vlietil in Chap,tel" Vj page 43.

Bloc.img ,with tile ,elbow', agahts:t straight bIOW'~, ffis called the' elbow lnstruCitionin its ~eclwn~que is given in Chap~er HI i' page ~ 3 3'°)',

AgMnith{l@band $w[ngsto the body, tu.rn &e bQdysUghtl:y with hilow, 'thus interoepdQg the blow 0'[1 the elbow. Tbef,of·earm must sbiaight Bind dose,tQ the: body. The ,elbow is down and t~g'ht.; band ~ttectmg dte IMe, (h~D down",

BloG~g with .th~ shoulder--U~ed aga~nst a st.raight right to the chin I ~'tled. a sheulder bloek.. For instnl!c,tion, in tec-bniQlne see Chapter N8;! 20 (Figure 23).·

Bl~t,kingrwirh ,t.ke Jon'OJ1n-i:s used ,ag,ainst str.a~gbt blows to' the 'It is! called, 'the. forearm block •. For ins.trucdonsi:ntecllniqlle~ see

~lP~H Ill" pale :iI S. (.F~gure 3~). .

The leve,age guard-'rol lin'Slrucl:ions ;In technique see Chapter Ill; se (Figure u).

The tevef~g,e 'b'~oclc. is, using the [,~ght aem as a: lever against a 1IIrI';0'1'11t. ~eft lead.

AYumethe: fundJamgtaili. posi,twn. As. 'dleopp!)nHot 'meads ~a~eft jabt me right a'm1I fo.rward. and s.ideways iIlit'O oOMplete e-XtensiOD~

BOXING

cros'sing on tbe ins~de or oppon,enfg, ffiab and for,dng it wide 'of ibl, Mark.

The elbow nlust be oom,pJetely .straightened at the moment of 'contact with the 'OPPOmllnCS forearm. Palm shou~d be turned outward. eonsiderabh~ 'force Is necessary to keep the jab from coming thrQugb. The left, arm [s~]d in the pos;iHQn ofg~a.rd ,or oounter. KJeep th:€! ,cb~n, down.,

PARIIYIN,(;,

The omsiae parry on a .s,tralgh.t left lead-for in5trucUon in. t,ecl:i· nique see pagl;! 17 (Fig,ure 1,8).

Tire outside' parry on a ;st,(Jig,ht ri,'gJd le'ad~Ass!ullle the Iumliamentall pQlSitioll.. As the opponent lead!sa :S.tt.aJig;bt 'fig,ht brllilb to the r~gilurll with the left hand, striil.in,g opponent':; oncoming' iblow on the wrist. The movement must be s'l.!idd,en and precise (FWg,ure 5,5! pag,e 5~3.) Tb~s, parTy ~s an arm. rn.ovement as more {ol1ce jg, needled to delee,tthe ,oppo~ nent's right arm inrwal:ld. The Ie-it ~]bQIW"howe'V'elil' is,no~m.o'Voo ,any more than necessary, Carry the ri~hthaRd WI)W ~ n~adY' to oollnt,et'.

The mside' patry 0''1$ a lei t ka~AS'sllme the f1i.l!DdaITu~~t~dposido~ .. As the opponent leads a left jab I dro:p sUghdy to tbeWeft. brin,gjng therigbt hand to the inside of the@llicoruil~g: jl1!ib .. Tu'l:'~ tbe palm ,oi the t'ig;bt 'and. outward, and brush the jab to tbe olUt5~de'.

It is important to take a. Q nick sbort step to tine: ruef~. wlit~ the lefl foot and bend the body slightly ~nos:ide the ~e~t 'lead. The left hand should be ready to stop 0PPOQent'srigh:t 'II!OI1,lj~ter. K@~p, the chin d.own .. This parry calls ror mutb prac:ti,te Mid coord~rlia.~~OD. in ,on~e:r t,Il' be pn):p@ily executed. (Fi:gtlire 56, page 53).

T.he ~nmJe ,;a,ry (In ~ siTajg.ht ,igh~ ,leoo-AsSl!une. ~Jhe fund.3iHlientaJl. position. As the: opponent leads a stra~igbt di511tj dr,op ~Jhe body slightly to tThThe, right thus bdnging the left~a'lld wen I~iside, t~1!!~' ~~d .. Turn ~h-e palm 'Of the len haad outward andbrusb the .dgh't lead. I~O the outside. The :r:ight hand is, in pOiSwt~onliO block Olr lQ;!Iu:nitt:er (F~pr'e 5::7, page 53) .. Cm)s~der:aMe feece is necessaryror succ·essfu~ ,ex,ecution 01' this PMf)" •.

The CTO'SS patry' on a $t,.aigM l.eft k(ld'r---Ass~me the fundm'filii~aJI, position, As the oppo'!lent~e.ads a ,s'traight left, reaeh over wiid'l the left band and push the lo~cQm~ng ~ead outwaJ'l'dl, ca!ijJS'~~ it '~O' !!lPi wM!e, of its D1a~k. The movement :is primarily ope 'Of 'tffil:eWflst. The eWbow does not mo've. Hold, the right 'bafJid :in position to ~Q'iIlIIW~e1" to t1be bOody (.Figl!lil"e S8., page 53).

THE ELEMENTS OF DEFENSE 53

.'l'ie 'f',flU ,fiG'" ,on ,(Js.",aig'z.e ,ri,ghi IBatJ-F'o·r instructions in. techJliq1Jfi see :~~ 2'2 (Figu~e 2,6).

FIG. 58. T je CroSS" Pm,." o.n aS'trwght .Le{t Lead

Parrying

Assume ~ .fUMamental positiOn. Anticipate an ,oppon(iut's lead and . ,outwitb the gMGl1e: and ,bee it, 10',";1' the, ~mrul,t!S. In so doing, 1W~;blteD, 1 the elbow ,IDd keep the .00dY. weU out of' range.

'BOX1NG

In :s~~ppingJ d'uckmngJ and weaving always pm tbe opponent'.sngbt hand when moving to, the ins.ide po&ition.

'l'.ke stop' ji)t a right hooR-For instruction in this tecl1n~qu!: see page 21 (F,igurre ~s).

SUPPING

The imMe snp, on #he 4elt, la~AS!5JumJe tlJie' f'undlamental ~os~U():n.As, the opJl<inent leads a left .iabr sbiiJiI:, the we~ihIt over' the lei't fel"drillS moving the body s!igbtJy tn the left and fonvam" andbr.iing tile rlight shoulder quickly forward. In so' d)Q~ng the, left jab sW~ps over the right shoulderl the right bip rotautes inwatdand tJbe d,ghtknee bends sUg-hUy. The mg~ment ga.:ins, th'e inside p:mition wh~ch is, the bestpos~tion for attack. The left hand. isp]aced QIV,e!I' the opponent's :rigbt. 'The h.ead is moved only U the sUp is, too [Oi05f' .( FIgure 59'" pag,e 54) ..

1"11}. 59.. Insme Sl'iP (m a Left Jab PUl. ,60., Outside Slip on II Slrai'gb.t.

Left Lead

The mside ,sl~;on a straighl right-This. ~edilnique is, the same asused In sUpping to the outside position on a :stra.ig:bt~e:ft~eallt M~: the fundamental posUion. As the Qworn~nt ]e3Jds a straigh.t r~./l!lliwt;! dr;op tIiu!' weight back to the right leg by q]uidd.y tur~~mg ·the left s.hwld,elt.d body to the right .. The dght, £OOlt rnm.ains,sta~;O!DaI.lY' b~lt ~e left, toe' p,i-vats inward. This, movement allows theriglllt lead, t.o Silip, over the' left shouldeJ and obtains tbeinside V'au!tage positilQo ..

C~ny the leftbami :high,read!y 10 counter to tbe faee QFbody'. 'The

THE, ELEMEND OF D.E,FENSE 55

. bsndsho:u1d be :h~]d [leady to block. opponentlsleft counter. :and to .-eVeIll 'this" p'lue ·the: 'OpeD r.ightglov,e in thec:roo:k of opponent's ann. T.ieOflfmB iUtJ, 8n a serca~g/d left leatJ-.......ABsume the fundamental .[twIt. ,As ~ ,opponent le-adJs a l'e:ft jab, drop the w.eight bac-k to a Ittai."·.· dliaIt '~egby quiddy~Iij)r:pingtbe' :le:ft shoulder and body to 'the , TM: rlg'ht. foot reM!:dM stationary but Ua.:e left toe pivots :inward.

left Jab wlU S:1]jp,barmb~$$lyo'nr the left eheuldee,

llrop the: left. h~nd slighUy but h.old It re.'1dy to hook to opponent's The dghth~Rd shQuld be held blgh 'off the left sh!lu~deT eeady b), Iw.. ... , .... to the 'c.run «Figure (lo, page 54).

Tie outside :sup on a straight right ,le,/Ul-is almost the same as the slip ,on ,a straight left lead. Assume the :fu:ndamental position. As

opponent leadS ,II. str~igbtright;. step forward and S'.ideways with the~ :footJ s'b:iifUDgth@ body w1eight 'Oi\i',ex the~~Jt leg. At the same time, , the :right shoulder SMaft'~¥ forward. The :rigbt. hip SW~!.'li..p :forwa:td tEie tig,bt I.eg bends slightly. Tbe~eft. 'hand ws ,carried ~o' the r,tght

the [chiD'j ,a ltd the f~~t~allid is dropped to waist po.si:tlon [,eady to , wiith adgltt Il.I!pper[c:ut b), the body.

same teChnique ·is 'Used to duck ei.ther right or len swin,gs. As· the :fwdamental position. As the opponent leads a hook Gr swing the, kook :£[oJward! frooM the W8tst7 and at the same: time dip both forwaxd so' that ~h.e body is practically dropped. Tb:i:s will carty

.f':m. 6'1 DuddQI

the bOOy undernea.th. the :hooks, whic''ItI win swing hatmllessfy' over the head.

Both. hallids sho,u~d be' carded Th1!ig'h" e~lilows, d.ilWi. From t'his [pO:s:itio.n coun~ers can. eiJIsi~y' be: eseeeaed. Tle chin W5 p~ed tight to t.l-e' breast bone lea vi:og only the top of ~he hfl'<l.d.vulnerabl@ I( FigllJ)e 6:l!; (l<agf 55)1.,

WEAVING

TQ' #IB inside positio ...... Assur.n.e the fundaJmt:n~al po.sitmn., On a left lead slip to the outsidJe p~S'iUOOli (Fig:ure;64l,. page 56). Drop thehe,ad, and upper body and. move in under the tl'xoond.ed We:€~. lead and! then ~p b), the fundam.entam position. The lert~ead Dorw appr>ox~maies,~he rj:gb~. shoulder (Figure 62, pag:e 506)" Cany the bands high ~Hd! do~e 'to the

FlC. 6:4.To' OuJside P(lmJon Weawlilig

57

.As the bod,,, moves t.(l Ulie: inS'ide: 'p<lsiiUonJ p~ace the open left glove opponent's, ",!Iii. l.ater ~ C(HHlIt.el' with 2! leftblGw" then a rigbt and as,die weaVre is performed.

To tile ,!t:Utrile to$itkiili-A.ssil.lim,e the 'fundamental position. As the

, '. leads, iii, l@.ft jab sUp to. the ms~de position (Figur@ 62 I p~

(Stir). M,ove the head ,and body tOo tb~ tight ;,,"00 upw~ud in a dJ"t(::~lar

- ... ' '. so, 'tWruait 'the 'Opponent's left lead app.rootirrultes the lett

'.IDi:!lU.ltle.I'" Tbebll~Y is ~OW ,on the ,out'sid,e ,of the opponent 's lead ,and in flll!odanu':otaJi posidon (,Flg:ure ,641 pagle 56,) '. Both bands are earned . a~d dose. As. the insid!e slip is lexec::uted,pla,ce the left gWGve onthe lGClPOiDerlt":S"right. Latee ~ OOI:mt'er with both hands as sUp is performed.

;'WU'ii'DirG .P»:AC'I1CE

HaVie number r~:s p~aoetheir ,extended left arm so thi!;t it 'rests on !:DUlml"'~ .~ 15 left shoulder (Figure 64, p~ge .5,6). 2 IS t'h~ll duck the bead. the.eft alod!.Lnder I ~s ex!tend,ed left ann So tblil.t 'the arm rells 3.crQ$:i! tberlgbtshould.eil' (Fi,g!Hn!S 063, 62.,pagt s.6). Repeat, rolling D.rst

~e:J1 ,(jilll!tsidc:!,.

WOh $t.,a~ghl bl~As ~he opponent leads, h~an the body bac.kwud , tbe:b~ow :00 as to dissipate its fo:roe.

Wi~j ~\e~~"11Wm btowSi~&, the opponen.t leads, t,Uni the body so it ""HI . in Ute sliIi-.e: direction as the blow. Onrlgbt swings~ bend ,or swing ~o' 'the .right. IOn left 5'Win.B:s~ bend 0.1' swip~ the body to the~eft • . uppe(l;,cutsJ - m.erdy $w,a:ybftckw,a,r:d ,out Gf raflge.

"i.-'

AssrUMe ~ef:l!Iim'l..damentam posidClll 0( F,gure 65, page 58). Slide the 'foot: baik undl the too is ,Pointing toward the d,ght heel (Figure 66,. SI8). Move oae full st,ep to _the l'lghtwitb. the .ris;htf·Clot shifting me UDjIlV .. ·w. ",~l' .1l.J [11 olVer the stn!.igbt rrs'ht l@g:(Figure61,page,sl)).'Thedght mnlr'ots the diirectloDof the step, ei:ther' directly sideward, rODil1qlllely sideways a»d.backwa.rd, or dir'OOtJ.y backward.

To start witD,tbeweiighit :ioS eitht::t forward ,or clistrl.bu.ted betw'eeJl the ~. It is tneotra:uEerlied. to. th@right leg. T'b.e~oot positions ale aowmer:Sed1&R@' rightioot being: flat and PQifi~ di~tly to the side wltb tn, :beeJI oflbe left I)oot off the floor and. the 'We poioibed, the same way ,IS thelrisJrt foot. 'Betwee:p tDese staps; whelll the '~eft.foot is

58 BOXiNG

dropped. b~k tothe r.ight heel~ th€:: weight is iblf,ely taken. up, by the: len foo.t,. Tlle:r,efore iliiis .~ntermediaJlte st~e is like Stepp.JJlg on a tack~ very littEe we{g'ht is pIa ICed. on the: f~t. OnGe the weight is shifted ~'Ol the ~t:rjljigbt rj:g~t leg~ all that .. lS nooessOljI:ry to retura ~o'aUack ~s~o' pivot 0;0. the. baJlsof tl),e foolt to the left,. ;alod sh~ft 'the we,i!!!:htltia:ck in the lef'~ :~eg (Figure 65~ page: 058).

CiINCH1NG

It isiimwrtant in clinching to grasp, lheha.nds (Iii' arms but. not the ·body. The ,onlysllre way to find the arms or ha,n&, is, tOI sta:rtbo]d~~g: at the shoulders and mO,vt:: t:ne: .bands dOIWD.the arms. To do tbis both

haLndls m.ust start from. the: iml:ide posi!tion.. -

As tl:le eppanenrleads a left~ move oot11 .l!1;and:S forward in a ma.rmer sjmUar te a b:nmst-s,tro:JI;,e Movem.ent in.sw~m.miQii!:.From. t~e '(lppoElen.t~s shouldermeve the left haad d{)1w;m .• 01 arotLtull b~srignt bkieps, .d at the same time move the dght hand down ttl h~s left e:lboW~ fo:reinll: his left. g)tl've-hand tip, and uDdlM the right annpit. Continue to hold.·are opponent's Jeft elbow w.ith the right Iland -( Figures ·68 ,and '69~ page 5.9). As, the arm js,.ocked. under the armpit" tum ·the body to the nxnt and drop the weie::ht 'OB 'opponenI'srlght .1m'1. Iff_ opponent

:Fl~.66 'fihe Sld!e Sitep'

60

BOXING

give a qm~k push, with tlre: left h~gd and. 21. pull w.itb.t:b~·right,. spiinning the oppone:nt off balance.

THE ROCKAWAY

As the opponent. ]ea:ds3i lei:t jab or ,ii; strarlgb! rig;ht~ smn the we~ght quriddy ~Qti.e, ~rgbt ]eg'l and move baJc.kwrn~tJb. ilJlIDe 0IPffilODe(o'Fs b~O'1W. .As tbe bmo,w fans short amdbis left baud f~~ds, bact 'to thebodly~ stepbl witb a left iab~ and foUow by a sU'I~g~~.dght.

Fl1NDAM:ENTALS OF FORM

BLOCKING The (;aJcli

L Catch opponentjs left lead in the butt o,fthe open fwg~t .gJGlVe. :2. Force·the blow up' and eut, thus obtaimLng the hls:iJt'lepGs~tiGn.

.3. H(I~d ;th~ left b.d :l'ead.y t.o' atta(;k.

The sb(jue(ler 'atch

I. Caech the opponent's dght book in the ,ope,n li~ht g],ove.

2. Hook the thumb ,of' rbe fIgffiilt b.ailild in the crook of the left

shouldlir ..

3· Lower: the~eit hand sUghtly, :ready to' 'counter.

The ell>ow iJlotlf.

l. Tur.n the bod,y so tb8it e~thef 'I!illitlow wn~ inte~e:,pt 'Straigh.t .~e3lds.

to the b(Od!y.

,2:.. .Elbows sbO!ijJ~d DOlt :mti:lV'e blut S:hotlldbeb~td tight ~o t1iie ibm:ily., .3. Arms are carried dose, and pl'o,toc.t tlte head; 'c'hi~ do'Wll ..

4 .. Hands should be held. l'e-ady to <xluntl!.r.

S1to<Ulder b.lod

I .• Use l!IlgalM:t a stra~bt dght. band ..

.2. Turn the lleift ShOl:Jild.1!1 so that it inteC(cepts the :I·eft. lead.

3· Drop the weight. back to a .st!l'.aig:bt. dgnt. leg so th!lllit the ldt sheuld.e:t~s til~ed upward!..

·4· Lowe~ the ]efl '~aMI.~ ready teO CO!UDre-r 01;tif:t' iliie Oill~:u:m:en~,':srlght

lead, ' --

The forearm bloc It,

t. Useqainst straiglu blows to, the body ..

2'. Fold the.eft a.rml!mder~ right ,ann aOOVie •.

TlHE, ELE.MENTS OF DEFENSE

3,.. .Holld! .the .foreatf,lM together, pa1m"silde'of the hand turned. toward the body.

4. The ,chin is exposed so beUlady to fold underneath if ne.c.l!ssary.

G'[[IAR'D~NG

:f:h~ levef'age hl'oc.k

!I!:. Use .ag;a,iDst a straight rilg~t lead:.

l.. Foree must be~ used if gu;):[d. is eo be efi'eetiv,e.

J. Fo·r~ the left ~II:'!.TI. !.!lip and outward into complete extensien,

",. At the mO:Qlent of oontact with opponent's arm, lock the elbows. 5. Hold. the r.{ght .. hand n~ady to S~QP opponent's left 'Of to counter.

ThekfJe,tag.e guard

1. U 51;! aga~Mt a st~1rig'hrt ·lef't~~d.

.~'. S~r.a~8~~e:n the d~t ann 'Mipwacrd .a~d outward, s~rik[ng eppo-

ne~t"s, lead from the ins[dle and fordt1;g it 'outwilf!d.

J. Lo<ck the ·elbow at the nlO!,tl.~!l!t .of 'COII,tact. 4. fur" the right hand ·o,utw~Td.

S. P,(jf\ce must be applied to theguard,

6,. Hold the left band ~na posidQn of guard. ready to block oppoDent's, dght. ,or te counter tQfaoe ,Or body ..

PARRYING

Tlte outride parr, on .(J le# jav

~ .B.ru.sh the oppo:neut 'slead ~o the~eft with me l~~ht haad .. ~I. T.ilIDe: mIDovement is ~O~C' Wf~~t than arm;.

3,.ID()in~trn.ove the elbow .

4. In~el'oi!pt the opponenfsonroming' blow Oil. tbe wri:;t, not the· Klo¥e.

,5. Lowetthe~eft hand, r,eooy to counter to opponent's body.

The olds,iaeiJany .o.n a .$tro~ght rigAt lead

r.13rush the opponent's r~ght lead to the right w~th the left :hand.

Step 'bel the left and fmwanJ at the same tbne. ~" Use fOTce witb aIm as 'Wen es wr.tst.

3,. Do ~ot move the elbow mo:retbanfieoessazy.

The imitJ'eiJaJ'ry' mi a straigh# left ·.k~d. ~

I.. Urop the ~ sJight1--y~o. the left bringing the right hand insid.e 'the' 1eft ]~ad.

BOXING

2., Brum ,outward wid!! the 'right hand, palm turned outwatld. .3. Hold the left hand :ready to block: ,Of ,counter.

The in.rkhftlirry on alftmig,1t$ ,right ,le(1,d I. Tum, ~~ebody sngbUy t.o' the dgbt.

::I. B:r1;l!s.hollJitwm-d with, the :~elftha:nd,.

J,. Tum the'palm, of the '~e~~, band outWaJlirl!.

4. Cii!.rry' the r~ght hand ready teblock ,or oounter.,

The cross ,(Jury on ,Il: stnl'igJd le:Jt lead

I. Re-.acll over w.iJb the '.efl h'and andbrusb the opponent's left~ead

outward.

2. Per~orm the movement wIth, the w:dst and. arlilili.

3. Mo've the e~bow only as much as :necessa'l'Y,. 4· i.Q'wer the r.ighit hand, :read,y~o' 'OllIunter.,

The rr()'$S! p-a"ry on a strl1tgnt :Nghtk/(J,a

I. R~clli over with the r:ig;ht ba~d and bnsh oppo.nen,fs, :right mead

outward, -

~ . Perform the fi10vem.enl with the: wdst and ann,. S. Mo-v,e the elbow only as much, as neoessary.

4, Be ready to fold forward under 'oppo:nenes. left coun~er lead.

Sl'OPP'~:NG

I. Reaeb ,out and. pJace: dl!e hand (#Vf:l" O'ppolle~eS, g'~o,\te.

a, When slippingr dllCkinglQI[ weaving:, pin t~e' oPPOllltmi"5 rd!!:ih~ OO:"nd..

SLIPP.~NG

Tit in~ide 3U:p an a te It jab

I. Shift ·the· weight over a str,d~ht ~eft, leg. ~. . Turn. the tlght sh{lul!derf'O~,aJ!I!'d.·

.3. Swiq' the lWgbt hipfol'W.am,. w.~~Jh. the rigbtk.neeben,t Hd loose .. 4. Place the left gIDo,v>f! aver oppouwt.'s .right g~we.

The :insMe sUp on ,6 s't,'lJi:g.h~ rig;b't'

I. SlUft the ~jght o<ve£ a s,k.m-lbt rigbt I.eg~

2.. Tum the len~ shotdder tbWQgb w-tbe ,centel' line.

3.H1old the :right foot statiOnary 'with the lef:, 'roe turned. ;inw,itld •.

63

TH.E,£.LEMENT:S OF D'EFENSE 4. Hotd tbeldt hand ready to coumee.

S. D!I!'Op the right .band: ,over 'the ,oppo:nent's ldt g~o,ve .

Tie outside $,#1 M ~. ,;s,tI'a'ig,ht kft ,letld

I. SbUt ilIe w'e.tg~t €I'ver .a, :sttlli'igbt right leg. 2:., T'um the left ~Q'ldde:l" and. hip to the right.

,3. Keep' tbe ri!!:ht £,oot stati:O:nary, left ~oe pointed inward, ,f. ~e:rthe t~ft hand ready toOO'unter to the body.

5. Hol!d the right .hand off the left shoulder In a position to guard

'Of oounte(,.

ne ,.'3Me sUp on a s,traJght righe ,lead

I. T,3i~e a :short step iorwru:d and sidew,ays wIth the l,cft foot. :1. Sbift the weigbt over n~e left leg.

3. lrel. the rlght sho:u)der, hip; andleg swing' f'o:rwalrd to the left ..

4. :Low.er the nghtund !!:,eady to counter tethe body. 5., C-att'f~he left band rtght 'of the chln ..

I~ Use .against swings liInd books. _

2. Bend 'the trunk forward f~oro thcw:aist ~nd dip both knees fOfWal'dthus dr€lpping the boo-y do,wnward uader the hooks. Carry the ha:nds high, eMn wen down.

1'0 the imitJ'e :p(J:Sj'lifmOtn a left kad SlJip to the outside positIon.

Drop the bead forward and bend the trunk slightly ..

Mo,ve the bead ee the leh1 under opponent's arm. and up to positio:n.

4- el,U:ry both hands high and in positlon of guard.

s·. .As the body moves t,o the insiode position, place the left ,gmoV'f: on 'OJi,POOe1lt"s, right .

2'10 tlee o.bid'e"(}$:i~ion ,!}JJ; a ,lef,t lead' I., Slip t;othe instde posiitlon.

a, Dwpithe head forward, and. ben.dtll:e~ trunk slightly.

3. Thtm mov,e the'Madto the dgb:t~ under opponent's arm and up bJposition.,

... Carry tbehlb& :bigb.

BOXJNG

ltOUING

I. MOVIe the bodiy backwartd with tnestraigbtb]ows, 2' Move tb.e body to t:Blie: tefft onmeft. swi~ls (]If hoob.

.3. Move t~ebody ~o· 'te dg):lm. on 'dgbt sw~~gs. Oli hooks.

SmES tE·PPIN'C·

I. Move ~be left too 'back to ~'e' righ.t heel, the men. too po.inUng d~rectly wWaJ'I:'d:s the right heel,

::I • Take one fum~. step to the dgbt. with t~e right f(]ot~ ~shifdng,tbe weight to the .ri,ght leg,

S. The foot pOS[truofiS are now reversed! and the bodly turned di.recd.y ~O< the side ..

4. :FlOM tb.B't pos~tio,:n step out. or

s. }1,\I'ot back. to attack by turning on the balls o.f the feet to, the ~eft and shifting the we~gbt back Ito .tbe original s~ance: pil)s~'li(jlD.

6. Otrry the hands b~gh, in. position of guard.

CLlNCHING

I. From the ,inside P()S~t](lID, run the hands dow~ ·to oppon~~t:':s ~;loves.

:2. Place f~i!:()pen lef't g~o,ve:around lopponfliiliif's dgbt bleeps,

.3. Tuck the Ilrpponent~s Idtg~il'v~ 1WIp and u~de:l' therIg'~t :ilI1I:'~pit and. dose aJ.rm to' the s~de.

4. 8,hift the weight to lopponent!'s le~t 8!lffi.

5. No matter what form o~ a din.ch ls used, keep, dose b:!1 the oppone!Jl!t u:l1:til the reffereecalls '~ora break.

Tu:E. ROCIUo.WA¥

I .. Use a,g~jns~, a 'left. jab.

2. Drop the' 'weight to the right foot i mov:[ng tile body ba.ck with the j~,b.

J. As the ja,b Sans short and. returns to the body, rmove~n with a Weft and rrugbtto the c'h~n.

'THE, ELEM'ENTS O.F ATTACK

DEFINITION

TilE El.EMEN'IS o~ attack a.te ditechniq.u.es which are used to (3iny 8!Ua<:k bystr:ategy. Tll.ey ave (be dev~~s and sk~ns of the fi:nb;.hed boser. &equid~K speed~ d~~:U.(i'nt timing~ and judgment, they are the too~s of the~a5~eif ,uaft:SInM 'Who 'blends th,{!m, into pedoc!t. a:ttM:k ..

EXPLANATION

Auack. is based upon tAe :fll.oda.en.t:al ability to bit and ,to detfendJ md UilOl1l. sueh ad.va~c:ed skitls as sli:pping, diutkingi, weav:ing:. parrying, and tkuamLng, ,Once a boiie:r~as mastered the dliffeRfiil'. blocks and . ' i~ i':i, neoessary for him, to be able te Cf;!e'a:te open~~gs whi'cbwUl foUl.II,l"·"'·' : :~illl. ~Ol :SiII;l)l'e.Th.is~s the :reason 'for the study of Io:ffense.

I~ geRen) ,there Me two methods of 3iuaclJ either by force or by deceptfoD and strate,gy. Attackby~or,oe 01." aggression is the attack of the unskiiUed, the~ovwe, T.his type o€ attack may be SU(;cess{u. because 8DJ 'COIiluli1i10!!!!S aU.a,ck rends 10 ke·epthe 'O'Ppoill'i~nt so oe,cupied that opeDings result, Su.ch ,abO'xer is the ~!mauWerjl or ~'!iht-",er~' who depends mainly -08. ,hitting powerJ defi'i(lillstr,a~ihg no Icrisp .hitting, devel."foot~ WD:rkl'Qr II:Lt--Dishinjf' abmty.

Attack by decoepUQD is the attack o~ the master., Themaster bo.xer bas :albis e'OMtI."IMd.tlecllDiques ItOI bewild.er and confuse the oppon...enl, thelleby' crnating many ope.nings,. Hefeiot'S hisO'pponent into ~ l'knOt-S.U He Illom.bmes hitting with .f'einti.qg in such a m.anner that both. appear to, bethe :siillle •. p:e d.'fll.lWS ~is op,pon.e:nt to him fordng wht8.:teve:r leads 'he, desires. Through defensiVie bittiug and judicious m.ovement,be ~h1s. (jppoo.eD~ of£baiian.oe. The master oo:Xier has the ability ,to tel:· in dOSie: ,and u.nderstaill:d)s the vl1u.e of in.figh.ung. He has se perleckd the '~'shi!ftn 'tiIDat It is used fo~ ,a:Ua.ck as 'wen as def,ense, F:htally t .he: jja the miJiSte:r 'of oo,,~~e:rfightin8: {(I'll' he ~ wTh\e'll, to ,aUack ,aftd, whew atrow· a:ttu'lt.

Scientific atta;c'k 'the!1lt is no simple matter, bUlt requires years of Iludy_dl. 'pl'actb :f.o:r: 'its. su~ful use

,lis

BOXING

U'SE,

LeMm:g- T:~e: master Olt attaek. must know the value of ,3: S~[,a:m,ght lead, H~' n:!l!mst know what is liable to ha$Dpeo, on :any lead. Here3inb:es that for ,every lead 'Uli@:re~s h. openJilil18:~ !lind for '1W1e'ry opcn~ng, a counter, aM for every counter a block., These th~n;gs he lI!Ndei!"'Stalild's hut :he abo knows how and when to' lead with comparative s<!I:tety.

L{!a~iDgwitb the lfeftband, guardi~ with the right whi~e .o,ving to the left I' makes, negW~giMe a~ opening that IOrdinarily results [rcoma,

suaight ~ef'~, lead. -

FfJimin,g-is, charall::ter.isdc Of' the expert boxer.. It :req1Uires gsim:g the e,)!lti'$'J tbe hands, tb.€! body" ;andthe: legs in a s~ngfe' effo:rt ~od)ece~.ve an QPpo~eDt. Tbese tt1O'",emlmt~, 3il\e realty dewYS,aJ!lJld U the IOp,]:}QIIt!i1it 1l:U.e:mm;l.ts, .t(J. ad'jus~ his d~i'l!l!fise, tblf!, '~lII:t taukies, ad.varnrta<~e lOti' the Q~h'ltgS created, Fmntiq is,ai)so used ~(lI ascertain woot,lile O:PP()l:tu~ntts reactions wm beta each lr.uw~m:ent ..

FeinUng ereates only :momentary opegh~,gs" 1'0 be alb~e til' tak'e ~dvan.tage of 'd!.e openings 'created. nteans instant reRex actilOn" orf;olle,. kUoWfeqge o,f wb3it openings, wji~W be created! by cerlah~. i'clnts., SuCh fsn:!iliMIty proes,1J,I(pposes practioe, for only tblloUghthe !lictllfaE prac~dDg of many feiD.ts, against many .kinds of opponents Ma.y a ~e:neram reaction

tendlenty be d:etermh'lied.. -

l.tl.boxh~.I!!l', as, in flOottian, an ,ope~~ng' sbo,uld be "set up\. n O~ce an opening' is crea)teil, by ill, (cl"t!l1n f@iilllt, ~at opeliing s~oil!l!~dlno~ 'be used. 'Until a dean sure blow win ftsl!.l!It.

A good bo,xer _knows w.hat. openings w.iU res!lil~t berf'or,e :he feints, ,and makes use ,of this, knowledge and ~n~Uat.eshis fonow~up ,iiicliGn ,almost before the 'opening results. Wbe.never two biDers of ,equal .s:peed" i!trer..gtb" and skin are matclied" the' one wbo, is the! mHb~r' oithe: iemt wiiU. be the winner;,

The: essentia~ ellem:en:ts in £eiD.tiog ar,e ra:p~dity, di.a:ng.e', deceptiuDilind p'recis:ion~foUow~d by dean cris~) bffio'wg" F,'em:ts lISed~OO' (ii:£~e:t1 hIi ~lbe samJew.a;y wiU ,enable the (l!El!PO:I1ien.t ~o time t1!le:m. f~ra! 'CGPlt_et:' attru:k~ thus de'featJng theh:very purpose.

Fe:indng :Is the: art. a!fus:i~ the body in 'f1einting attack at 'one poiD~, ,and then attacking anotlu'lr. It mv,olvesfootwo:fk, knees; hlmds, ,eyes" arms" and trunk. Fr:ein.ts, against the 'unsldll!ed. 3fli!nol as :D'Kessary as against ·theS:kined. .M~J' mmbiDatiou ,of';eints, :shmdd be .pJ:acti~dI

QIiitiJ! they aIIeDltural! movements;. -

THE .ELEMENTS 'OF ATTACK

Dt'rung-'.iscwse~y alliied to feJntiQg.WhelldS ill. fein"ing an open,· ing iSCl'ea~ed~ ~n dr.awing some' pan (If the body is left unpro'ected in 'order that apartJjcu~af bi<rw wUl be led by tb.e ,oppo:ru!nt thus d.evelQ:plng .aQi oppodunity to use a spedfi,c eeuatse, F'e]_tl,tJngis anly a parlt, of dra.wing. Drraw[~ uses the method. 0:( strate,gy~a:nd. the method 'of (Jiowd.i!ng ,or forc~ng. Being ab1e toadvan(je:w,hilleappare-nt'~J open to 1!I.!Ui.l:ck" but :ready to, 'CO!!U'lIt,e:r :if saeeessful. Is a phase of boxing that :f\!,!w 'ev,er deve~op. Many ba,xers, "duBe to lead, Tben. to, be ab~e to dr,a:w or f:c;m;;e atead becomes very importau.t.

Inpg.iti.ng is the art-of booting at dose rallige. Not only does it take skin to M;et in clese, but it tak!es skiUto stay' there. Tn get h:ls~de, It is n~~sarY to' s~ipj weave, duck" draW', ,or ~e'jnt. When obtaining the .~l1fs:rdepos~t[o:n, d)riveoo~h 1b~ds to the ,opponen:fs midsection.

T h~ Drf; P Sbili' is a ~urtherrefinemeDt oil: the s:ldes'Lep. It~sus.ed ~o, ga~n the i:ns~de: 'Oi!" outside ,g:utliJd posit~on. and is. also u&~ful in in~ fi,gihli:~n,g" Mai:o'ty I 'vehlde f,o!!: oountering, it requires tindog, speed, and jtldsnum~ top~opeldy e1l1ecute. It may be combined wi'th the left jab}

- - .

tile .s:traJgbt d,ght, dIe dght book~ and the left hook.

THE TECHNIQUE OF ATTACK

I

THE S.AP'£hLEAD

Assurmefthe f~1'idamenlal positlon. Shum.ef,o['N,iI,rd to attack. As 'the bi1tting 'L"a: g,e is appro-ached" Jabw1tb, the: l,~:ftband wbile steppinl: to the le:ft" a - d at tb.e. Sil!~~ U(lIlj~L f~roe ~e[~,~ht a~ out into the ~Gs:iiti~n of ,I. 1e"lel:ag,e guard. Car~ (be .~e:ft shouMI~[ blgh~o protect th.e ,chm fr·GMthe ,opponent's right hand". Hol,d the ri,ght hand in readiness £ot the oppolil:ent's r,mum jab.

FEiNTING

It is, best. to pracdoe le;m!ting before a lull-length mirror. Pr-adiu eacit methoo and, Q.otkie the dooeption, of ,each ..

A:ssJWm.e thef:IJI'.nda:mentalposiUon. ,Adlvante s.lioW~y. While advanclnrg~ give a 'Citlitc:k 'bend o·fthe left lmee. Tltisgivesatt:e .i!Mpres:sion that t.b.e atli'DlSi are ou,-Q,viog as weill as the :~egs. In "wily" the arms ar'e held. :re~arxed and ready.

Mak,e 'B sWlgbt fo:rward movement of theu:ppe'f' bodYJ bending the left 'knee and moving 'the~ left :band ,sUglu:J1y forward. While advancing, take. longer step, fQrward! witb. the left. :(001, as in the ,quick advance; and, j'ab dltlef't ,arm m.to metlsiQn wi.thout bitting '0Ie opponent. From

68

BOXING

this elcsepesitien, fold. the' len arm baJck Ito' the body and jab to, the chin.

Another e'ft'ecUve fe~nth;aJ, sffitort bend. of' the body tOI the r[g~~, wffiil~fe mo,v.iing fornrard.

Tbe step in, step OlJlJt.,~'f!illtQ1e~ns steptPwg ~oirwBl:rd ene :step' as U' to jab with the ]ef't, hand [I!,i:~, in:stead" step' 01!llt (If' I!',!i'~e by pu'Sbiog off with lheWeSt ]eg~ piv(ltiing WI 'the ~,eft. Now s~epl~n as i f ~(iI i'e~Dt but drive a left jab b) the chin. Step out immed~ate1y. O"mtinue~ one tirn.e' feinting, tbe nen time :actua:Uy Jabbing with. th@: left .hand. U p(lss~b'~e, foUQW the Weft jab wit:h.a straight dght to the chEn.

Otb.er feints that may he used are: Feint a Ieft j3i1b to the tace and jab WI the stomach; feint a. left jab to the s~om;rC:h. andj!.!!ibfoF the iace.i f'e~nta ]eit ja>b t.O' the' faQf, ieim. aright ~~, tb:c fa.ceand then jab the left to the chin. ;f~Dt a! str~i,~t r(gibt, Ito ~lte jaw .d! booikthe ~e€t {'O the body; ~'e:lnt a Jab to ~e d!!in ,~~d d~miw:[ a,rig:ht ~PfeKl!lJlt. to 'the body_

D.RAWlNO

By e~PQsing ,~lre bo'dyto 4Unc~TQ draw a left-hand lead. to the jaw J carry the' right hand low, 'E!'X'pos,jng; the chin to tJ1:~ op()Qnllnfs leads, As the OPPOIDle'Ilt meads, step either in or (lIut, 'col!lin~e:r~Dgwith ~ither hand.

To d:ra,w a! left lead to the body~ raise the right e~b~w. Be re3idy~o' drop a dght~h:at!d blo'w to, oppon,@nt"s,chm" ,or~o' 'step hWiiide 'of t~~, ~ead with. a st[aigb~ dght.

'To draw lI.Iright-hand. Wead to the bead, lower the left hand. and. be ready te slip .~nside or out, leaving either ba.'od free to ceunter ..

To draw a :dght.-hand lead to the body" raise the left elbow, or carry ~ left elbow high. Be le~dy to brush or ICloss"'parry the opponent's rigbt lead.

By Jo·rdng-Assume tbe i'Und:a.meflltaJ PQsHi.QD .• Slowly sl!!!uffle: to, the' attack. wb:i,ch gsually brings a left mead .. :Be ~eady' te s;ip, inside Of 'O1!ll[side roun,tel~~g e~me;r oobodly orface,

Shufling i'o\lw:aI.tdl nd. expo.sing 3lpartkula;r part ,of the body is a method used to, force itspecllic :leOO .. T:berdore~ i~ a. leit-~and :~e'ad. biI the body ws des~l1fd~ :s.buftle forward hGldin,g the dgbt ,elbQw .b~gh -e

B" lein#ng-Expedence alone will tel1wbich fe~nt to use~n order to draw a, s;pednc bto·w. On~yp['acti(;ewillgive :kno'Wmedge of what b!ow each .feint win dtaw.

'THE EL:EMENTS OF AlTACK.

69

m'llJ.lf';rIN'O

Assume tbe fundalIlfmtal posiUon. Draw a left lead and slip to the i!nsidepostt~on, hands cMded. bigh. Place the bead on the opponent:s breastbone and push forward. Tb'~s win force the oppo:rumt on, to ius .l':ts rand. an' balannfi: .. At the s~e: t[me, drIve s~ort ~pper;c~t!!. to his nliidsectio.n. ilteep the ~tm.:s in the Ins~de pos:itlon~ (lLnd keep drlvin.g th;eM (figtl're 7o;,page 69). Sita.y clese, for If the ~~s.ide position is kep~1

"'(',.:10

hfighting

:It :tS possible Hi, sh~ft w~tb the .oppone,t. As the o:ppo.nent, ]e~ds a right for the body, ddve the tet[ i~de his blow and to the body. As the lopponent shUts to delivet amell" Ittriv,e the right inside and te the bod.y. C~ntiDQe" pommeling the body uodl the opponeot drops his guard, then suddenly shift. the attackto his, head. ,

Ii the opponen,t obta[inS the inside positron and sUdS to pommel

t1m:e.' . bod.~;" ~lace the ~p. e:~pa~nts of .. both, . h."~~ agamn~this sh·~u~ders. lP'us~ :sbgbtly ~o·rWlillrd~ slidin.g tberight h,and t.O' t~ SIde o,f the 0ppo-

.neD!':s :~en SiUl~'Mfir and force '~O the left 'W~i~e pushing forward. with ~berueft hand. This will spin the opponent 'off balance.

....

THE D:s:op SHin

Th~s is, ell.e'ClIIted, simil1uto 'the sidestep. As 1M opponent Leads a stT'sight left" :sllde 'the leU footbaek ,Six iinclles; .:md a:ttbe seme time

IliOX1:NG, 70

step forwatd' 'one full s,t.ep 'with 'the ftgJ;rtfoot (F~guiieS'7[[and 1~, page

10.). The 'weight Shifts to, the fight ~.~. Thei,ootposiUQD!I"are ~eversed" therigbt foot is flat on the loolr, and the toe of, the len 'foot, 15 oft, the 6.[. As the bodY shUtsf,olwam to ,8!vo.id ~he leoo, a> «DlIUilt.el' ~u'aek

may 'ks-llftOO.

1I'fG.. '1:~ 'IG, 'in:

The: Drop ShUt

T'he. s:hift!,foHl'ard. or sfdeward" m.aybe oombitiedwitb ~e ~.d~ j'abi tbe lift hook'l or the straighttiPt. On tbfi f'OE'WMd sbif~, as me weight is shifted to' dl.~: dg)lt leg~ jab wIth the left hand .. A lQnger J'Mcll\ and. mQre power' w:m result. On. the s~dle shif~, as, the weight is,shifte;~ ·to the rij'bt Ie&:, hook, the leir, band to, the ,opponen.t's ,chin. T[,tlHl:en~ou:!l pI)W,er maybe obta'ined in, this way. On die side shUt" after the weigbt has been dlifted to. thed:gbt.leg" tura the body quick~y 'back ~Q' ~itiOD~ aDd drive a straig;bt dgbt to ~h.e op-po'nenes jaw.,

FUNDAMENT'ALB OF FOItM

T'H.E SAPE"IY LEAD

I. Step lett on a left jab. _ 2. H.ohll. the dg;)}t ann. weill ,extended." palm, turned outward.

;3. Be ready f,Of opponent's r~gbt OOUD'tel'.

FElNTIN,G

I,. Alw,!lYS "'build 'up'~ ,an ,opening befOl'emakloguse ,of it. :2 • Feints must be' p~(d5e of aetien, fapid~ a'Dd dedsive,.

3. ,EadII ieiot w.iU brim,g ach.arac~e:ristlc reaction. Know thi:s f,~ad.ion be:fore 'i1einun,g. ThWs Doo~'i:t.atesp[acti.oe.

4. Do, :oot al1w.a;p use the SaMI! fe.i~t. CiiLa:ng.e: is, hlllJlportant.

5:. .Fe~nJt with the whole body. '

DMWING

I., Thls is, an. ,advanced art and. depends on speedj timmn..g and jiudg~ ment ..

12. A.bl?w.m.ay be d[,awn by ,exposing the body, by f,orrdng, or by fem.ti1ilg.

3" Utawiing depemlid)s Qg the icoun~e:r attack lQ<t e:ffectivl:-l!f'Ss.

4. It is ,I. f1iec,e.ssary .knowted.g;e I!.Ig!UJ.'IJSt If:I oppooe:nt 'Who 'w~n ~ot IDe<ail;.

~he, ~nsid.e position. must beebtained through sJippins~ w.eavingl ,ducking:, and dr.a:W1f1i,g.

,2. Place the f'orebead ,ofithe QPponentis breastbone,

3.•. FOil', .... , 'f,orwUld" · .... th·, ,~1... b"·"·.i n.· US·iL·il'll'lI' ehe 0-. nfin. -" - .•• -- -.' - & · .. ·ff ·L,_.'·j

. ,....... ._. -" -' .. I, . UJ.... ~. ~. _ u ..... -ei I.U 'rFn~n'~ Q,:' w~ance.

,4. :Keep, d!dvin..,gooth handste the Qppilnent~s solarplU'!l:S.

5. MaiIDnblJin. tbe inside position at all ~hnes. -

15\. ShUt wid! da.-e O:PP!lUll,efll~~

.,. I;~ :!!hi: O"ppm:I.e~t drops WIlS arms.! swil~ch the attack t.o the ktmd.

Use :s'.nort aJ![mdol:ts.

M?¥~lbel'eh foot back sixifiches ,and take one full step forward;

shdbn,g the we~gbt to tu r.i,ght.leg. -

May 'be ei~eUve~y c:omb.~n{:d wrth a~eft jab.

CHAPTER. V:lU

THE rCOUN'TER ATTi\CK

DEFINITION'

COllNTEIR A,TI ACK meal1S~'o:re·kno'wl@dge of spf:ltifk ,OPetlifig~, whic~ will result frem attack. b:y' th@opponent. 'The C01.!llnte.r attack ~s not a. de~ensive acUOiJl. but a method ,of using an opponent~s, clense: as a, means to U.le suceesstul oil~pl~,t]OLQ,o.f one's o~, aUack ...

EXPI.ANATION

The oo~ntel attack is an advl!!"too phase of: offense. It calls fer the ~eat~st skill, the most perfe:clt: planning; and the most. deUtate esecu'tl(ln of aJll boildng tethnlq1lll€S. It uses as tools an the main tec.nruques ,of boxing, blocking" guarding, panyfn-8:~ sUpphlIg, weaving, duck .. ing;! _~sidest;.epphl:g~ fe'llJitin!ll, dJ;awin:g~ and. shUting. It uses aU pbases 01 hitting, crisp, straigbt. b],Q,ws; clean.hooiks~ and short uPpe,:!:"ClUlts,. Be~ sides a nmste:l:'Y of tethl!'lli.q1llle:" the t(MljIn~er auack [eql)li~,feS e~liI,!Ct ~JiMi~~!1:I' ~nenin..g judgMent, eool, calc1I.II]a,tins: po~se~. It means carelu) tnoughit" darmg: e~cut.ion, and. S'OJe co,ntwl. It is, the g~~mst art ~~. boxi~g, the art of th champion.

There 11M QUIne-rOllS, COUIlUiIS whid:il may be used fio!r ,B,'VieryIDead; b1l1it for each 'patti,tu~~.r ()ccas:iop there is oneC;OU1'I,ter wbli.cb - sbotl.ld be used. Such a Counter is that one mosteffecUve~ol ~h'e: p'&rUcular situaUo:p at .hand. AcUon must be instanbl.l;uM!us,. and wher'e there :is, ,a wide choice of' acdQn~ instant action is d~ffiw'S,t H' Dot .impos:sible !!Irnless t~e .right actIon has been pre.violltsly conditioned. CODdliU(lD~ng then beoomes the keystone of' tbe counter attack.

Ol'fididoningis a" process whereby Ill! specific :sti.mru~us w~~l /CllIJuse: a specHlt reac:tioill. A ffiPea,ted sdmulJ.\S' eventually ~r,eatesM aJction pattern in, the nervOllis system. Once tb~s p2,HerD. ~s estabUsbed the mellie' presence ()if the sthnulus, win cause' a. specific acuoD. Such action is instanUrneo,usand almoslt ~ll!c,onscious, which is twcessa.ry 'for efi'ec'Uve ooun:tellmng. En bow:og" c.onil:ido,nm a~~ion. sholi!~d be the result 'of intense and co,ncentra~ed ,prractke Oi' p'~an-~~ actiOll pa:t"'e:r~s ~lIiI,rf.\sponse to every lead" Such. a.cOon SR{I'uld! be: ptacuced. :SJ]owly I' ~o:rbourrs'j. daYSJ

7::1

I

T,RE COUNTER. ATTACK

73

and weeks, always .iinrespome to certain leads. Finally t the lead itself will I.ummadcany bring therigh.t COl1i.liptitlr.

l~oxm:g' should! be done with tbe :head1~ot wi:tb the hands. It is true that during the time o~ atlW!!ill bo:dn,g one, does nut think ofho:w to box but rather IQf the weakness o.f str'eDgth. of the oppouentf ofp0s5ib~e openings ,and opportun~Hes. Bo.xi:l.1g will never .reach threst~e' ora true art. unless perf,om:umce of sJdUis made automatic and the cortex freed to dlink: and til) associat,e, to nlIak'e plans and to judge. The bighe.r nerve Ulllti!lCS alw,a:y:s retain oontrQl and will act when netessaty. It is, like pIIe!iS~nrg .~ butto.n to start or stop a machine.

In ,2> oon'Sidera;t~on 'Ilf (;o!unte:l' blow:s there are three things that, must

be ~fJJ.d)ersboodl:

a. ,theWead 'Oir the opponent..

b. the method 'of <lIv,oiding the lead.

c. the counter lImow itself.

.

The lead 0'( the opponent is important ill that ~~, determines the side 01 'the' 'bodly <ope'll roatta.ck . .A '[left lead espcses the left side of the . . while a r~ght~ead e:tpo5les almost an or the upper trunlt.

To ,avoid lea;d:s it mu~t 'be decided wMthi!1 tbe OOllfiler attack shouMi. .. ,o.ne'" 'cu' two~ha.nded... BlocJdng; g~arding~ sbJppingj• parryingl all. ,but one hand wUh wbich~o ,c,o:U1'!ter. Sud man~tlverS as sUpp~~g, lkI.estepl)inl~~ ducktng~ weavin,g; fe~ntWng'j drawing;; lI~d sbiftingaUow two·bIDded ,attack ..

The: counter Mow depends, upon the method used in a¥oiding the .)Om,ent;'s·,. lead. as wen as the l@aditself' .. lnotherwords"iftbeoppoJab.s i:U'l:d the blow is ,a"voided by an Inside s~jPI a. r,ght to the 'Of a right Cf;OS'S fuindi'ca:wd.

USE

Tile InMde P.1lr:ry ,a;rui Lej't Jab-is a slraightWeft so timed as to , ,adVantage O'f tbe 'opening: left by 'the epponent's jab. .It isa. fundIl!M@~tail counter .ed 'CIiJ'nsciou:sly or unoQQsdous[y by almost ,eve~y be.,r. It lis 'used®o avoid the ilPPOli1!el!it~s Jab and !!lilt tbe same 'time Itin~: and ju bimc .. It '~a~S'Oused to "set u~P operl'i'I.1:g5 for other counters. leis,best used 'iI!saJnst a sto,w left jab.

Tie r()utside. Ptm',y ,oad J.ab---i!S :1, jab deUVier,ed a net' slipping 'the epponen:t's, lead 'ClrVer the '[elt shudder. It is a, saf,e, wa.y to avoid, I, toefl lead while deal~g 'GUtPU~D1.Jt:t the, ~time. 'It is best used

74

BOXING

against. the It'mg-.armed opponent Iiilii it .add's hmgtb to the left arm .. The left jab is pMIf.ied .iI!nd he!ld nl'Omj!ntM~~Y to the ~eO, sbou~de'r. Tbe more the· opponent steps. in with b~s jab, them,ore s.evefe~.y .he w~~~ be punished, It should. be used in combination ww:th .~abbing from. the inssde posiiJQ[I"

Tire Inside Block and R'J'ght HQol--is· n[st a 'bl.ock and tiben. a blow.

It should be used again:s:t a slow jab ,or the boxer who caJni\eshfs t,e:h hud weU out fr'om the shollddel". It hi a powerful blow I!JIll!t requires more (iu'.ac:tleegd mtlre accl1n~te tirning.t1ia.n m.ost ('OUlnters,. It reqUlires b]oclk:~ng' a :left leaidl ~wm the inside~ then shifting the weight f(lr-· ward and hooking the fight to the ChiD.. It is,~Qt ;WIvii$!lIIb~e to use unless t~ opening .is \lery appaI.rent.

The Straigh.t Inwu .Right~is ~ straigbt. rIght thll~d to !CI,OSS und.el1' and .ins:ide an op;pooe~Cs left lead •. It is best li.Ii~d. aga~nS't an ,opponent. who soopsweU .in w.~tb .hils left ~ead .. It then beeom~sal "'Slf!t"u:p'" nrfin:isb.~ng' bloW'. It JS an easy blow to, time" caff.ies terrili( pl'WflF flinld. is best 'Used in ,conjuDction with the outside parry and ~ert j:!!:ib or .a :rigl1! eress, The le:ft .hand must. be carrledbig:h in ~iti:OJJ ~o S:tGpi '!:IX guard -e

The' R.ight Cross;-is one' 0'£ the mos.t ~albd of Mow:s in bo:dng ,and the counter most. ,o.ft-erJI used by alII bo~rs. DeUveved properly, it e~rts, terrific force', n is mendy' a r~ght nook to, the j'aw cr,oss.ed over Ml oppo:nent's straight. ]e£t lead.. The .opponent,':$; jab is slipped. oV\e:r the r.ight sbouhl!er and the rigbt hand ~n boo.kied from. ~he' outside across te the: chin •. It is easy to ,execute ilIJn1d ~s r:eany.3. finis.biq· bJow.

The Imide R,igbt .to tbe' lle(fl't~is a "'strtkef" p~nclljn that it takes advantage of III natural optluin.s: ereMoo. byitn, left Iellid. It is, dUftcu~t t1l pard .I.pinst. It is a! straig'ht tight timed: 50 as tOI dr£.ve und.er:neatb 11m oppo:Dent.~s. left arm as he jabs, iilnd .• s used tn sWow up an IO()p(llJle:JJ.t

!:Ill" to "~sh'Orten .hisitfms." .

Tie O'utridePatty acnd l.eft S:ookt'O· th'e .B'ody-.. T.hEs i:s used ~Q' ibring' down the opponent's guMd!, {iO. CRi!,\t.e 'opeoin~, fo·r the r~gbtffi1tll!nd" ,and to slow up am. oP.l)oJ1ent..It is easy~ saf,e, and. eill£ecUve •. It iisred~y an uppereut rather than a book.

T.ie Inside; Par.,y and Le# H ooi' to the Liver-is, a jarring" s~ckelll8 ing b!owl:ffied! to slow up an O]l{l(mefilt.. It: is,ra:ilier daQge!rotls to ellttl!!!tce ,11!S it bri~~ the bodyiDlt..o· rlilnge Oof' the ~POD.eDt's, right :band,. As the: ~t band. and. sJ:ioulder is dropped" t'Ille: leU s~de of 'l\be bady becomes a target. for t:h.e opponent. ]'lhertl~fMiet it Kln!I!S't. be 'l!I5ed ·suddenly .lInd depemls entirely upon .speed 8100 d.~eptio.n ;(or :its success"

mE OOONTEJl A'ITACK

75

THE TECBN'.JQUE OF THE COUNTER ATTACK

'It :s''OWld be realzed at tbi:s time that it is impossible to ped@d .aJi~ CIOlmti~r.s·. Every oounter ~equh:es :hour.s of study and p:racHce; and years topedect. To tty bo :pedecttoo many ~oun~elsmeans per,~ :none:. Se:~f;{:ttho$e (lo,unters that seemeastest to perf,o·rm and.

in. :result" and 'OO:DCentral!e~ upon them ..

'l'here are' eight e~e:me:nta!l'y OO!1!i~bel st!ll;at ,eViery' boxer sbould! know. ,of the 100gb!; ,3)t beast fouT' :s.hauldlbe m.ade ,auLoman·cin e~utlon. . ... ,only eight ,00000tt'irrs w.iru~ be g~venj there are OV'ef seven .hundred . '" '. A few of.' dlle most cOm!mon counters are 6sted below.

HAND COVm:ERJ;FOR .A. ST.IRAIGHT LEFT LUI)

B", Bl·oc.kmg or SI,(),pi'ng _

I. OEli;a. straight le~t lead; ,catICh the opponent's. '~~ad In the fight. gfove~ ,at ~e same time :soopp[ng left and drwve a stnlight lieft to the ,c1liiiu .•

By.'a",mg

J.: 001\ :str.aigh,~e:f~le8!dr parry l!O the ,outshle guard position and.

kook. ~be left to the S<:imaf pte-xus"

On a stTalght left lead, paI'ty 00 the ogts~de g-u,ardP'lSit~on and moot t~e left to, the ,chin.

On a str.mii.sht left ~ead, parry to the ,outs~d!e guard pooition;md ,ddver a I.eft u!ppe1'cut~o the chin.

,0111 ~ :straigbt left ]le.ad, parry totbe jnside pool.tian and. dr;",e: a

straight left to tbe cbin.

On a sk.8iigbt~eft lead, panyto dte ins·ide guard. posiliOJl and :book.th.e Jelt '~o, the solar plexus ..

On .. 8> skai.gllt~e~t lead, par-ry to the Inside guard pooition. Karl. Uppe~cut le~t to 'the somat pleXius.

.BY: SJi;ping

I: Sup t.o, the ootsidepos~tion .and hook thelei:t 10, the ,chin. _

2 .• SIp t.othe ou:tsid.e pomrtiloD and. hook tbe left totlie solar plexus. ,3. Slip to' ·the.Du.tside position and. drive a ieil u.pper,Wit to ·the solar

·plUlJ$ •.

4. :Sliip W 'die !outside .positioD aOO,-drhre...&~t~ft to the clUn.

BOXING

THE COUNTER AttA.CK. N:lllAIil'IO' - COUNTERS, l'OiR .A SDAlGH'F RIGHT LEAP P;uoryin;g;

On a :strai.8)bt dgblt. Jead, eil:~.ss parry with the right .hand and lwokleft to the cbln,.

00 ,It s.traigb.t right lead, reach acresswlth tbedg'ht hand and plfry the I.ead to the' O'utside~ hooking t~~ leit hand to the oppomPIt',s abdomen.

'7

By Sidestepping

1. Sidestep tethe outside posEl]on I!jnd ddve a leit hoolkto the chin.

2. Side~tep to the outside pos~lwonand dr~v,e a left hook to the sQJarr plexus.

J. Sffidlestep to the outsid,e p08~Mon and dri'y,e ,a, '~eft l!Iillpe[IC~~ to, the chin,

4. Sidestep ~o the outside' ~tionaJnd drhre a s~nlight leit-lliliand tn ~he: chin.

Slipping

On ,II straight fi,gbtte.ad" slip to the inside guard position and hook, the left to the solar plesus,

On, a :stra~gbt. right lead~ slip, to the inside guard position and cross, ;9i.leU hoO'k, to the chln.

On ,I skair"ht right lead; sUp to, the eutsideguaed p05~tloo and cross-'Ielll 'to ehin or body.

R:WIU'=HA.ND COUNTERS 'OR A ST1l:A.~GHT LUT LEAD' By Parrying

II. On a stira[gbt. left lead, p~fry to ~h@ ~ns~de guard pO$iition with the :dgh~ hand, theen. dr~.ve the r.lgnt hand to the 0PPQne-nt':schin. a, Cross .pa1'~y the oppo~e~t,~$ left :~eaJd with the ~e~t~and. <ll1:d drfve a s.u:ajgb.tt:i:g~t 1'0 the Qppoilllent's $ide.

By SUpping

I. Ona straight left lead, slip, to, the inside' g~a:fd pos(( tonoodlil.ook the: right to the heart.

2. On. a. straight :meh.lead, s.1ip tg, the ~Ds[die guard pooitw.n and ddv.e ,it stfaightrigbt to the head.

J. On:a str3.]ght left lead, sUp to tbe insidt ,gualrd po;sjtilon and a straight right to the chin.

4,· Oh a. straiS:ht left It'8!d.j sUp ~(li the ~nsjde ,p3iilld pas itlo:n jj!Dd ,[j"OSIS a rl!i!bt hook ~o the o·PPoFJjenti.s chin.

5· On a,\ stra~ght IDe,ft~e'ad sUp, bJi theinside SJl]aor:d position <lind dd~e· !1!i right to the so]a'l' pJ,ex!us ..

Side'~,~t;ppmg

On, a. str.aight dght lead, sidestep to the inside guard. positlQn and drive astra:ight~eft to th~ ehin,

By Sul'estepping

I. Sidestep to tbe outside guard position and drive' a right cross to o:ppo:fi~neS chh.l.

2. 00 a 's~]"a~gb~ le~t~ead, s:~desl1!ep to the Qutside guard poshio:n and dr.~vea :dgbt to theheart,

3. Qna s~ra:~g'ht, left leadl~ sildes:t:.ei]1' to the insjde .IU<Ii.rd posi.ti,oD and dri VI!! a!ri:gh.t uppercut ~o the cliIh'!i.

4. On a straight left. lead, si:d.estepto,che, ,outside· guard p<!1,dtiO'Jl and ddv~ a rigilit upperci!!lIt to the ,chin.

5. Dna .straight lei'ttead1 sl:des~p tofhe: iosid.eguard. position ;and drdve a rightlllppetCUt. '00 the solar' 'plexusl,

~r.UIJl'IjIIU" OOUNTERS ON A. STM])GI'JlT RIGHT LEIlJ) PdlTying

On ',I. str(ljight fight b~~., parry to the .~ns~d,e guard posit~o!fi with tbe: left ha:nd~. th~n driV!e a !'i~~,a[ght right to the ,chin or body.

On ,I &t!raig;btrigbt lea;di,parry to the ins~de ,gward poolt1,ofi with tbt: Ilt;ft~~en hook the riltht to ~hecbin or body.

Ca. B sbaighrtright leadl, p,arry to the insideglUl!li.Td. posltlen wrth l.eftand drive a rigbt ll!ppel'cut to the chin or solar plexus,.

0IIi a sv.aJg,ht dght lead, pa~y't!o' the outside guard pos.itiOIli with . le,ft and hook the d.ght. to the chin or solar plexus.

a ~t!['aig,ht right lead, -parry tathe outside guard 'Position. w:ith .Ie't and drive a right uppercut to the chin ,or solar plexus,

Sij~pift,'g

On ,I s.lraigbst rr~!!:ht l'~, SUIll'~O the ,O'ut~de guard 'pllsiti.on and driy-e'a :r1gmwt book to the chin or body.

00 l!: suaigbtdgl!!t Jead! 5~ip to t1heou~:s~de guaro positional!lJd

dri· • 'Il... . ·t· t' ~IL. _L~_ .·Il._A

yew ['tgnt :uppercu ,. Al·"nt:·1;.;Jiu1 0(' II.IUYy.

On a s'ka1ght dgJJt lead, Sli'p~o the outside gua;rd, pl.sitt(n~ and drive a str,m.Ribt rigHt to f;lte 'Ot' bod,.

BOXING

THE CODNTER .ATrACK

'79

INsmE BLOC~. AND RIGHT HooK.

IUIPle thefundlammt:a] positiou. As the opponent jabs with left, sngb~yio t.he left ,agd a't the sa;m..e tbne[,a~se the right forearm opponeotts, left a_nd block lead to the ,outside (Figure 15~ page

Then tWp, tihe rigbt elbow u:p in a :straight line wIth the op~ , CbiTI., step 'f,orwardaml s~dJe.:wayswj!t,b. the le:rtfoot~ s~ifting the N the left ~q, and drop a Il"ig'h't book to the (lppO~ent'5 dun 716" pase :79l'., Oany' the left hand in the position of guard . . ¥elY slowly ~nd speed up as the movement is coordinated.

INS,Im!:; R.IGB'I' 1'0 THE JAM!"

blWllte the fundamelitalpo~iitiGfi. As the oppOlQ.entWeads a left qWddy llillm, the body t'Othe left, bringing the right s.holiliider mthe ~entef Une (F:fgu:r~ 71., pa:g,e 80). FrOID this point

the. rig;ht band into oomplete ,ext,ens~on.. The Ieft Jead sUps to fbe

'of ·the· right arm. Tb.e lie:ft hand is held in tbe position ,(I'f guard ,;8, page 30).. Il short step to the lef~J shi.mn,g the weight ,a straig'ht left '~eg wa.y be used to ,obtain. more powe'l.".

RIGH'I' 'CRoss

"'m'e ' the' f'unda:mental,pt:rsitlon .. As the oppon,eDt.~eads a straight sII" to ·the tllside: pos.itioD byst.epping fa-rward. and sid.ew.ays w.ith leli foot, shifting the, weiKht ,owr a straiigbt left leg. Keep the

bud. ,ou.tsidetbe optlOaent'~ . d .. As ,the· oPPQnent"s jab sli:p5

4. On a S(Jr.!dght I'lg;ht ]ead1 slip 10, tbt. m&ide gu8lId poSUmOD. and dr.nre lIleft uppercut to the sola:t: r-wms,.

By Sidestep;ing

I., On a str,aigh.t 'right lead~ sidestep ':;;0, the outside guard :[Xil:s.itioa: and. hoot the ril:bt t(l the ch~n or hody.

s. On. as:traig't right lead!. sidestep 'to the Qutside guard POSilti'(1r1li aDd drive a right uppercut tu the "-O.lar plex,ijjs.

TBE INS,IDEP:ARRY AN'D LEFT JAB

Assume we :rundame:ntal position. As. the ,oppo.nent.Weads, a. su.';a~ilIilt :reft, step forward and left 'wIth the: l~ft foo:t~turDlng tie left sID:11:Ilcier. diretitly forward and driving the 'Ie'U.iIII'IQ into, complete e:xtension. I I',lght ann is (;aaied high"hand turn!di out, parrying the le'It lelild ' ward,. Slart s'~owly and speed !!!f(.'l as skil] is. a1tta'Lned ,(F1gu.r-e 73. 78).

TIm OuTSmEP'ARRY AND LEn: JAB

Assume the f'un.damental(.'lQsittQIlJ. As the o'PPoElen:t leads a jab!, parry and. lnomentll'dWy p,jn to tJD~~eft sho1l.l!fde~. At the lime jab the lefl Inmd 'Qu,tint:o, t!:xt~nsion" usingthe~ f'oll'ward shUt ' .shlepower. The dght hand is Mld high ,and ready to, f,oun~'e.r ' , first pH.a:ying (F.ig:ure 74, pa.IJ,e 18,).

'7,S. lmiiJ<6' Bl(l(j ,and R~gl;t H 00" (.1),

~G,. 7'3. IMide .P'tu'ry ami uti J,ar, :I'm. 74. ·(hInde PIfft,',tlffd'uJI /.llb'

Fundamental Ommtes

rIa. 76. Inside Bl,ock m~d R~gltl l:l ()'Qk (~ ),

THE COUNTER ATTACK

(l'ver therdgbl sbo,uM!er, the dgbt annt now ;in a ll!a1:f..:bent 'POi~~Uoo. is hooted over the opponent's left lead to the 'ehin" Tbe left 'i

is, earned higb and ~n a. position of guard, (F~g. jig, paige 801). who:fe action is, pedormed as, U it 'Were o'nf!. ]Be sure too hook. muid~.,

flC. ". Stmigl# i;Jslde ,Right ,t!)) Chm (I),

I'IG. '1'9. Tie ,R;.,,,, Cpos'! 'rm. 80" 7'.I't!, ItJdde ,Riglll ,to I~

Ru"

Fundamental Cmm'ters

LN:SmE R:WH'I' TO 'TIllE HEART

Assulnefibe fundamentamposldop. On the o:ppo:nenf:s le'ft lead, m the ifiStde posit~Q!IlI, ,and d:dvea, :straigbt r,l;ght to the"beart.The ~~ low aJnd o:ntbe same plane as the right anl!'aiJ the arm P['o~ec:ting head. 'The lei'tba~d~s hel1d bigh and r,e-ady to s:tQ]) the opponent's hoot (Figure So) page 80). To, 'obta[~ theg~at.est power; step .-w,!!;", _dfeft six, to ,eight inches wi.th, the left foot, whilesbiiting tlte! welgbt over~be~eH. Ie,S.

,OunWE P'ARRY AND LEn' HOOK TO 'TUE SOLAR Pr.EXmi Assume the fundamental position. On the oppenent's I,eft lead, parry &be w.tside po:sit~onwith 'the right hand. At thesame time d[lop t-he . ,lI!m:I poeqM!ndiJc~[aJr to ~e!fI,oor (Figure 81, page ,1;11, and s~, . wi. t'he r,ig~t foot 00 a posl~ion ,out's'~de oppenent's left foot.

tbe weight pfbi, OVier the dS:ht h~,g., hook the 'te:ft hand tattle solar

This satrU~ mevement lnaJY be: repe'at&:d by stepping aJC~ w~th the loot to a position outside the oppone[l:t's, left foot (Figure 82, 8li) •.

;PIG., 8.1:. ()r.tdde: .Ptmy ,Imd LtJifJ .B'oa.' .to' , ,Ie -SoW PkSJM -:ll:i,"1 .51t,

put lb. Out;sid'e Parry and .Left N 00'14 to. tise S(da, PkDS -Lell $1£," PUndamental Counl,en

BOXING

T,KE .INSDlEPAllRY AND LEHHooJ{ TO, TIlE, Lfi'D:

Aswm,e:tbe :f:u·ndam.enta~ posi'Uon. As tlI.e'oppom.enlt leadis a :stmiJg1!aJt Ie:ft, drop dh'ect1y'o, the left and to the :inside gUQ:r-dpositinn •. Pa.rry the left lead outward, witb theright band (Fm8:u~e 83, pale 82 )it pivot: sbarply fir,ont the wafst~ fordng the left Mnd up ,and u't'lder the opp!)~ Dent's. g:uMd~o, the solarple~us (Fig1!llft84" pag~' ail). 'rh-e' weigibt. lSi smfled O~[ the left leg whkb becomes a p~vot lU'oundwbkb the oody wheels, on oompJetion of the blow.

FIG., 83. lIu:ide Fa", llM LeJI' Ho.Qk to lJ,tJer ( I)

F]G.8~. IH£ide Patry rmd' Le'n:

Hook 10 Liver (2 ),

FUNDAMENT,ALS OF FORM

THEINs,wE PABl" AND' LEFt' JAi!'

I. Shlftthe we{ght ,over a sttaight left leg.

2. Turn. the ]eftshould.er straig:Dt forward.,

3. Drive:·the left hand into com;p,le~e e:~t:ensi:Qn. .

4" At the same time pair, the o,ppollent"s,~ef~, lead (!jiutvra;rd,with the

:rig'bth~nd"

THE QrUl'S;~D:E PAlmY ANIIL:UiIr J AD

J.. Use tb.e right hand. to parry opponefilt"s lefl lead In:w8rd. ::I. Momentarily pin the left lead on the left silm.ould~r"

3. At the .same ,time shIDft. forw,am agO Jab the: left to tbe ,chin. Tlle j,abis out'Side tb.e o,ppopent's, :~ead,.

,,,. Hold 'therigbt: r,wIy t:o oounter.

THE' COUNTER A:'n'A!CK.

THE IN1SmE PAUY A1O!I Rm'H't HOO'K I" Lean !:dighUy to! the left.

:!J:" Parry the: left le.ad outw,aw w.Uh, 'the' dgh,t band.

3,0 Step f'(I·rwam aDd ~.o the :~en 'with the len. leg~ shlfting the weiight~o:rward.

'.. At the same time :raire the right. 'elbow and hook to. 0pPQnent':s ~h;Q ..

TaE ][NSmE RIGa!' 1'0 'FHE CHlN

I., Shift th.eweigbt to ,3,: stt"aigbt left meg ..

~. Turn the' rw,gb,t shou~de:r and hip te thec;ent,el' Ilne,

3. DrriV'e the l'igb,t arm undJeif the opponent:'s len. lead to t'ke c'bin .. 4, Ca\l'FY the ~en hand hi8h and ready to :stop the opponent's right

eO!!!LQt~r •

THE Rro·RT CROSS

'I,. Step fOl'W:!tm and ,Weft wjth the left l,eg without moving 'the right arm ..

:z,' Shin the wei,ght to the left leg :allowing ,the OPPO.t'llellt's lead to s1lip over the r~ght shoulder.

3,. Hook the tight arm 'Up and. ov.et the OIJpon.enes extended arm

~I) the d~in. - -

,4. The~e:f~. band. shiJuldbe placed over the ,oppoMnt's right band in order to plIe¥eJ],ta, coup,ter b'lorw.

Tml INsnmR.J,QHT TO 'rilE HEART

I.. T,at,e eae step~'Qrwal'd and sid~ways with the left foot.

I.. Smntbe weigbt to, the left foot" tumingthe hlp and. shoulder .roq'bb> the ,(;elli'ter 'nner .aUowing oppon.ellt~s feft ~o s~ip over the r.igbt shouldel'.

. 3", D;d\i"~ th.e dgbtt hand.hil!l·~de ,o!£, the ,qppo:lWntls I,eft lead, to the head.

4.. Ca'l'ry the left baud high and ready for 'tbe op;z;H)ne:nt's, left

THE OUTSmE Fu.'Y AND Lzn HOOK TO THE SoUJI Pt.'EXUS

I.. :Pa:r~ oppone:Dt~ lefl lead 'to 'the Qutside with the right band. a. DI'QPt'he left ann~jcl1at to'wefl!oor .tmd!Skp su;(JSsio

84

S,mnNG

a positi.oo ou.tside the opponent's m,dlt root wwt~ t~e ~dt (i,r the d@Jh~,foOit.

3· Shift the weight to the front leg: and then hook. the len hand, to ,the sola 1" plexus",

4,· Carty tlleright handhigh"rea(l!y to, cross to tbe' ehin.

TIlE INSIDE PARRY Al.."'lD LEfT HOOK 10 'THE LIVER r, Step forward and left with ,the ~ef't Ieot,

2" Parry a left lead, to, ihe outside witli. th~: rig~t 'hrc'\ud.

.3. At the same trum@ sh~ft the we~gh~ tn the: left '~eg ,iilltd drive a left uppercut to lopPQnent's. liver.

4· Using the '~e'll leg as, a pivot" wheel tile Ibod!y J.e~it ,an,do1!.ll,t ,cd fange.

'.

D.EFINITION

TB:E TE~ ~,jsET';1JP'Sn denotes ;a seties os blows delivered in a naturaJi, sequelllce. Tae ,oil j'ect is to M!a~uvet the e:ppom:nt Into s~ch a position, Oil" ~~eeJte sucb an lo:pl!n~ngJ th(!!!t.th~ 11'1311 b~ow of the serIes win find a, 'vu]nenrble spet thll:srend.eri~g the oppc)Orent helpless and ~ ~set;t;ing ,him. up'" f·o1" the fi:ni£hing erkneckout blo,w.

EXPLANATION

The dli,erenc,t!betwee:n an lexpert ,and ,II, novice boxer is that the expert makes w;e 'Of' each oppOiTt~nity and follows up, each openit1ig. He d.e6Vi1lFS his blows in ,9. wen-planned series, ,Mcl1 opening ereating ,.o~~er, UD~wl 6:]1ally a dean "shot" .is ,obtai~l!i!d ..

Some blows seem to, be '.tfoUow" hlows La that they comealter eerlaiin Ieads.F'ilf jps~ancej the straight rig'bitis a, .t~foUow;~ 'b'~ow for the ktt ~ailb, ~nd a left hook is a j,j·f·o;]]ow;' blow forilie straight :right.

'lit seems li1iiiitUfIlTh~,O puu,cb straight ,and then hook and ~t seems natural ~fi, punch first to the he-ad and then to the body. UFa~]ow; j blows or (~~,t-upsP bill.Vie rhythm and "feel" as their basis. Pun.c'b~ng in d~!ytlml ~sanhnpol'tant factor in boxtng.

Ev,c.ty bQ~r s'ho~ldm;ak,e U'se ,of a: natural sequence, To be sure that ,II, :sequence will be used whUe boxing, it ls iIl,eoess:uy to praetlee punching :in sequence, Any Iwmbination of blows moay be used as krng as openingsa!l"le cil:l@ated.E8Jcb indi,v~dua'~ may set up f,()rhimse~f a. series of' blows whIch will work effecUv,e]y. There are, ImWf:V'e1"1 a few :se~ifs ofb~,ows whleb are of proven value, and s.bO!ldd become 3! part of every ooxeris,~oo~':kit.

USE

The, Triple IJtOU!;-..,are combinatiQn5 ,of three different punches whIch h:a¥e :sDpping as tbeir basic. technique. AlwaY!1l the first two blows lIIe tlOl ike 'bnd,y1iollowN 'by aMowliCIJ th.e dun. TMflear'e two tr:iples, ,one which stan!!, with, a sup to the :inside ,pard :posi'tiio[lj and. one

8~

BOXING

whiich stl!!l.rts wi.th a: slip todle outside 8tliardposllion. Dothan efioot-iV~!" but. 'the inS'~de b'ifl~e is used mQ,re often. Jack D:enThpsey i!Oed. ,thjs,trip1i ~Qi j'hit 'em. in 'Ill.e s~omach,t:hen bit 'enl on the jaw,!' The irstltwf(l, blows are d~s.ig~ed. to bdog dk.wn th,e ,guard tto,crea'te am. opeilmlill;g f'Wl tlre hal 'Ot finisbing blQiVl1•

The One =, tw()~tJ!u.ee Sequence:~~s, a~f~e:s, ofti!~1jl! blorw::;, wh-iCh M;ve as,their bas~s rbythm", timing and power. They are b'~o,ws whim. seem toio}]ow eeeh other naturally, One series, 'that ~Sl 't£'I! ja,b., ,erG-56,! allld hook" is intended to ,Darrow the opponent."s guarnand cret1lwan ,Ope1l-' ing for a: hook. from. tl'le outside. Tbe jab, hook1 and cross, seli,es is, des.igned t.o' create an opening 'for" ill 'fi:nal strai;gbt.b~orW ~o' the ,chiD. 'Bo,th S<edes can be 'Used effectively.

The Hi-gh-,.l.ow's..-Qre a se;ri.es of b~.ows w.biii:bhave rhythm as ,their basis, in p,untblng fin-t t~ tbe body and. then. In th~! head" or 'vi,Cl!! venal,. Th.e wid,e hook is used to open a. path for the fi!!lam .. straigbt blow .. The: main thing: to remHlllbe-1:" is, thait the ~aslblorw wlID. be to the spo~ of th.e fiut bJow. If the out blow-is to the j:a:w, t'he ~as:t b~.(!Iw wiWrn.· also be to the jaw,

THE TECHNI:QtJ"E .oF THE j;jSET~UFS'" THE INSIDE TLwLE

Assume lhe[urndam,e'.ntal positi.o!l. As the ,opponent .J.i~ads, a '~eh. jab" slip, to the imide positj,OI!l. with S, dgllt. '~O th,e beart ,(Figure 85" pa:g;e 87). Then weave under the oppone.n.t's, 'men died left arm and as the weight of the body 'sh:ii:ts, 'to 'the right le&l:, hook the ~enbpdS!o, ,the s6~ar'pl.exus, (Figure .86". palgt S,,). From this, oUJts~de posi.tioo., C[~SS ·the right to tn,e opponent's ~hin (Fig~U': 81', pag:e a,).

More power 'm@y be (lb:ta~m1I~d. U a sboirtst:ep, ~o' the dgbt is taken with the rlgliJt{oo·t after the ~ns~der:lght~s d.eUve~d. This, carnes the head and body under the opponenes, lead and to, theo-utside guard, positiont sbiitihg the 'We~g]!It. over- the right meg !:IS 'the left hand is booked to' the Qppo,nent'smidse-t:Uon. The! body is,t~eil1! :straigh~en,edj weight shi'fted to the left leg and !be t;ight bapd! ,crossed. to the opponent~!s C;JirlD •. The left hand. iscanioo high and dosel, ill position O'f guard.

THE Ou:rsm:s T.RVI.:E

A8sume the f'undaimeDtail posiit:jiJ.T!I .• As th.e OPP'O'D-'IUlit re~s a left jab,. d~liIIndemeat~h, to the oU:tsideposid,OD, ,Hind swinK :awide !leit 'IlcIU. 'to

PIG. 8". Tik ln~'ide Triple Cl) The flSet-Ups>l

the: oPP<I'nent's midsection. Thellig~tband. sl1ilutd be 'open. and carried ,01' the len. sbou'~der (Fi~rr,e' :88, page ,88). Step in and to the~eft with 'the 'left foot,. ,c:ar-ryiq the body under the - opponent's left lead a.adbook the' d,8ibrtiba"nd tn theheart. Tbe 'Weft hand~s dropped over the opponentj':s ds)lt g~o,ve (Figur,e ,89'" page 8,8). From thls-poS:iUon IItralgDt:eu the body and. lift 'the len hand b) the OPPODeJ:l:tis ,cbin,. Til e :~t arm is talfried. ,ofItbe k!:ft sho:gl:(1t:llt'j open :md :in I)Os~tiJ)n O'f

guard (Ffgut,e '90~ :p* 88) ,. -

88,

BOXING

'p~:o.89'. The Outside Triple (.~.) ~I!G. '90. TI!'e' Outside Triple '(,3,)1

The ~ISet-Ups,>I

THE O~~ Two CQ:MBIN,.IlI;.TION'

13eca'!lSe the 'OIl1lie-tW'Ol~S tTh1.eb{!lsms ,oi' ~e slraight .. b:]j)W dOMbinatiol!lSl'

it, is essential ~.o' und'erstMid its, tech.Diq!!l!e.

-. &suOle'o tbe iWlda;r:r.umta1i posidQiJil,. Sbep' fON';ud w~~ tbe left foot

and-jab with the. left hand ,(Fiigl!l!l'e 16" page 16,). Mo,ve ~e t1ght.f:~ lopositionr.and drivetbe r,i~bt hand into 'CQmple~e l~nS1.0D (F~K!I!lIre' .JI" 'page' 19).. 'The,rhythm, lsimpmtant aodsAoQliQ be ,o-n-e,i.",,1

SET-UPS

8- ·9

THE JAB,~.HOOK

This is abo a basie oombimulon blow. Assume the fundamental pos~t'ion. Jab wruth the left band,. Hold t.he left arm in the f::llten.ded. ,pos~Uon u~m die: W'eWght shUts back. to the ,straight dgbt l'eg. Then, book t~e' left arm in ,ID I;f:C for 'tile rig'h~ shoulder.

THE JAB-STU AND 8'OOK

.Assume the fundamenta] positiolil.. Jab the left ann into extension.

Without mO~llg the left atm, farther, walk teward the left hand.. This, forces, the alrm to bend at the elbow. T.he' arm is fiOw in ahalf~· bent position. .Drop the welgbt heck to the right ~egand hook the left mnitn all <111'(: to the ri,ght. shoulder. The right, hand sho!i.!!td be carried MSh and. ill pos:iition o£ guard.

'1':111::, JAIl-CROSS. AND HOOK;

Assume 'I'JI.e ftir.u:tarmen[~1 pijS~tWQiD. Drhre a On~4;wQ to the ,chin (F\i..g:uroes 16,. 2!, pages .~ 6 j 19). Then take one short ste:p to 'the right udbook ~he :I:eft tJO the chin. Tbe :dght band should be carried h".gh in 'position ,o,f gua.rd ,(Figure 9,·1, page go).

THE JU~HOOK A:KD ClOSS

,Assume: the fundallle'ntal pGSltlOn. Jab with tb.eieft. haad, then s'biftthe we~g~t tOIt:he' right {'eg a!:lJdhook. the left to till.'! chin a- Rock u.ewe~~t f'orwa.l'd to tM left I:cg and driVie a str,alght :right to the ,cldn. 'TheIDeft ,ilili'm is held <diGS!;! to the boo~r in position (I·f guard (Figure'S, 1,61, 91121;, pages 16, 90f 1'9).

TUB, S:n:AIGHT HIGH-Low

.~ume the fulitdamenta~ posltten. FU",g the left hand Iorward and 1i!pward infrOJillt ,of the oPPQnenCs,fac.e. Dt'1op ~mddenlyby bending tht rlghtktrl..ee and twisMn!!j' the body to the meft .. As the righ.t shoulder ud hlp tum !hrougThl to t'~cen:ter line, ,tlrive the'right arm O!l!lit into Q'tef!.!s:i:O:n~ 10th 0PJ;om!j,ent's heart, The lle:ft arm l'aME; to the body in a [pi'*iiUOD of pant

THE R.IGH-Low AND CROSS

Assum.ethe fundaMentail position. After jahbin,g several times, step iin wiilth alen,book~o, 'the' face~ :( Fipre' 91: I,pq:e 90). Allow the oppG-'

go

BOXING

nent time to anti.dpate the next m.ove; a left hook ~QI the' body (Fl~rrle 92 i page 90. Astlll;e ,opponent dwpsh~s hands, to protect his, mmdseCtlCII1, dropa.d!.art straight r.ight ttl, the chin. (Figure, 93,p(!'<g,e 9,0;) .. Tlhe rhytbm. is ,otte •.• one-two.,

FIG. 9.3. Tile Righ (md L(1W CrOff (3 )1 The '~~,5et~tJp$'i

THE w-w-HmH AN.D UPI'EiRCIO"!

&s.umethefumdamI'Ui,ta~ position. Step in. with 8. wid.e hook to th.e ibody (Figure 94, p~ '9 r). H~itate so that the 'o:pponen1t will anticipate a. hOO:k to the chin. "fh~n hook. to the chtn (F.~g:u[,e 95, page -;I'l) uull fo:~toW' .inned!iately with a right upper,cut t:rOt~e sob:r pleX.b$ « F:ig,., Ut'f!, 96, page' ,~,U)'. Th~rhythm is the same, one. , .. ,~-two.

aO. 9'5. Tie l..t'Iw-.1J'g,IJ i'l;iJil lJ ;ptJ'ileW! (2)

r,Uj,. '96. TIt,~ Lmb.H'lJ;h i'md Uppet'. 'C.~! '(,3,)

FUNDAM'ENTALS OF FORM 1\m INSIDE TRIpu

I. Use on~y' ,agablst a leFt lead . .Action .m1!lS~ 'be: 'fast and (lo,nt1t1!1laiIJ'liis. :ii' Smip inside with a, stndght right to the heart. Use a s'~op lot:' the oppon@oCs r~g~t.

,3" SWp sideways with. the right :foot) m;Q,villg the "'00.\ up ,e,v'en w;th the left.

t., At the same t:~me., shUt th@ we:ig;bt ov@r the rigb,t l'eg and hook 'the left handte so,l;a,t 'P~exus,.

5. Straighten the body and CT'OOS the ds~t to U1!eoiPpo~e!Dlt's 'chin, weigh~. sbUting to the k!f:t foot..

6,. Keep the bOOy 10"w until the: btlal movem.ent. Welg;bt is, :s.htU,ed 6rst to. tn.e left leg, then t(l tkeri:ghit ltg, a~dI back ag.ai~ ~Q' tbe meS:t ~eg.

THE OUTSIDE T.R:WLi:

:1:. Use.o.n a. left lead,

a. Bend. tbelmdy to, the ;dght unde.l" the ~en lead and hOi)!kthe left to opponent IS, midsection.

.3. Move the left foot sid.eways and~orwillfd as the bodym.oves, t.{I, the inside guard pos-idofi.

4., Hook the right 'til ,opponent.'s ribs, at the s~un;{i: time stopping ,the (Jppon~nt's right. wilt]], the IJ@ft band.

S. 'TheDstraigbte-n the body and.wmp' tb.e~ert 'band ~o o'PQ·nenfis, chwn.

6. Keep the bod,y low u~tn. the iulblo,w. Tb~ we~ight~s !i'hiiled from the dg~t foot" hI! the left, and. then, back. to t.he r~g~t.

THE ONE<-Two

I .. Jab with the left hmd. and s~ep 'With the Weft-foot.

2. Follow by mo,ving the right foot to ~h.e fUl:ldame:lll:ta:lpostt£Q:Ill, and driving the right arm. i(IU~ ~nto' oo.mp~ete: eX!~m'lslio,n .•

.3. Th.erhythm is ~n-e-twldiI ..

4- Be sure, to jab high 'with U1e left :band, th:us bloc.ldng v~siQn.

Then dlive,the: ri.ght hand. to the chin,

TIm JAB-HOOK

I. Jab wi,th:dIe '~eh.kmtd ..

2. Without moving the hand, ,shi;hdle 'we~,Bibt back '~O' 'die rightioot andihOOk th.e~.e[t bad in an. arc toW,lIIro tbe dgblt ,shoulder.

J. .Ho~d the right band ,Qffthe lief! 's.h(l'Ur~,r.

SET-UPS

Tn }AB...:SixE-:P ~ND HOOf!!;.

I. Jab,. w:ithout .steppin,g' with the '~dt 'foot.

:2. HOld the ,arm extended and w,att to the arm. !Elbow is thus bent ~o 'Pos.~tffion oi a .hook and held ,off thelett shoulder.

3· \Vb)" a s~ort hook, to opponenfs ,c..h~n,.

4· Fed'o:rm the movement fast. S~ocessful esecuticn depsads 'upon deception and speed.

THE, JAB.!C:ROSS AND' HOOI{

J. Drive a one.;i';wo to the apponenfs ,chin.

~... Then step to the side with the rI,gbt foot! and whi,p a, Jeft hook '~O tJn..e ,opponent's chin.

TIm JAB'-HooK A-.ND CROSS

I. Use~he: jab·hgok t,o the drin, w.eight shining' 'back to the .right leg with ~~e.hoo,k.

2,. Sh~ft the weight tea stralg'ht left leg and drive 8.. straight r~gbt to the oppon.e.nfs ihin.

J. F,omd tbJe Weft erm close tg· the body in ,a, posidon ofgua.rd •

,.

TaE SOAi(i:"·lnHlcli .. 1.ow

I. .lIIDing the lef't arm up\\'lird ,and fo:rwa.rd.

:2. Quick'my drop th.e body €or'W,aro and drive a straight right-t,o the

h.eacrt. -

3," .HoM ,the :~~H armrelldy te stop die 'QPpone,ntls.right·,hMd blew,

TD.E H.W-II-w,w ANn CROS'S

I. Rememililer ,t~l.l)t. If the :fi:rst b:tuw is high, the'~ast blow is 'h[gh. z .. Lead. a: wiidehook to the ehin .. :BesimreJ and boo,kto, the body ..

Then ,drop, ;31, stra[g;hr~ rIght eo the ,chi.Il. 3,. The r~yt~ is one '" .hiiojtAt,ee, .

4· Theftrst 'two blows are d1esigned te clear the path. for the last blow.

THE :Low-ffiG:H: ANI!) UPPERCUT

I. Lead a wide left book to the bQd,y.H,esi.ta~e, then hook a. left ~o,_ the dUn.F'ollow imm.edbl.lely witl} a r;ghtup,pel'lcut to the stI~ar plexus.

,. ~ iisthe sa;me~ om' ..• two, ~Isree;.

96

BOXING

24. TM'l'e are two times, when you are nil0st~mkel!y to get j;jh.1!Ir~t'

eit:her comiJ1i8 into a:ttack ~ OiJ:' going out.

l' 5. Whenever the o,ppIJ.nent gets, se,l tobit, m,ove.

:2 6. Note ca.refu •• y what the opponent. does, pr,eced~nghii leads. 21',. Make amen~a.rn .note of any petun~dijes.,

~'s. The natural eountet for a h~,..ft jiaJb~s 31. rffigbt. CrosS,1 ~~ere~ol[e act ~cc:o(rding~y'.

29. R.ealize that ij,rd]DadWy ,a striiiigbt punch wm IIbeat" a book. ,3,0. The tWQ~ha[ldoo attaek to' be efl',ecdve must 'start ~rom the inside posiUon..

31. The, outside guard poSi.ti!!;ln is the sa ~,~.t ,']Me.

32" Right-hand leads and shOd hoob are counter' b~o,ws. Un~ess, you want to get h~t, do, po,l tead. theM.,

THE TECHNIQUE, OF' RING GEl'l'!ERALSHIP

Beeaese generals-hip is pr:i:ma:rUy eonceraed w~,th ap~am1l ~£action against different sty]es of boxi.ng, some of the styles w~~m be:be'teiin considered.

:H:ow ;Ii) Bmc II! TAl.L ~PIi!:lINENT'

This situa~Uo!l is often enoountered. A tal)! man has mo~e, ~oprilted., often he· is i!Wower and. therefore there Bite more o,penh'lgs.However, to off~t these disadvantages, the tall man hag, :reacih a:nd probably eensideeable 'power.

In geMrarn, the best pruam ~s to~eep Mo,ving in and OllJlt, in all ~Uempt to ,draw a len lead . .on tbei~eadj' sUp in fast, cOl!.lin~edng ha!l'idland oft~n. Onre in, place the :rorebe~d ,on the oPPofietlil's. thest ,andfor,c,e mIn ba.ckwa:m:di and off balance. At the saA1le ~~me rn~ft short arm jolts to the S'Ornar p,lexl!IJs.,

One method €If' deception. Is to gradUl!Illyooge ~!be: lef't f'(jot neaRl,l the eppenentwlthout altering the' position €If' the: bead. WitbtliJ;e stance spr,eadit wIl!~ be ears~e:r tOI r,each the oppCloent.

How 1'0 Bo,,, A CJl.Ol1'CHQ

Any opponent who ~m)tipu8!]]Y cTou.di.es is ,8) d~ffu::Jldt man ~o' hi,t ,eff:ective~y. He fights, f'r,om , 4~!shell/' we I, 'COI¥eted uP'"

Sante trundle." bend. directlyforwl~d!.. In ibis, ease, use speed, steppin.g in. and. out whh sh.ort :[Mi.de U;ppettuls., .N'e\!er: stay :ill dose'.

If the opponent crntu:'hes, 00 efthe,r the len of th.e rigb.ts~de" 1:lIIb

KING 'CRAFT AND' 'RING GENERALSHIP

t'O tbe~WIili~ shouldlernd! tryb:l' fOf'Oe or spin hlmol balanee, n tMs, is ,(fone, fo~low' up and, stay dose, mkf~ .3id,vantilige of each opening.

Bo,w TO Box A RUSHER

The :rushe!r .is C:btlOmc b), the sport ofbox[ng. He is the unskilled wh(l m~st~,o~t:e hi:msdf dose j.nil,rd'~rlio score,

Tbe sjdest~p was made fOIl: the rusher. As the opponf!!nt, rushes, sldestep ,and denver a C:OUlllil"::t blow ..

A~nother !efi'ed~vf! method Is t'll step in with a straight one-two to ~be chin. As the eppenem rushes" st'EiP sml!l.fOy fOTWlUd wIth the left fIDo;t and drive the '~e':th.atid to the chIn. 'FoUo,w with a s,traigbt right. Once in elase, dinclil"resUn:g the weight on the oppGllen:t.. Wait untn the (·e(,el'ee breaks" As opponent rush~ again, repeat,

Slr.aight bliows will seore before swings and hooks. Keep the blows high! c1dn down. If a :~it ~s S'cO'red.~,S QUQWiitP~ if missed". dindl ..

How iIO Box It JABBER

Some boxlen use 'on~y one 'bI,ow~ the l'eft Jab. To. CiJpe with th~s :stylc, ktep the bod(y low. Thi! [Mide prlsi:tion must be obtaIned by ,5~~pp~~~ weii,!v~.; or s:~dJ~ste,phllg·. Pu~c:h. w b~~e going in~ a r(ght to the heart ora left hook to the bodY'. Once in elese, pin. the Ioeehead OD dl~ oppone;nt's, ,chest and stay there. Drive both. hands to the opponent's body.

Tiheilib:il~~ty to :fold uno,,!:r a~eft Jab is an ,efi',ective w,lly Qf moving ill dose. As ~hi.': oppoDC:'!ltLe'ads,~ dr-op the 'head into the croot. of me rigbt arm, This forces the jab 'over: the top of the head. Carry t~e: left hand Jow, read!y ~,o, oount~r,"

How 'TO 'Ih)x~, j'SOU'IHMWu (1,en~h.at'!ded, boxer)

SpedaIooclliDiqwe is fiequi:red~o box a '~'southipaw ." There' are: three principles th!!Jt sheuld bef,o~lo,w'ed; (I) ma ke the soul;]wpaw lead first; .; {2) drde to the left, I!Iway ff!ORl the ~outhp:a.w~s. Jeft hand, and (3) use the rlgbthand as the major weapon 'of Qffepse. As a general rule this w~~~ brjnggoodresults. It sho~~d be vadlldas ci rcumstaeees indI,cate.

C~~cljng~efjt, ;a:ga~nst a j~southpaw"ll.umi1es his best band, bis~eft. .A ~jsou.thp8iwltusually has a,terrinc pow~r in. his, Idt hand" which he

... MIliOf um,t!les and 5etQfllib;marill'l'tam that we: 'proper method .is to carry the ,a,tit.a.dt to, SO ":sntil'rpaw." ~;om. knowledge ,g.ain.ed m. handlilflg '''oou.lbpa.w,s'' it has '~fOW1d tbart libey'lIf'e:f'e,t tbe ia,ruack to re. Qm.~d, tJOlhem. HSlee:illiS that iftl!.e:y ,.re ~CJil~ed to -d, they l'eave, tbmise't'Vlft, open,lI.lid a:reGi baJi'!JQJoe.

98

80XlNC

mvariabtyh.oots. By drdin:g :away f[f!omihelef'tbodk" MIt o:n1yis po:wernullifi!d,but a betJter position i::;, 'dbtained fr,o.which ~O' d,eUvru' ,!!,i rlghtoo'Ufi1er., Ho<w~ver, ,arig'ht bOOK nID3i¥ be enOOUl'Itered.. If' pos~ ,s;iblie:, ~'f:'ehilt ouf" ~herigbttitoolk., 1[JiUUy !1iI:na! .fie:int." the ~~\OO'liI!thffilaw" 'will dr,a;w ltilck his f~ghtlr:m lleady to cress, When. he dees, :s~ep in with a straighit le'.ft aT~~hand Qpen~ ~Q' ~he ~![K!!!i!e.nt's dgiht b~~ I'll.' sloulder. This willspinhllM (iff balance and m!to a ~Ight ,c:GUif:l~er.

THE SL:UOOEll:

,SOme men aJ:1i'e erldo!wed w~th ·tHe 'ilJil~~~ty lo!nrut aimIDd bllr~; with elt~[ hand. T.b:ese men se.hlo:m. take~e' tHI~ble b:;),leaJnlJ h(1w tOOO~(l!l' ~.o,~lt straight. They depend WJ.ia~!i!!ly on powerfijj~hoo.ks"Theyar'e aJways, (lange::roosoppo:nents.

Hea:.vy hitters must iige~ ~~.~~ in onffie1l"t(l, dellve;r their' b~G'ws!, ~elle~ (IOU 00 keep mo!ving is thebe-s!t defense, ID~bm,ty ~o'!'~~~t ~et~j' wnl lle~&eon. the .~~tterjs power 8JW. m!i!ke ~~. less d:a~~T(D~5. Morv~m!:g aro~nd does not mean jumpJ:ng brut Sh'lll"ply' meaas molV.~f!J,g ,eficl~~t~Y' ,and. easily ~opil:eNen!t the ~nent from ge~tting: :read!y ~o hit.!atb.~hne the 'Of/prJnent stoJls to hitj• :mov'e:. Such a ptanwi11 .rend'erh~s 3ttaJ~k ia. effooUve.

A good pteceof s~!!"II!~ev is t.olsudd~ll1y stop ~{lvfrtga!inld :iiJ~p q~h;kly in on the oppo:neFJ!t~ ,catd:!Ji~M~~~prep.a~d and 'oi bamanCt!::. Tms mU!St be ooneswUtly., mQvfJlg in amd (lIutbef'Qr:e the GiPponenltcan u.Hit,u MmseJJ to hit. DQnot .attenl;pt~o 'fslug~" w~thlUM:.

A boxer; who stawtd:s sliJ~ is, a, l!'·cat~hel'}j' Mov~oomi;t:a.D!tly, run ,and 'O!~ltl Mltviprously j but easiiJIy.

T.HE CQIIJN'TEI. FIGHl'.ER

'l,he counter igh,ter is, a dangeoollliS o]lp<lnenrt. Be t1lllr~s the forte ,o·i his, opponen:t's blows b~.cl ag,a;iM,t~e loppt!:meJ!!!t. A oounler fight,em- depOds, upo:l!i~eadso~ ~e (fIpooeillt. fief·efo:re, d'o not lead,. and. respedaUy do not, l~ad the b~otws elq?ected. If 'Poss:ib]e~ fiorcetbe (joru9i~er fighter to lleml byfeinUq:oir d!raw.~ng. If' this, d.QeSoot W<lrk~ do w'hathlil expflcu!I onty De Rady to! eeuntee 'the; oO~fI!te4"bruow.

An agg[~S~Vt'l a:tlac:k 'with. speed a:ll,d,PO~!r~S an el~v,e I1i>e!t~od in s.ome eases. Sud! a: procedUllfl keeps. 8. ool!!Jo:t'er~g;n~e.T olba13!n,£e and tnus ineffectiw'.

A crou~ .is. veryeffectlve against :1 ,C(!IUD~.er iglrute,r.. Get. d'omil. low ~ bob,lMdiweave:l but ,do· not~ead. H ,opponerrut does, ~otlead ~Sb~lilifas,t dT.ivi'n8boitbbands~n.f.1t. I~e ,mil itay ,~III!.

'FUNDAMENTALS OF JFiORM

Haw TO ,B,~x THlli 'r A'LI. Mill,N it.. Keep mGvru~.

2. Drlwa left lflad.

3. Smip, mth~ in:si.deguaTdpos~U_,.

4. (jomImenoelnigbUng,.

How t:Q,Box .A CRQIIJ·CBIR I. S~d)es~.. anOioo!ll:ll.terr.

2. ,step' ~nwitb a one-two to me diI~~ ..

.~ U ."!h~t. ~s. s cored •. fGllowup. Ut~e, b1ow.s a~e missed ... c~lnch.

(;i" -_.. _.. , '

H:ow mBox .A lAUD I. LI,l~'ruOIW.

2. Sl~p to ~hf! ~~s~dJe (If Gubide .!!::nrd po:sit~on ..

3. Co~n:te:rl!io~he oody.

,4. TIY to time a fight C~. 5:. Foree OQnMnllHl.ruruy .•

How " Box .It. ~~:S{lI(1'IH[!;'AWj'

I.Thln jllead~ ma'jre thei~~Q~at~pawn ecmeto you.

2. Ch',de~eft, away from dwe~ponefit's left hook.

3. U:sethe J~g~~,~afid to,~e fa<ee OtbOd!Yl str~jgbt QrhOGked!.

BOlw wBoo:: A SUJ',OOI!R

I.. Keep M(lvin:g~ !d!o:n'!t Jet the opponent get set. :2.. Attack. suddenly..

3.Uo<v,e! mI.ttmmedia.t.eIYJ don't $lug.

Tn Co'UNT.ERF::roH!~R

l.. Make himJ lead .. H possible.

2.. If he wo.nl't" do! what he e~ects and mUfi~erhis oou!!l!~e.I'. 3. Keep hiKiloff ba~a!mce by 3. wffiwh:hvindatt;\ck.

CHAPTER Xl!

T'l:Am'ING is Ollie 0'£ the most negleded. pbases o,f athletics. 1'00 mli!:~ time is, giveD to, the devemOpll'l'i3Dt of sk~~~ aDd too JiU:le to' the: development of the inm.vidualfor participation., The body ~s 'treated as if it, 'wm an oib:~ed and subject to' definiiterules and 'regulawti.ons.N othing oou'ld be further fIO'M the trut'h. Trra~n]Hig~ deals not w~th. ,anobject~ but 'with ·the hum!!.!il! spirit :.md .b~nla:n 'emo,tl,Olls,. III ta:k~s, ~n!te1led3i~d jlUdgment to, handle s,um deU~ate quaUtie'S, as these.,

Training is the psycholog~caland phys~o~.ogkal rCoiIidjtillmng ,oi£an individual pil:lfil<1dng '1)1 intel1se neural and! ~~~uitar rea:cthm. It iMplies, d:iSeipUne of' the mi~dI and p<lWle1"a:flld endultan'i:e of the body. It means, slltmU. I't is all these' iliJngs wo'rkw~g: together itt harmon.y.

Tr,a;ining means Rot only knowledge of the things, whlcl1 will build the body I' but also kfiOWied~ of the thll1~ wmcihwill teaf down 01' injure me oooy, Imp:roper training 'W~U ~esult 'il" injudes. 'Tm]n~ng then. is conoem-ed.with tWi 'Pftvention of inj~rl~s as we]l as jirst"a~d to :inju1"les.

I. CONDITIONING Ps,YCHOLOGI.CAL CONDH'roN

An .individuam. may' have 3111 the physical gifts possihl.&--6peoo" 00- ordinatlOP, and power. The body may be ready 1'O,r estreme eserdon, yet Ithe indi.v.idlual maybell> poor ,competitor. It is easytlO' prepare the body fol' a oontest i: it is diffi:cult to, prepare me mind" It is :oecessary 'to help ,eac:h individual discipline hils thinking, to betp bhn e.ontrol his emotions, ttl dispel fear and won)'.

II elI'" is one of the most imp(ldailllil cOlistd~aJUons, in SiitMet[c ,oo.ttdi,-, tio:!rlng. It is espedd.1y ;.~~rtant in b:1W'q. There III!r,e 1'llaD, ooyswho, are tiwdd" shy, af~ajd. They are ,alTaid ~Q' ]JQ:x., 'Th.gt are'airald ,o,f any aetivitY'inw'hieh there is any per5(lna~ OO'Ditact., m reaiIDwriy, they3!l'-e 'nnly afraid of' the idea of' being hud, :not of actually bei~g .b!urt. The task, is 'to' ,get _. to p:ro\lle this fact to them~lYes"

This type ,of boy :mustoot. ,eAter 'the riQg befo~e 'recei.vjing lcertam

HOW TO TRA1NFOR BOXING

101

pmtercti.v,e e.lde:noe$,. He sh(ndd have ,3> !!trron,g dei'eDse and some sue,cessfu •. boxitng experience.

CBr,e:fl.!li~ handUn,g from the beg~nnlng will develop $I!l!Ii",eness and confiden,oe~n the bo,y.s. They wUi6:ndout tbat[t 'Ih:les not hurt tlj, 'be hit. W.h~'l!I. ~h.~s st!l:~e :i1sreadlu~d~ fear js,fcr,goUen. The' preblem then is to keep these, boys, f~o:m 'be'ing en~~!i',ely reddess, ill tbJ.s new-found ,co'l1:fide~ce. Joys wfi:o staet 'out In tears from fear of ooxing, will, inside' of a, f'ewmonths,oo the most ~'ef andusually become the ~!!t. students in the class ..

_Mi.nd ,ctisci{)line--Condidoni:ng of any sort means discipline, dis", cipUne ,01 the wm~Qd tltrough the wiUJ the body.

Tfl1!Jining rules and habits are MiO,st uS-flul for their disciplinary 'value.

Dfu;c~p~~neiln cond~~iOl!ing means c~ea.tingan attimde, a mrndset

• 'wward a desired! end, 'The eflidresults 8t1erenUy the moot :impo:rt:~u'u, tF'ailllling only ·the ITI...e~M ttl 't~ 'imd. Di:sdpU~e is, the method.

If t:~, ~nd O\bffi~t fu rceaUy imp!)ttant ellJ;(lugil1, any nllesQ1rregutamioDs wjiIlJ! bt! f'Qllowed. It becomes increasingly important J then, to stress prooedufiliis wb~cb lead .no~ ,ooWy to p;r,oficient g,kiLl in box~ng'. but to dght attitudes OOld ha.ilbits, ,o.fht!alth and li:fe,.

T.Il',ainlRg should be made 11" stJf.ict ,disdpUoe. It wnJ require thin,gs whith seem diffu::U:ltl mermtenous, at'IJd dreary ... It w.i:U neoessitate givIng lllip many thrun,gsease~ 'comfort, and all forms of dbish;n;~Jt:ioo, It mkt'ls ,a~~!!!o~ [~cen,tiv,e to be ablebl enterce :suC:b an le'X!'Stenoe but hi SO dQiqg_~. boy is, gtftD a traili~in.~itl ool1ice'~trated ,efJQrrt towaJ:rd a goa'~ and - ink~~lm,g of tM priee ~ha,t iSreq)uired in. the att(iLinmel!1!t. ·(If ml,y goal. E,lLIii1d !i!p the end r,esult, sethat it Looms aoov,e all else in the mind of the boy, If' 'this, is doneoompteiely t them'ie can be built lnte that i~dividual .any type of health habj,t or MUtJud!e ,des~red.

PHnmLOQICAL CONDITION

.D,iel- TO'liI!Ilderstancl. diet :ls to understand nutrIt~on. Brie8y, nutriti\OliIJQ1eaM the pmeess ,oif dlg,e-st~on J absorpd.on, asswmihaHoD, heat ,iI:!I1Id ep,ergy :re~e~ the d:i:scM:,~J;i:ttg of' w,aste materiels, and fina.lly, the ftlb!i,d~dl~ng of the eell ,andJ~e soor.mg of 1m. escess of od~.food. .

Digestron is (be dte.ical and mec:hllfnical bRakdown of food. It stara io the. mouth through the action oi theteethaRd salivary juices. It is ooliliuoued in,t&,e: stomacb byth@ action of thl!: various,gasttic jiui'Cles,. the pyloric::miI!E ,and further ,aid!ed in the int,es.tineby the :pan~ c::reaUt jukes, ,and pe;risbdtic ,action.

BOXING

Dy this tin.e lle food is in, as~ate 'of I.iquld Icll.ymt:. In, ~is fO'milft is, passed fwm the intestine into theplasma of the blood throqb tne~ process of osmosis. As ,the plasma: bathes an the ,ccells 1)11 the body tb.ef:ood,~s ,~n~,ted directly by' the; ctrll. Tltece[i1, steres the: :foOO as fool until there is a: demand msde ~'P01!Ii it. En muserne lc:GntracUoH:, food is used~ beat~ water and ene!£gy 1~berated, ,!lind 'Was~e matmr 'dtNWn 'oi., Then the, demand, :(or :food is l'epealteciL

Protein, Miner,alsl, and water llife tissue b11l!~~ders and rebuild,en,.

OarIbohydirates :produce energy and li.bera~e he3lt. Fa,t is storoo in the bOOY' as, fall and 'used 'OID~Y i( there is ,a: lack o:~ !!:lJfboh~'ractes m 'l'he diet.. Excesslvoe:caI'ibQb.ydirates store in the booy as fat, Of a~1 ~e: f'lJ!oiJid elements, prot,ein, ~JoiJle" tannotbe s,toroo,.

Thus a diet for an, athlete Should be he:avyiin ~)1Iot.ehl!S and ~u!!!ar~ MId low in fi!l,ts" The u.rbobydrntes !l!ho!1il!~d 'exceed the p:1,'\'Ote~!il! t!il! the diet bya),mos:t thr,ee w one'.

The diet should be SQ, planned tha>t an ,1Ii~kaJinity of the' DSS!.re!l resuits. A. diet that prnd'u.t~, am excess o:~ add. ~s,hl;C'Q'n·,et,t b~cail!ise: albUni,ty tends to Increase: wind. and end.urance •• i\n aJ,thlete~preparimg fo.f competitiOn should eat~eafillleats~ .UkJ "'mit ad leafy vegela!b'u. Such ridlfoOOs IJJ$ 'Cifeatti;; ftied f'oOOs~ fat me.ae~rirm ,cake or Pasl~ sheuld be avoided, The suglU' co~~ell!t. ofthe~ diet-maybe' increased, during training Of jiust befOil'e: a contHt.

Ii!!! bQxipg~ OiriJID.!e~ juice N!!I!st berQ;t''E! a beut, ,o:rootWfi:D. OOtl,test:s may be used, Glucose cacndiy is beneficial if it CBln be obtained.

Waler-iS a most iHlpOrta!Ot iacto,~ in conditioning., Deh,.draUoD will :result. due to prnf'~se~ persp~rlil.tion itiJ:JJ~eed by' physicaru efirti0'.D. Waler shQumd. be used. freely botb. imide and Gut to repteDisiD that lost dU;ringil workout. However ,in ~l CiIISeS:; water sboui~d 'be taken. spar~ :iog~y tw'en.ty-i'OUl'hOUribe~oire a. co,nlte,s,t.

It is necessary tOI abstain f~om all, use of co«eii~" tea, and, ,akohollic beve:rage.s d:uring training .. Smoking should not be allowed.

The",e"'"mesj die.~ ffis~~portant., No f!ilOOI ,should be: t;a'kE:8, lailber tban fourhour:s befOre a eOllltes,t.,P,ood .iD. the SlwmadIJ at the time o,f the contest 'tends to cause nausea and indigesuou .. i

Food, that is e<atbi :shuld be lligb't 'bart, mGudsMq'.A amaH :pomon 'of slliojn steaik, Of' two sof:t;-'OOi!Jled or :poadJed. eggs" 01' twolbrmlied

ftDr • .lobo, ~ :l..ewII. II qUotedb)' '~ c~ WtlpaUi stali :n., .sJ~ Q"

SaiqlP. UQ. .

HOW TO TRA1N' Fo'RBOXING lOa

:~amlb ciops:! ,or a: $Illai.n, :!;iIIi::n11oD, 'Oil broUed chkke~~ with tw,o slices ,oif dry. was,t ,and a! ICUP, (IIi we!.U:. tea is ,aU that sibould be eaten, .

s'1't!,ep ,(lnd' "eluah1im~leep and re1axationb; as necessary to an at~e~e ,as eorrece di,et .01" spedaJ~ training. BO~.Dg, O'f any S~F!e~OOll:S aCIUvrity, bWieaks, down. the cells, ~ibe:ra,tes ]a~)tk acid un other waste products intolhe' blood, and uses st(lf1ed-up ,enerSy. Sleep WiS the period wh-:, nat~~ ~~lenlshes.An ;athle~eneeds it g~a:t deal or sleep, because .he IS; le'xeK~S~rig :s.tren.uouslyand because he is, usually young and grO:wmg.1

Sreeplesm~.may oceue be:f'ore or tdter a ~Qn~est. A. good book a. qJld~tmovie~ oo:ngeI!!i~ oompan.y~ with Ught d~~cussi:o:n and, laughter .allm beliP ~Ol reliCli~' tension. A hotfoot-bath, ora warm tub-hath 0' abeut bod!YlJii;mpl!il'~tll!lfle for fUt'IreR (If twenty minut:es ar~ ,eff,ecHve

• methodlS, o!( :re'~~ev~nginsomnia. .

A~ter .~ stre~UOU1li loon,t.estj a good ~Qaki~g ttl:b~bath Dot 'ORty dispels teP.!SlOOI but Wln tend to dissipate S.Qre:ne~ ff10m the muscles. :Fin a tub w~~ W,!!i~e!f ,~:O't rrlO,r;e than. ninety degflees Fahl'enhe:it. Empty into th~ ,ub three wi'Ve pounds (!if epsom sa:tt:s.~ Stay fifteen minutes, ormo,ng:er.

It is impoftantt,o r'ii'aJize the value 'ofi~leqUient rests dUJ.[ng the a!!:tlW!a;~. training :pew[·od. Not g!!!l]y is tbeinterest held, and. IY~nin~: hei.81b~efied, but effide-Ilcy is maintained longer .,~ ~

Blimination-:Pr,gper ,eJiminatioo. WI! ,e.ssential in the e,onditionin.,g .of ,3ilthmetes" A . ~et:bwn ~~habi.t ti_e" lSi of utrn~.t importance 00 r' .. ula~rity and should be stressed .. The plain; simple lUe of the ath1ete~ wholesome f,oodJP~eQty lo,f ,e;xell:cise, a;r'e CQ,ntrols in theln~elvles. AU that is needed :ilS tm ~[oe'ate a ,ba!bit. Cli!thMdcs are w,i;!akeni~alltd :I:f 'ta~en at an, shGuld. ng;tbe, takJen within two days, ,0.1 contest.

. &e"dses JM'c'f'mdililming-The greatest exerelse [lor oondi'Uoning: in boxing . is [Joadw'O'f'k. n ,a!llliltb~ete has UDe~'or o~ly ,a sin:g;e tr,ah'W~ng acUv:ity;, that activ.i,tysnoul,d be roadwork.. Running strengthens the bean,. the lung.!;, and the legs. Ttle heMt, will be-able 1.0 ,adjust to the ist~enJlJ:OH elie:rti~(!InJ ,tM :hlDgS will be better able to S'upp~y more oxygen ~f:ld me I.egs willW bel!:JetterabIDe to support the: bod.y during a bout. How far to ~UD ,omd how to run, .i,s the .questiQu. The long jo,g is 00

1 D~. '!iaJlef' ~~d),.u~,}tnute K. RD!;lW, Tr~l!!" Colldilhmlng tnld C11I'e fJfl"/~~ Madisoll. W~, ~i!J\:l~.p. ,82.

~. Saf~, tM~to, misetbe'tem::ptet"atVe'O!t tbe WIler a fe,w degrees,Therdore, do not

il5birt _tb t.lBW:I'b~r LoQ "WUIII. .

'>Co1\!ma.n ~, n, P~n 0:1 C'~I;,P. S;~.

BOXING

longer coOosidered .(I.r any value. Too much ener:8Y' is osedj it tea'rs, d.own rathe·f than builds,.

The new method. is that of uMDd sprints. I , Spdnt onebundred yards aDd then ·walk. one hWldroo. yards.. O:Hl~.~Rue' until ·the desiredl dista:noei:s covered, Start wUba qUaJ'fte:r mile and gradually ~ng'M.Se uMn a mile can be OQ~ed.. When sprtnHngJnJnvdth all possible ............:I

"l""~'

Many boxers fim~ it best to, rgnthe sameWeD~th of tilne as they win

bM!:t "sting' Ollt\! minU't,(j; ltu::tween runs, For insta1ilicE!" ~f :prepiild'lll!!:: for 'ltDxee" two-minute rounds, rua at top speed for two mliDiutes, then walk a Dnu:te·, R.~ajt. three times.

The asp.iti~g boxer must be Wll!de to re'alizet:hat eae'h part oi' his, b~YMU$t be e~e:reiged MId stren,gtbened. !.lS Hluch .aspososible.. The extensors of the ilIrms, the a'bdominaJImusdes;, and~ihe: n.ecIk.Musc1es 5hould r·ettliv(! special attent[.oD.

Tbe arms are usm. oontinrually.. They 'tir~ easily ~nl'e~~ E!ipedliny u·,ained. T.be·abd.on:dnaW regio,ui:s the ~'iH1!al"kn for which. (lJU bo·:xers, try and therefore weU-de;veloped mU5,c~es. !lire: essel!JJdat Th.e necit, m!!Qist 'k able to iiliSOf'b the shock o~ head brno,v,Tg,. ,/\ strongnsek Is a pr,otec,~](iD that should :not 'be ovedooked. The fo.llowing e:xerd&e!l a;re @spe.dally adapted forll1e' bm~er:

NE:CK ExE'RCISES

I. The Wf'eJtle;''s bridge-Take a SJup~ne' posidon (In the mllit. Fo.ld 'tM~arms 8(:mss, th.~ ,chest.. Bdng Ole legs w@:ruru up undermeath. the body. Norw usrngjust thB head aJnd ]!!!is as !';,upports,. rmse, the body dear of theR,oor. RoD b~k. on. the :forehead,. Repeat.

l!. The Jrlmt b"idg,o-Ta~e ~ pIIone positmaD. ,ond1e~ mat.P~aJ.ce~ the top O'f the head ·on tbe mat, 'Using the bead .. and. ~egs as s,upporitsi, 'bend the bOOy' ifo·rwafdi and. II.Iip. Repeat.

STOMACH ExERC1SES

I.. The. ,fi~ u~.A:ssume a supine pl)sition, bands o!ilitstre~c:bed 'o,ver the head.. Raise the trunk t~ a siUillgpllS'ittofll, men f(!l.l'c-e i.t ,dOwn. between UUl' legs.. .Repeat. Start wi,tIb. tt:!u lIepetitiom;, and WOI'.t up ·to twe:nty .• fi.Vie.

To inOf'dSer:esjst.aIu:li!!" f'o[dt:he, ams acw~ me chest. Suutlit ten repetitions and Wlort up '101 tw'en~ ... five.

lOS

For fu:rthe'l [,esistance~ use a.Wigh.t weight back of the neck. Start Wlt~ 'ben r.e't~UGns, aJ~d wor·k. up to twenty=nve"

.2.. 1'.ke ,leg rais,e-Assume a supine position. Raise tbe ~egs s~(I'wly uuultke:y ar;,e directly above tneeyes. Lower slowly. Repeat ten ~o twenty~iiv,e' t~R1Jes.

J,.Kne,estocnes:t-Assume a supine posidon, af.ms outstretched ,ov'er the ~ead. R.aisethe: knees to the ch.estwhi1e 'Ii1ri,ngincg htmds OlVertlO clasp th-e knees. Tenl!o hventy.-ftve dmes.

4. The j'ack~kmje-Take the suplae p(lsidon~ aems outstretched over the head, Sit up and bdng the arms ~r in an attempt to touch the taes as, they .a,l"!e raised off theIlJoo[.

5. The (l.ltemat,eleg "(lise~- Take the supine pos~~lon. Place dw handsl!mdet tbe bips~ pidms down.. lta;k'>e thil'l hJild and pin it to the b:r~ast~bCliie" lta~se thernegs alternat·e1y backand.~ofthas faslt ~sposs:ibl~. Afterfol"ty .repetitions have been reached, ~urne a s:~td~pos~Jtion, .a!iiid r'~t.

,6. The tlo:uble leg' ,circle Take the s.up~ne posit-ion. Holding both ~eg:s tog,~th~r circle them litst to the right,. then to the left .. Make a oQmpJ,e~e~ drclej low ;and wide. StaJrt flve tilti.es one 'WaJY, then fly,!! lWrReS the other 'Way... Pf;!!,lctioe und~ the ex,e:rcise can be per~;owm~d t.we~ty times each w.ay.

ABMI'x:UC:m&ES

I.The~rkepsMusde of tll@ arm. is the main extensor muscle of' the arM. One of the best ex·e:rds-es to deviflop,iliat muscle is the (~push U(l1'~ :from tbe floor. Assume the prOM pi:l'Si:tion, bands flat on the HOOf, sho"dder~width apart. KeepiP!!l: the body in a str.a~gbt Ho.e~ s.tralghte~ the ,arms out, raising the, body ll(iffi the £I,oot'. Do Rot let the bod.ysag. Repeal as m.al1!Y times as possible.

Staleness-:is she result 01 ov·e.two:rk and neural Iatigue,' La'ckQf pep,Usde:ssness,no in.ter,est or entlmslasm, and irdtabiUty all are ev[den~ :s:igns. Loss of wejgbt is the best objectiye 'Sign. There ws only oae remedy;. oo.,ple~e fJest and chAnge. If you fee~ stale stay a way .from.pr.a:cti,re unm you. reaUy i@lel 1ikie w,orking.

U. SPECIALIZED TJRAINING

Specialized tmini'DS consists '0" those activities wbkh deal with the actual p~, of' learnmg 'boxing .s:kitls, ,ot ~btahi!~fIJ.g bol:ing CQndii1ion.

~. M,cmwell. VI Qt .• Po 61. -

106

BOXING

~ weiglds--al:e vai.h.~aIl1e as a pbysiologkalj'!warm..;up" period!.

It is a time, too; w'hena:Jt:lent.Wn is rUlifl'OWled ,and Cio~c:entra~ed, The weights should Ibeused 10' 1(l!OSeD and stretchal' tOe musdeso~.the body. Wor:k on tb.e weigbls shuuld be method~cal. JExe:n;::i:se fadn,g the puUeys and wIth, 'the' back. toward ~e pulleys .. ShadJ;!llw~bo(1(~f1 both plsitiODS. Work .fast and smooth. so' tha.t the we,ights do Dolt jerk. Work Wgm-ousIy., Kee:pt'he c.h]n dow:n. Work according ~o rounds" with a mill!Wt:e rest between.

Rope' dtpping~js e~edany good fOI!; the fee'll' a-nkles, 3ind,fep" It is a fair developer of ~~ind.'~ due to the [act that big: muscles ,of the bOOy i:fE! eaUed into actioiJ" T,oo, Dill11lch, m,e sk~ppil1g tends, to t.e'use ii. .... ~ ·~'t.~.1..1 .. ' ·1 - J'-- .,--- - --- und tho 'e'n rest .. minute Contiol!l'e

'~, ~w.uef 'muse es. . amp' oille rn nUj' ' '.' _ ... ~ .... _, __ , __ . • ''., _'c c ",-,',

The light Hg"- -hillS llttle useE" a boxer"s, louUne. It ~ :impos:sible to, bilt a, light. bfitg 'CQl'J~Uy a:niI tbereiO'fe tends to d.evemof bad hittlf!:g Pibits., It is little ('lid in me dieV'elopmellt of timing as it is, am.Qst entirely a :matter dfthythm". Wort on the Wigbtbii:8 wiwm str;engthen thebitltio,!!:: mJlW::'~es oftH sbo,u~ders and arms and has Sl;une vaWue :tn developing a ]e~t jab and Lll s~Qr~e:njng a:, sUaight i:ws:bt lead. HOlW'-, everJ the blows shoal,dbe: p.ractked indiv.id'uallYI DO't. .lin th~i£hfil.

TAe: h~!lvy bag~i.svaluablein the early trabl~ng (ilf ,abo~e:r. The primary purpose: (iif~h'e'arvy bag~s the ,dlt!:\i'IC'lopmefJI,t of mttin!!l:-power" and. the strengthening ()If the h~!ilds" wrists, and. arms,

A definite t'''Qutine 'of blows sbol!ll~d be used, P:ractke each bmo,w for fotm;ibeD l'Of power. Pedect o,:!:!eb'lolW' ,all. a time be/lore pr,oceeding~ol another.

TIlt hands should be wen protected when using the hea.vy bag. To-

. WlM 'I!lu:!l :ftroa1 stages, of UMH'iqJ the he.a"'Y bag :moWd not be '1iWld.

There IS 'kJo much danger of injury to the ~a!ndS", ,Wid it teoo,~o,red!U(le

.. ~ ,"

"1"'" ..... reaction.

,Slnzdour-~e;Jin~is, the best m.ethod ,(lif ,!licq,lldd~!!:: oorrmot fOrM.

Sbad.ow-IooxinS should. be used to perfootbo.lh!g skill It tucll-es rJing movement, bitting sequence, speed,. and :reta:xatio.n. Eacb blow should be p:racticed. udpedected be£io'I!e gO'~q OQ iQ' anoth.er" It Is,be:st to shad.ow"box in il:ll)nt of'a min,m: so that the: movem.ents- can ~, W'atded! for oorrect f'Oml.· Once :formis ·Obtained, greater :speed and paw,er wul(il. be the ann.

,shado:w-boxi.'q; shouIld. be: .~. ~o h8!mtuMe ea.cn new techB'i:<I!1!m given :in J. Ie_n. Sbadow.J)ox alU)P:lin,g to, roWl.~" 1)08.'1. loaf:. MOve, ~Ubemtely m~ ·outt, ,and atOu~. Pun.th, :hard alJi'M ~. time. PJiaoeadi,

HOW TO TRAIN' FlOR BOXING 1007

round befor·e .aU.e:~ti.tlg~o, sbado,w':boiX. Thcen follow the plan. Other than ac~uajl boxing, i.t is the most important technique in the acquisition ofbO!lUn,g s.knt

B,a~.ng-The best pra~~iQe to learn how to box is boxing. During ,an adI1!l:Bi~. found Q~ boxing work. toward. seme 'd'efin~te objecti,ve:. Don1t 'ever box just to beboxin:g .. NeV1e:r iI,Jay OT ~ifool around}" Stop as, ~oon

illS fiilltlgue sets ~D. '

'Box,wltbaN~ t,pes 'of ~nd:lvid~aJls~ tall, sho:rt,.stow, and l'asl. Ti.m~ng and judgMent of distanoe ,ca.n.onIDy be developed throug;hactual boxing.

n Ox ,aoool'd!~ng to iii :Slllt number of rounds, alw;ay:s resting one minute b@tweefDi fo,undls. Try to learn som,etbirl;g from each, 'man boxed!. Two or three' times lit welllk 1S enotligb actual boxing, SpeJld the rest Oif the UI:I1e pedecdng skwUs.

1\l'liIadwerk-:A few ,of the pil',i~dp~e.s o-~ [oa:dwork. a:r'e; I . R.un the sameaumber ,of rounds as will be' boxed!.

2'. If !ill thr·ee~rou1id bout is being prepared r'OI and the rounds are to be~womjn.utes in le:o:gth, run two, .minutes at ~.Qp' speed, then wa~k 3.liliim:ute. Continue three times.

3. As whul and ,enduF,an<:e improv;e, try 't,owncre.a:~e the: distatu:;·e Ico,v,e:red. wn the :sarme l'e'!l~ of time.

4. W'ben.statUn..g ~o tr.aiin, liUn ,e'v,e'l'Y ,day.. Ii inoon.dition,. three tim·es a week :~s ,enoUlgb.,p(\~ferably on 'off~training days.

.5. Dress w,armly. R~n with, the hands, high.. Dud~g themmute o'f rest, ~~p 5,wingingthe aems,

6. Run inth~ mOi1'n~ng if p(15si:b:te. ,R,ememtber, wind~sprints I'["e bes1t.

V,y.i'ng Qut-~!iabstine~ce from Uqu:ildsf,or a period 0-( twe:n.ty~,fO'li:r hours befo.re a bout. It ~sn'ot a met.h.oo of lI'making weight." It is used to i~c.rea'M!l speed and endurance. A pound or so of weigb:t will be lost int'be proeess ;bwt. that is .incidental and. Dot the reason. Physiologi~ CilUy J d'lying '(lut. is inciileased ~o·nizat:ion of th-: body which means ~ncr,~sed elactrie ,oonduct[on (!If nerv,o~s e-nergy. Tbebody is likfa s~olll!ell:la~tefY. It must have water to operate. In the body. as~n the baUery, there is a Irertai1i possible iopizatioon. Up to a degree, the ~ess, waU!r ~ theg,rte:a.~e;r the :lon~zati,on. The result is an increas-e inenduran(et power" , .. ttl. ~d.

n~s ad.llisahl\eif'or aU athletes, to ,abstamfrom Hquids twenty-four :b.ours, hefO:fe a c·ont.est. Thirst 'may be :retiev·ed 'by ?;I,lI's'bing 'the mouth

BOXING

lOut" 0'1' by sucking a lelmon. N 9 ~ctua1 :Uquidl should be takien f!rlo. the Wne the drying out process st~ds uDin 4Jeer the Icontest.

Makin,g we:i:gDt by the process (I,f d~bydrn:tion is not a des:ir:able procOO.ul\e in any spod. Every :peJoonhas ,31 natuf;21ffi weigbt ~OJ best :per,io:r,manee. 1I'i:rls,weig'tilit cllin be'n\aciu,d fbroog;h r'elular conditLO'!i!ihtg methods,. Awe[gJ.I~ other than that whkh[s rJjaJtll!liral is detrimeotruto, a boy's health .. d sboll!lild not be aUowed. It defeats tbe whGle' educationa! P!;U1KI:5C! of the ,activity. It is the game t~at _ is, i.pruport;ant"Rot tDe'w1nrungJ and the individual. rather tban the aC'tivID~y, ther'ef;Qr,e' be surethlrt every boy lI!Iinderst.ands the purpose' Olr dehydration.

Tile WOTlt~OuJ ,,,o'cedur,~ The boxing wa,fk.out is, an individual matter) ,and should be gov,ernoo by (;ondwt~on ,and needs. Endur~te :shouJd 'be strnsSo@d in training iQ,rb1l,g bout's. In conte-sts o'f 'shQrt dUI!!Itioll!, spoeed is of Ulie:most hnpo:rtanoe.

lad wor:lt-out should ,~e @n~e:red 11:1.10 wIth a Pll!lif;PG',s.e. n S'~'Q;witd H: planned beforehand, w~t'h a .specilc iAtleaJ iill m~nd. nu.dng the wO'rk-o-ul" work at fun speed! and when d~dJ ~tQP.. Always stop when ~ee~~q' fresh and desiring more. n '(!!.tiguedbefo!te the' scheduled tim.I!', ~J!!01J) anywa,y.. Skip a d8i¥' i~ feeling ]o,w and tired. F'a.tigue eausescareless work" and. thfl~fon1l the fonna'~o,n of bad habits. It is dudng these tim'f$, thal. accidents oeeur, Always work 'out aCjoo:rdwng: to g;ccurate:]y~ tim.ed rounds. Relax d'uri.ng the mhllu~e f;fs;t.

,j GENERAL WORK·OUtPlI:OGl:l:AM:

Roondil Warm up on, the pu'~~ey wejghts. RoUQd. 2~kiprope.

Round ,3-Work on. the beavy bag'. Round. 4-Bo~.

RQund 5~badow box. Round 6--Ca:nstbe-nics.

The totaJi time 'flO!' the work-(lutis ,!July ,eighteen min~tes,. 'V.ark Hit

~*' -- - -

top speed ruU the time. T_e a mn,o:t ,SMWe1." wlil~~e s,mI persp~J.~~.

So w~eks :should be, altotW-M to .!!:~~. imlw (londliJt.i.olI for a .matiC'h. Twe first two ·w~b sb.ould, be d.evQt~ to ge~1:il'all condm,ti,ooing, m.alin1y ~oa:dJ.. work, and, calisthenics. The. last four weeks sll{)"uld be speDt.~D s·pedal~' :ize,d, wor~-outs,. .At no time should m.m:e than one hOlllJ;'~maJ WOIrJ'dng tim.e be; ~t in ,I, :gynm.ium.

HOW TO TRA1N FOR BOXING 109

,3rd w.rek-Spend C(lns:iidleJ,a,bte time on. the 'beavy bag working for

. power, Some bo.xmng sholldd be dose.

,41th w<eek-Form should be stressed through sb2idlow~OOxing. Boxing shouildl. be ffincrea.s.ed ..

5:~hl!lo'"eek-'BoiXing should. be stressed a~~.h()l'ug,h, a lot O'f 'shadO"~box-' ing sho~~dbe used, Taper ort~rQm heavy bag~work..

6th. weet-Shadow-bo,Ni~g for speed is DQlW hnporta:nt. .F:I,oxlng should be disOQntinu@d .. The heavy bag should nGt be used. :R!est at least OI1!i1l day before the contest,

Ill. THE PREVENTION OF INJURIES

There have been ma:ny Qb ject[ons ra~sed ;a:gahlst boXing but perbaps the :fof!emost ~s that boxing is a ,dan;ge:ro:us spod.

lP'e(ip~e in actual co~tact with the :SpOCl't know d:tatU: is_ po~ danger ..

Q:us.Perha,s an IDceaslo~!l] ~p!rained tffiliu:mbl a, black ey,e1a broken. noSii'!\ a spUt UPI ,or 8, chipped or broken tooth; but no perma:~ent ~car'S, or injuries. The i.n~urtes tbat do OCCU.f are minor and are not serlous. .

Frank Ll(l,yd I George Dea¥l!:t J and Floyd .Eastwood. in their study o.n saf,ety I. f·ound boxing to be an activi:ty of mlnimum hazard,_ lnhigh sdlooID with an incidence of '~e-5S than one aa;~dle~nt per thousand epportJUDi~ies. In ooUege,~~e incidence of ,acdd,ents increased to 4.6 ()elt thousand o;pporttllnit~es. In. a UsUn,g of sports alcoording to ]ndden~ of ,acddi'::n~s oolthlg was s;evlenth~ with football, horse p<llo, wresUi.ng, lacrosse, soccer and. (flew more hazardous,

Teetbinjudes were tbe~'ost Si!dous with sp:rnil:t!l of d~e armsand hl:linds~:xiU: in 'order of frequency. That injuries in boxing are of a miinorna~ure' is borne out in- the listing 01 activities according to days logt from scboo~pert:h.ousatldexpoou.:res. BoxiD\g is llsted tenth with 3 .. '9 days, lost, with on~y lacrosse, baseball, and tumbling having: a. bener reeerd,

The study i.ndiicat,es that ,a·cddents in a,thletics are low generally in oo:mp:ar[son w~th o:U],ler fiekl:s,,~and that merely staying at home is MO[16 .billzardcus Ula~ paJ~:tkipatio:n .in~t~Letiu+ 9 Witb boxing listed as hasardO!Jl~, if!i'!! a Mstcrutlg tha~ Includes highlyh'llZllrdo.us and ~ry hazardo'1ims~ and

1 Fnmk: S. Lloyd" 'Gem:se< Deaver, and Floyd Eastwood, Saj'ety i'n A~J.ilt!ttJcs, Tki:' Pre~&1I'li{m and' rr.eillme:n.i 0:/ Ath!'ttic injuries. NeW' Yo'r.k: Saminers 3:1l.dCompany. H)i;l·',P. 8'1.

= Ibid., p.. at. a L-QI::. tU..

IJ o.Mldicsin. gtnet'tU ,if, ks.$ MrtwdoUf IJfansta,;rin<gatItQme~theu! surely boxing is a safe l8~lft for ~' boy.

Ill~l!Iiri:es :in boxing are d~e: mah:!!~ylt>o,~~a:dI@!),1iJ!3iJt.~ leaders:hip~ wlhik:b indludes poor offidal,ting, supervffision,3ifid. oOJ1ldJit~Qmng"gd! to~m.(U'OJJer equjPim.~·~t.]

EQmPMENI' AND .F ACH.IIIES

8pa:ee-Space, :fiorii:mxing sh.ould be .larg~en~ughoo ~!tl!i r;ffing ma:y be ,erectedi liIiIld sw::h ap;ptiiltu8 ash:eavy and Mgbt bags~p~l~e.fSJ e~~ dsem.ats and free ~en::~se Spliil~ sllOil.dd. be [Mb,~ci)ed.T!b:eroom sh!),u~d be :free froM o:bs~rw::~ruonstand. sJ:U:Ji1:dd.be w~ll .ng;b~d and 'VenUla~ed. The Door should be woodJen. and ifpossiibl-e oov~r~d W'i~ an in.ch. o:f beaver board over whidl ,ill hearvy canvas ~o!V'er.in!il s!h:oijj~dbe drawn" The pasts oftle, rffing 8b0'uldbe at rueas:t f~gllill~een~~thes outs:i:d.e ~he :riDgJ and, preferably padded!.Tb.e rO]:)e.5 sil1O!"ltd be 3D .. ~~t:b :~~ diame'OOr and, 'wi!:'a!pped so as,~o prevent rope b1!lir.tIiS. Thehea,vyb~!!: should be &t!tachedwith a short }lJ:aJVY tbainto pmvemw~. tQl1) mJ!l!:cb [5,win:g..Th.e mats and prulleys shQuld be out of~!nIe way a]]dn~~ wher,e they wl111 :iill!tcerfere wItb. die oo~e1's.

1Itmd F'OI'e~lhm The' .bMlm.a:o Mud was Dot made£o[~ldking.. It w,as made for 8r~ptng. lIt ~s thefefOl'ellI1loIuD.t~Q lmowtlli:!,e (jol"red ~tbod o:f hitting Uhand. j]~urywsro b!!.pr~Vielil!U:d. M.anyhand ~~jU!f,~~may be :pr,ev,ented.~wugh w.r'3l.ppiq or bai]lJ:da;gine; the bands,

H'aIidWl'aJpp:~~ i:s MI. ,a!rt. It .~s based. upon koow~~ '(l,fh.d a:nato:ll'IY.. The Wtnd (:onsists of tw,en!ty~sevenboillle!l,~f~urt~e'Q benes fllrMing the fingers, and Ihumb~ a~d caned pibalanges..Th€': H.ve bo~es, forming .tlI.e. back ~f the ha!!J!d are taUed! m.etacar~<rl. bQnes..The ,eigbt w:r1st bones are the c8!rpal bones, 'JhewhoJ.e idea of ba:nAaging is toprtl'Venlt the bQnes 'o'f~be .hand from spl:-,eilld~fJlgi, t(l p!Totect the-big butt Ie of' thethu~b,. and ~o siupport th~ wdst.· - -

Injury May result f'!J',o!ll! imp:r:ope:r bandagJng (If the llirIa!~dt so' unless the hand is wrapped: oorree,tly, it :\s,hetter tn Itl3Jve ituDiwrap;ped.

. The:. best·P([\O~.ecti.on. fov-thehMld i.sobtainoo bymoiog a ten-yard. 11011 oftwo .. hlcl:l. gauze ..

·The bafidage nm:st not shull. off ciroMi~aU.cl'il. Ha:ve the ~~ close theh2fidl ~rat times whlleb3!!l!;daging. N e~:r bandage' thrc'Il.Sb.me fU:\gers".as lbb :sptea&.tbe il»nes a~d thus def'ea,ts~e whle p~ of the. bandage:.

11Md.,p,. 3S.

HI

.P'O!l' t!l'iilJinrung fJl!a!~Sj' ,cmva:s or lieU bandages may be obtahwd at <limy athlet~c: :so,pruyho!limse·, Theyc:anbe'l.I:St\doo:nstant1y anda:re meee ecooGM~cal than Il,l:aullebaedage.

In punching the Hgbt bag, l(g~t g~oV!€s should bewernto p[!(lv'Illnt !iiJd:lln~~gthehud::~es. Hea.vy t\;Ia~fJI~ng gloves should. be Wijrn while 1P:!'lJ:!I:;'b!ing~he .he<L\r'Y b!<l!g.

,GlQve:f-Hea.vy fQruUoon-otlIIOf! g~ov~s s~onM be used fO'r all traiD~ l~pijj~GS~::s.. The klnd w.~[h all ,e~as,tk band ail:, ~.he wrist. is pn'lferable t.o' thQliil:!; w~~h Iaees, T~y f.1ciUtat@ adm]n]s~[adon and ,e1bnina.te .il,i ,l,xunMlijn ca:use o£ ,eye ioj1iJ!ry ..

If .gmoll\1'eswith lacesar~uSl!lld~ ifiSltead of tyiDga~. th.ewristJ ha.ve thre ~t~de~t1i. ,ffia;.oe' me laces in. the palms of the~a[\rds and hold inside oi t~eglov~s .. Cut off allmeta,l t:ips.

G~o,ves should b~, dea:ned.MrC~ time after using. Use ai, damp ,clQrth ~~d $addle ~Oa!p. 'Then~a:ng them uiP' to ,o;ry.

Wl!!.te~ ,car~~u~~y iQr:f [~p:s and wars inU:lt'lg]ov'~, ,or a bunching and breakffing ,of t~.e padding. D.i5.ta~d s~ch, .gruov,es [mm~ja:tely.

Special'gJoViIlS. should bewum:l.shedfottb!l! heavy bag, and Ught. .!il~oves ['ijr the l:i:gl:l:t bag.

']',e,dh: and lip p,to~etllon-- Th~nliost frequ.ent Inju:fies ar~ chipped ~.eem aDd. cu:t~~ps. Us~ng ,a;rubbe:r mouth~:Jiooewm pllE!V'€nt Ill'!: maJority ~~ s~ch~njiu:ries. InsisiI: t~aJt 'Il'ac~. student purehase and use aile. Th.ey ~a'y 'be ,gbtain~d at a nOM[~a~ prioe fro:m an;y sp:lil:t~n:g goOOss~o're •.

PladngvaseUn.e b~t:W~H ~he ~IPS alld~eeth~ bOU1U!NlEfl' and.~o'wer ffia:w,bJIilIDps tiO p:tlWet'liti!njmy.

Ear and eye #otetUo~Bath ilif.eopeo ~o [fijmy. S~c:h.~njul.'jes can be pre'>'ent.red by head h~lm.ets'Wh]chooverwll. ears~~ebelya~d which ,c~me wen dUWH O<Vie.r the f(lreh~ad. If sueh a hehnret is used. the eaJr!l;~d! ,eye~njtJrjeswUlma:WIr.ia~Wy decrease,

P'r()ter,tion oJ the .$,~ro.tum.~AlU.filin~m p:rntec1tl.oD. ,cups slndd be wont at all times, A d!e,fI:ected blow, a,n aocidentally raised knee are the ha~rd!s ~ha:t!IJ~e ,tb~s emimi[fIjEl~ed •

The' lee~WeU.;llU[ng~ soft·so'ed sboos s:houhl be worn. MQw:mflillt is f,ad~itated8i[!T!d! ~Upping p:reve:nwd. Use pJenLy efresin and keep wa~e:r off ·the. flOOlrorr CilJRVa:s.. Wh;~ewool socks slrn.ould be wQrn, l.eladt1,s,hi~ The mQsilim~odant (lonshi!er.a"ti~n in the prevention. 'oi inJU!I'.~es.~s adequate leader.smp .. Wi~ho,ultrneill!dershi!p f.adlities(lnd. equipment ate nlIeanjngle~s.

Im,t'uc:lii~ The insttilJ!ct'(lr should be albme~,o teach :a:t least me

1.12

BOXING

rninimmn fundamentals, "'fboxing. 'Hnlless an instructor has <I. basic knowledge of :fu:ndamental skiUs J boocing should not be anowed.. An instrudo:r sJl(!luJdal~ow only those wbohave instruction ~fII il:uRlJa~ men.tals to bos,

C6.fl:ditiqninr- An i:DS,U~C:tof should m~ke: sure that ,e'V1e:ry bGl1 who pa:rth;::ipat~, in bQXl~ ~s in good pb.yskal cenditten, The first feq;ijj~S~~e sib.ou.ld:be a. m.edica~ examinatieu, wit~a perMit 1'01[, every pa;rtidpa1l.t on file in the Qffict!. Tillis can be either ~ [,eguJar examinadon. ,or a ,special o'ne. No ~y who, hiil\S, not passeda medicaW. examina,dQlDsbould be allowed.'!> oo:x. A medkal permit means that the ood,y is 'o:rg~ulically sound. Beswdes th~s a'n ~DstrYCUQ:!1I aDd conditioning prQgnun should. be follow.ed. !lnli~n the boy ~ pbysk~ny able to sustain 'el'QlLt 8'nd R5:lSt faU~e.

SA:p'~si(l!W-:EveI'Y instructor w!:IiJ:~~y on the lIi!i.e~s ci!l!l:',e~~ltJo :SU(le:rv~se any activity :tW '\1i"M.chbazard is p~S'€~~. Bomg, 'Iw~ea~y olht:r SPOrtl causesna tro~b:fe~f properly .su:perv~Hd. OmliWy w~en oo~ffi~g is earrled Oil wi,tho1lll,t s,upe:rv.ision is diffit]jJ~ty lntcolillintered.

Theofftdals Eachl boy who enters ,atHletic {iompeUtion. ~s enititled, to (Q~te,nt oificiadpg_ TMs is HOlt aWways the ease In bo;dng .. AnYiOBe: who is wUliQg to officiate :seems to be chosen.. Th'i's is UDf!1~l' to the boys. Officials should be selected not only for the~f kn,ow]edge of boxin-8 technique and rules, but far th,e:ll' knowledge and. undei!"standing 0" boys.

Th-e rejer'e-e

I:. Must be oil man considerate,. s.ymp!fl1ili.etic"a;nd in:teil:,es~.oo, h]] bo,ys" A good Sti:lSe .of humor is important,

.2:. Must. Iia\le Ulti abiWjty to conko~ hEmseU l.lit all Umes~f he is ~o 'have ron~l\orn of the ring.

3. Must know his own powel.s .. H.e should le~cute b~siull IKlwe~s but De¥et exceed them.

4. ShO!!lifd know the history ofboxin!.!:', the dev,eJopm9~. of ~he ii"l!I'les; and. tlu~ partitula~rules under wWclwhe: is, oifidatilq .. :His .know~.ed.ge ,of rules should i:Dd!I!J~' anl8i!teu:r, m.teKoUegWalte"am1.dpil:~fiessiooal. (Fr,o:fe~al rules vaI'yin. ,each. stllte.)

S. Sbould, abide, ~ the rules, a.~ ali1 ti:r:nes and. Rot, ma:tJ.e up ~e: rules,. ,6. Should. b'Ow' who is winning ,at d. titn.es- and be (,eady ~o' give his decision instafidy.

'1" Must. be imparual,but fiI.Dl inbiis decision.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR. BOXING

U3

,8. )'1.ust .k,eep his hands ,off the bexers and his only words. to the -'tes ..... n~s h lid .... - i{·I'r.·~·h·t " (I.c ........ " and '(b .... ak n

1000 .' 1!;"1lI! ;1111:._ s· OUIli. ~ .LI\fS I. -:. ~""V,t"';1 ~~,l.ILJ· -, - II.I![;iO •

'9. Ml:Iist know w'ben to seep a bout and sbOldd always stop, it too SOOID .• ra!il:h:er than too late.

I e, S~outd d"ID~k 011 the dng 8[1;0. ringequrupment befo]\e the start ,of the matches. He sb.ouJd aseertain if all other' offieLils 8rerready. n.. Must no't officia:~e more', ~an ten boots at on~ time .. To de so means ~mp'air:ment of j!!,!:dgnlJiilnt..

12. Showd havea w,orking knowledge of first-aid.

.Tie jJ.d,ges

.~. Should know the skills and techniques of l:xfdn..g.

s, Shedd know the rules and the infractions 0'£ the rules ..

.3. S~o1dd be fam~~]ar w[~h the oochn~que of sooring a, bout. 4;. Should. add. '~p .e SCQ:i1e at the end o~ ,earl:1lo~nd ..

5. Should. not be influeneed by the crowd O'I by last-round rallles,

6. Shou]d Hot j!;!:dgemore than fU~cen consecutive bouts.

T'he limd'leeper

L Must keep one ey,e on the bout and one e:ylc on the watch, ,2. :Should be IPeady '{Iopickup the count ,on any knockdowns.

The s,(u;()'nas

I . Sll.ould k~ow boo:ingin ,a:m[ts varieus phases. 2. Sbould be sympatneti£ .in nature.

,3,; Sho1l1dhave a, working knowtedg:e of fi:rst~a[d and a kit consisting I}~:

Ill. Wab!f pail, w~tb hand s-ponge...-to dean boxer.

b, ehopped ice and ice w,ate'r-to stimulate dl!',tumatio:n. Coo water boUle--tQrmse mouth.

d.~oWJe~s-;to' w~pe' and dry boxer.

e. :SIilelU~ salts~hl! dear the' head •.

f.. MO;P' watd!'--to time therounds.

g. ,a~omatic spirits iji£ am'l'flo,nia-oo seUle~ne stomach, h.mtenalin chloride % ,0.0 (I solut1onr-to stop bleedIng. t1:011odion .. -·'1o p:lac_c over old cuts ..

j. swab siticks-to dean a icut(ll' plug the' nose. :k. su![',I!:~alID scW,ors-to cut tape 'or ban.da~.

BOX[NG

4. Should stay on the outs~de ,of the ring with ,oniIY his :b@<lidl through. They should be :r,e<ady to he~p theboxet wl'leo be 'comes back to the comer. First., try b:! niLa:x the bo,xer on the s,tooL Place his hands in his, lap. WipebiM off w~th. a dry tow~m, uiiTIg water only if necessary. DOi!l't ghre bim.amllY water to drink unless heasks for it. Haveh[m. breat~e: deep~y. Don't talk Wi the boxer until the last twenty s~o!)jds.. Then give simple but specific instructions. Keep the' voice low aindemph:a:si~e one thing. Keep repea,ting: the mstrudionsuntilll tbe' bell rings,. Then he~p h[m oilJ the s,tootAt: the end orf the last lIoand wipe the boy off" and help him put onbis robe.

IV. FIRST AID TREATMENT OF INJURJ[ES ~.~. ~

It is very essentlal for dle,boll!ier r trmner or ~nsh'uotor bl' k~ow w~at inju:r.ies are most Ukely to oecnrand h.(I,W to ,admh:!~ste:r fifst-i1:~d whelll necessary.

STIFFN.US

Results from severe and pro]on~d ~xerdse whicbc.auses f!'!!tigue prodUcts to accl.unu'~ii.te In the b~(lod. To re~~ev'e sMln@$st lllike a warm tub bili~h with the water aboil.li~ 90 deg[l@e$ Fa.h.renhe~t .. Pla.oefwm three b) five potl:nds of epsom salts in. ~he tub. Soak£:Oil' twe~~y milnutes ... A

Hght mas:!lag,t! is also good ~O' reltev,e SO'Ie m~scles. .

S~RA.m'S

01 the thu-mli-ar,e: caused by blows to the end or s,ide of the thumb., Usuany there is some swe1Ung and a du~] aclJing pain wh~cb ws mused by the ruptured capnJade:s and. the teen ngiilmeni!:S, wh~ch in tum. caase a small hemorrhage. :F~rst stop the effusion. l\pp'~y a oolIlpl\essffioo. bandage, Then. apply lee or c:.old appUca,tioflls.. A,s soon as effus~oJ1l is stopped, a!ll!ll~Y hea.t......{lry, moist, O't ,d[auUi:e.f_al. The tbuMib sho~!li~d f'hien be pretected aJ8:ainst funher i.n.]bl:ry by b{lJDdaJ~Dg. CJill'ot:iInue healt awd massage ~!D.ti1 .~'Blled"

Of the slw'ilU'er 6; :JtWdel-toid litlf'Slle--1Jsualt'y cawed by ll'auma, 0:1'

~ Ll.oyd., ,op.. ,ii'., JIll.. 213-33,(1.

2 Samueli miik:, ThfJ Trainers! S·ibk. New York: Athletic 'FE-8nm SuPPb' f:ompany, 19:1.11, pp. I1-2U ..

a Meanwen. 0'1 "iI., pp, 3!rJ,:5'4.

HOW TO TRAIN FOR. BOXING

lIS

8tra~n '0'£ the S'ubaC,f"om~cal bursae.1 The pain .is usuaDy :r,ound in. 'the 'leU. shouI!die:rand~s the gnawing kind which seems '~O burrow right into· the bone. P,ain is 'inc:reasedwith 'nlovement. Treatnlent consists 'Qfhea't~ massag,e'; _d passiV\e eserclse, .

IDH:IJOCAT-IONS

O'f the elt:umb-may result from boxing contest. Ligam.en.ts, are inju~tid~ nerves tom and capmad~, ruptured, There is usllllal!Wy' some deformity ,pain,and ~wel.ing. GtaSip the thumb with the rightha:nd ,and puU, pl\essin:g the d~sl,ocated bone back into plaoe with, the meft :hand. Then treat as a. ijlr'idn.. Plac,e in. cold water or 'env,er wIth itt packs, T.benext d:a,y apply heat and !JIJ1!.Ss8igll!. Th.en bandage. Start bru:id~n,g' t1!te joint the second d,ay to pfevent adbe;sio;L'lS. CI)Dtin!iU~ until Do:rmalir~y is re,g,a:i~ed"

WOUNDS

EyeeuAs-afe very common, bo:xingi:nJudes! and are due to blows on the ~yelb[iows. }\pply a few' drops of % g,g (I solution of adrenalin chloride with an, eye dJlopper~o stop bleeding. MQn~~ powder 'Ol' ~ron ,chlorlde",ill 'COO;!!iul!l~eb~Qod. but s.houEd be used ,onWy by expert ha:ndl1ers. As SOO1I, as possible I'cfer tbe boxer to a ph!ysidan;

S pUt li~s lcaused by ,a b[QW on the 'np which farces the soh~ tissue .q:aj:nst the tee'tlit. Sa:tlU:ra.te ,a. pad 'of OOUOD. :~n ,adren.aUn and place it fileJtt to ~~e (:u~'" Pms'Slll'e 0'( the lipOID, .e ,!;l!!llm win stop th.e ·bteed:i.ng. Wa:tdi!J c1ose,lyfor Infectionail1id i.f the cut is deep, send the boxer to a physician.

Bruises and'obr4MM-are caused by blows which r'i!move tbe top laye[ of skin and which to some degree damage underlying tissues. Wash weU,*,'itb soap and watet. The,n apply a non-irritating 3n.tiseptic. eOVet w~th ,Il sternep~d.

Ai broken; t!Q!o,t.II-Unless a J1lO'uth~pi,ooe is used. a !!it.raigh.t blow to me :mou.th, 'wUI 'often. bl!eakr ,chi, or ceack the :fro:n:t teeth. If this ha.p" 'pens\~ refer the boys. to a d.enust.

N osdleed-=is causm. by a di:root blow ,on the nese whidil flllp:ture.s MIne of the sm~il capUla\'ies in the sept,UrA .. Do Dot allow the nose' to be blown. Try to CClDlkact the bl00dvesselsbyuseo:f 'cold ,appli.ca:tiops ,or .apply ap·iec:eo( iee under the upper lip. pindling or oomple5sing

1. Blilmc all! 58m 1!11' pilS 'which ;f:aclllitlte 'mo:vemmt between amti,guous stmctlHiCS-

BOXING

the no:stlils to;get;her fo.t' a :few 'rn..oments often succeeds in ,stopping t!be bemQitrha:geJ• If quick ad~on is B(\~ssary l' plaee II swab stick. satl!l1!.'3!tied in: .adr,enaiin" up the nose.

A ,b,roken 1Wse.-ishuHcated by a history of 'h~a'Yma.j soreness, swetling,. movement <lind internal hemQn~ag,e:. Have tbe~ bo~er l\C!po'J't tel a nose spedalist ilIt once so that no, d~f[)rm~ty or nasaJ obstruction res,umts, ..

The black B,,~-is ~ebadge of the pugilli/,t. It is caused by 8l blow o:gt~, e,ye whiCh rupty:res tbe !lmaU c:apilla'des~ thus 'caus~ng:!b:emo:rrbage i:nto tb.e s:urrounding tissue:. As bleeding stops,; the blood! dew CompoMl5 ,causing the dtiferent shades of disco~o!fatiO'n . .Apply a piece of' lee' d!irecUy ~o the eye. ~n the sw~:llitig bas 's~opped, beat is, appliedt usuaUIy by hot packs. Later, t~ next da:y~ a light dr,c~maJr massage may be used along with heat ,appliullons.

A thumb in ~he ,eye-oft,en oocl!!;rs durin.! a oout.Extreme iTd~aJd(!ll! is caused and the eye consta:n!t1iy waters. HemQrfliage oiften res!!!!lls" Apply eeld ,appUcatl.o:os to stop heftl,orrhage. S£nd tbebo:x;el' ,to an oculist as S~ as possible.

Tlter~caut'iJW'Wer'~ e,af-~s the bGidlg~ of both. die 'bo,xing 3indl wrestUng professions. It is also referred. to as a ~!tiin ear.}' n iindi£ates a lack ,of pTioper atte:ti.tlon as a ucaY]iftower~' ear is, Ufii~iffiessary. n is the result O'f a 'bl<lw ,on th~ ear wb~ch causes Q,\nliJi,tJU[l£: otfUle' srn.:!ill capUhldes int(l the fa.tty tissue ,of the ear .formlug a blood. b.limor" The tumor ~huts -off nutf,iit~CiliI1 between the ulUJage ,and the «1II"e!1'~y;Eng tissue caJusiq d@oo:mpos~Mo\n. T'he blood (iQagtdat;es~ :~ar;de~s and be-, ,comes organized in~o eonnecdve tissue, A :;bdnkEDg takes p~ace: ,oh~itersting atl regular ealrnarkings,. lea.vmg ~ t;:r;nk'med mass 'known asa

ucauUflower" e3if'., -

Iietn.ot:thilge shouWd be stopped as soon as, possible'. Use Iee p~k:s lIrii~b pressure. If bleeding continues take tiDe: bOlet to a p!bY:S'lchm ,iliad! bav,e .: ~ blood C)IrIli:WII o'U.'tby me-ans. of a .hypooermk syringe'. H0we,v,er', WlJeg, a compress bandage, is used" it wUI film up again. To prevent this 1

Take a piece of eoUon whiCih. is, la'fWle'nough ®o, fiF~ the (;a:v~l;y where ,thf:: inju~ is locat«i"and soak. in oolodion. Mold the saturated c:p.tt<m to the cav~ty of' the ear ,and hold iDp~ac:e by !!tf~PS of ad~ive' tape. "\VOOn. the ether eva~rat.es, the mt.t~8d ~ome bard and. act as, :1\ spiiJil!t" ,mldprevent the fOOU!i.'UliIte of

the hemorrhage. .-

flOW' TO 'fRAINF'01l BOXING

I)"

.If this fail:s~, :have ~he docl!iQ[ make a small cross incision in the most !ctllngesbedi p3'rt. Then p]aoe In. t'ile jl'lI::rs~O'n a, SIDaJU. str;P .of st;ecilized, g:a.uze ~o' serve asa dratn.

,Tke broke.nr;i~iiS indicated by pain wben 'bre.ath:[ng; a sh~rp :pMft when Umng tbearms, ,or~endernes,s in the r~b area, 'Kaye the inj~l]r c3ire.d for by a:. pbysidaJD .. The immobilization by binding' with tape is thtl prescribed treatment.

THE KN',OCKOUT BIlOW '00 THl!: 'CHIN

T1Je ,j'lpojn~n of the ,thin bas tong been a target r,or boxers. The jia.w'bone aJ,cts as a lever ,and a b:tow to the end ,of the clll.nr(!rua~ys U:le fOifce alER1i.Qst directly to the medulla.. .As the' medu~~3i, controls the ,c3:.rdiac-, Rspiirat,oty mechanism, par:a1ysis and uftotop~iousness l'esuWt. A terrifi,c bIDo,,, dir.ed to the ~~poiD.t" maybe eneugh to j,ar t.hll cerebral :hemi~p'hues and pr,odiu'Ce5 am:i1:d ceneussion.

Tlo r~s~o~e' consciousness, ,apply restor,atives,. twist and pull the earsJ rub ·tll,eneck1 €hale 'the hands, pat 'the face~ poll]] the arms and leg!! aDd. apply ice to .espin~,. lNhen OO'nsdo~s:neS'!ii is [~gajned" find 'Out iii the boy knows his ,own name. Obtain m~diCiil aUeation as s.oon. as po:ssibte. Afte~ m:ed[eal aid, wrap the' Lnd:ividua] in warm blankets and gwvte bimJ some ~ot tea.

TilE :$OL./Ul PLEXUS, KNOCKOU'f

The solar pleXll1li was krulWD, as Broughto:n's, mark [~ the early day,s of the pd~' ring., It was n.otuo:tUaf'tel' Corbetes defeat at Carson City tblt the bWow became known ,as the so~at pleltUs bWow.

The :s{"~a!l:' p,lieas .~s s:it~ate.d. above the middle 'nne ,of the upper berderef the PlriofiCteM jtU!t. ,opposite: the margin of the, diaphragm. It is a .l<l.f\g.e: ~oW.ettio:-n of nerve 'Cf!~.s and ror.!IlS the gr,eat oenter of the ,sympatbetic. nerveus ,system. It Is attached to the second and third. :i8.c,rail nerves, . .A blow to the: solar' plea!!! affects the~ vagus nerve c~using ,il reft~ which inhibits ,or depresses both. the c31'1diac andl'esph:atory med!la'lU!~m. ~ "The heart is invariably i$~GiWed ,andweake:ooot respiralttO'fIJ becomes gasping and. parOlrysnu,d in typej p!I,ds'e thready, ey,es :stare;y ,and! ,gl~:y, ood the who.l,e vitality lowered," 2

SudllIL picture. is one of shock, and firsl~ald shouldbe given far Bh«k.. Apply sm.eUlng salts. Co'~d w,ater ,appliled to the back ,of the

I Lewis, tJ; .. tit., p.. 223.

2 LIn., ,eU'. - -

118

BOXING

rlttk is! effective, Loose-n. al] oo~stfi'etio:ns,. When 'breathing is,resumed, p.lace the iudhridual under t~e observation of a phY!l~cia:n., P~aee tbe feet higher than the head. Place a blaniket over ~heplUent and. mSlst on Ii twen~y~ or thirty-minute mst.

,.fUEMEN'lIA P'uGILUiTICAu

, Often rderfed, ,to aJS JustP'IDidu up,unOJ, dirunk.. ,,' It is a condition caused by too many severe beatings ,aoout the head. It is ~. compa.ISI-' threliy eare ,condition and not CQ,nnnon to ,amateur or in'erooUegiate' 'bodng.

PhysioJ.ogU:aUy j it is po:ss:ibme that ~he constant jar "If blows milly' ctmiSe. smaJI be:morrhages in dre bra:lo. The btood tbus.ibera:tedis evep'ttfally (I,rp:r.!i.zed in.to connecuv,e dssuet :shutting ,oli'ih~IbJood ,supply t~,.the brain, cells ~fi.YO.lved; ausipg; theb .. deatb. 'Onee ;g,one brain tissue CInnot berepl3iCed.

W.bat can be dQllti'? In ~: tint p,lace illS 'beUeved that ,only cerlaj.lIlI, types caD ever ~ome ~!punch dronk/' Some pt'lMlH ar-e so .oo:n~ sU'Uded tbat DO amrHlnt of bel!idop, on iIiIebead w~U ,causebem!lI'~ rbage~wbil!l! otkers CHstand on1y m;odelfalie pun~mment be:f:ore .be!llQ'f.rhagewillresult. Bmn:g a]one d:oes not cause this, (1Qmdl~timt. ~ ,acUvi.tywhich causes constant jar to, tml:e head, can. caru'ie' .lS C0'mfi:ti~D to :result.Divin,g and~'O(l,tbW1 ,aft two, QtheT' sports, wWc!b, suibj;ect the, bad ttl, eenstant jar and. inJury.

Persons wbo s.eem! ItO' be easil/y hurt. woo' sder a beadaclile after a boxing; matcb~ after cH.v;ing, 'I)f 3, :fiootJball ,gtlme"soowd lu:rn.their athletic 8tJtivity to sportsio whiich 'pb.ys~c:al oontact d.oeiliilil,ot; e,niler.

I't is the 'respooobility O'f' lead.ership' in boxing to, make s:um!e that people susc;e:pdble to head. in.jiuries do, Qot pa:rtidipale.. Leadership m 'boxiDsmli/jst prevent any boy from tak~ng a severe beatiag.. 'Correct iDsb'uctioo and. ,good, ,ollciatlnl sJuJ.ldd .help, take cue of this poir'nt •.

Denlentia PQ~lis,tlcw or "punch dnmkennesst a rare ~(j:!ld!idon that 'amhappen~ should. and can be eBW',ely eJiW)[I3ledi from. the spo.rt lo,l

~.

INDEX

Advan~!, 'D! Quk'k, 3 I, 34. 38- At~ct., (':~tmtef, 7:2,· 73" is -

Attack, .Fiiindlim,ellJ!alsoi, '65·'7~; D~aw~ ~ng; 6'1" 68, jJ;. D.rop Shlf,t, '67. 6th 7'0, (I; F,emlmg" 166, 67,.611. 71; I~ figlilltiq, f)'7" 60, 7 J i Leadi... 66, 67; 10

,57.

Diet,roJ, IO~ pisciplilfie. Min.d.[o~:

DiSToa!iti(u~;!" ~ I6

p~awing, 61, 63, jl Dmp,Aws,y;, The, ~~. ~6'''.7 Drop; Shift, Th~ 67, ,60,,0, '{I Dry,jog Out, 101 .

Ducking, 4'9. 5'5; 63

Elbow,. Bklci!:, il3, 28 Elimination., 1:03 Ellgbmd, 30

Equipment and, ,Facilities, no

Fea'f, 100'

F,ei'lltiq" 66, 67, 1M, 1~ Fist, Hnw to Make a, ,11 Foot Postti.ons, 2. J .

Filotwon:, PulilidammlaI, 30, .31:: Ba~k~ ~nI Sbwme, 3:1, 3~, :IS;. Circli.ng Left, .JI, 35, 38; Ci.~gRi8btj D'Z, 3.$, J,$; Coo:rdinaliOD. fir l[anu ,and Feet~ 36.J7;F'01\OJdRMreat., 31:1, 34. 35,.~8;. F.orward 5b6., 3:(, 3~ •. 17; QuIIi:k:Mv.ancc, 3 I; 34. ,,l8,

~Il'lea:r.m mock,. 2;), :28

Fu-~W P:ostti.w:!, ne, I, ~,4, 5',6

Haliltl! POs:it-:h:m5',4, 5 Ruld Pwtectiio:n., I Hlj, 1 I .~. Head! PO;S$liool" .S

BiUing. 7. I!. 9

BlItllk, Left, 401,. 4,1,4,2. 43" ·46, HQQk .• Iti,gbt, 40,4~, 46

Itlfigb In U4 I~~h'udiillllj ] I I

6i,!h~, 71

feveJlHun. (lif, 10();. Fh;$~, Aid,

Jab" Left, 5~t 14. t6! 32, ~.'i~ .Blocks fin'."

I'l~2'; To Body, 2, Jactson, Jo~n. :1.hJO Judges, .~ 13

Kn.Q(;k~!.!t Blow, To Olin, Ii';; 'Flo :Soht

Plexus, II?

Sam, :IS" 67, ?Q L~de-rsbip, u[

L~.66 _

Left ffuok, 40, 41 .4·~, 45, ,46,

Left Sw'Lns', .13; 47' ..

Left to B~li', 15,:17

Left to, .Face" 14

Left Up~r. Cut, 47 Lev~BIl!(;k, 6:1 UN~a~ Gl,I;;!l'd, ~6, 51, '61

Malik, 1'he, ~.~

Me~hodsoJ JUtliIlg,3

Offi.d<lb, n~ One·Two~ 'lhL'l, 8a, 9~

h~ry. The, 17, ~6; Cooss P'<lJ'ry'j' 2~, ~7, , 52,. ,62'; Inside Parry, ~2, Ol, 6 z;

Outsid~ Parry, 52, 6:~ i'lI'I'fyi:m:g, 419. 5 z" 6 ~

:P:l'o.tectiOIl'!, HQ,U I; Eyes ,afldiaf~, r ]I, Ra:lild, II'O, II I;, S;~~CI~U1m, HI, Te~in.a:ndl Lips, I~. I

Pull!ey Wdg;nu, 106

P!1miCIl Dl.'utJik, uS l'llI])OIS~ {If B@'ng, ::i!

.Ref~.;· The, 1 I ~ :ReIa:utiioll, IOL

&etreat, Th~' P'o:rc:ed" ,3[ ~ The Qwcl!:, '34, 35, l8

Rigilt" Straight,. 'Jih'f,. ],$., .~ 8:" 1'9, ~6; Guair& for ,]9'; To Bood-y~ .~5" 22" 2''1, 28

Ring C;llIll, ?4

Ring ii4n,e~p, 94, ,06, '~l7j 9:8,. 99; St!!',alqemll. 9~~j '96 .

Ro~woil'k IO'j! Rodmwa",.'.'~ ~ ~ .. ' oo.'~·

_---'."-,i/', . ~I ,;),~~I ,- ~ q

,~,,, ,~;! - . .

, "ngj,~06

Sa.yer" 30' Seg)tu:llrng, I I~" 1[,4 S~~(lnd!ls Ki,t,- l ~3 .

Se~~i\lps, S6.-Q,3,;. Higlir-lil.ow amd Omss,

89, 90, ,g - - ,,'w ,liirnrlU~pperol!!t;,

'Ot .~r '9:2' JI3i~

D~ss ;!ld 1J<lib .Hook,

8" '~2~

gk l.mv, 8QI" '93

S . . -'.(11. 69',,70\, 71

Soou~del . The, 20, 2,6, 00

S!lw~Me!: DI~chj 1'ili!e, ,~J" of6, 4'1, Cilo Shu!lk~,[he BatJi:Wo'l!J1di,3 ~,3~, ,3.8;, SlrL1,!lii·

fie, De F'oif'W1il~(])j,;p:, .32" 37

,

,49, 5:4, ,62 _a:w'llsiiUo!!l!, s :Spmins, n4

S-I!j,~~ Sta!ml:l~', .~ S!t3ml(;e,~ ,J SU[I;II.way; nc, ~.l, ~:8 Stiifiln~s., .~.I~, SWlp;pirng, 49, S!3, 6:2

, " "1III1- 112:

- 4~-: 43,-~7 ,; To Body,4o,; 1'0 F<liQe:, 4Q; Left. 43" ~:l'

'F~clmiil:fll!!e ,o,f' HiU[rng, ']['.be, gl~ l!I:)j,] J., u .•

it." 1',5:

~@!I'y of HiUjlllg, S 1'imekeeper, IIJ

'El;aiin~ng; :~OO'; Spoe~$ilJi~d!, ~oS" Trunk,. ~~itiol!lofj 4

Uno:rtllilodmPmiiitioo" s

U~rl:1UU;,40. 43,414" .. 7' ;.IDd~nseFar. 441; I..e~~,. 43, ~::r ; LoIIl8'"wi!t;bLeU amd Rlg~t St.ep,40, 44, .n; .ruPt .. 4J,~'l!'; 'TWe; or S!h<nt, 40'

W,~wng. SOl ~6, 63;; 1'0 JI1l&lde, Posl:· thu~, S6~ 63,; 'Ta '()uJt5ide ~1ti:OJil!,S'6! i.o~o:f •. U

W P.oo{;edme,. ];;08,. 109

WOLlfidio" :~ 1$,1116, I ~7