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NASCC: THE STEEL CONFERENCE

WELDING SYMBOLS AND PRESENTATION


FOR DESIGNERS AND DETAILERS

(N72)

PRESENTER:

ROBERT WHYTE, PE, SE
LBYD, INC.
BIRMINGHAM, AL
HOW TO DESIGN AND DETAIL
(CORRECT PRESENTATION)


WELD SYMBOLS FOR SHOP AND FIELD

ECONOMY AND TO ACCURATELY

CONVEY WHAT YOU MEAN.
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO
UNDERSTAND & ACCURATELY
SHOW WELD SYMBOLS?
ANSWER:

BECAUSE THEY TIE THE DESIGN INTENT
WITH THE ACTUAL FABRICATION AND
MANUFACTURING PROCESS.

OUTLINE
1. BASIC WELD TYPES & SYMBOLS.

2. COMMON WELD PROCESSES & POSITIONS.

3. BASIC WELD DESIGN.

4. CORRECT WELD SYMBOLS & PLACEMENT.

5. WELD ECONOMY.

6. SPECIAL TOPICS.
BASIC WELD TYPES
&
SYMBOLS
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BASIC WELD TYPES:

Fillet Welds
Groove Welds:

- Partial J oint Penetration (PJ P)

- Complete J oint Penetrations (CJ P)

- Flare-Bevel Groove Weld
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- FILLET WELDS:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BASIC FILLET WELD SYMBOLS:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BASIC FILLET WELD SYMBOLS:
FILLET WELDS
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BASIC GROOVE WELD SYMBOLS:
AWS D1.1 =>
Be Familiar With & Always Show Process for
Full or Partial Penetration Welds.
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- DEFINITION OF GROOVE:
SINGLE-BEVEL
GROOVE
DOUBLE-BEVEL
GROOVE
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
COMMON GROOVE WELDS IN STRUCTURAL STEEL:
- BTC-P4

- TC-U4a

- B-U4a, or, B-U4b

- BTC-P10
95%
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- PARTIAL J OINT PENETRATION WELDS:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BTC-P4:
E = Effective Throat

S = Preparation (Bevel)

f = Land, 1/8 (Min.)
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BTC-P4 J OINT DESIGNATION:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BASIC GROOVE WELD SYMBOLS:
AWS D1.1 =>
Be Familiar With & Always Show Process for
Full or Partial Penetration Welds.
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- SPECIAL TOPIC : Fillet Overlay for PJ P:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- SPECIAL TOPIC : Fillet Overlay for PJ P:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BTC-P10:
E = Effective Throat

E
max
= 5/8 t

For t
hss
= 3/8

E = (0.93) 5/8 (3/8)

E = 0.218 (Design)

E = (Noted)
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BTC-P10:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BTC-P10:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BTC-P10 J OINT DESIGNATION:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BASIC GROOVE WELD SYMBOLS:
AWS D1.1 =>
Be Familiar With & Always Show Process for
Full or Partial Penetration Welds.
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
PJ P WELDS
- BASIC PJ P WELD SYMBOLS:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- FULL PENETRATION WELDS:
Strength of J oint =
Strength of Lesser
Material
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- TC-U4a:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- TC-U4a J OINT DESIGNATION:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BC-U4a:
- BC-U4b:
b for
Back
Gouge
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- Gouging:
Basic Weld Types & Symbols
- BASIC CJ P WELD SYMBOLS:
CJ P WELDS
COMMON WELD
PROCESSES
&
POSITIONS
Commonly Used Arc Welding Processes Are:

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Stick Electrode

Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW)

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

The Type of Joint and Weld Position (Flat, Horizontal,
Vertical, and Overhead) are Dependent on These
Processes.
Common Weld Processes & Positions
Common Weld Processes & Positions
SMAW: (Stick- Electrode)
Common Weld Processes & Positions
FCAW & GMAW:
Common Weld Processes & Positions
WELD POSITIONS
Common Weld Processes & Positions
FROM AISC /
AWS D1.1:
BASIC WELD DESIGN
Fillet Weld in Shear:

ASD:

0.3(70)0.7071/16 = 0.928

Rn/ = 0.928 D L

LRFD:

0.45(70)0.7071/16 = 1.392

Rn = 1.392 D L

(E70XX Electrodes)
Basic Weld Design
E = 0.7071 D
Basic Weld Design
Must NEVER Put a Single Fillet Weld in Tension
Basic Weld Design
- FILLET WELDS:
Gaps in Fillet Welds
are Allowed Up to
3/16
Basic Weld Design
- LOADING DOUBLE FILLET WELDS:
Must Never Load Single Fillet Weld With Moment About
Longitudinal Axis More on This Later
Basic Weld Design
- OVERLAPPING FILLET WELDS:
May Lay 3/16 Fillet
Weld on 3/16 Thk.
Plate.
Basic Weld Design
- MINIUM SIZE OF FILLET WELDS:
PJ P Weld in Shear:

ASD:

21.0 ksi (Strength)

Rn/ = 21.0 (E) L

LRFD:

31.5 ksi (Strength)

Rn = 31.5 (E) L


E = Effective Throat

S = Preparation (Bevel)

f = Root Face (Land)

R = Root Opening
Basic Weld Design
AISC 13
th
Ed. Manual
Basic Weld Design
TWO METHODS:
- ELASTIC METHOD


- INSTANTANEOUS CENTER OF
ROTATION, IC, METHOD
Elastic Method
Properties of
Weld Groups


If you are using this
table you are doing
ELASTIC method.
Elastic Method
- Eccentric Force is Resolved
Into a Shear & Moment Acting
at the Center of Gravity (CG)
of the Bolt Group.

- r
p
: All Weld Elements
Share P Equally.

- r
mx
, r
my
: Proportional to
Distance from CG.

Properties of
Weld Groups

If you are using this
table you are doing
Instantaneous Center of
Rotation method.
Instantaneous Center of Rotation (IC Method)
Instantaneous Center of Rotation (IC Method)
- Eccentricity Produces Both a
Relative Rotation & Translation

- The Combined Effect of This
Relative Movement is Equivalent
to a Rotation About IC.

- Location of IC Depends on
Weld Geometry.

Basic Weld Design
COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS:
D = 5/16
Basic Weld Design
TRANVERSELY LOADED FILLET WELDS:
CORRECT WELD
SYMBOLS
&
PLACEMENT
Correct Weld Symbols & Placement
- ERRONEOUS WELD SYMBOLS:
Correct Weld Symbols & Placement
- ERRONEOUS WELD SYMBOLS:
TIP: PLUS GAP OR INCREASE FOR GAP MEANS THAT THE WELD SIZE MUST
BE INCREASED FOR THE AMOUNT OF GAP BETWEEN THE SLOT IN THE HSS
AND THE GUSSET PLATE IF GAP IS 1/16 INCREASE 1/4 to 5/16.
Correct Weld Symbols & Placement
- ERRONEOUS WELD SYMBOLS:
Correct Weld Symbols & Placement
- ERRONEOUS WELD SYMBOLS:
Correct Weld Symbols & Placement
- ERRONEOUS WELD SYMBOLS:
Overuse of
All-Around
Weld Symbol:
Correct Weld Symbols & Placement
- ALL-AROUND WELD SYMBOL:
Correct Weld Symbols & Placement
- C SHAPED & L SHAPED WELDS:
Correct Weld Symbols & Placement
- EXTENDED SHEAR PLATE WELDING:
Correct Weld Symbols & Placement
- SKEWED WELDS:
WELD ECONOMY
Weld Economy
- Fillet Welds are Economical.

- 3/16, 1/4, & 5/16 Fillet Welds are One Pass Welds.

- 3/8 and Greater Fillet Welds are Multiple Pass Welds.
Weld Economy
Multi-Pass Welds:
Weld Economy
Order of Economy:

1. Fillet Welds.

2. Partial-J oint Penetration Welds (PJ P).

3. Complete-J oint Penetration Welds (CJ P).

Weld Economy

3/4 Fillet Welds
Shear Strength = 16.7 k/in. (factored)
Area of 3/4 Fillet Weld = 0.281 sq in


Partial Penetration Weld with Strength =
16.7 k/in. (factored)
E = 0.53 in. Bevel = 11/16 in.
Area of Partial Pen = 0.236 sq in

Maximum Fillet Weld Sizes Before Considering
Partial Penetration Welds 5/8 to 3/4
Weld Economy
Two Welds Are Better Than One:
Weld Economy
Full Penetration Welds:

Weld Strength = Strength of Lesser Grade Material

Increasing Thickness of Lesser Grade Material Does NOT
Increase the Strength of the Welded J oint
SPECIAL TOPICS
Special Topics
Transverse Weld Shrinkage
Single Plate with Short Slots
DO NOT Pretension Bolts Prior
to Welding Beam Flanges.


NOT RECOMMENDED:
Double Angle Web Connection
Angles Restrict Transverse Weld
Shrinkage
Special Topics
- FIELD FIX:
Special Topics
1) ADD BRACING TO EXISTING BUILDING:
Special Topics
2) DETAIL IS MIRRORED OR FLIPPED FOR
UPPER END OF BRACE:
Special Topics
Special Topics
- COLUMN WEB DOUBLER WELDING:
THANK YOU!!

QUESTIONS?
WWW.LBYD.COM
For a copy of the slides from today
please email Robert at
rwhyte@lbyd.com