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Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS.

1

SAQ 1 Annotate the diagram to show the polar
charges on oxygen and hydrogen atoms, and
hydrogen bonds between the molecules

What would you say to make them realise they do
not need to worry?
Water warms up and cools down slowly, so the
fish will not experience rapid changes in water
temperature. For older or more able cousins
you might add that on a sunny day, a large
input of energy causes only a small increase in
water temperature. This is because a large
amount of energy is required to break
hydrogen bonds between the water molecules.
SNAB
SAQ 2 Solvent; dense; insulates; hydrogen
specific heat capacity; surface tension.

SAQ2. (a) Transport in blood and phloem / high
specific heat capacity;
(b) (i) Ice floats on water, forming a layer that
insulates the water beneath with the result that
large bodies of water rarely freeze entirely. So
aquatic life can survive at the bottom of the
lake.
(ii) High latent heat of vaporisation helps to
cool plants during transpiration and mammals
during sweating. (1 mark)
(iii) High specific heat capacity keeps
temperature of aquatic habitats stable. (2)

SAQ3. H
2
O; dipolar; hydrogen; solvent;
specific heat capacity May 2002 Unit
1, Edexcel

SAQ4. Solvent; enter; insoluble; lipids;
glycogen; plant; (Total 6 marks) Edexcel

SAQ 5. a) Hydrogen bond. (1)
b) Since oxygen is more electronegative than
hydrogen, the oxygen side of the water
molecule has a slight negative charge and the
hydrogen side of the water molecule has a
slight positive charge. (2)
c) The high specific heat capacity of water
ensures that the temperature of water bodies
remains constant or fluctuates very slowly.
This provides a thermo-stable habitat for
aquatic organisms. (2) (Total 5 marks) June
2004 Unit 1, Edexcel

SAQ6. Feature / Explanation
Helical/spiral/coiled (shape) compact;
Insoluble osmotically inactive / does not
leave cell;
Large size does not leave cell / many
glucose/monomers;
Branched glucose/monomers easily/quickly
removed; 2 max
(Two features without explanations =one
mark)

Glycogen is a polysaccharide. It is a storage
substance in humans. Suggest one advantage of
storing glycogen in muscle cells. (1 mark)
Provides glucose for respiration/as energy
source/for ATP production; 1 Jan08/BYB1

SAQ 7. (a) The statements in the table below refer
to three biological molecules. If a statement is
correct place a tick (J) in the appropriate box and if
a statement is incorrect place a cross (x) in the
appropriate box. Four boxes have already been
completed for you.
SNAB Unit 1 Jan 2005

SAQ7. (a) Loop of DNA; Non-cellulose cell
wall; Plasmid; Capsule; Flagellum; Mesosome;
Accept small ribosomes (2)
(b) (i) It turns blue-black/dark blue/black/purple
with iodine; (1)
(ii) Cellulose / pectin; (1)
(c) Insoluble; Therefore will not wash out of
cell / affect water potential / affect osmosis; OR
Statemen
t
Starc
h
Glycoge
n
Monosacchar
ide
Is a
polymer
J J X
Glycosidic
bonds are
present
J J X
Is an
energy
store in
animal
cells
X J X
Has high
solubility
in water
X X J
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 2

Molecule coiled/branched; Therefore large
amount stored in small space / compact OR
Does not affect water potential; So no effect on
entry of water (into cell); (2) Jan 05 AQA
BYA1

SAQ8.(a) The table below shows two types of
breakfast.
Breakfast 1 Breakfast 2
Wholemeal toast
Baked beans
Tea
Apple
Frosted flakes
Milk
White rolls and marmalade
Tea
Breakfast 2, because these items are cooked
and can digest easily. They also contain more
sugars, which will be rapidly absorbed into the
blood.

(b) Dietary carbohydrates are used to provide
energy by respiration. Insoluble fibres reduce
the risk of constipation.

(c) Adult people have variable metabolic rates
and physical activity levels. So it is difficult to
recommend a daily allowance.

(d)

(e) Why is this called a condensation reaction?
Two monosaccharides are combined together
to release one water molecule. (Total 7
marks) SNAB Specimen paper

SAQ9. (a)(i) Condensation
(ii)1, 4-glycosidic bond
(iii) Water
(b) (i) Starch is Compact - so it takes up less
space in the cell.
Starch is Insoluble so it cannot leave the cell
easily.
Starch is Insoluble so it does not have an
osmotic effect.
Starch is Insoluble and unreactive so it does
not get involved in chemical reactions in cell.
(ii) Starch contains branches after every 20
to30 residues and glycogen contain branches
after every 8 to 10 residues. Starch is made of
amylose and amylopectin, where as, glycogen
is made up of a single component. (1)
SNAB Unit 1 June 2006

SAQ10. (a) (i) lactose; 1
(ii) cellulose/chitin; 1
(b) they are not digested / hydrolysed / broken
down in digestive system;
as humans lack cellulase / the appropriate
enzymes;
not absorbed / passes straight through gut /
energy not available; 2 max JUN05/AQA/BYA7

SAQ11. a) Starch is an efficient storage
molecule in plant cells. The features that
enable starch to function as an effective
storage molecule are stated below.
Starch is:
Compact: takes up less space in the cell.
Insoluble: cannot leave the cell easily.
Insoluble: No osmotic effect.
Insoluble and unreactive: does not get
involved in chemical reactions in cell.
Easily hydrolyzed by enzymes into
glucose and used for respiration when
needed.

b) Ignore not in syllabus
(i) Add 5 cm
3
of Benedicts solution to 5 cm
3
of
one sugar solution. Boil the mixture for 8
minutes in a water bath.
Appearance of brick red precipitate confirms
the presence of reducing sugar.

(ii) Add 5 cm
3
of Benedicts solution to 5 cm
3

of one sugar solution. Boil the mixture for 8
minutes in a water bath.
Cool the mixture and filter it using a pre-
weighed filter paper. Dry the filter paper and
precipitate in a dessicator.

Mass of ppt. =[(Mass of paper +ppt.) mass
of paper]

The mass of precipitate is proportional to the
concentration of reducing sugar in the
solution.
Repeat the procedure with the other sugar
solution. The solution with the higher mass of
precipitate will have a higher concentration of
reducing sugar.
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 3

(Total 6 marks) Part of January 2001 Unit,
Edexcel



SAQ 12. (a) Similar allow valid similarities
such as same number, carbon/ oxygen /
hydrogen (atoms) I OH (groups): (A) hexose
same formula; NOT similar NOT molecule
ring / ring with O (atom) in it; NOT covalent
correct ref. CH
2
OH;
contain C, H and O; 1 max
Different allow valid differences such as-
(assume referring to fructose)
(fructose has) 5-membered ring I glucose has
6-membered ring; NOT pentose
(4 C in ring v 5C in ring I furanose v. pyranose
in glucose)
(in fructose) 2 CH
2
OH side chains/ 1 CH
2
OH
side chain in glucose;
different angles between C atoms;
ref. alignment of H and OH groups (on carbon
3/ carbon 4);
(in fructose) carbon 1 not in ring I carbon 1 in
ring in glucose; 1 max

(b) (i) glycosidic ; NOT glucosidic 1
(ii) carbon positions 1 and 2 on glucose and
fructose ;
formation of , water / H2O , from 2 OH groups
(plus separation) ;
oxygen bridge / O , shown ; 2 max
JUN 2005/2801/OCR

SAQ 13. a) (i) 2[(CH
2
O)
n
] H
2
O (1)
(ii) Hydrolysis (1)
(iii) Lactose is made up of glucose and
galactose, but maltose is made up of two
glucose residues. (1)
b) Feed the baby soya milk, as it does not
contain lactose. (2) (Total 5 marks) January
1996, (B/HB1), Edexcel

SAQ14. (i)

(ii) Condensation reaction.
(iii) Six carbon atoms
b) The cellulose micro-fibril is made up of
many parallel, unbranched chains of
glucose residues linked to each other by
hydrogen bonds. This arrangement provides
high tensile strength to resist the stretching
forces exerted by the movement of water into
the cell. (Total 5 marks) Part of January
2001, Unit 1,AQA

SAQ15.
Statement Sucrose Maltose
Contains glucose
Is a reducing sugar X
Contains glycosidic
bonds

Is transported in the
phloem of flowering
plants
X
(Total 4 marks) May 2002 Unit 1, Edexcel

SAQ 16.a) Ignore not in syllabus
b) Ignore not in syllabus
c) Ignore not in syllabus
June 2001 Unit 1/ Module Test B/HB1, Edexcel

SAQ16. a) Maltose
b) Disaccharide
c) 1, 4 Glycosidic bond
(Total 3 marks) June 2000 Module Test B/HB1,
Edexcel

SAQ17. a) (i) Ignore not in syllabus
(ii) The surface area to volume ratio is very low.
So, rate of exudation of sugars is very low.
b) Ignore not in syllabus
c) There will be reducing sugars in the
solution, because boiling of the cells damages
the cell membrane and allows the reducing
sugars to easily diffuse out of the cells.
d) During the spring, the polysaccharides are
converted into reducing sugars to be
transported and to provide energy for growth
of the shoots. Thus, the concentration of
reducing sugars increases. (Total 10
marks) BYB678 June 02AQA

SAQ18. a)
Disaccharide Monosaccharides
Galactose Glucose Fructose
Sucrose
Maltose
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 4

Lactose

b) Glycosidic bond
(Total 4 marks) May 2005 Unit 1, Edexcel



SAQ 19. a)
Description of
carbohydrate
Name of
carbohydrate
A pentose found in
transfer RNA
Ribose
A disaccharide consisting
of glucose and galactose
Lactose
The carbohydrate
transported in the phloem
of plants
Sucrose
(Total 3 marks) June 2004 Unit 1, Edexcel

SAQ20.
Carbohydrate One role in living
organisms
Glucose Form in which
carbohydrate is
transported in mammals
Sucrose Form in which
carbohydrate is
transported in plants
Glycogen Form in which
carbohydrate is stored in
mammals
(Total 4 marks) January 2004 Unit 1, Edexcel

SAQ21. a) C
12
H
22
O
11
b) (i) Ignore not in syllabus
(ii) Ignore not in syllabus
(Total 6 marks) January 2004 BYB1, AQA

SAQ22. (a) (i) In first carbon H group is above
the ring and OH group is below the ring. (1)

(ii)

(
2
)





(b)
Sugar
Chemical
formula
Type of sugar
Glucose C
6
H
12
O
6

Monosaccharide
formed by
hydrolysis of
Maltose
Fructose C
6
H
12
O
6

Monosaccharide
formed by
hydrolysis of
sucrose
Sucrose C
12
H
22
O
11
Disaccharide formed
by condensation of
glucose and
fructose
Maltose C
12
H
22
O
11
Disaccharide formed
by condensation of
glucose
Jan 06 AQA BYA1

SAQ23. (a) (Molecules) with little (kinetic)
energy; Move slowly; Few collisions (between
enzyme and substrate)/fewer enzyme-
substrate complexes formed; (3)
(b) Heating would cause bonds (maintaining
tertiary structure)/named bonds to break;
Denaturing enzyme/ altering tertiary structure;
Altering shape of active site (2)
Jan 03 AQA BYA1

SAQ24. (a) It is insoluble and does not have an
osmotic effect. It can easily be reconverted
into glucose and used for respiration.
(b) (i)

(2)
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 5

(b) Due to enzyme specificity (1) SNAB
Unit 1 Jan 2004

SAQ 25. a) Phospholipid
b) A Glycerol
B Ester linkage
c) Hydrophobic means water hating. This
region of the phospholipids molecule is non-
polar, hence it is not attracted to water
molecules.
d) The fluid nature of the cell membrane means
that the proteins and phospholipids in the
membrane can change places, within the
membrane. The mosaic nature refers to the
random arrangement of protein in the
phospholipids bilayer. (Total 6 marks)
June 2001 Unit 1, Edexcel

SAQ26. Glycerol; ester; condensation; thermal
insulation; energy storage. (Total 5 marks)June
2001 Module Test B/HB1, Edexcel

SAQ27. a) (i) 4 molecules. One glycerol and
three fatty acids.
(ii) The triglyceride molecule is NOT made of
identical units or monomers. It is made of
three fatty acids and one glycerol.
b) (i) A - O(xygen)
B - C(arbon)
(ii) Saturated fatty acid means that there is no
carbon carbon double bonds in the fatty acid
chain. Every carbon is joined to two
hydrogens or to four other atoms.
c) Volume = Area of film x height of film
Height of film = volume / area of film
Height of film = 1 / 400000 = 0.0000025 mm
(ii) The phosphate head is polar, hence
hydrophilic. So it is attracted to polar water
molecules. The fatty acid tails are non polar,
hence hydrophobic and have no affinity
towards water. Thus it avoids or shuns polar
water molecules. (Total 9 marks) AQA

SAQ28. a) (i) Glycerol
(ii) Ester linkage.
b) Stearic acid has only Carbon Carbon
single bonds, where as oleic acid has at least
one Carbon = Carbon double bond. Stearic
acid has more number of carbon atoms than
oleic acid.
The fatty acid chain in oleic acid will have
kinks (bends) but the fatty acid chain in stearic
acid is a straight chain. (2)

c) Ignore not in syllabus
(Total 8 marks) January 2004 Unit 1, Edexcel

SAQ29. a)

b) Explain why triglycerides are not considered to
be polymers. The triglyceride molecule is NOT
made of identical units or monomers. It is
made of three fatty acids and one glycerol. (1)

SAQ30. (a) Glycerol
(b) (i) Unsaturated fatty acid Eg. Oleic acid
(ii) These fatty acids have at least one double
bond between carbon atoms in the
hydrocarbon chain.
(c)

(Total 5 marks) SNAB Unit one June 2003

SAQ31. (a) (i) Ester bond
(ii) Hydrolysis
(iii) Glycerol and Fatty acids
(iv) unsaturated / eq are {liquid at room
temperature / lower melting point} whilst
saturated / eq solid at room temperature;
MUST be a comparative point
(b) Phosphate
(ii) {hydrophilic / charged / polar / water
attracting} {head/group} and {hydrophobic /not
charged / non-polar / water repelling} {tail
/group } ; to forming a bilayer; ref. to
orientation in membrane;SNAB Unit 1 Jun 2007
SAQ32. (a) energy / glucose storage;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 6

(b) (i)

(ii) ref to specificity / shape; correct ref to
active site on enzyme; correct ref to enzyme-
substrate complex / eq;
lock and key concept / induced fit; ref to amino
acids in proteins versus glucose in glycogen /
peptide versus glycosidic bonds;
(c) reduces activation energy / provides an
alternative reaction pathway; (biological)
catalyst / speeds up reaction without being
used up; allows reactions to occur rapidly at
body/lower temperature; SNAB June 07
unit 1

SAQ33. (a)

(b) (i) saturated (lipids) have no double bonds
in the hydrocarbon chain / C = C / between
carbon atoms and unsaturated have double
bonds / C = C saturated (lipids) from animal
sources and unsaturated from plant sources
saturated (lipids) tend to be solid and
unsaturated liquids at r.t. ;
(ii) starch has {two components / amylose and
amylopectin} and glycogen does not starch
stored in plant cells and glycogen in animal
cells glycogen has a branched structure but
{starch / amylose} has a coiled structure
glycogen has more branches than {starch /
amylopectin};
(Total 8 marks) SNAB January 07 unit 1





SAQ34. (a) (i) 6
(ii) 11

(b) Water potential inside vesicle more
negative/lower; Water moves into vesicle by
osmosis/diffusion;
(c) Mitochondria supply energy/ATP; For active
transport / absorption against concentration
gradient / synthesis / anabolism / exocytosis /
pinocytosis; BYA1 AQA J AN 2004

SAQ35. (a) Ignore not in syllabus
(Banana + Benedict's solution) and heat; More
reducing sugar produces redder colour/more
precipitate/ description of relative colour
change/turns red quicker; Standardise
test/Same amount of banana and Benedict's
solution;
(b) More sugar/solute/soluble substances
present; So concentration of water lower/less
free water molecules;
(c) (i) Process controlled by enzymes; Low
temperature/cold means less (kinetic) energy;
Fewer collisions/enzyme-substrate complexes
formed;
(ii) Chilling caused by time and temperature so
if time long, temperature must be higher;
(d) Starch
1 Coiled molecule;
2 Large quantity can be stored in small
space/compact for storage;
3 Insoluble;
4 Not "washed" from cells/no osmotic effect;
5 Branched;
6 Easily broken down;
7 For respiration;

SAQ36 a.) Terminal OH;
Hydrogens on hydrocarbon chain with no
double bonds; 2
Do not penalise references to C-O bond
ignore.
b. Decrease in (percentage of) saturated fats /
increase in unsaturated fats;
Move towards healthy eating / less saturated
fat / more unsaturated fat; 2
AQA/JUN02/BYA9/W


SAQ37 (a) Cells all the same/similar structure/
function.
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 7


(ii) Condensation / esterification. 1
(c) (i) (Unsaturated fatty acids) lower the
melting point. 1
(ii) Triglycerides are oils / melting point below
body temperature;
Explanation of advantage, e.g. prevents hard
layer of fat forming under skin / mobility of
lipid / deposition in arteries. 2
(d) (i) Lipase.
(ii) Pancreas / tongue / stomach.
(iii) IGNORE OUT OF SYLLABUS
Diffusion (of fatty acids & glycerol) into
epithelial cells; (refs. to routes through
membranes, e.g. proteins, neutral)
Recombination as triglycerides; Chylomicrons
formed / covered with proteins / lipoproteins
formed; Pass into lacteals / lymph (vessels);
Lymph vessels drain into blood vessels. max 3
(e) Bile emulsifies triglycerides/fats/lipids;
Small droplets provide large surface / faster
digestion; so gallstones reduce rate of
digestion; (reject: 'stop' digestion) Acid not
neutralised; so lipase inactivated. max 3
Total 15 AQA/JUN01/BYB1

SAQ38 (a) IGNORE OUT OF SYLLABUS
b)(i) Glycerol;
(ii) Has a phosphate/ (only) two fatty acids;
Unqualified references refer to the
phospholipids shown in the diagram

(iv) Hydrophobic/"hate" water/ non-polar;
Attracted to tails of other phospholipids /
tails face inwards/away from water; 2
AQA/Jan07/BYA1

SAQ39 Lipid yields more H2O per gram / per
unit mass; Lipid yields more ATP/energy per
gram / per unit mass; (Reverse argument for
carbohydrate)
For energy


For ATP

AQA/Jun07/BYA6

SAQ 40. Glycerol; ester; condensation; shock
absorbance; energy storage; Edexcel

SAQ 41. (a) (i) 1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty
acid molecules
(ii) An ester bond
(iii) Condensation
(iv) Have double bonds between carbon atoms
and between carbon and oxygen atoms
(v) More hydrogen atoms than unsaturated
lipids

(i)

(ii) DNA polymerase
(Total for Question 1 = 9 marks) SNAB

SAQ42. (a) (i) 5:1;
(ii) 7 [ x smaller]
(b) 0.5

(c) Surface area relative to volume too smaller.
Diffusion too slow; idea of speed needed
Distance too great/some cells deep in body/not
all cells in contact with Environment;
Insufficient, oxygen, nutrient, supplied waste
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 8

removed; (May be) more (metabolically)
active, homoeothermic (Total 6 marks)
OCR JAN 07 UNIT 1
SAQ43. a) i) 6:1
ii) As the sphere size increases the diameter
also increases so the volume and surface area
also increases. So the surface area to volume
ration decreases.
b) Surface area relative to volume too smaller.
Diffusion too slow; idea of speed needed
Distance too great/some cells deep in body/not
all cells in contact with
Environment;
Insufficient, oxygen, nutrient, supplied waste
removed;
(May be) more (metabolically) active,
homoeothermic
c) Villi and alveoli
(Total 9 marks) OCR UNIT 1 Jan 06

SAQ44. (a)blood flows twice through the heart
for one circuit/cycle of the whole body) A for
one heart beat
Ref pulmonary and systemic systems/to lungs
and to (rest of) body; R systematic
(ii) __ size
__activity
__ S.A;V ratio
(mammals) larger; Cells deep in body;
Regions requiring materials separated by a
distance/ need to get materials to all parts
Diffusion too slow; Activity
(Mammals) more (metabolically) active
Need more materials/ more rapid supply/ more
removal of wastes;
Diffusion alone not effective
(Total 4marks) OCR Jan 05 Unit 1

SAQ45. (a) (i) (field) mouse
(ii) Many cell (layers) ; Cells deep in the
body / diffusion too slow; (More metabolically)
active Surface area to volume (ratio)
low/lowest of the three
(b) Oxygen; A oxygenated blood carbon
dioxide; Urea / creatine; R urine Hormones/
named hormone; Vitamins/named vitamin;
Ions / minerals / named ion / named mineral /
salts; Sugars / monosaccharide s / named
monosaccharide; R carbohydrates/ sucrose
Fatty acids / glycerol / lipids/ onoglycerides;
Amino acids / antibodies / proteins / named
protein; R if dietary Protein implied; Lactate /
lactic acid; Water;
[Total: 6] OCR Jan 03 Unit 1



SAQ46. a) ventricle systole
b) Relaxation of atria and ventricles. Atria are
being filled with blood from veins. Blood
slowly oozes into ventricles from atria.
c) Cardiac muscles are supplied with coronary
artery from the aorta. Many capillaries are
distributed in cardiac muscles. RBC which
contains hemoglobin carries oxygen.
(Total 6 marks) June 2005 Unit 2B, Edexcel

SAQ47. a) A. Semi lunar valve B. Aorta C.
Atrio-ventricular valve.
b) Artio-ventricular valves closed during
ventricle systole to prevent the backflow of
blood. Ventricles are made with thick muscles
to provide high pressure. It pumps blood
around the body. Aorta made with elastic
muscles to accommodate blood expelled from
ventricles.
c)(i) Uterus is bigger and contains more tissue
and muscle development. It helps in
development and maintenance of placenta and
also helps in baby development.
(ii) Heart works harder to carry oxygen and
nutrients through blood and sends to
uterus, ;placenta, fetus and mothers body.
(Total 10 marks) J anuary 2005 Unit 2B,
Edexcel

SAQ48. a) Both pressures rise and fall to 0 kPa
in 0.5 seconds. However, the pressure change
in the left ventricle is much greater than in the
right ventricle. This is because the left
ventricle has a thick layer of cardiac muscle
tissue, to enable it to pump blood at high
pressure to all parts of the body. The right
ventricle has a thinner layer of cardiac muscle
because it has to pump blood only to the
lungs, which are close to the heart and are
made up of delicate tissues.
b) There is a rapid rise of pressure in both the
left ventricle and aorta. However, the pressure
in the aorta begins to rise a little later than in
the left ventricle. This results in a slight time
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 9

delay for the blood to pass from the ventricle
to the aorta. The pressure in the ventricle then
falls steeply, but the pressure in the aorta
remains relatively higher. This is because the
elastic recoil of the aorta walls maintains the
high pressure after the closure of the
semilunar valve.
c) On the graph.
d) The impulse for heartbeat originates in the
sino-atrial node (SAN). It then spreads into the
atrial walls causing atrial systole. The wave of
electrical excitation is then taken up by the
atrio-ventricular node (AVN) and passed to the
apex of the heart through the bundle of His.
The impulse then spreads into the ventricular
walls, through the Purkinje fibres, causing
ventricular systole. The lack of conducting
tissue between the SAN and AVN ensures that
there is a time delay so that ventricular systole
begins only after completion of atrial systole.
(Total 12 marks) June 1998 Module Test B3,
Edexcel

SAQ49. (a) A= vena cava;
B = aorta;
C = left atrium; accept atria
D = tricuspid / atrio ventricular
(b) (i) Y= 10.6 10.7 (m): accept 11/ 11.0 (i.e.
rounded up) (units not needed unless the
answer has been changed into e.g. cm)
(ii) left ventricle / Y, more muscular/ muscle or
for X; (ie. A comparison) more pressure/ force
(for Y) / or for X: (ie. A comparison) Left
ventricle pumps to whole body / Right ventricle
pumpls to the lungs; ( Y pumps a further
distance
(c)
Statement T or
F
cardiac muscle is myogenic T
contraction occurs in the diastolic
phase
F
the left and right ventricles
contract at the same time
T
when the left ventricle contracts,
the semilunar valve in the aorta
shuts
F
the semilunar valves have tendons
to prevent inversion
F
OCR Jan 2002 unit 1

SAQ50. (a) F = Sino atrial node / SAN /
pacemaker;
G= pulmonary\ vein
(b) (i) atrium / X, (only) has to pump, to
ventricles/ short distance; or for ventricles A
ref to gravity effect/ negative ventricle
pressure Left ventricle/ Y, has to pump to
body/ systemic circulation, and right ventricle/
Z has to pump to lungs pulmonary system;
comparison of Y and Z. Left ventricle/ Y,
pumps further/ great (er) pressure; Right
ventricle / ZA to all/ whole body idea a distance
Left ventricle / Y pumps against greater
resistance; Right ventricle.
(ii) (Purkynje fibres) conduct wave of
excitation
R impulse, signal pulse to the base/ apex of
heart; So contraction occurs upwards both
ventricles contract together.
(c) blood passes to left atrium . Deoxygenated
and oxygenated blood mixes in atria; R
between atria; Must imply direction in first
alternative not the reverse (due to fap)
So blood, in left ventricle / aorta, not full
oxygenated/deoxygenated blood/ less oxygen,
delivered to brain. A carbon dioxide builds up
in brain. Reduce (aerobic) respiration in brain/
anaerobic respiration; R no respiration
(possible link with ) lactic acid lactate, build
up; R waste oxygen shortage in brain ( might )
lead to raised blood pressure (causing
migraines) OCR June 2007 unit 1

SAQ51. (a) (i) left ventricle
(ii) left ventricle
(b) (i) 80 (60 divided by 0.75)
(ii) Credit one use of pressure figures with
units in X or Y: at X Ventricle is contracting / in
systole; ventricle pressure, equals / exceed
aortic pressure; lowsest aortic pressure /
pressure in aorta starts to rise; R is rising semi
lunar / aortic/ pocket valves, open; A blood
passing through named valve Blood enters
aorta (from ventricle) A blood leaves ventricle.
At Y
Ventricle is relaxing / in diastole; Ventricular
pressure equals/ falls below atrial pressure/ or;
atrium at highest pressure; Atrio ventricular
mitral / bicuspid, valve opens; A blood
passing through named valve R tricuspid/
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 10

cuspid blood, enters ventricle/ ;leaves atrium.
[Total: 10] OCR June 2003 unit 1

SAQ52. (a) A. Coronary artery
B. Right atrium
C. Pulmonary artery
D. Left ventricle
(b) (i) oxygenated and deoxygenated blood /
blood from two sides, would mix / AW; (so)
less oxygen delivered (to the tissues) / AW;
when the heart beats / AW; less blood leaves
the heart / flow to body reduced / ref slower
flow; ref to (possibly) lowering blood pressure;
AVP; e.g. refs to double circulation altered
Increase in heart rate (to compensate)
(ii) ref to one way flow affected / general ref to
flow back / wrong direction; less blood
reaching destination / less blood leaves heart /
AW; (when ventricles contract some) blood
back to atria; (when ventricles relax some)
blood back to ventricles (from arteries);
ventricles not closed off / isolated / separated
(from atria / arteries); drop in blood pressure;
(c) M pressure in ventricle exceeds that in
aorta / artery;
semi lunar / eq. valves, open; blood, enters
aorta / leaves ventricle / pressure rises (in aorta
/ ventricle); ventricle, contracting / systole; R
starting to contract N pressure in ventricle
drops below that in atrium; atrio-ventricular /
AV / mitral / bicuspid /, valves open; R tricuspid
blood enters ventricle / leaves atrium / atrial
pressure, starts to drop / peaks ; R if linked to
atrial contraction / systole. ventricle relaxing /
relaxed / in diastole; A one ref to figures in
either M or N; M 8.1 8.5 N 0.8 1.2
(d) (ventricle has) more muscle / thick wall /
AW ( ora for atrium); (high pressure) as
ventricle pumps to body / a greater distance /
AW; atrium only pumps to ventricle / through
the atrio ventricular valve / AW; less
resistance; some filling by gravity;
OCR June 2001 unit 1

SAQ53. (a) (i) arrows through correctly
(ii) X = vena cava; Y = bicuspid /
atrioventricular / AV / mitral (valve);
(iii) when ventricle / heart, relaxes; A diastole;
pressure lower (in ventricle implied); ora
valves stop back flow.
(b) (i)
chamber thickness/ mm
A 2
C 16
D 9
(ii) A / atrium, only pushes, to ventricle / short
distance / AW; A effect of gravity C / left
ventricle, pushes all round body / to systemic
system / AW; D / right ventricle (only) pushes
to lungs / to pulmonary system / AW;
qualification for C or D e.g. greater distance /
resistance or more, force / pressure; or for
right ventricle.

(c) 1. cardiac muscle is myogenic / description:
2 SAN / sinoatrial node / pacemaker: 3 .(in wall
of) right atrium:
4 .wave of electrical activity/ impulse /
depolarization/ excitation /AW: 5. spreads
across atria / causes atria to contract; 6.
stopped / AW (by, fibres/ septum), between
atria and ventricles; 7. delay allows atrial
systole to be completed (before ventricular
systole): 8. atrioventricular node / AVN: 9.
impulse passes down Ito, Purkyne (Purkinje)
fibres/ bundle of His: 10. contraction from base
upwards; 1I. both ventricles contract together :
12. AVP; e.g. external nervous control in
response to, temp/ 002/ etc delay of
0.1hormone control.OCR June 2004 Unit 1

SAQ54. (a) (i) Tricuspid
(ii) 1. Back flow of blood; 2. Oxygenated and
deoxygenated blood will mix; 3. Volume of
blood will increase.
b) (i) 1. Deoxygenated blood will enter in to the
left ventricle and it will pump to the complete
body.
2. Oxygenated blood again enter into the
lungs.
3. Less amount of blood enter into the body.
(ii) If the hole only mended it will carry or
supply only deoxygenated blood to all parts of
the body.
c) As the arteries are fixed in the correct
position and the hole is mended the normal
phases of systole and diastole will occur and
oxygenated blood enter in to the carotid artery.
So cheeks ae in pink colour.
(Total 11 marks) SNAB Specimen paper

SAQ55. (a) A. Right atrium
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 11

B. Left ventricle
(b) Lung
(c) Capillaries are extremely narrow and long;
Oxygenated blood enter into the lungs; results
loss of pressure blood emerges into the lungs;
not enough pressure to get through capillary
network; SNAB Jun 2003 Unit 1

SAQ56. (a) (i) Top two open ;
Bottom two closed;
(ii) X drawn anywhere in the right atrium
(iii) Pacemaker / sets rhythm of heart / initiates
cardiac cycle

(c) Blood at high pressure; High concentration
of oxygen ;
High concentration of glucose.
(Total 6 marks) SNAB Unit 1 June 2004

SAQ57. (a) Sino atrial node
b) 1. [(Wave of electrical) impulses /
depolarization) from SA node ;
2. Passes over (both) atria ;
3. Resulting in atrial [systole contraction ;
4. Slight delay at AV node ;
5. (Impulses) pass along bundle of His ;
6. (Up / along) Purkinje fibres ;
7. Correct direction of impulse described /
ventricles contract from the base up ;
8. Resulting in ventricular (systole /
contraction)
(Total 5 marks) SNAB Unit 1 Jan 2005

SAQ58. (a) 1. Ventricle contracts / systole ;
2. Pressure in ventricles increases ;
3. Correct reference to pressure changes from
graph
4. Pressure in ventricle exceeds pressure in
aorta
5. Semilunar valve opens ;
6. Blood flows into aorta ;
7. Blood flows down a pressure gradient
(b) (i) Sinoatrial (SA) node / pacemaker / SAN
(ii) Right atrium
(iii) 1. Reference to AV node ;
2. Delay at AV node
3. Reference to bundle of His ;
4. Reference to Purkinje fibres
5. (Electrical activity [impulse) travels from
base up through cardiac muscle ;
6. Electrical activity / impulse stimulates
contraction of cardiac muscle.
(c) Lack of [oxygen / glucose} to the muscle
(cells)
Unable to respire / respires anaerobically
[Insufficient / no} [energy / ATP}
For (muscle) contraction
(ii) (Injected into the bloodstream and) breaks
down the clot / reference to use [streptokinase
/ TPA / tissue plasminogen activator / clot
busting drugs);
(Total 12 marks) SNAB Unit 1 Jun 2005

SAQ59. (a) (i) {semilunar / aortic} valve
(ii) ventricular systole
(iii) 1. ventricles contract ; 2.
atrioventricular(AV) valves close ; 3. semilunar
valves open /eq ; 4. due to higher pressure in
ventricles ; 5. compared to {atria / artery} ; 6.
blood passes into {aorta / artery}
SNAB Unit 1 Jun 2006

SAQ60. (a) (i) arrows moving from direction of
veins through the atria towards ventricles on
both sides;
(ii) sinoatrial node / SAN / pacemaker;
(b) (i) some backflow of blood {(from ventricle)
to atrium / through A-V valve}; during
ventricular systole / eq; less blood (pressure)
into the {aorta / artery}; less (efficient supply
of) oxygen to the body / muscles / less aerobic
respiration;
(ii) ECG / electrocardiogram / MRI / magnetic
resonance imaging / CT scan / CAT scan /
blood pressure monitor / sphygmomanometer;
(Total 5 marks) SNAB Unit 1 Jun 2007

SAQ61. (a) (i) X = aorta/ aortic arch ;
Y = (left) ventricle / cardiac muscle ;
Z = coronary artery
(ii) second box down on the left
(iii) SAN / sino atrial node / pacemaker
(b) (i) 1. sequence of events from one beat to
the next beat / eq ;
2. reference to {contraction / systole} and
{relaxation /
diastole} ;
3. correct detail of sequence e.g. atrial systole
ventricular systole diastole / approx 30%
of time spent in systole and 70% in diastole ;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 12

4. correct detail of electrical regulation of
cardiac cycle
(ii) 1. left ventricle has {more / thicker} muscle /
eq ;
2. blood from (left ventricle) has to divide
between more
capillaries / eq ;
3. left ventricle has to pump blood further
(iii) 1. pressure increases as blood forced into
ventricle during
atrial systole ;
2. pressure increases during (initial)
ventricular systole/eq ;
3. (due to) reducing volume of ventricle
(causing pressure
increase) ;
4. pressure starts to decrease due to blood
into artery / loss
of blood from ventricle ;
5. decreases during diastole / eq ;
6. (due to) increasing volume (of chamber)
(c) 1. gender; 2. Smoking; 3. genes /
inheritance; 4. stress
5. high LDL level / LDL to HDL ratio / high
blood cholesterol 6. reference to inappropriate
diet such as high {salt / fat } cholesterol /
calorie} intake; 7. high alcohol intake; 8.
Obesity; 9. lack of exercise.
(Total 12 marks) SNAB Unit 1 Jan 2008

SAQ62. (a)

(b) Valves prevent backflow; muscles pushes
blood/squeezes veins; large luman; little
resistance; negative pressure in chest; gravity
effect.
(c) The capillaries are made up of a single layer
of flattened squamous epithelial cells, which
have intercellular pores to allow small
molecules and ions to pass across the walls.
(Total 6 marks) SNAB Unit 1 Jun 2008

SAQ63. (i) D. Artery E. Vein
(ii) Thick wall and small lumen
SNAB Jun 2003Unit 1

SAQ64. (a) A Artery B Vein
(b) thin wall / single cell layer / short pathway /
ease of access to tissue fluid/ rapid / easy,
diffusion ; smooth, (inner) surface /
endothelium; (small) gaps / holes, between
endothelial cells / in wall / AW ; allows
nutrients / named nutrients / fluid / AW, out, /
(most) cells / proteins cannot pass ; passing
narrow / small (diameter) / figure quoted / AW ;
idea of contact with many cells / short
diffusion distance / rapid diffusion / reduced
rate of flow qualified ; large, total surface area /
cross-sectional area ; allows more exchange /
slows flow for exchange / close to all the cells
in the body;
R easier / more efficient ideas unless qualified

(c) transport medium between blood and the
tissues
(d) Blocked lymph vessels / high blood
pressure / {low solute potential / high water
potential} in blood / loss of plasma proteins /
damage to tissue / histamine.
Edexcel
SAQ65 (a)
Arteries Veins
More smooth
muscle
Less smooth
muscle
More elastic fibre
tissue
Less elastic fibre
tissue
Narrow lumen Wider lumen
(b) Higher (blood) pressure / more chance of
damage to endothelium.
(c) High {hydrostatic / blood) pressure ; Which
is higher than {solute potential gradient / eq) /
correct osmotic effect
described; (Plasma forced out) through (pores
/ gaps) in capillary wall; The fluid is forced out
of the capillary into the intercellular space
(d) (i) Blocked lymph vessels / high blood
pressure / {low solute potential / high water
potential} in blood / loss of plasma proteins /
damage to tissue / histamine.
(ii) Oedema SNAB Jan 2004 Unit 1

SAQ66. (a) (Ventricular) systole / ventricular
contraction
(b) (As ventricle contracts) pressure increases
; From 2.0 -4.0 kPa Ito {14.0 /15.0) kPa ;
(c) X Point when pressure in ventricle first
exceeds pressure in atrium; Point when
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 13

pressure in aorta first exceeds pressure in
ventricle ;
(d) (60 0.8) = 75 ; Beats per minute / bpm
Total 7 marks SNAB Jan 2004 Unit 1

SAQ 67.
Feature animal plant
the contents of the vessels are
pumped round the system
X
the vessels link to form a
circulatory system
X
the vessels form a major
nutrient transport system

(i) A= Artery
B= Vein
(ii) X= Tunica externa; Y= Tunica media; Z=
Endothelium
(iii) X= Collagen/ elastic fibers/ connective
tissue;
Y= Smooth muscle and elastic fibers;
Z= Single cell layer/ smooth surface
(b) (i) Pulsatile/ declining; amplitude declines.
(ii) Reflects pumping of heart; elastic recoil
effect; decrease/ amplitude changes, reflect
distance from the heart.
(iii) Slows rate; allows exchange in capillaries
(c) Valves prevent backflow; muscles pushes
blood/squeezes veins; large luman; little
resistance; negative pressure in chest; gravity
effect.
(d) (i) Proteins too large to pass out.
(ii) Red blood cells only in blood not in tissue
fluid; more white blood cells in blood; platelets
only in blood; hydrostatic pressure
differences; dissolved gas levels qualified;
blood in vessels. OCR Jan 2001 Paper1

SAQ 68. (a)
Feature Explanation of role
Narrow/small
diameter
Contact with many
cells
Thin wall/ single cell
layer
Short pathway/rapid
diffusion
Smooth surface Smooth flow
(b) (i) (-3.3+1.6)-(-1.3+1.1)=1.5
(ii) Out of capillary.
(c) Water; urea; carbon dioxide ; proteins;
lymphocytes; antibodies; hormones; fats;
minerals and no plasma proteins and RBC.
OCR Jan 2002 Paper1

SAQ 69. (a) (i) Y
(ii) Thin wall; thin tunica media; less muscle
and elastic tissue; wide lumen.
(b) (i) 18.5-15.5=3kPa
(ii) N
(c) Action of skeletal surrounding/ arterial wall
muscle; stop back flow; low pressure in
thorax. OCR Jan 2003 Paper1

SAQ 70. (a) (i)
Tissue Fluid Blood
*no red blood cells
*no plasma proteins
*a few white blood
cells
*no platelets
*always low pressure
*red blood cells
*plasma proteins
*more white blood
cells
*platelets
*higher pressure
(ii) Lymphatic/lymph
(b) 1 pressure high at R / AW;
ref to heart action causing (hydrostatic)
pressure;
greater than, osmotic effect / water potential
effect / AW; A solute potential
capillary wall, is leaky / has pores / AW;
lets, fluid / water / plasma / liquid, through and
dissolved substances /
named substance(s);
red blood cells / proteins / some WBCs,
cannot get out because too large;
pressure low(er) at S;
ref to osmotic effect / water potential effect; A
solute potential due to plasma proteins; return
of fluid / AW, at S / AW; valves / pores, at T /
lymph vessel / AW; R semi lunar valve allow,
fluid / water / liquid, into lymph vessel / out of
tissue fluid; allow proteins out of tissue fluid;
(c) fluid / AW collects; R if suggests collection
in cells (tissue) swells / AW; R turgid R if
implies cells swell oedema; especial danger, in
lungs / pulmonary oedema; ref to build up of
proteins (from tissues); AVP e.g. loss of blood
volume;
OCR Jan 2004 Paper1
SAQ71. (a) (i) 15
(ii) qualified ref to distance from heart e.g.
further ; friction / resistance (to flow) ; ref to
increasing volume of e.g. capillaries; A surface
area of capillaries idea of dissipation of energy
in elastic recoil.
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 14

(iii) stop damage to, capillaries / arterioles / AW
; A stops bursting ref to, lack of (much)
elasticity in these vessels / thin walls / AW ;
ora for nature of artery wall max one mark if
only veins mentioned slows flow rate ; to allow
(time for) exchange
(b) (i) C
(ii) thin wall / single cell layer / AW ; R
membrane / thin cell wall A statement which
gives one cell thick, treating thin cell wall as
neutral in this case short pathway / ease of
access to tissue fluid AW, rapid / easy,
diffusion ; smooth, (inner) surface /
endothelium ; A epithelium R refs to smooth
muscle reduced friction / smooth flow /
reduced turbulence / reduced resistance / AW ;
(small) gaps / pres / holes, between endothelial
cells / in wall / AW ; allows nutrients / named
nutrients / fluid / AW, out, / (most) cells /
proteins cannot pass ; R refs to plasma A refs
to, phagocytes / AW, passing narrow / small
(diameter) / figure quoted / AW ;
idea of contact with many cells / short
diffusion distance / rapid diffusion / reduced
rate of flow qualified ; large, total surface area /
cross-sectional area ; allows more exchange /
slows flow for exchange / close to all the cells
in the body; R easier / more efficient ideas
unless qualified
OCR Jan 2005 Paper1
SAQ72. (a) Right ventricle to lungs
(b) (i) Increased respiration; Carbon dioxide
from muscles.
(ii) B. AQA Jan 2002 BYA1

SAQ 73. (a) Pressure reaches highest value/
greatest range of pressure in ventricle.
(b) (i) Pressure in ventricle/ B is higher than
pressure in aorta
(ii) 0.2 sec; Time when pressure in ventricles.
(c) (i) Higher
(ii) Thicker muscle in left ventricle.
(d) 1m
(e) It is made up of different tissues like
smooth muscle, endothelial cells and tunica
media, tunica inerna.
(f) Thick elastic layer in artery ; Even out flow/
associated with recoil; Link between pressure
in artery and ventricle contraction/ systole;
Arteriole with muscular layer; Muscle
contraction results in smaller diameter/
vasoconstriction; Alerts blood supply to
different organs; Endothelium provides
smooth surface; Capillary wall thin/ only
endothelium for exchange. AQA Jan 2002
BYA1

SAQ74. (a) (i) Arteries divide to form arterioles.
(ii) Blood goes to (an organ) along an artery
and leaves by a vein;
(b) (i) multiply ( mean) length by total cross-
sectional area;
(ii) 60/930X100 = 6.45
(c) (i) Muscle/skin/lungs/heart
(ii) muscle Contracts; vasoconstriction/
reduces diameter ( of arteriole supplying
capillaries). AQA Jan 2003 BYA1

SAQ 75.

(Total 4 marks) EDEXCEL
SAQ76. (a) (i) simple nervous system /
invertebrate; reduced awareness of pain/eq.;
or transparent; heart visible without need for
dissection/eq.; or
abundant in nature; no threat to it or its
dependent species (food chains); or bred for
fish food; will thus die anyway;
or may be clones; therefore no loss of genetic
variation;
(ii) lower temp leads to inactivity /freezing;
higher temp leads to enzyme denaturation;
(iii) controlling temperature/eq;
(iv) accuracy;
(b) (i)
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 15


(ii) correct orientation of axes;
axes correctly labelled including units with
suitable scale (minimum half page);
correct plotting of all points; sensible line;
error bars/range bar to indicate variability/eq;
(c) (i) sim: rise in temp leads to increase in
heart rate (up to 30C); diff: obvious peak in
secondary data, none in Sams / eq ;
(ii) reference to kinetic effects on enzymes and
the substrate;
increase rate of respiration increases oxygen
demand/increased rate of reaction increases
heart muscle activity/eq; Above 30C
enzymes/proteins begin to denature; Reduced
heart rate because of heart made of
protein/eq;Daphnia become exhausted;
SNAB SAM 2008

SAQ 77. (a) (i) daphnia is transparent and its
heart is visible
(ii) Temperature same species, same habitat,
and same mass.
(iii) Surface area : volume ratio is small;
diffusion distance is large ; so they have heart
to pump blood ; blood to carry vital
substances around their body.
(b) caffeine increases heart rate and blood
pressure. High blood pressure exerts force on
endothelial cells in the inner wall of artery. A
slight damage to the endothelial cells leads to
atherosclerosis. SNAB Unit 1 Jun 2005



SAQ 78. (a)
Statements about transport in
Daphnia
Tick or
cross
(i) The movement of fluid
through the heart is an example
of mass transport
J
(ii) Daphnia uses diffusion to
transport oxygen into muscle
cells
J
(iii) Daphnia tends to lose water
to the freshwater by osmosis
X
(iv) Daphnia can use active J
transport to move ions from the
freshwater into its body
(b) (i) Daphnia A .........50..................... heart beats
per 10 seconds
Daphnia B ...........75................... heart beats per
10 seconds
Daphnia C ...........100................... heart beats per
10 seconds
(ii) 200
(iii) 1. only three Daphnia used / not enough
{samples / repeats}
to be representative / only one Daphnia used
per
concentration ;
2. different Daphnia used (for each caffeine
concentration) /
different Daphnia used for 35 au ;
3. range not large enough to make prediction;
4. Daphnia may respond differently at higher
concentrations / OR they may die ;
5. taking readings for 10 seconds not sufficient
;
6. describe one environmental variable to be
controlled /
allow time for Daphnia to acclimatise ;
7. need for a control
(Total 9 marks) SNAB Unit 1 Jan 2008

SAQ 79. (a)Instant coffee: 36mg per 100 cm
3

Filter coffee: 60mg per 100 cm
3

Tea: 30mg per 100 cm
3

(b) mass, species and habitat of daphnia
(c) Caffeine increases the heart beat. Pond
water temperature may be higher than 15
degree centigrade.(Total 8 marks)SNAB

SAQ80. (a) A thromboplastin / thrombokinase /
plasma enzymes / factor VIII); B thrombin; C &
D fibrinogen and fibrin;

(b) Calcium ions are (a cofactor) needed for
(activity of) thromboplastin / thrombokinase /
plasma enzymes / (factor VIII) / substance A;
(Therefore) little thrombin formation / fibrin
formation / calcium needed for fibrin or
thrombin formation; (So) blood does not
readily clot / blood more runny; Reject does
not clot AQA BYA3 Jan 2002

SAQ81.(a) (i) A description to include four
from: 1. white blood cells move into wall (of
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 16

artery) / inflammatory response ; 2. cholesterol
deposited / reference to foam cells /eq ; 3.
fibrous tissue develops / reference to plaque /
atheroma ; 4. artery wall hardens / becomes
less elastic / atherosclerosis ;5. narrowing of
lumen / aneurysm ; 6. restricts {blood flow /
oxygen} to the brain ; 7. detail of blood clotting
process ; 8. correct reference to positive
feedback ; 4 marks
(ii) A suggestion to include two from:
1. monitor or treat high blood pressure; 2.
avoid smoking ;
3. treat high blood cholesterol ; 4. correct
reference to a specific dietary change ; 5.
avoid air travel ; 6. use suitable drug treatment
; 7. more exercise ; 8. reduce stress in context
; 2 marks
(b) Platelets; thromboplastin; prothrombin;
fibrinogen; fibrin; red blood cells (Total 9
marks) SNAB Unit one June 2006

SAQ82. (a) Platelets / Prothrombin /
Fibrinogen;
(b) 1. Lack of blood to {cardiac / heart} muscle;
2. So lack of {oxygen / glucose} / ischaemic /
anaerobic / eq ;
3. Muscle stops working / damaged / cells die ;
4. Pain / angina / lactic add build up ;
5. Myocardial infarction / heart attack / eq ;
(c) (c) Warfarin / aspirin / streptokinase /
adheparin / hirudin / clopidogrel ; (Total 7
marks) SNAB Unit one June 2004

SAQ83. (a) Calcium; Prothrombin and
thrombin; Fibrinogen and fibrin;
(b) (i) Blood vessels have broken/tissue
damage (releasing thromboplastin);
(ii) Blood clots may lead to
thrombosis/MI/stroke;
AQA BYA3 June 2003
SAQ84. (a) converts prothrombin to thrombin;
(b) (i) (b) (i) fibrin formed from fibrinogen; by
the action of thrombin;
(ii) forms mesh of fibres which trap (platelets
and blood) cells;
(c) (i) warfarin prevents blood clotting which
causes thrombosis in coronary arteries/may
block c. arteries/ arteries supplying heart
muscle;
(ii) ( 36 ) = 17%; (210)
(iii) (iii) (409) = 30%; (1334)
(iv) yes: smaller % age have thrombosis if
already taking warfarin; substantial difference
in figures/large sample;
OR no: those taking warfarin obviously more
likely to develop thrombosis; not matched with
control group;
(2 marks)AQA BYA3 Jan 2004

SAQ85. (a) Calcium;
Prothrombin + thrombin;
Fibrinogen + fibrin;
(b) (i) Antibodies/immunoglobulins;
(ii) Memory (B)-cells (formed in previous attack
already) present; (When bacteria recognised,
they) divide rapidly to form plasma cells;
(These) produce antibodies (more) quickly / in
greater numbers
(than first time); (2 marks)AQA BYA3 Jan 2005

SAQ86. P = prothrombin and Q = thrombin;
R = fibrinogen and S = fibrin;
T = calcium (ions); 3
(b) fewer clots form in blood;
blockage of coronary arteries does not occur /
less likely; AQA

SAQ87. High plasma cholesterol /
hypertension cigarette smoking;
Coronary;
Plaques / atheroma;
Clots/ thrombi;
Oxygen / blood;
Death / necrosis;
Edexcel
SAQ88. inner layer / tunica intima of Q much
wider / thicker / converse for P;
narrowing of / smaller lumen in Q./
converse for P;
inner layer crinkled / roughened / not
smooth in Q. Edexcel

SAQ88. coronary; plaques / atheroma; clots /
thrombi; oxygen / blood; death / necrosis;
Edexcel
SAQ89.(a) Ignore not in syllabus measured
diameter (mm) = magnification;
[Note: marks in this answer are awarded for
explanation. The answer gains no marks]
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 17

(b) (i) Lumen narrower (in diseased artery);
Wall thicker (in diseased artery); Cholesterol/
fatty tissue / plaque / lipids / atheroma/foam
cells invading wall/ in wall(i.e. not on
endothelium); Note: If answers start "it"
assume this refers to the diseased artery]
(ii) Atheroma/fatty material deposited in wall of
artery; Causes turbulence/damage to
endothelium/raises blood pressure; Blood clot
formation; Atheroma/blood clot lodges in
narrowed blood vessel/coronary artery;
Reduces oxygen (supply) to (region of) heart
muscle/heart cells; AQABYA3 June 03

SAQ90. (a) Lower blood pressure / less
turbulence (in veins);
Reject no pressure.
(b) (Collagen in) damaged blood vessel wall /
platelets;
(Activates) thrombokinase / thromboplastin;
In presence of calcium (ions) / plasma
enzymes / factor 8;
Prothrombin converted to thrombin;
(Thrombin causes) conversion of fibrinogen
into fibrin;
Latter two must be in correct sequence for
both marks.
(c) (i) (Greater blood) turbulence;
AQA BYA3 JUN 2002
SAQ91. (a) Lower blood pressure / less
turbulence (in veins); Reject no pressure.
(b) (Collagen in) damaged blood vessel wall /
platelets;
(Activates) thrombokinase / thromboplastin;
In presence of calcium (ions) / plasma
enzymes / factor 8;
Prothrombin converted to thrombin;
(Thrombin causes) conversion of fibrinogen
into fibrin;
Latter two must be in correct sequence for
both marks.
(c) (i) (Greater blood) turbulence;
(ii) Arrow at point of branch or just below in
coronary artery; Reject above branch.
Total 7 marks AQA BYA3 JUN 2002


SAQ92. (a) (i) {semilunar / aortic} valve ;
(ii) ventricular systole ;
(iii) A description and an explanation to
include three from:
1. ventricles contract ;
2. atrioventricular(AV) valves close ;
3. semilunar valves open /eq ;
4. due to higher pressure in ventricles ;
5. compared to {atria / artery} ;
6. blood passes into {aorta / artery} ;
(b) (i) A suggestion to include three from:
1. reduced flow of blood to heart {muscle /
cells} ;
2. lack of oxygen (to cells) / reference to
anaerobic respiration / ischaemic / eq ;
3. cells / muscles damaged / die / eq ;
4. reference to lactic acid / angina ;
Edexcel

SAQ93. (a) self-inflicted; social ; non-infectious
(b) many factors contribute to risks / many risk
factors / no one factor causes disease ;
(c) (carbon monoxide / nicotine) increases
heart rate; (nicotine) constricts arterioles /
vasoconstriction ; R arteries / blood vessels
(nicotine makes) platelets sticky; blood clot /
thrombosis, more likely; increases blood
pressure / hypertension; increases deposition
of, fatty substances / cholesterol, in walls of
arteries / formation of atheroma or plaque;
increases (risk of), atherosclerosis / hardening
of arteries; reduces lumen of artery; reduces,
blood flow / oxygen supply, to heart, muscle /
tissue ;
AVP ; e.g. carbon monoxide damages, walls /
lining, of artery 3 max
(d) high in some places because more, animal /
saturated fats, in diet ; less, linolenic / linoleic,
acids (in diet) ; polyunsaturated more salt (in
diet) ; high(er) incidence of obesity ; AW
high(er) prevalence of smoking ; AW more
alcohol abuse ; less exercise (is undertaken) ;
high(er) stress levels ; high(er) blood pressure
; high(er), cholesterol / LDL, concentration in
blood ; hereditary factors / ethnicity ; at risk,
gene / allele, may be more common ; A FHC
gene ref to education ; AVP ; e.g. ref to
differences in data collection AVP ; e.g. ref
specific dietary differences red wine /
antioxidants ref to cholesterol-reducing
drug(s) / food(s) ref to life expectancy (if low
do not develop CHD)
ref to maternal diet during pregnancy
ref to diabetes 4 max
(e) benefits to society
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 18

fewer people have CHD / lower mortality due to
CHD ; fewer drugs used ; fewer operations
carried out / shorter waiting times ; e.g. by-
pass surgery / heart transplant ; less, NHS /
doctors, time taken up ; lower cost to NHS /
more money to spend elsewhere ; fewer work
days lost / less disability benefits paid out ;

benefits to individual
better quality of life ; live longer ; awareness of
harm to body ; people eat, more healthily / less
fatty food / less alcohol consumption ; people,
exercise more / more active ; people do not
smoke / less passive smoking ; AVP ; e.g.
lower levels of obesity
AVP ; e.g. stop people taking up smoking
OCR/2802/ Jun06

SAQ94. (a) 44.3%;
(b) (i) metabolic rate / energy needed to
maintain bodys constant internal
environment / to maintain life; rate when
at rest;
(ii) higher / greater / eq. in obese women;
by 15% / 1.0 MJ day; greater body mass
means more cells metabolising; more
energy required for basic maintenance;
(c) (i) Lean women 0.1 MJ day
-1
;
Obese women 3.5 / 1.9 MJ day
-1
;
(ii) 1 more body mass to move about;
more energy needed for same exercise;
2 less energy used in digestion;
(d) fed / eats measured quantity of food; of
known calorific value; collect faeces; measure
calorific value of food residue; calculate
energy intake by difference between energy in
food and energy in residue; ref to detail of use
of calorimeter; Edexcel

SAQ95. (a) (i) all show a rise in blood pressure
with increased sodium intake;
blood pressure rises with age in developed
and developing countries; each pair is parallel
/ eq; each is line of best fit /
comment on scatter of results; the slope
steepens as the age rises; lines for developing
countries always below those for developed /
mean BP higher in developed countries;
difference between developed and developing
increases with age / reference to figures / eq;
salt / sodium intake lower in developing
countries;
(ii) Any TWO from:
differences in fibre / fat/ exercise / genetics /
obesity / salt intake / stress;; [some
qualification need eg more / less in one than
the other]
(b) (i) more resistance to blood flow;
less blood flow to cardiac muscle / heart;
reduced supply of oxygen / nutrients;
may lead to death of heart muscle / heart
attack;
(ii) Any TWO from:
high saturated fat intake / animal fat intake /
high cholesterol; high trans-fat intake;
low fibre intake; high / excess alcohol intake; Edexcel

SAQ96. (a) steady / continuous fall in total
energy;
fat intake parallels total energy intake / eq;
percentage of energy derived from fat
unchanged;
energy from saturated fatty acids unchanged;
indicates no improvement in the diet;
fall in energy intake should affect the obesity
rate;
(b)(i)
100
10750
2890
100
10750
7860 10750


Answer 26.88/26.9;
(ii) Any TWO from:
qualified comment re. lifestyle change;
reduction in total food eaten;
less fried food / less fat eaten / less saturated
fat eaten / less dairy products;
greater awareness of high fat intake /
overeating / eq;
(c)reduction in fat intake as a percentage of
diet; eat less animal / less saturated fats / OR
replace animal fats with plant oils /
unsaturated fats; increase percentage of
carbohydrates in diet / replace fat with
carbohydrate;
(d) Any Two from:
no / less fat; less sugar; more fibre; more
vitamins / contains vitamin C; Edexcel

SAQ97.(a) France has a lower rate of heat
disease than UK; The incidence of smoking is
higher in France than UK; Drinking alcohol is
higher in France than UK; Obtaining energy
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 19

intake of fat is higher in France than UK; If all
these factors are considered likely to increase
the risk of heart disease of CHD would be
expected to be greater than in UK.
(b) Quality response eg. Simple statement
specifying more data that can be collected i.e.,
Data for same year for all factors; More
detailed data is needed eg. All factors like fat/
consumption/ smoking/ drinking alcohol may
not equally harmful; Detail of how data are
changing with time are needed; appropriate
specific examples of other factors that might
be included; Equivalent data with respect to
other similar regulating European countries to
provide context.
(c) By stabilizing/ neutralizing/ removing the
free radicals by providing hydrogen ions. Free
radicals damage biological molecules like
endothelial cells in artery walls.
(d) Vegetable oil is polyunsaturated/ animal fat
is saturated; Vegetable oil forms HDLs/ animal
fats form LDLs; Vegetable oil reduces
cholesterol/ animal fats causes
atherosclerosis. SNAB
JAN 2003

SAQ98. (a) Similar in shape to noradrenaline/
adrenaline; Fit in (sympathetic) receptor sites;
On cardiac muscle/heart; Prevent stimulation
of cardiac muscle;
(b) Dose (40-80mg)mg
Explanation
Higher doses produce no/ very little reduction
in blood pressure; Risk of side-effects/ toxicity
with higher doses; Saves wasting money on
extra drug.
Total 5 Marks AQA Jan 2003

SAQ99. (a) (i) average number of admissions
on ordinary day; when no football match being
played; similar time of year / conditions
(ii) experiencing a myocardial infarction over
the six days; large / significant difference for
three days; then small difference
(b) increases heart rate; raises blood pressure
/ causes hypertension; blood supply to heart /
oxygen use by heart increased; atheroma
restricts blood / oxygen supply to heart
muscle.
(c) reduces heart rate; beta-blocker fits
receptor sites; on walls of heart / blood vessel;
(receptor sites for) adrenaline / Noradrenaline /
stops adrenaline /noradrenaline binding.
AQA June 2004

SAQ100.(a) (i) (Risk of):
High blood pressure increases with age; Heart
attack increases with age / no heart attacks
before 35 years;
(ii) Females (or reverse argument for males):
More likely to develop high blood pressure;
Have lower risk of heart attack (as they get
older / post-55);
(b) (Beta blocker) binds to receptor; Receptor
on heart (muscle cells);(Therefore) adrenaline
cannot bind; Blood pressure falls because
heart rate reduced / force of contraction
reduced;
(c) Male is (700 378 = 322, 322 / 700 = ) 46%;
Female because (480 252 = 228 / 480 = )
47.5%;
(d) Principle:
CHD = heart muscle receives inadequate
amount of blood or oxygen / (coronary) blood
supply reduced;
Smoking: Raises concentration of fibrinogen
(in blood) / increased risk of clotting; Increases
viscosity of blood; (Nicotine) causes platelets
to stick together / causes vasoconstriction;
Carbon monoxide associated with plaque
formation; Reduces ability of arteries to dilate /
reduces elasticity; Cholesterol: Fatty streaks /
deposits adhere to wall of arteries; Atheroma /
atherosclerosis / plaque; Narrows lumen of
artery; Damages endothelium; Can lead to
formation of thrombus / blood clot; Clots need
to be in context Total 15 AQA-BYA3
JAN2002

SAQ101. (a) (i) reduce intake of fat / particularly
saturated fat / correct examples / increase fibre
/ fresh fruit and vegetables / increase intake of
foods containing sterols / stanols /include oily
fish;
(ii) 1. cholesterol synthesized by the body ;
2. further detail e.g. made in liver / cholesterol
made from saturated fats;
3. genetic factors;
4. further detail e.g. hypercholesterolaemia /
number of LDL receptors;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 20

(b) (i) 39.9 / 40.0%
(ii) (Statin) B;
(iii) The number of subjects involved
ref to {validity / reliability /identification of
anomalous results / allows for variation };
NOT accuracy / precision
The control group
to confirm the drug was having the effect
Total 8 marks SNAB Jan 2007

SAQ102. (a) Plaque/ fatty material/ cholesterol/
foam cells/ lipoprotein build up; In artery/
blood vessel wall;
(b) Weakens artery wall; So that it swells/
bursts;
(c) Slows/ prevents conversion of fibrinogen to
fibrin/ fibrin formation; less chance of a blood
clot/ thrombus being formed/ slows blood clot
formation; which may block coronary artery/
artery supplying heart muscle; Total 7
marksAQA-BYA3 JAN2002

SAQ103. (a) Converts prothrombin to
thrombin;
(b) (i) fibrin formed from fibrinogen; by the
action of thrombin;
(ii) forms mesh of fibres which trap (platelets
and blood) cells;
(c) (i) warfarin prevents blood clotting which
causes thrombosis in coronary arteries/may
block c. arteries/ arteries supplying heart
muscle;
(ii) ( 36 ) = 17%; (210)
(iii) (409) = 30%; (1334)
(iv) yes: smaller % age have thrombosis if
already taking warfarin; substantial difference
in figures/large sample;
OR no: those taking warfarin obviously more
likely to develop thrombosis; not matched with
control group;
Total 9 marks AQA-BYA3 JAN2004

SAQ104. (a) 1. High fat diet/high salt diet/lack
of exercise/age/gender;
TWO risk factors for one mark
Not hypertension as this is given later
2. Atheroma forms under endothelium/in artery
wall;
3. Atheroma may narrow lumen of artery;
4. Atheroma increases blood pressure;
5. Atheroma promotes clotting;
6. Details of effect of atheroma on clotting;
7. Blood clot lodges in coronary artery;
8. Reduced blood supply to heart muscle;
9. Reduced oxygen/glucose supply leading to
cell death;
(b) (i) 1. Reduces heart rate;
2. Keeps heart rate stable/reduces variation in
heart rate;
3. Nullifies external stimulus;
Individual points must be supported with
information from the graph
(ii) Similar shape to adrenaline/noradrenaline;
Fits into receptors; On cardiac muscle/wall of
artery; Preventing adrenaline/noradrenaline
binding;
(iii) To ensure change in heart rate due to beta
blocker and not persons behaviour/knowing
may affect heart rate;
(c) (i) Beta blockers reduce mortality (following
myocardial infarction)/ Greater reduction in the
older group;
(ii) ((Deaths with placebo deaths with beta
blocker) deaths with placebo) x 100
AQA-BYA3 JAN2006

SAQ105. (a) Similar (in shape) to
adrenaline/noradrenaline/ agonists;
Reject same shape as receptor
2.(Fit into) receptors on heart muscle/lining of
artery;
3.Stops adrenaline/noradrenaline/ agonists
binding;
4.Slow down heart rate/relax muscles in artery
walls / enlarge lumen of arteries
(b) 1.(Reduced hypertension means) less
turbulence;
2.Thrombus/blood clot less likely to form;
Reject no blood clots
3. Which could block artery/ arteriole;
4. Less damage to artery wall;
5. Less atheroma formed/ less plaques formed;
6. Less likely to get aneurysm;
Accept converse for all points

SAQ106. (a) 1. fatty material/foam
cells/cholesterol in artery wall / under
endothelium;
2. creates turbulence/damage to lining of
artery;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 21

3. formation of
plaques/atherosclerosis/narrows lumen of
artery;
4. (turbulence) increases risk of blood clot;
5. blood clot breaks off;
6. (blood clot) lodges in coronary artery;
7. reduces blood supply to heart muscle;
8. reduces oxygen supply;
9. results in death of heart muscle;
(b) (i) equal chance of being assigned to either
group;

(ii) To compare with warfarin to see if it has any
effect;
(iii)(14/255) X 100 = 5.5%
(37/253) X 100 = 14.6%;
14.6 - 5.5 = 9.1(%)/9.13(%);
(c) (i) (Trend): as heparin concentration
increases, clotting time increases; (Pattern):
reference to change after 0.2 arbitrary units; (ii)
blood clot from transfused blood could cause
thrombosis /stroke / embolism/ heart
attack/myocardial infarction;
(iii) calcium ions needed to convert
prothrombin to thrombin / fibrinogen to fibrin;
less thrombin /fibrin formed;
Total 15 AQABYA3 JUN 2005

SAQ107. (a) hepatic vein, vena cava, aorta;
inclusion of incorrect vessel negates mark
pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein; 2
(b) (i) endocytosis / pinocytosis; 1
(ii) enzymes;
reject lysosomes are enzymes / lysosyme
digest/break down/hydrolyse
(lipo)proteins/envelope/membrane; 2
(c) produce faulty/different receptor protein;
with different shape/tertiary structure;
LDLs will not fit/bind to receptor site;
LDLs not removed from blood / taken into cell /
taken up;
OR
does not produce receptor protein;
no receptors in membrane;
nowhere for LDLs to bind;
LDLs not removed from blood / taken into cell /
taken up; 3
do not penalise use of the term active site unless
used in context of enzymes
(d) increase;
causes genes (controlling HMGCoA reductase/LDL
receptors) to be switched off;
no more synthesised / taken into cell;
continues to be used and therefore falls/returns to
norm; 3 max
(e) (i) adds hydrogen (ion)/proton to HMGCoA /
mevalonic acid has extra hydrogen;
ignore references to electrons 1
(ii) similar shape/structure to substrate /HMGCoA;
fits active site of enzyme /acts as competitive
inhibitor;
prevents HMGCoA/substrate fitting / fewer enzyme-
substrate complexes formed;
AQA/Jun06/BYA8/W
SAQ108. (a) Bilayer / two molecules thick;
Heads / hydrophilic parts outwards / Tails /
hydrophobic parts inward; Credit information
provided in a diagram, labelling essential for
second marking point.
Reject water loving / water hating.
(b) Only parts of membrane with receptors /
molecules into which surface proteins will fit /
recognition / binding sites;
(c) Endocytosis / phagocytosis /pinocytosis;
Reject cytosis.
(d) (i) Lysosome;
(ii) Enzymes; Digests / breaks down/
hydrolyses (other molecules); Reject
cholesterol. AQA/0202/BYA1
SAQ109. a. Increasing the number of risk
factors increases risk of CHD; Increase by one
risk factor double incidence; Adding third risk
factor has larger effect on incidence; smoking
is the highest factor deaths are 620 in 100000
people.
b. High blood cholesterol
1. Fatty deposition in artery walls / plaque
formation;
2. Atheroma- formed;
3. Increased blood pressure
4. Lumen of (coronary) arteries narrowed I
reduced elasticity of artery wall
5. Correct reference to LDIs;
High blood pressure:
6. Damage to (lining of) arteries;
7. Risk of aneurysm / damaged Lining (of
arteries) rupturing:
8. Increased risk of blood clot blocking
coronary arteries-;
9. Correct reference to inflammatory response
Smoking:
10. Increases blood pressure
11. Increases risk of aneurysm
12. Less antioxidants / more free radicals-:t
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 22

13. Increases (number / activation of platelets:
14. (Leading to) increased risk of blood clot
blocking coronary arteries
Total 9 marks SNAB June 2005
SAQ110. (a) Increasing the number of risk
factors increases risk of CHD; Increase by one
risk factor double incidence / eq ;
Adding third risk factor has larger effect on
incidence ; Relevant use of manipulated
figures ;
(b) High blood cholesterol:
1. Fatty deposition in artery walls / plaque
formation ;
2. Atheroma formed ;
3. Increased blood pressure ;
4. Lumen of (coronary) arteries narrowed /
reduced elasticity of artery wall / eq ;
5. Correct reference to LDLs ;
High blood pressure:
6. Damage to (lining of) arteries ;
7. Risk of aneurysm / damaged lining (of
arteries) rupturing ;
8. Increased risk of blood clot blocking
coronary arteries ;
9. Correct reference to inflammatory response
;
Smoking:
10. Increases blood pressure ;
11. Increases risk of aneurysm ;
12. Less antioxidants / more free radicals ;
13. Increases {number / activation} of platelets
;
14. (Leading to) increased risk of blood clot
blocking coronary
arteries ;
General points [allow in any section]:
15. Reduced blood supply to heart muscle ;
16. Angina / increased risk of heart attack ;
17. Reference to interactions between factors
to increase risk ;
18. Correct reference to atherosclerosis ;
SNAB/SN1/2005

SAQ111. 1. (a) They differ in height and
structure; Phil is taller than Andy.
(b) They differ in BMR; Tara/ women has lower
BMR than Phil/ men. Total 4 marks
SNAB June 2003

SAQ112. (a) (i)
;
(1.55)
58.80
2

Answer 24.47/24.5;
(ii)person D;
(iii) 1 coronary heart disease / atherosclerosis
/ high blood pressure /
hypertension / stroke / angina;
2 increased danger of developing diabetes;
increased likelihood of pulmonary problems /
breathlessness;
3 damage to joints by carrying excess weight /
eq; gall bladder disease; skin infection from
skin folds; increased surgical risk /
eq;
(b)1 gender; age; general state of health;
2 lifestyle / level of physical activity;
pregnancy;
(c) any change in level of physical activity may
affect body mass; increased physical activity
increases energy expenditure / converse;
more exercise and no increased energy intake
reduces body mass / eq. increased exercise
increases muscle bulk; this may increase
body mass; Edexcel

SAQ113. (a) (i) 0.14%
(ii) 3.9 to 4 times
(b) i. The greater the BMI the greater the
chance of dying due to CHD. When BMI is
increasing at 35 the death percent is 45.
ii. BMI= Body mass in kg/ height
2
in meters
iii 1. Fatty deposits in arteries / atheroma /
plaques / reference to atherosclerosis:
2. Higher cholesterol Levels:
3. Higher blood pressure:
4. Risk of damage to (coronary) arteries:
5. Risk of blood clot blocking coronary
arteries:
6. Risk of type II diabetes. Total 8 marks
SNAB Jan 2006

SAQ114. (a) (i) 33 Kg m
2
(ii) 1.Increase Level of exercise;
2. (which) increases metabolic rate / uses more
energy
3. (which) increases weight loss /
4. Reference to change in diet:
5. Decrease saturated fat intake:
6. (Therefore) reducing blood cholesterol
Level;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 23

7. Low carbohydrate diet / reduce alcohol
intake / reduce sugars in diet:
8. To restrict calorie intake;
9. To reduce risk of type 2 diabetes;
10. Lowers blood pressure
11. Reduces risk of cardio vascular disease.
(b) (i) EAR=BMR x PAL 10.6 MJ/day
(ii)The PAL value for a man with a low level of
physical activity is 1.4. Calculate the BMR for a
35 year old man with this level of physical
activity. Show your working. (2)
BMR = EAR/ PAL 10.6/1.4 = 7.6
Total 10 marks SNAB June 2005

SAQ115. (a) (i) kJ m
-2
h
-1
/ in words;
(ii) To calculate heat lost to water (jacket);
(iii) To calculate heat lost to air;
(b) Two marks for two of:
10-20 years rapid decrease associated with
adolescent growth spurt / eq / decrease in S.A.
/ mass;
20-35 years no change as body same size /
same composition / same level of activity;
30-70 years slow decrease associated with
loss of muscle / gain of fat /reduced activity;
If none of the above scored, allow one mark for
BMR decreases with age due to decrease in
activity / high when young as more active;
AQA/S02/BYA7
SAQ116. (a) Anything that affects the chance
of harm
(b)1. Strain on the heart;
2. Raises blood pressure
3. Raises cholesterol / LDL (in the blood);
4. Increased risk of formation of (atheroma /
plaques)
5. Atherosclerosis
6. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes / explained
(c) 1. Glucose is (a monosaccharide / soluble /
doesn't need to be digested)
2. Glucose can be quickly absorbed into the
blood stream
3. Can pass into muscle (cells)
4. Can be used for respiration;
5. For (muscle) contraction. SNAB JAN 2005

SAQ117. (a) (cholesterol) deposited in, walls /
lining, of arteries / 'in arteries / in blood
vessels atherosclerosis / atheroma; in
coronary artery: forming plaques: roughens
lining: narrows lumen / narrows artery /
reduces blood flow; R arteries become smaller
/ blocks' increase in blood pressure: ref blood
clotting / thrombosis;
(b) less, (total) fat / saturated fat / animal fat: A
increase (poly)unsaturated fat; less
cholesterol; less salt;
e.g. of a food to avoid - red meat, eggs, dairy
products, full fat milk, ice cream, prawns,
avocado, etc:
eat, fruit / vegetables / fiber: increase intake of,
antioxidants / named antioxidant; e.g. vitamin
E / red wine. Eat, oily fish / named oily fish /
Sushi / olive oil;
eat, cholesterol-lowering foods / named
example:
(c) (heart / coronary) by-pass: described; e.g.
carries blood around the blockage R replaces
it source of blood vessel(s) used; A vein or
artery or synthetic material heart transplant;
from donor / from transgenic pig / artificial
heart; immunosuppressant drugs: angioplasty:
described (inflated balloon +/- laser): further
detail; e.g. use of stents (wire mesh to hold
open artery), use of catheter, insert in vessel in
groin / leg / arm: ref to tissue matching /
rejection
(d) allows, early diagnosis: A ref to babies /
children / young adults screen / test I check,
for alleles / genes, that make them susceptible
to disease / AW;
advise parents on risks to children /
counseling: provide check ups (at regular
intervals) / ref monitoring:
specific advice on, diet / exercise / obesity /
smoking / alcohol; e.g. specific diet comment
regular exercise; reduce weight; do not smoke;
moderate intake of alcohol specific treatment;
e.g. drugs to lower blood cholesterol / ref to
gene therapy Total 12 marks
OCR June 2003.

SAQ118 (a) 1. Bronchitis 2. emphysema
(b) damage to artery wall / lining / endothelium;
scarring OR damage to artery/ damage in
artery invasion by phagocytes; cholesterol /
fat/ LDLs, deposited / accumulates / artery
wall; growth / proliferation of, smooth muscle /
fibrous tissue: wall thickens / lumen becomes
narrow / reduces blood flow; rougher surface;
platelets secrete clotting factor(s); endothelial
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 24

cells secrete less, anti-clotting factor(s) /
prostaglandins; e.g. atheroma, breaks open
/bursts through wall loss of elasticity/ walls do
not stretch as much.
(c)nicotine
increases, heart rate / blood pressure (possibly
leading to damage to artery walls): decreases
width of arteries / lumen smaller/ reduces
blood flow; increases number of platelets /
makes platelets more 'sticky; decreases
antioxidants; damages walls of arteries:
reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood /
binds with hemoglobin forms
carboxyhaemoglobin: both increase
development of, plaque / atheroma; stimulate
production of, fibrinogen / clotting factors:
reduces production of enzymes that remove
clots: increase blood cholesterol
(concentration). OCR June 2004
SAQ119 (a) eq.; 100
49
20 49
100
49
29


Answer 59.2 %;
(b)(i) DCPIP decolourised by vitamin C / blue
colour disappears; use vitamin C solution of
known concentration; determine volume
needed to decolourise known volume of
DCPIP; extract juices / eq. from vegetables /
liquidise and filter / eq.; determine volume of
each juice needed to decolourise same
volume of DCPIP; any relevant calculation
described;
(ii) 1. same quantity / mass of each vegetable;
same volume of water used;
2. DCPIP made freshly / kept covered;
same / stated volume of DCPIP used each
time;
3.add extracts to DCPIP drop by drop;
same amount of mixing /shaking each time;
(c) 1. chopping up / cutting / peeling / slicing /
eq.; prepared fruit / vegetables kept in water;
2. bruising / tissue damage / freezing; long
storage / ageing; exposure to air; exposure to
light; Edexcel
SAQ120 No Marking scheme

SAQ121 (a) (i) The diagrams below show three
molecules P, Q and R. Choose a nutrient from the
table above that would provide the baby with each
molecule. Put your answer on the dotted line to
the right of each molecule. (3)

Molecule P Protein
Molecule Q Triglyceride/ fat
Molecule R Maltose/ Carbohydrate

(ii) Calculate the difference in the mass of protein
consumed per day by an average baby fed on
formula milk compared with an average baby fed
on human milk. Show your working.
calculation (e.g. 3.3-1.0 or 2.3) x 8 (g) ;
answer (18.4)
(b) Use your own knowledge and data from the
table, to suggest and explain a reason why babies
fed on formula milk are likely to put on weight
more quickly than babies fed on breast milk.
(2)
1. more protein (in formula milk) ; 2. protein
needed for growth / muscle deposition ; 3.
{protein / muscle} {heavier / more dense} than
same amount of carbohydrate / fat

(c) There is concern that putting on weight in early
life may be one cause of obesity in teenagers.
Body mass index (BMI) can be used to identify
people who are obese. Describe how BMI is
calculated and used to judge whether somebody is
obese or not. (2)
1. description of equation / body mass divided
by height2 ;
2. look up on a chart to make judgment / over
30 (on BMI scale) Total 9 marks
SNAB Jan 2008

SAQ122 (b) EAR = mean of the, population I
sample; A ref. 50% need more, 50% less
EAR is the only DRv for energy:
RNI = two standard deviations, about I above
and below, the mean or more than enough for
most of the population I
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 25

(c) pregnancy: lactation / breast feeding:
body building / training I exercise qualified;
AVP;: re.g. heavy periods Irecovery from
disease /high metabolic rate/
large size) R 'menstruation' unqualified
(d) maintenance I repair / replacement;
ref bones I organs / tissues: immune system:
not able to store protein;
AVP;: (e.g. any 2 protein functions)
(e) individual needs (i.e. planning diets for
individual): not generalised / related to specific
groups / AW: ref advice I education I
information, for general public / onsumers:
analysing dietary surveys: use by dieticianns /
constructing diets (i.e. for
schools/hospitals/institutions):
food labelling / selling / marketing:
(f) measles is highly infectious:
poor development of immune system I few
lymphocytes / few T/B cells: weakened
immune system; antibodies are proteins, fewer
are made I AW; vitamin A deficiency:
poor maintenance of epithelia (virus enters
through nose I mouth etc); ref. to need for
booster vaccination (as initial vaccination does
not work):
(g) (carbohydrate used) to provide energy:
carbohydrate easily respwed: saves protein
from being respired; high quality protein
provides (all) essential amino acids: energy I
protein, needed for growth I repair /
replacement; OCR/JAN02/2802

SAQ123 (a) 95 / 95.4 / 95.44;
(b)(i) note that Q says such as iron
for haemoglobin / prevents anaemia / prevents
deficiency;
provides enough for most of the population /
meets needs (of most people);
data quote 97.72 / 97.7%; allows enough to
be stored (in the body); not enough to be
harmful / guide to safe amount / ensure people
do not take too much; idea that iron is
harmless in large quantities AVP; e.g. peoples
requirements vary / difficult to know how much
people require
(ii) blood lost; at menstruation / during menstrual
cycle / ref periods / at birth; females at higher
risk of anaemia; ref to pregnancy;
OCR/JUN01/2802

SAQ124 (a) Mass in kg divided by height in
metres squared / formula with units ;
(b)BMI of 25 and over is overweight ;
BMI of {more than / equal to} 30 is obese ;
(c)1. 16-24 {no difference / slight
difference} (between sexes) ;
2. Both increase with age ;
3. Men always higher than women / men
rises faster than women / men
percentage increases more than that for
women ;
4. Greatest increase for both sexes
between {24 / 25} and 34 ;
5. Men start to level off {before women / at
45, women at 55} ;
(d) 1. BMR falls with (increasing) age ;
2. Need less {food / energy} as age increases ;
3.If {quantity / energy intake} of food not
reduced the excess is stored as fat ;
4.Increase in fat leads to increase in BMI ;
5. Reference to steepest drop in BMR
corresponds to biggest increase in
overweight percentages / reference to age at
which this occurs ; Edexcel

SAQ125 (a) 58.80 1.55
2
; 24.47 / 24.5;
(b) Person D; 1
(c) Any three from:
Gender; Age; Pregnancy; Lactation; General
state of health; Lifestyle / level of activity;
Edexcel
SAQ126 (a)(i)mass / weight in kg and height in
m OR mass / weight divided by height
squared
(ii) adipose / fat
(b) (i) 2.2 - 1.08 [allow 1.075 to 1.1]
= 1.12 arbitrary units / units [allow 1.1 to
1.125] /OR

100% to 104.7% rise 1
(ii)smokers risk always at least 2 that for
nonsmokers /
eq

increase in risk as BMI increases 1
steep increase in risk for smokers at BMI 30 /
when obese /
OR
steep increase in risk for
nonsmokers at BMI 34 1
nonsmokers with BMI 36 have higher risk
than smokers at 26 1
between 32 34 little change / no change for
smokers /
OR
increases more for nonsmokers
(iii) raises blood pressure / raised pulse
rate/
eq
/
OR
reference. to carbon monoxide /
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 26

CO combining with Hb / reducing oxygen
carriage by Hb /
OR
decreases antioxidants (in
blood) /
OR
increases blood cholesterol /
OR

constriction of coronary arteries /
OR
rise in
ratio of LDLP:HDLP /
OR
increased number of
platelets /
OR
platelets more sticky /
OR

increase risk of plaque formation in coronary
arteries 1
(c) ref. to need to get energy expenditure
higher than energy intake /
eq
reduce
carbohydrate /fat intake / ref. to low fat / low
calorie diet / increase exercise / activity
Edexcel
SAQ127(a)(i)Maximum 72/73 kg;
Minimum 57/58 kg.
(ii) BMI =
2
) (Height
Mass

relates body mass to height / eq. / indicates
amount of adipose tissue
in the body.

(b)(i) women have 3 the fat content */ eq.;
men have almost 2x muscle content */eq.;
men have 1 x non-muscle lean tissue */ eq.;
men have 1 x skeletal tissue */ eq.;
women more fat than muscle / men more
muscle than fat;
[* accept both figures quoted / difference /
percentage age
difference calculated].
(ii) 1.testosterone / androgens produce more
muscle development in men
2.androgens increase skeletaldevelopment;
women lay down greater fat stores / more fat
qualified
(c)1 reduction in mass of fat;increase in mass
of muscle;
2 increase in mass of skeletal tissue. Edexcel

SAQ128. (a) Coronary artery ;
(b)(i) (Increase in cholesterol level) gives
increase in risk;
Slight / insignificant /
eq
increase between 5
and 6 (mmol dm
-3
)(not time reference so not
faster / slower );
Increase in risk greater above 6.0-6.5 (mmol
dm
-3
) ; Risk at 8 (mmol dm
-3
) 2 that at 5
(mmol dm
-3
) / (sensible use of figures); max 2
(ii) Risk in both increases as cholesterol level
increases ; At low cholesterol /
OR
5 mmol dm

3
little difference between smokers and non-
smokers (not time references so not faster /
slower) As cholesterol level increases, risk
increases more in smokers than in non-
smokers / bigger difference at 8 than at 5 ;
Credit use of figures ; Smokers always at
greater risk than non-smokers /
eq
;
(iii)Age ;Weight / mass / BMI ;Reference to
lifestyle, qualified / occupation / stress level
;Reference to exercise level / type / frequency
of exercise ;Reference to genetic /family
history ;Reference to other diseases /
illnesses / e.g. diabetes ; Blood pressure ; max 2
(c)(i)Reference to absence of double bonds (in
(hydro)carbon chains of constituent fatty
acids) /
eq
;
(ii) Japan ;
(iii) As ratio / proportion of polyunsaturated to
saturated fat increases, risk of heart disease
seems to decrease; Edexcel

SAQ129. (a) 65/1.75 = 21kg m
2
b. Less exercise/ Quantity: increased
availability of food / people are wealthier / eq;
Quality: more high (fat / sugar] foods / fast
food / processed food
c. i. 1. Reference to (Isolating / identifying
normal (leptin) gene.: 2. Inserting normal
(leptin) gene into (target cells / cells of
adipose tissue]: 3. Reference to use of
vectors:
4. Such as (virus / plasmids / Liposome;
5. Identify whether the normal gene is being
expressed / has the treatment worked / gene is
translated / correct protein made.(3)
(ii) 1. Reference to side effects / risk of
diseases in the patient e.g. cancer
2. Reference to cost of treatment / resources
diverted to thus from treatments for Life
threatening diseases;
3. Reference to consent of patient /
confidentiality issues;
4. Treatment not cure / genes stilt present to
be passed on / reference to somatic as
opposed to germ line;
5. Reference to counseling:
6. Reference to {animal / embryo testing:
Total 9 marks SNAB June 2004
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 27

SAQ130. (a) (i) A description to include three
from:
1. increase in the percentage of {all / the
population} classed as obese
2. increase in both males and females /
females higher than males;
3. bigger difference between males and
females in 1986;
4. 3 to 4 fold increase from 1980-2000 / correct
manipulation of figures
(ii) A suggestion to include two from:
1. inactivity / lack of exercise / high fat diet / eq
;
2. energy intake greater than energy loss ;
3. advertising and commercial pressures;
4. genetic reference to male and female
differences / women {post-pregnancy /
menopause}
(b) (76 1.702) / 26.29 / 26.3 / 26;
ALLOW 76 1.70 = 45 = yes / obese
(c) An explanation to include three from:
1. increase in blood pressure;
2. increased risk of {damage to arteries /
plaque / atheroma atherosclerosis};
3. increased risk of stroke / blood clotting an
artery / coronary heart disease / CVD
4. increase in blood cholesterol ;
5. increased risk of Type II diabetes;
6. Joint damage SNAB Jan 2007

SAQ131. SAME AS SAQ121

SAQ132. (a) minerals / salts / named mineral;
fibre / roughage; water
(b) (i) 23
(ii) Acceptable.
(c) arthritis / joint problems; CHD / (coronary)
heart disease / heart attack / heart failure /
CVD; stroke; angina; thrombosis blood
clotting; atherosclerosis; (named) cancer; high
blood pressure / hypertension; breathlessness
/ shortness of breath diabetes; depression;
varicose veins; gall stones; hernia; kidney
failure; second named cancer cancers
breast, womb / cervical, ovary, gall bladder,
colon / rectum / bowel, prostate, testicular
(d) 1.inducements / prizes / competitions; 2.
clubs / local meetings / clinics / help lines; e.g.
Well Woman clinics
3. target setting for weight reduction / target
groups of people; 3. change diet, qualified with
ref to energy / nutrients; A adopt a balanced
diet 4. accept refs to RDAs, RNIs, reduced
alcohol intake 5. encourage people to exercise
more / promote active lifestyle; 6. advertising /
education, about health risks of obesity; A
raise awareness
7. AVP; any other appropriate strategy to do
with weight loss OCR June 2002

SAQ133. (a) eating too much; high, fat / sugar /
carbohydrate/ alcohol (in diet): energy intake
greater than use /
insufficient exercise e.g. genetic
predisposition underactive thyroid
(b). decrease in % underweight:
decrease in % acceptable;
increase In % overweight:
large / great / dramatic/ significant increase In
% obese: use of figs to illustrate one change:
(c) 1. high level of saturated fat in diet:
2 animal fat / red meat/ dairy products:
3. high cholesterol (in blood / body);
4. lack of, vit E / antioxidants;
5. high salt in diet:
6. obesity inked to high blood pressure /
hypertension:
7. damage to artery, walls / endothelium:
8. cholesterol transported
9. cholesterol deposited in artery walls
10. in coronary arteries
11. atherosclerosis /atheroma
12. formation of, plaques / fatty streaks:
13. hardening / loss of elasticity (of artery
wall):
14. roughens lining increases friction;
13. clot formation / thrombosis / thrombus:
16. narrows / restricts. lumen
17. reduced / restricted, blood fowl oxygen, to
heart muscle
18. heart (muscle), under stress / works
harder:
19. angina / heart attack / myocardial infarction
/ heart failure / hypertrophy; CHD
20. AVP; e.g. aneurism in aorta
21. low density lipoproteins (LDL) associated
with deposition
high density lipoproteins (HDL) associated
with less deposition OCR June 2005

SAQ134. (a) 122: A if not in box
(b) (i) (pulse rate) increases:
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 28

use of fig was to demonstrate increase:
(ii) increased respiration in muscles:
requires more, oxygen glucose:
increased carbon dioxide production
carbon dioxide removed in blood:
cardiac output must increase lactate, produced
/ transported to liver: A lactic acid
(c) Student D. high resting pulse rate: heart
rate / pulse rate, goes higher than others / very
high: A pulse rate always high figures to
demonstrate pulse rate point: blood pressure
higher at rest; blood pressure, rises to higher
than others / highest: A blood pressure always
higher use of figures to demonstrate blood
pressure point:
d. fat more likely to, compress / constrict,
blood vessels / atherosclerosis more likely:
greater friction: (therefore) blood pressure
higher: more weight means more work done
(by muscles during exercise): more oxygen
needed (by respiring tissues) / more CO2
needs to be removed. OCR June 2005

SAQ135. (a) Cannot be made within the body;
(b) 35% of 8830 = 3090.5
3090.5/37 = 83.53 or 84
(c) saturated fat, raises concentration of LDLs
in the blood;
raises (blood) cholesterol; (increases risk of)
atherosclerosis / described: A atheroma /
plaque / fat or cholesterol in wall of artery
raises blood pressure: (increases risk of)
blood clots / thrombosis: (coronary) heart
disease / heart attack / heart failure / Ml /
angina / CVD: stroke: overweight / obesity:
increase body mass index (BMI); AVP;; e.g.
obesity-related diseases such as arthritis,
named cancer (R lung), gall stones, diabetes,
hypertension, hernia, varicose veins,
haemorrhoids, joint / knee damage, depression
(R mental health problems) ref to surgery
being difficultref to adipose tissue
(d) 1 any two references to differences in
quantities:
A rich / richer / good source of
2 use of figures to make a comparison
between quantities for any one nutrient;
3 protein needed for, repair / replacement / ref
pregnancy / ref lactation /
AW;
4 vitamin A, ref to function or deficiency:
rods / retina / night vision / xerophthalmia / ref
epithelia / immune system
5 vitamin D, ref to function or deficiency:
absorption or deposition of calcium /
osteomalacia R rickets 6 calcium, ref to
function or deficiency:
skeleton / teeth / bones / fetal growth / muscles
/ nerves 7 iron, ref to function or deficiency:
haemoglobin / anaemia / menstrual loss / red
cells
8 other foods needed to provide iron or
calcium / need to take supplements:
9 AVP consequences of deficiencies, e.g.
osteoporosis, fatigue
10 AVP any ref to RNI for any one of these
nutrients
ref to polyunsaturated fatty acids in 'oily fish
idea that one food does not make a diet
Total 11 marks OCR Jan 2004

SAQ136. (a) brings no further benefit in
fitness: may damage / put strain on, the heart /
blood vessels:
1. (a) (i)men 18.2 to 18.4.KPa
women17.7 to 17.9.. kpa
(ii) 3.9/16.0 x 100 = 24%
(iii) increase ; use of figures to show an
increase: units to appear at least once
(b) (all ages) higher % of men have
hypertension; (40.8% men v 32.9% women) /
higher % men with hypertension in groups
from 16-64: (16.0 v 4.2%) men have higher
(mean systolic) blood pressure (18.2 v 17.7
kPa) men have higher blood pressure in
groups 16-64 (17.1 v 16.0 kPa, etc)
women have higher % with hypertension >65;
(72.8 v 69.9 %) women have higher blood
pressure > 65: (19.9 v 19.7 kPa) A similar from
55 women's (systolic) blood pressure
increases more between 16 75; idea that
men and women reach (mean systolic) blood
pressure of 18.7 kPa at same age: ref to
threshold for hypertension as given in the
stem of the question use of figures to make a
comparison: (figures quoted or ratio used)
allow if no units given
(c) Identifies people at risk of, disease /
hypertension / AW; target, prevention / drug
treatment / advice:
identifies health, priorities / policies:
check on progress of, health programmes /
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 29

health initiatives: public education / public
awareness / patient awareness: ref to
economics; OCR June 2003

SAQ 137. (a) Identify those at risk from
developing cancer; So as to avoid relevant
environmental factors / enable early diagnosis;
Identify risk in families;
(b) Mutation of suppressor gene 1. Mutation is
a change in the DNA / sense strand; 2. Base
sequence altered / e.g.;
3. Suppressor gene produces wrong
instructions / has different code; 4. (Therefore)
different amino acid sequence; 5. Different
protein structure / non-functional protein;
Malignant tumour 6. Cell division by mitosis;
7. Tumour cells growth abnormal / continuous
/ uncontrolled / rapid; 8. Tumour cells spread /
invade other tissues / form secondary tumours
/ metastasis; 9. Via blood / lymph system; 6
max
(c) (i) Most lung cancer occurs in smokers /
non-smokers also
develop lung cancer; Smoking increases the
risk of lung cancer; Smoking is an
environmental factor for lung cancer;
Smokers risk more than 4x that of non-
smokers / correct ref to figures; (But) only a
small proportion of smokers develop lung
cancer; Smokers more likely to develop other
lung disease than cancer;
(ii) Do not know size of sample / might be small
sample in study; Genetic differences /
predisposition; Could be different age at which
started to smoke; Could be different number of
cigarettes smoked per day; Could be different
tar levels in cigarettes smoked; Could be
different sexes in sample; Other valid;
(d) All exposed to same environmental
conditions / factors / no regional variations;
Same level of pollution / example; reject less
pollution Similar diet / example; Same water
supply; Easier to screen whole population;
Easier to follow family history / people related;
Identify genetic differences in those affected
(since everything else the same) / less genetic
diversity; Total 15 marks AQA BYA3JUN 2002

SAQ138.(a) high death rate: preventable /
avoidable, deaths; premature deaths / younger
than life expectancy / people of working age;
e.g. cost of care/ medical facilities
(b) (i) supported or not supported / data
support hypothesis explanation
death rates (for both men and women) are
lower; ref to any two figures from the table to
show a comparison (e.g. Spain v Latvia)
(ii)explanation
support - all figures for men (in 35-74 )age
range are higher than those for women;
do not support - no data for men and women
over 74! only applies to 35-74 age range / no
data for men and women under 35! smoking-
related not gender-related;
ref to any two figures from the table to show a
comparison (e.g. men and women In the same
country);
(iii) supported or not supported
explanation
prevalence of smoking is, higher/ no lower in
Mediterranean countries, than in some
countries with higher death rates from CHD;
ref to men in Latvia and Russian Federation
who show high prevalence of smoking and
have high death rates from CHD: A no
correlation between prevalence or smoking
and mortality from CHD ref to any figures from
the table to show a comparison.
(c) lifestyle increases susceptibility to
degenerative diseases:
e.g. diabetes, CHD, atherosclerosis: smoking
increases risk of developing, (lung) cancer /
CHD; no signs of symptoms of disease, may
be developing or increasing risk of developing
(non-infectious) diseases; fathers heart attack,
may mean that there is a genetic
predisposition to heart disease: not a balanced
diet: little fresh fruit and veg, little, dietary
fibre / antioxidants / vitamins: little
(aerobic)exercise; except on one occasion a
week, may put strain on heart /AW: health risks
associated with, binge drinking / alcohol.
Total 9 marks OCR Jan 2004
SAQ139. (a) Nicotine
(b) substance 1
carbon monoxide / CO; binds to haemoglobin /
forms carboxyhaemoglobin; Hb has greater
affinity or CO / CO binds more strongly than
oxygen. A irreversibly reduces oxygen
carrying ability / amount of oxygen that can be
carried:
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 30

Substance 2 tar: accumulates, in lung / on
alveolar surface increases, diffusion barrier/
thickness of barrier between air and blood /
reduces rate of diffusion / gaseous exchange
more difficult. causes cancer / carcinogenic:
paralyses / damages cilia; skills / destroys,
cilia increases mucus production / AW;
increases chance of infection production of
scar tissue: reduces elasticity of the airway /
(oxidants) increase activity of elastase
(emphysema) carcinogen (causes cancer)
changes DNA / mutation.
(c) (i) % heavy smokers rises from,
professional / unskilled manual workers / A
statements comparing groups 1 and 6
(ii) as % heavy smokers increases so does
number of people suffering long-standing
illness the relative increase if smoking is far
greater than the relative increase in longs
standing illness / not a proportional increase /
use of figures to illustrate: e.g. smoking
increases more than 6 fold while long-standing
illness increases less than 2 fold smoking
increases from 3% to 19% while long-standing
illness increases from 290 to 420 (per 1000)
(iii) medical services; working environment;
living conditions; income; education (about
diet/ possible relief from long-term illness);
diet: work-related injury; alcohol intake:
(work related) stress: (aerobic) exercise.
Total 11 marks OCR June 2005

SAQ140. (a) Enables comparison to be made;
Since increase in incidence with age/ older
people have had more exposure to cigarettes.
(b) No/ incorrect response with some attempt
at calculation based on 556 and 428 as
numerators; = 1 mark
No/ incorrect response with correct
calculation; = 2 marks
Correct response (non-smokers have greater
risk than smokers) with calculation of 556/7316
100 = 7.6% and 428/4651 100 = 9.2% for
smokers and non-smokers respectively.
(c) (i) (Relative risk of) lung cancer decreases
the longer it is since giving up smoking;
(Relative risk of) lung cancer increases with
the number of cigarettes smoked per day.
AQA Jan 2003

SAQ141. (a) smoking/obesity/genetics/lack of
exercise/getting older/high blood
pressure/stress/high salt/ high alcohol no
marks for high fat diet
(b) (i) 1000 0.2 = 200
(ii) 200 - (200 0.21)
200 0.79 = 158
(iii) 42 100/1000 (200 - 158 = 42) = 4.2%
mark this consequential on answer to (ii), i.e.
200 answer (ii)
(c) (i) Two groups, one treatment, one control
people assigned at random (to group) not
selected from population at random
(ii) E
(iii) E
(d) (i) far more people need to be given
medicine to save one life / impossible to
reduce any risk to zero / The increasing costs
of reducing any risk to a very low level
(ii) not cost effective/benefit not worth costs /
very expensive/too expensive / takes money
from other needs
(e) less money for some other disease/care for
elderly etc / side effects of statins / people
might not take care of themselves in other
ways OCR

SAQ142. Obesity is a factor that affects Coronary
Heart Disease (CHD).
(a) being overweight; do not accept fat
unqualified; allow BMI over 25
(b) (i) Rose / by 8% / from 16% to 24% / by 50%
/rapidly then more slowly
(ii) any two reasonable suggestions e.g. less
active more food / take-aways / fast food
accept e.g.s like fewer jobs / more cars / less
physically demanding employment
(c) (i) high (blood) cholesterol / do not accept
combination of 2 labels / ignore references to
LDL and HDL
(ii) answer in range 8-17 inclusive
(iii) some deaths related to more than one
factor AQA-BLY1F-W-QP-JANO7

SAQ142. NO MARKING SCHEME

SAQ144 (a) (i) Study involving the same people
over a period of time
(ii) Advantage: uses same individuals
throughout / no participant variables / no
variation in results due to genetic differences;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 31

Disadvantage: time consuming / some
individuals may be lost from the study;
AQA BYA7 JUN 2007
SAQ145. (a) minimum energy requirement per
day / per hour / per .unit time. ; further
qualification . at rest / recently woken / 12+
hours after a meal / warm environment / naked;
(b) (i) warm environment; less heat loss / less
energy loss / less energy needed to maintain
body temperature;
OR
Malaysians smaller / shorter / more rounded
shape; lower SA to volume ratio for heat loss;
OR
this is a sub-set of the whole world population
/ an isolated population; local genetic
variation;
(ii) excess food changed to fat as lower
metabolic rate / less energy used (than other
populations / than average);
AQA BYA7JUNE 2006

SAQ146. (a) (i) quick / easy to monitor large
numbers / do not lose track of individuals with
time;
(ii) more representative of the individual / do
not lose detail by averaging; AQA BYA7

SAQ147. (a) (i) A study of) the same/ a group of
people over a (long) period of time;
(ii) Qualified reason why it is difficult to
continue the measurement of all people e.g.
migration/ death; OR Takes a long time to see
a pattern/ conclusion; [Ignore: Takes long time
to collect data] AQABYA7JAN2003

End of topic one
..
..
..
.


.
..


Topic two
(Genes and health)

SAQ148. (a) (i) X: phospholipid;
Y: (channel) protein;
Z: glycoprotein / carbohydrate; 3 marks
(ii) P: (passive) diffusion; NOT facilitated
diffusion
Q: active transport;
R: facilitated diffusion; 3 marks
(b) 1. CFTR protein defective / eq;
2. chloride ions remain in cells / eq;
3. mucus lacks water/is very sticky / eq;
4. mucus blocks pancreatic (duct);
5. {fewer enzymes / correctly named enzyme}
released into the small intestine;
6. lower concentration of enzymes / fewer
active sites;
7. fewer collisions between substrate and the
active site of the enzymes / named substrate
and enzyme; 4 marks SNAB/JUNE 2007

SAQ149.a. A. fatty acid / hydrophobic /
phospholipids tall
B . Phosphate / glycerol / hydrophilic /
phospholipids head
C. (Channel / transmembrane / intrinsic)
protein
D . Glycoprotein
b. Facilitated diffusion
Through (channel /carrier) protein: Down a
concentration gradient
Active transport
Using carrier protein; Energy from ATP;
Against concentration gradient:
Exocytosis / endocytosis
Vesicle containing glucose fuses with
membrane: vesicle forms (from membrane
enclosing glucose).
c. i. 1. Discs cut from the same beetroot:
2. Pre-treatment of beetroot I washing discs:
3. Standardized method of obtaining beetroot
discs I discs the same (mass/I volume / surface
area):
4. Further detail of method e.g. way of keeping
the discs from clumping In the water.
5. Use of water baths at fixed temperatures;
6. Fixed time in water baths / fixed volume of
water;
7. Use of colorimeter / description of method of
measuring intensity of color;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 32

8. Detail of colorimeter e.g. e of (reference
blank / filter).
ii. 1. Membrane selectively permeable at lower
temperature
2. (Temperature increase above 40 C / higher
temperatures)/ membrane breaks down
3. Increase of kinetic energy of (pigment
molecules/ phospholipids in membrane! eq);
4. Proteins are denatured:
5. Membrane becomes (freely/ more)
permeable to pigment molecules) with
increasing temperature:
6. Reference to diffusion of pigment molecules
of the cells reaches equilibrium at high
temperatures.

SAQ150.a.

b. unsaturated contain one or more (C=C)
double bonds .
c. Diagram showing a bilayer of phospholipids;
Heads on outside and tails on inside [Must
have two tails]:
Proteins included in the diagram:
[distinguishable from the phospholipids, can
be intrinsic, extrinsic or transmembrane with
suitable Label].

SAQ151 a. A. protein
B. Fatty acid / {hydrophobic / phospholipids}
tail
C.phosphate / glycerol / {hydrophilic /
phospholipids} head
b. 1. small (molecular size) ;
2. recognized by protein receptors
3. lipid soluble/non-polar/hydrophobic.
c. i. both involve (carrier) proteins /
both transport hydrophilic molecules / named
molecule / selective
ii. active transport requires energy / ATP,
facilitated transport does not /
active transport moves molecules against a
concentration gradient, facilitated diffusion
allows molecules to move down a
concentration gradient.

152.a. 1. fluid (phospholipid) molecules can
move within the phospholipid bilayer /
monolayer;
2. mosaic {proteins / glycoproteins / eq}
dotted throughout the membrane / bilayer
b. i. act as receptors / antigens
ii. 1. two {fatty acid / eq} tails ;
2. glycerol ;
3. phosphate.
c. 1. charged region (of cholesterol) only in line
with hydrophilic phospholipid head /non-
charged region only in line with hydrophobic
phospholipid tails ;
2. all within 1 monolayer
d. 1. LDLs carry most cholesterol / HDLs more
protein;
2. LDLs bind to receptors on cell membranes ;
3. if in high concentration, they overload
receptors ;
4. results in high blood cholesterol ;
5. high risk of atheroma / atherosclerosis ;
6. HDLs transport cholesterol to liver ;
7. cholesterol broken down therefore less risk
of atherosclerosis.

SAQ153. a.i. A Glycoprotein B
Phospholipid.
ii. A acts as a receptor for hormones and also
helps in cell to cell recognition .
iii. The phospholipid molecules have a
hydrophilic phosphate head which is
attreactes to water molecules in the membrane
surface. The fattyacis tails are non-polar and
hydrophobic so they face away from the water
molecules on the membrane surface and form
a barrier to polar molecules.
b. The cell surface membrane is made up of a
fluid mosaic model. Fluid means that the
proteins can change places within the
membrane. Mosaic means that the proteins are
randomly embedded in the phospholipid
bilayer. So when the two membranes are fused
together , the proteins change places and
arrange themselves randomly.

SAQ154.a. Phospholipids are made up of two
fatty acid tails and a phosphate head. The fatty
acid tails are non polar and hydrophobic
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 33

(water hating), while the phosphate heads are
polar and hydrophilic (water loving). So the
polar phosphate heads are attracted to water
molecules on the membrane surfaces and the
fatty acid tails face away from the water on the
membrane surfaces, forming a bilayer.
b. Magnification = measured length / actual
length
3 x 10
6
= 18000 / X [18mm is same as
18000 m]
X = 18000 / 3 x 10
6

= 0.006 m
c. Carbohydrate : The carbohydrates may help
in cell recognition, as in the case of antigens.
They also play a role in adhesion of cells to
each other.
Protein: Some proteins may act as carriers or
channels for the transport of specific
substances across the cell membrane; some
proteins may serve as receptors for hormones,
helping hormones to recognize and affect only
target cells; other proteins may serve as
enzymes, as in the epithelial cells in the ileum
of humans.

SAQ155.a.i. The receptor molecule that binds
with glucagon will have a particular
shape(tertiary structure). This makes it specific
so that it can bind only with glucagon.
ii. The glucagon receptors are found only on
the liver cells. Cells in other parts of the body
do not have these receptors.
b. Buffers keep pH constant. So that proteins
and enzymes in mitochondria are not
denatured.
c. The proteins are embedded into the
phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane.
Some proteins pass right through membrane
these are called as trans-membrane or intrinsic
proteins. Some proteins associated with one
layer these proteins are called as extrinsic or
peripheral proteins. The proteins are involved
in facilitated diffusion, active transport or may
be enzymes. The carrier proteins change
shape to transport substances across the
membrane. The channel proteins form
channels or pores to allow the passage of
water soluble molecules or ions, like glucose
and sodium respectively.


SAQ156.(A) a.
A Glycoprotein or carbohydrate chain.
B Phospholipid
b. i. The rate of uptake with ATP is much
greater than without ATP. With ATP the ion
uptake continues to for the entire five minutes,
however without ATP the ion uptake stops
after a few minute. With ATP the rate of uptake
is about 10 times greater than without ATP.
ii. These results indicate that sodium ions are
taken up against the concentration gradient by
active
transport. The ATP is used for the sodium-
potassium pump to change shape. Some
sodium ions are
absorbed by diffusion, without ATP.
c. So that the movement of particles is not
affected by temperature and the permeability
of the membrane remains unchanged.

SAQ157. (a) B; D;
(b) idea of molecules/named molecules moving
= Fluid;
idea of both proteins and phospholipids =
Mosaic;
(c) slow rise, sharp rise, levelling off
(reject.becomes constant.);
diffusion rate increases / description of
diffusion rate, e.g. increase in kinetic energy
increases loss of ions;
sharp rise / above 50
o
C proteins are denatured;
levelling off due to concentration of chloride
ions in water becoming equal / maximum loss
of Cl- ions; 2 max Total 7 AQA/BYB1/JAN2005

SAQ158. a. Concentration of sucrose in
solution is higher than in the potato cylinder /
converse / correct reference to water potential
;
Water moves out of {the cells / potato}
By osmosis ;Reference to {plasmolysis / loss
of turgor}
b. i. 1. To the right of the original curve ;
2. Curve follows a similar shape to original
Line;
3. Curve starts and finishes at the same values
as the original curve
ii. 1. {Sucrose / sugar} {increases the solute
concentration / ref-hires water potential} of
the {cells / potato}
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 34

2. More sucrose in the potato cells so cells
reach {equilibrium } at a higher concentration
of sucrose solution
3. Concentration difference is {less / reduced}
4. At the start {full turgor} ;
5. At the end {full plasmolysis } .
6. Reference to starch having {no / little} effect
on osmosis ;

SAQ159.a. i. Water
ii. Active site
iii. Glycosidic bond
b.i. Sucrase (has a (specific) tertiary structure /
is a protein.
Reference to specific shape of active site:
Only sucrose will fit (the active site of sucrase)
/ enzymes are specific to substrate / correct
reference to lock and key.
Form an enzyme-substrate complex:
Correct reference to induced fit theory.
ii. Facilitated diffusion;
Use of (specific carrier) proteins / moves
molecule down a concentration gradient /
correct reference to kinetic theory/:
OR
Active transport; Use of (specific) carrier
proteins / moves molecules against a gradient
/ uses (ATP I energy]:
OR
Endocytosis; Description of endocytosis e.g.
formation of vesicle / use of ATP.
SAQ160. a. Both move through the
phospholipid bilayer.
Both move down their concentration gradient.
b. Curve Y shows absorption by active
transport, as the ion uptake occurs
continuously at all concentration and uses
oxygen. This is evident from the fact that ion
uptake is greater when oxygen is present.
c. Since oxygen is absent, the ions can only be
absorbed by diffusion. The concentration of
ions inside the cells may be greater than
concentration of ions in the solution. So
diffusion cannot occur against a concentration
gradient.
d. The concentration gradient increases as the
magnesium ions accumulate in the solution,
so rate of diffusion and ion uptake increases.

SAQ161. a.i. The solution is hypotonic and the
cell cytoplasm is hypertonic. The cell has a
more negative water potential than the
solution. So water enters the cells by osmosis,
causing the cell to swell.
ii. The solution is isotonic, which means that
the cell and the solution have the same water
potential. So, there is no net movement of
water across the membrane.
b. Excess water entered the cells causing it to
burst.

SAQ162. (a) (i) As lipid solubility increases the
rate increases;
(Membrane) consists of (double layer) of lipid /
phospholipids;
(ii) Small molecules diffuse faster; Higher kinetic
energy / easier to pass through pores / between
phospholipid molecules;
(b) Concentration/diffusion gradient; Number of
carriers/channel/proteins; Temperature;
AQA/BYB1/JUN2007

SAQ163. a.i.A.Protein B. Glycoprotein
ii. Fatty acid tails are hydrophobic and non
polar; so away from waterPhosphate heads are
hydrophilic and polar; so they attract the
water.
b. Difference Facilitated diffusion occurs
though channel proteins; Active transport
occurs with the energy ATP.
Similarity Both are selective and involves
with proteins.

SAQ164.a.

b. 1.Largesurfacearea; due to Many alveoli /
eq;
3. Large number / networks of capillaries
4. Small diffusion path / thin exchange surface
/ eq;
5. (Flattened / thin / squamous) alveolar
(epithelial) cells / walls:
6, Capillary (endothelial) cells / walls:
7. Large difference in concentration: due to .
8. Ventilating the Lungs
9. Circulation of blood.
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 35


SAQ165. a. diffusion; facilitated diffusion;
active transport / uptake; energy / ATP; carrier
/ channel; endocytosis
b. i. similarity: both passive / do not require
energy /eq /move (molecules) down a
concentration gradient;
Deference: osmosis involves transport of
water only / converse /osmosis always
involves movement of molecules through a
partially permeable membrane / converse.
ii. Similarity both involve the use of vesicles to
move contents / eq /both involved in bulk
transport
both require energy / ATP.
Difference
endocytosis involves transport of substances
into the cell, exocytosis transports substances
out of the cell;

SAQ166. a. i. 62 / 10 = 6.2 times
ii. Active transport or active uptake
b. All ions enter the cell through specific
carrier or channel proteins in the cell surface
membrane. So, the uptake of a particular ion
will depend upon the number of specific
proteins in the cell membrane. e. g. If there
are more glucose transporter proteins in a cell
membrane, then it will absorb more glucose
than other substances.
The activity of proteins can also affect the rate
of ion uptake. e. g. some carrier proteins
transport more than one particle at a time. The
sodium potassium pump transports 3 sodium
ions but only 2 potassium ions across the
membrane with every cycle. Thus, it transports
sodium more rapidly than potassium.
c. Active transport requires ATP, which is
produced by aerobic respiration. Thus, oxygen
is needed.

SAQ167.a.
Function Phospholipids Protein
May act as
receptors
X
May act as
enzymes
X
Involved in active
transport
X
b. Active transport, because the ions are
absorbed against their concentration
gradients.
SAQ168.a. Diffusion is the net movement of
particles from a region of its higher
concentration to a region of its
lower concentration, until the molecules are
evenly distributed.
b. Concentration gradient, temperature,
thickness of the membrane, surface area of the
membrane, size of
the molecules and nature of molecules or ions
(whether lipid soluble or not)
c. active transport occurs against the
concentration gradient, but diffusion occurs
down the concentration
gradient. Active transport uses ATP but
diffusion does not.

SAQ169. curve description:
1 Curve goes down when the poison is added and
rises when ATP added;
explanation:
2 Ion movement is by active transport;
3 ATP / energy needed for active transport;
4 respiration provides ATP / energy;
5 poison inhibits/stops respiration / ATP
production; 3 max
AQA/BYB1/JAN2006

SAQ170.


Process
Take place
against a
concentration
gradient
Requires
energy in the
form of ATP
Diffusion X X
Facilitated
diffusion
X X
Osmosis X X
Active
transport


SAQ171.a.i. Facilitated diffusion is the
movement of substances down their
concentration gradient through channel and
carrier proteins in the cell surface membrane,
without using ATP.
ii. Active transport requires ATP but facilitated
diffusion does not. Active transport occurs
against
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 36

the concentration gradient but facilitated
diffusion occurs down a concentration
gradient.
b. i. (0.05 mol dm
-3
= 90% and 0.07 mol dm
-3
=
15%)
Difference = 90 15 = 75%
ii. The water potential of the solution is greater
than the water potential of the cell cytoplasm,
so water enters
the cells by osmosis and causes the volume of
cytoplasm to increase. This causes the cell
membrane
to stretch and the cell bursts.
iii. Most of the cells would shrivel up (shrink or
crenate) as water would move out by osmosis
(exosmosis)
c. The plant cells have a cell wall which resists
expansion of the cell.

SAQ172.a. Facilitated diffusion involves
movement of ions or large polar molecules,
but osmosis involves the movement of water.
Facilitated diffusion occurs through membrane
channel or carrier proteins, but osmosis
occurs through the phospholipid bilayer.
b. Organelle A is the mitochondria. it is the site
of aerobic respiration, which provides energy
in the form of ATP for active transport.
c. The cell membrane is highly folded to form
microvilli, which increases the surface area for
absorption. It also has a large number of
channel and carrier proteins for facilitated
diffusion and active transport. Large numbers
of mitochondria ensure that there is plenty of
ATP for active transport.

SAQ173.a. The cell membrane is made up of a
phospholipid bilayer with proteins and
glycoproteins embedded in the bilayer. It is
said to be fluid because the proteins and
phospholipids can move about within the
membrane. It is mosaic because the proteins
and glycoproteins are randomly embedded in
the bilayer.
b. To remove the red pigment released by the
cells when the beetroot is cut open.
c. As the concentration of bile salts increases
from 0 to 0.6% there is a linear and rapid
increase in the intensity of red coloration.
Between a bile salt concentration of 0.6 to
1.6% the intensity of red coloration continues
to increase at a slower rate, until it reaches a
maximum intensity of 1.9 arbitrary units at a
concentration beyond 1.6%.
d. Disruption of the membrane by the bile salts
increases its permeability. The bile salts may
emulsify the lipids in the membrane and may
also affect the tertiary structure of the
proteins. This causes the red pigment to
diffuse out of the cell and vacuole. As the bile
salt concentration increases, more cells
become permeable and the pigments leak out
until the concentration gradient becomes zero.
e. Age, storage conditions like temperature,
duration of storage, concentration of pigments
may be different for beetroot 2.

SAQ174.a. Uptake of A increases throughout
the 6 hour period at a constant rate, where as
the rate of uptake of B
decreases with time. The rate of uptake of A is
always greater than the rate of uptake of B.
b. The initial rate of uptake is maximum as the
initial concentration gradient is maximum. As
substance B
accumulates in the cell, the concentration
gradient decreases and the rate of diffusion
decreases. When the concentration of
substance B in the cell becomes equal to the
concentration in the solution, then diffusion
stops.
c. The molecules have more kinetic energy at
25
0
C, so they move faster across the
membrane.
d. Active transport is the transport of
substances against the concentration gradient.
It uses ATP and takes place through carrier
proteins which span the cell membrane. The
substance binds with a specific carrier protein
and the protein uses ATP to change its shape.
This change in shape enables the protein to
transport the substance across the membrane.
The protein then regains its shape and the
process continues. The transport of these
substances always takes place in one direction
only, unlike diffusion. For example the sodium-
potassium pump transports two potassium
ions into the cell and three sodium ions out of
the cell with every transfer.

SAQ175. (a) (i) nucleus / nuclear envelope /
nuclear membrane ;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 37

(ii) (made up of) one type of / (squamous)
epithelium, cell(s) ;
(group of) cells performing the same function(s) ;
(iii) large surface area ; permeable ; thin / short,
diffusion path ; moist ; good blood supply / close
to blood ; well ventilated / in contact with
respiratory medium ; OCR/2801/JUN2006

SAQ176.a.
Structure Letter on
diagram
Bronchiole Y
Branch of pulmonary artery X
Branch of pulmonary vein Z
b. 1. walls of alveoli one cell. thick / thin
(epithelium) :
2. walls of (blood capillaries / endothelium
{one cell thick / thin}
3. Alveoli covered with a dense network of
capillaries/eq
4. Concentration gradients maintained by
(blood flow / ventilation mechanism)
5. Large surface area provided by alveoli
6. Oxygen combines rapidly with haemoglobin;
7. Correct reference to diffusion.

SAQ177.a. 1. Oxygen (from alveoli) to capillary
and carbon dioxide (from capillary) to alveoli:
2. By diffusion / movement of molecules from
area of high concentration to an area of Low
concentration.
b.1. Large surface area / lots of alveoli:
2. Large surface area of capillaries/ eq;
3. Thin alveoli walls;
4. Thin capillary walls:
5. (Circulation of blood / ventilation of lungs} to
maintain concentration difference:
6. Short diffusion pathway.

SAQ178.a.

b.30
c. 1. DNA {uncoils / separates / unzips} /
hydrogen bonds break / eq ;
2. (Template) strand used to form {mRNA /
complementary strand} / transcription ;
3. Reference to RNA polymerase ;
4. mRNA passes [to ribosome / out of nucleus /
to the cytoplasm} ;
5. tRNA picks up specific amino acid ;
6. Codon and anticodon binding ;
7. Correct reference to {start / stop} codons ;
8. Peptide bonds forming between amino acids
9. Example of correct complementary base
pairing.
d. (Different) R groups ;
Determine bonds formed between R groups of
different amino acids ;
Named bond between R groups, e.g. 5=5 / H /
etc ; [not peptide]
Reference to [secondary / tertiary) structure ;

SAQ179 .a.i.Refer the notes
ii. Peptide bond
b. An explanation to include two from:
1. chain folds into secondary structure /
reference to a-helix or f3 pleated sheets:
2. then folds into tertiary structure
3. (bonds / Interactions) between R groups:
4. reference to named bond; Reject peptide.
c.i. An explanation to include:
1. substrate concentration limiting the rate/ or
converse:
2. correct reference to not all active sites
occupied by substrate.
ii. An outline to include four from:
1. identify Independent variable and dependent
variable:
2. select suitable range of concentrations (at
least 5):
3. fixed volumes of enzyme I substrate:
4. control of named variable(s):
5. description of apparatus used:
6. correct method of obtaining quantitative
results:
7. reference to replication / calculation of rate /
mean values.

SAQ180. Insulin is made up of two polypeptide
chains, but collagen is made up of three
polypeptide chains.
Insulin has a tertiary structure, but collagen
does not have a tertiary structure.

Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 38

SAQ181. sequence; peptide; condensation;
hydrogen; disulphide / covalent; residual
groups / R groups

SAQ182. amino acids; peptide; condensation;
alpha helix; hydrogen.

SAQ183. IGNORE - NOT IN SYLLABUS

SAQ184.a.i. P Amino acid
Q Triglyceride
R Alpha glucose
ii. Nitrogen
iii. Polypeptide / protein
iv. Peptide bond
v. Polysaccharide

b.


SAQ185.a. IGNORE NOT IN SYLLABUS Add 5
cm
3
of biuret reagent to a 5 cm
3
of the protein
solution. If the solution turns purple, violet or
lilac then proteins are present.
b. i. Nitrogen
ii. Condensation reaction
iii. Refer to notes
SAQ186. nitrogen; peptide; alpha helix;
hydrogen; residual groups / R groups

SAQ187.
Name of
biological
molecule
Smaller
molecules from
which it is
made
Name of bond
joining the
smaller
molecules
Triglycerides FATTY ACIDS
AND
GLYCEROL
ESTER
CELLULOSE Glucose GLYCOSIDIC
Polypeptides Amino acids PEPTIDE

SAQ188.a.i. Ionic bond, covalent bond,
hydrogen bond.
ii. Two polypeptide chains are linked to each
other.
b.i. The sequence of amino acids in a
polypeptide chain.
ii. The primary structure is always the same.
So, the same types of bonds form and the
molecule flods into the same shape.

SAQ189.a.i.

ii. Condensation reaction

SAQ190.a. Allows process to be run
continuous or enzyme more stable or enzyme
does not contaminate product.
b. Smaller beads means greater surface area
so more active sites are exposed to substrate
for reaction.
c.i. More lactose left in milk / not enough time
to breakdown all lactose.
ii. Not making full use of available enzyme.
SAQ191. a. 1. Prepare a range of
concentrations of amylase;
2. Known concentration/ excess substrate/
starch
3. Temperature is controlled;
4. Detail of measuring method;
5. Calculation of rate reference to timing.
b. Increased rate with increased
concentration; More active sites; More
collisions with substrate molecules; More
enzyme substrate complex per unit time.
c. Inaccurate measurements/ experimental
error/ small number of readings. Specific
reference to difficulty of measuring end point.
Explanation of curve eg. Substrate becomes
limiting/ not a directly proportional relations.
Reference to other variable.
d. Enzyme specificity/ Cellulase will not break
down starch; Shape of active site; reference to
deferent bonds in cellulose and starch/ alpha
and beta glucose.

Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 39

SAQ192.a.i. Entrapment in {alginate /gel}
{beads / matrix)
ii. Enzyme more stable;
Product not contaminated with enzyme / less
down stream processing to remove enzyme;
Enzyme can be reused; Allows a continuous
process:
b. Sucrose/ other disaccharide {doesn't fit / is
the wrong shape/ different structure};
only lactose can fit; Reference to lactase active
site:

SAQ193. a.i. Water
ii. Active site
iii. Glycosidic bond
b. i.Sucrase [has a (specific) tertiary structure /
is a protein}
Reference to specific shape of active site
Only sucrose will fit (the active site of sucrase)
/ enzymes are specific to
substrate / correct reference to "lock and key"
Form an enzyme-substrate complex
(iiFacilitated diffusion
Use of (specific carrier) proteins / moves
molecule down a concentration gradient
/ correct reference to kinetic theory ;
OR
Active transport ;
Use of (specific) carrier proteins / moves
molecules against a gradient / uses (ATP
/ energy};
OR
Endocytosis
Description of endocytosis e.g. formation of
vesicle / use of ATP

SAQ194.a.i. 1. (waxy layer) is waterproof ;
2. {enzyme / pectinase} in (aqueous) solution ;
3. (therefore) {enzyme / pectinase} unable to
pass through(waxy layer) / unable to get to
{pectin / polysaccharide /carbohydrate} / eq ;
4. pectinase is specific and will not digest lipid
/ waxy
surface .
ii. 1. shape of (enzyme / pectinase) active site ;
2. fits pectin / does not fit cellulose / reference
to specificity of enzymes .
b.i. 1. increases the surface area ;
2. more {substrate /pectin} available /
increases the number of {enzyme-substrate
complexes / collisions between enzyme / eq
and substrate / eq}
ii. 1. hydrolysis uses up water ;
2. evaporation of water /eq ;
3. idea of same number of the {enzyme /
pectinase} molecules but in less
{solvent/water} ;
4. pectinase released from orange tissues/eq ;
5. correct reference to osmosis (into orange) .

SAQ195. (a) 6 /0.5 OR 6/30(seconds); 12;
(b) assume candidates are referring to the
initial rate unless otherwise stated.
substrate =H
2
O
2

(concentration of) substrate molecules , high
at the start / higher than later; all / most / many,
active sites occupied; more chance of
substrate / fewer substrate molecules, entering
active site ; more product made per unit time ;

(c) increased enzyme concentration increases
rate of reaction ;
more active sites available ;
more / greater chance that , substrate
molecules enter / collide with, active
site ; more product produced (per unit time) ;
linear increase as long as plenty of substrate
available ;
slow reaction at low temperatures ;
suitable ref movement / energy, of, molecules /
enzyme / substrate, related to temperature ;
few (cold) / more frequent (warmer) , collisions
(between enzyme and substrate) / ESC formed
; (in warm temp) collisions (occur with more
energy) to break bonds ; at high temperatures
enzymes are denatured ; molecule vibrates
breaking bonds (within enzyme molecule) ;
change of pH from optimum reduces rate of
reaction ;
H ions interact with R groups (of amino acids) ;
affect bonding within, enzyme / active site ;
pH that is very different from optimum will
denature enzyme ; tertiary structure / 3D
shape, altered ; active site loses (precise)
structure ; substrate no longer fits into active
site
inhibitor reduces rate of reaction ;
bind to enzyme ; (binds) at active site and
blocks it ; (binds) at another site and distorts
shape of active site ; substrate unable to bind
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 40

with active site ; correct description
competitive and non-competitive ;
correct description reversible and non-
reversible ; correct description end product
inhibition ; OCR/2801/JAN2003/Q3

SAQ196. (a) 0.26 (mg dm
-3
minute
-1
);
(b) (i) Low kinetic energy;
Fewer collisions/enzyme substrate complexes;
(ii) Denaturation / alteration in tertiary/3D
structure;
Breaking of specifically named bonds; (not
peptide bonds) Change in active site, substrate
cannot bind;
BYB1/JUN2008/Q5

SAQ197. a) pH, enzyme concentration, volume
of enzyme solution, volume of substrate
solution and total volume of reaction mixture
are factors that must be kept constant for
accurate results.
b) As the substrate concentration increases
there will be more substrate molecules to bind
with the active sites. The collisions between
substrate molecules and active sites become
more frequent. So the rate of enzyme substrate
complex formation increases and the rate of
enzyme action increases.
c) The curve levels off because all the active
sites are occupied. There are no free active
sites to bind with the substrate molecules.
This is the point of maximum enzyme action
which is called as Vmax (maximum velocity).
The substrate concentration is no longer
limiting the rate of reaction. However, the
enzyme concentration is acting as a limiting
factor.
d) The line on the graph should begin at zero
and must be below the original line. Lower
temperature results in less kinetic energy and
slower movement of molecules. So there are
fewer and less energetic collisions between
enzyme and substrate molecules per unit time.
(Total 9 marks) J anuary 2002 Unit 1, Edexcel

SAQ198. a) The activation energy of the
enzyme.
b)

c) The pH of the mixture will decrease due to
the formation of fatty acids formed by
hydrolysis of the triglyceride. AQA

SAQ199. (a) (i) Rate= mass of product / time
(ii) higher kinetic energy at 65
0
C;
More frequent collisions/enzyme substrate
complexes;
(b) at 65
0
C reaction is faster, so reaction is
complete between 4 to 6 hours;
at 55
0
C reaction is slower, so reaction is still
not complete but proceeds at a low rate;
(c) buffer maintains a constant optimum pH for
enzyme action;

SAQ200. (a) pH ; enzyme concentration ;
enzyme (solution) volume ; substrate
(solution) volume ; total volume ; 2
(b) more collisions / complexes ; with, enzyme
/ active site (and substrate) ; in unit time / eq ; 2
(c) enzymes are working as fast as they can /
reference to V
max
; all active sites occupied /
eq ; substrate concentration is no longer a
limiting factor ; enzyme concentration is
limiting ; 2
(d) line on graph begins at zero and is below
original line ; less kinetic energy / molecules
moving more slowly ; fewer collisions
(between enzyme and substrate) ; less
energetic collisions ; in unit time / eq ; 3
EDEXCEL/1A121





Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 41

SAQ201. (a)

(b) F Line graph drawn;
A Axes correct orientation and (abetted with
units and using haLf paper:
P ALL points plotted correctly:
L Line joins points or good tine of best fit
through the points: 4 marks
c. (Initial) rate increases until a concentration
of 190.2 mmol dm
-3
; Rate increases at
(constant / almost constant) rate to a
concentration of 158.5 mmol dm
-3
/ rate of
increase is less between 158.5 - 190.2 mmol
dm
-3
;
Rate (doubles / almost doubles) as
concentration doubles between (31.7 and 63.4 /
63.4 and 126.8) mmol dm
-3
/ manipulation of
figures: Rate remains constant after 190.2
mmol dm
-3
;
d.) Hypothesis correct at Lower concentrations
/ eqs:
Reference to need to modify hypothesis at
higher concentrations (e.g. rate of increase
decreases at higher concentrations):
Reference to active sites becoming saturated
at higher concentrations / eq 2 marks
e.) one variable not controlled e.g.
(temperature / pH / lack of temperature
equilibration};
(concentration / volume) of enzyme not
standardised:
Hydrogen peroxide not renewed for second
run:
(At high concentrations) time Is too short to-
measure accurately:
End point difficult to determine accurately:
f.) core practical method more reliable because
it directly measures the concentration of
oxygen released; more accurately;
g.) double the volume by usinmg distilled
water; EDEXCEL/W1/MAY2004

SAQ202. (a) nucleotide;
(b) (i) 21.4, 21.4; 28.6;
(ii) amounts of A and T / C and G /
complementary bases different; therefore no
base-pairing;
(iii) both contain phosphate; pentose / 5C
sugar; both have nucleotides/are polymers;
both have purines / pyrimidines /bases /A/C/G;
Total 7 AQA/BYA2/JUN05/Q5

SAQ203. (a) appropriately placed box;
(b) (i) B;
(ii) A;
(c) (i) determines (sequence of) amino acids /
specific protein produced / mRNA formation;
(ii) hydrogen bonds;
(iii) stability / protects bases / replication;
Total 6 AQA/BYB2/JAN05/Q1

SAQ204. A . Phosphate
B. Organic base
C. Deoxy ribose sugar
B)i) T T T G T G
ii) U U U GUG

SAQ205. (a) R first reference to 15N being
radioactive
semi-conservative replication would give
one, template / original / old / parent, strand
and one, new / daughter, strand ;
complementary base pairing / joining of new
nucleotides / two isotopes in molecule /
molecule contains both 14N and 15N ; one
strand with, heavy N / 15N ; R molecule one
strand with, light N / 14N ; Rmolecule no
molecules with only, 1 isotope / 14N / 15N
(b) A ; C ; C and E ;
(c)band drawn for 14N and 14N/15N only ;
thick for 14N and thin for 14N/15N; OCR/JUN06

SAQ206. (a) (i) base / named bases; reject
nucleotide or uracil
(ii) it has been produced by semi-conservative
replication / one old strand and one new; one
strand has 15N bases and the other 14N;
Accept light / heavy N (therefore) it is less
dense / lighter;
(iii) one band is in same position as
generation; one band higher;
(b) (i) A = 31 and T = 31; C = 19;
(ii) viral DNA single-stranded / not double-
stranded; evidence from table e.g. not equal
amount of A and T / C and G / all different;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 42

(c) 1. DNA splits / separates / hydrogen bonds
break; accept DNA unzips
2. to make mRNA;
3. using RNA nucleotides;
4. via RNA polymerase;
5. complementary pairing / eq.;
6. introns/non-coding DNA spliced out;
accept junk DNA spliced out
7. mRNA joins to ribosome (accept travels to
ribosome);
8. tRNA carries a specific amino acid;
9. codon-anticodon relationship / explained;
10. peptide bonds form between amino acids;
6 max AQA/BYA2/JUN06/Q9

SAQ207. (a) (i) A phosphate: NOT molecule
B pentose I 5-carbon sugar / deoxyribose:
C base / adenine / thymine / cytosine / guanine;
(A) purine / pyrimidine
(ii) base/C:
(b) 1, template / original / old , and 1 new.: AW
complementary base pairing:
2 isotopes in molecule:
half/ 1 (original) strand with, 'heavy N I 15N:
half / 1 (new) strand with . 'light N / 14N;
no molecules with only 1 isotope:
(c) A; C; B and C;
(d) bar drawn in 14N column and 14N/15N
column:
75% for 14N:
25% for 14N/15N: OCR/JAN02/Q7

SAQ208. (a) each strand copied/acts as a
template; (daughter) DNA one new strand and
one original/parent strand;
(b) (i)
15
N/ tube B (DNA), more/greater density;
(ii) DNA with one heavy and one light strand;
new/synthesised strand, made with
14
N/ light
strand;
(c) 32; 28 32 26; AQA/BYB2/JUN06/Q4

SAQ209. (a) (i) A = phosphate and
B = Deoxyribose/ pentose/5-carbon sugar;
(ii) (Nitrogenous/organic) base(s);
Both bonds formed with the same base;
(b) Prevents DNA replication/being copied;
Prevents production of proteins needed (for
cell division); Prevents transcription or a
description e.g. forming mRNA; Blocks
(complementary) base pairing/hydrogen
bonding; Blocks (DNA/RNA) polymerase;
Prevents strands separating/helix or DNA
unwinding/unzipping/prevents H bonds
breaking (if binds across helix);
AQA/BYB2/JAN08/Q2
SAQ210.a.i. Adenine
ii. Uracil
iii. Phosphate
b. A description to include two from:
1. double (stranded / helix):
2. base pairing / A-T,C-G;
3. hydrogen bonds (easily broken):
c. Any two from:
1. DNA replication - both strands copied /
transcription only one strand copied;
2. DNA replication uses T, transcription uses
U:
3. Reference to DNA polymerase / RNA
polymerase:
4. DIIA replication copies whole strand /
transcription only copies part of the strand /
eq-:n
5. mRNA synthesised in transcription, not in
DNA;

SAQ211 .a. (nitrogenous / organic) base /
named base
b. Draw 8 pairs of lines, on that two lines are
heavy.
c. DNA polymerase / helicase / DNA ligase /
primase
d. T C G A A T G G T
e. 1. correct reference to description of gene
mutation ;
2. change {mRNA / codon / eq} ;
3. {different / wrong / no} amino acid included
/stop codon ;
4. different / eq {sequence of amino acids /
primary structure of protein} ;
5. different R groups ;
6. change bonding in protein / correctly named
bond(s) ;
7. protein forms different {secondary / tertiary /
quaternary}structure ;
8. different (3D) shape.

SAQ212 .a.i. A Transcription
B Translation
ii. D is the Golgi body. It is the site of
modification of proteins / polypeptide chains.
iii. Exocytosis.
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 43

b. The transfer RNA binds to specific amino
acids in the cytoplasm, using ATP and the
enzyme tRNA-aminoacyl synthetase. The tRNA
then carries the amino acid into the ribosome
and matches the amino acid to its specific
codon within the ribosome, by complementary
base pairing between the codon and
anticodon. This enables two specific amino
acids to lie adjacent to each other in the
ribosome. The enzyme peptidyl transferase
then catalyses the formation of a peptide bond
between the amino acids. The process
continues until a stop codon is reached and a
complete polypeptide chain is formed.

SAQ213.
Feature DNA RNA
Cytosine present
Uracil Present X
Pentose sugar
present

Is single stranded X
JAN2003/UNIT1/EDEXCEL
SAQ214.a. During transcription, the genetic
information from the sense strand of DNA is
copied by the formation of a single stranded
mRNA molecule. The sense strand serves as a
template for the free ribonucleotides to pair up
with complementary bases on the sense
strand, following the base pairing rule:

DNA to mRNA
Adenine with Uracil;
Thymine with Adenine;
Guanine with Cytosine;
Cytosine with Guanine;
The enzyme RNA polymerase joins the
individual nucleotides by the formation of
phosphodiester bonds. A single gene is copied
during this process and will be used to form a
single polypeptide chain. The genetic
information is then carried out of the nucleus
in the form of mRNA.
b) (3)
During translation, the genetic information on
mRNA is used to determine the sequence of
amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The mRNA
attaches to the ribosome and tRNA molecules
carrying specific amino acids enter the
ribosome and match the amino acids to their
specific codons within the ribosome, by
complementary base pairing between the
codon and anticodon. The amino acids are
linked by peptide bonds and a polypeptide
chains with a specific sequence of amino acids
is built up, until a stop codon is reached

SAQ215.a. A Phosphate group (Inorganic)

B Pentose sugar
C Nitrogenous base
b.
U C G G C A G G G C A G
c. During semi-conservative replication of
DNA, the enzyme helicase, causes the two
parent strands to unzip by breaking hydrogen
bonds between the base pirs. Each unzipped
strand of parent DNA serves as a template for
free nucleotides to pair up with complementary
nitrogenous bases, following the base pairing
rule:
Adenine with Thymine
Guanine with Cytosine
The individual nucleotides are then linked up
by the formation of phosphodiester bonds,
using the enzyme DNA polymerase. DNA
ligase joins the fragments of DNA formed
during this process. Finally, each daughter
DNA consists of one complete parent strand
and one complete new strand of
polynucleotides.
d. 12.5 % of the final mass of DNA will be
radioactive. In the first replication, 50 % of
DNA is radioactive one strand in each
daughter molecule. In the second replication,
25 % is radioactive two completely non
radioactive molecules and two molecules with
one complete radioactive strand. In the third
replication, also only two molecules are half
radioactive and the remaining are non
radioactive.
e. DNA replication takes place during the S
Phase of interphase.

SAQ216. condensation, deoxyribose sugar,
Thymine, helix, hydrogen




Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 44

SAQ217.a. The enzyme helicase separates the
two DNA strands by breaking the hydrogen
bonds between the nitrogenous bases.
b. The nucleotides are joined up by
condensation reactions, using DNA
polymerase enzyme.
c. DNA replication takes place during the S
Phase of interphase.
d.


SAQ218.a. J Inorganic phosphate group
K Deoxyribose sugar
L Nitrogenous base
M Nucleotide
b. The dotted lines represent Hydrogen bonds
between the base pairs.



c.
DNA mRNA
Double stranded
molecule
Single stranded
molecule
Contains
Adenine,
Thymine,
Guanine and
cytosine, but no
Uracil.
Contains Adenine,
Uracil, Guanine
and cytosine, but
no Thymine.
Contains
Deoxyribose
sugar
Contains Ribose
sugar
d. The DNA controls all the genetic information
that is needed for proteins synthesis. If the
DNA is not replicated exactly, it will result in
genetic changes, which will form defective
proteins and adversely affect metabolic
activities of the daughter cells.
e.i

ii. DNA polymerase is used in DNA replication.
SAQ219.a.
Statements True False Correct
word
During the
formation of
new DNA
molecule, the
base pairing
is followed by
bonding
between
deoxyribose
and bases


X





Phosphate
group
Synthesis of
mRNA takes
place in the
nucleus



X

mRNA
consists of
many codons,
each
consisting of
a base, ribose
and
phosphate

X



Nucleotides
b.i. AGC and AGU
ii. The triplet TAC on DNA will code for
methionine.
iii. Leucine

SAQ220.a.
DNA Nucleotide RNA Nucleotide
Contains
Deoxyribose
sugar
Contains Ribose
sugar
Does not contain
Uracil
Does not contain
Thymine
b.i. No. of nucleotides in chromosome =
125000000 x 10
= 125 000 0000
125 000 0000 nucleotides = 1 m
1 nucleotide = X
X = 8 x 10
-10
m
= 8 nm Length = 8 nm
ii. Protein synthesis takes place in two stages,
namely
transcription and translation.
During transcription, the genetic information
from the sense strand of DNA is copied by the
formation of a single stranded mRNA
molecule. The sense strand serves as a
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 45

template for the free ribonucleotides to pair up
with complementary bases on the sense
strand, following the base pairing rule:

DNA to mRNA
Adenine with Uracil;
Thymine with Adenine;
Guanine with Cytosine;
Cytosine with Guanine;
The enzyme RNA polymerase joins the
individual nucleotides by the formation of
phosphodiester bonds. A single gene is copied
during this process and will be used to form a
single polypeptide chain. The genetic
information is then carried out of the nucleus
in the form of mRNA.

During translation, the genetic information on
mRNA is used to determine the sequence of
amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The mRNA
attaches to the ribosome and tRNA molecules
carrying specific amino acids enter the
ribosome and match the amino acids to their
specific codons within the ribosome, by
complementary base pairing between the
codon and anticodon. The amino acids are
linked by peptide bonds and a polypeptide
chains with a specific sequence of amino acids
is built up, unitl a stop codon is reached.
c. During semi-conservative replication of
DNA, each parent strand of DNA serves as a
template for the formation of a complementary
strand of DNA, using nucleotides from the
medium. The free nucleotides pair up with
complementary bases on the coding strand,
following the base pairing rule:
Free nucleotide with Parent strand
Adenine with Thymine
Guanine with Cytosine
Thymine with Adenine
Cytosine with Guanine
Thus, the adenine bases on the parent strand
will pair up with radioactive thymine
nucleotides from the medium to form a
component of the new DNA molecule.

SAQ221.a.i. A Deoxyribose sugar and
inorganic phosphate (sugar phosphate
backbone)
B Nitrogenous bases (Adenine, guanine,
cytosine or thymine)
ii. Hydrogen bond
b. 1 kilobase = 0.00034 mm (As, 1000
m = 1 mm)
2900000 kilobase = X
X = 986 mm
c. The DNA is double stranded this allows it
to remain uncontaminated and unreactive. The
double strand prevents the nitrogenous bases
from reacting with chemicals in the cell or
nucleus.
The Hydrogen bonds between the base pairs
can be broken by enzymes, causing the two
strands to unzip. This makes it possible for the
bases to be exposed during transcription and
translation.
The DNA is coiled and wound into a double
helix, when not in use. This makes it compact
and enables it to be transferred easily during
cell division.

SAQ222.a. Inorganic phosphate and
deoxyribose sugar
b.
Number of bases
A T G C
Strand A 6 4 5 2
Strand B 4 6 2 5
c. Every cell has a specific function and
structure. This is called differentiation or
specialization. This is brought about by
activation of specific genes in different cells.
The type of genes that are active in the liver
cells will be different from the genes that are
active in the liver cells. This means that both
cells will have different types of proteins and
enzymes, which determines and controls the
structure and functions of the cells.

SAQ223. a.i. P Adenine Q - Guanine
R - Thymine S Cytosine
ii. Every base on the DNA sense strand pairs
with a complementary base on the anti sense
strand. Thus, the number of bases will be the
same.
iii. This is due to post transcriptional
modification of mRNA. The introns are the non
coding region and are removed by splicing
before the mRNA is released from the nucleus.
Also the poly adenine tail and guanine cap are
added to mRNA, which again alter the number
of bases.
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 46

b. 1824 3 = 608 amino acids
c. The antisense strand pairs with bases on the
sense strand. This prevents the genetic code
from being exposed to chemicals in the cell. It
makes the DNA less reactive. However, it can
unzip when needed and expose the sense
strand for transcription or replication.
SAQ224. a. During semi-conservative
replication of DNA, the DNA is unwound by the
enzyme helicase by the breaking of hydrogen
bonds between the base pairs. This exposes
each parent strand of DNA, which can now
serve as a template for the formation of a
complementary strand of DNA, using
nucleotides from the medium. The free
nucleotides pair up with complementary bases
on the template (parent) strand, following the
base pairing rule:
Free nucleotide with Parent strand
Adenine with Thymine
Guanine with Cytosine
Thymine with Adenine
Cytosine with Guanine
This gives rise to the formation of two identical
molecules of daughter DNA. Each daughter
DNA molecule has one complete old strand
and one complete new strand of nucleotides.
b. i. DNA in batch B is lighter than DNA from
batch A. This is because DNA from batch A
contains all heavy nitrogen, where as the DNA
from batch B will contain both heavy and light
nitrogen (One strand of old radioactive heavy
nucleotides and one complete strand of new
light nucleotides from the medium).
ii. In batch C, every DNA molecule will contain
one complete strand of light DNA. The DNA in
the lower band will contain one complete old
heavy strand and one complete new strand of
light DNA. This is called intermediate DNA.
The DNA in the upper band will contain light
DNA only, in both strands. This is light DNA.
Both bands have equal thickness as light and
intermediate DNA are found in equal
proportion.
iii.

SAQ225.a. i. w. Guanine
x. Nucleotide
Y. Phosphate
z. Ribose sugar
ii Hydrogen
b.i. Transcription
ii. Aspartic acid, Arginine, Cysteine, Lysine
iii. 1. Incorrect amino acid inserted into
polypeptide chain / (chain / sequence) or
amino acids changed:
2. Named (Gly / glycine):
3. Different (side group / R group );
4. Different bonds formed
5. Different (3D) shape when folded.
OCR/JUN07

SAQ226. (a) (i) U A C C G G A U U C A C ; ;
(ii) transcription / transcribed ; R transcriptase
(b) (i) J anticodon ; R anticodons K transfer
RNA / tRNA ; L ribosome / rRNA ; M codon ; R
codons
(ii) DNA triplet / codon / M / mRNA triplet,
Codes for specific amino acid; order of, triplets
/ bases , determines the order of amino acids;
tRNA / K , has , corresponding /complementary
, triplet / anticodon; (tRNA / K) attached to
specific amino acid; activation of amino acid ;
(tRNA) binding sites on the ribosome; codon
and anticodon bind ; match A to U and C to G ;
adjacent amino acids join ; peptide bond
(b) attaches to ribosome; removes , base /
portion , of ribosome; A stops ribosome
assembling / changes shape of ribosome
prevents ribosome , attaching to / reading ,
mRNA; prevents codons being exposed;
prevents , tRNA / anticodon , attaching to ,
mRNA / codon; prevents / inhibits enzyme
responsible for , formation of peptide linkages;
[Total: 13] OCR/JUNE07/Q3

SAQ227.AQA/BYA2/JAN06

Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 47

SAQ228. (a) GCAAUG; ;
(b) (i) DNA is edited/introns present in DNA; 1
Allow reference to .junk.or non-coding DNA
(ii) 220; allow 218 or 219-allow Three
bases/nucleotides code for one amino acid;
Correct explanation for 218 or 219;
(c) mRNA has no base-pairing, tRNA has base-
pairing/ mRNA linear, tRNA cloverleaf shape;
mRNA has no binding site for amino acids,
tRNA has; mRNA different for each gene/many
kinds, only few/20/64 kinds of tRNA; accept
mRNA longer/larger/more nucleotides than
tRNA AQA/BYA2/J AN06

SAQ229. (a) (i) C B E F A D
(ii) nucleus;
(iii) A, D, F; (ignore E if evident)
(b) (i) Isoleucine;
(ii) TGG; AQA/BYA2/J UN04

SAQ230. (a) (i) join/attach nucleotides, to form
a strand/along backbone/phosphodiester
bonds;
(ii) ribosome/RER;
(b) (i) CGTTACCAA;
(ii) CGU UAC CAA;
(c) substitution;
(d) (i) alanine;
(ii) (mutation 1)
no change (to sequence of amino acids);
codon for alanine/degenerate codon/same
amino acid coded for;
(mutation 2)
(change in sequence) valine replaced by
alanine/codon for alanine; folding /shape /
tertiary structure / position of bonds may
change; AQA/BYA2/J UN06

SAQ231. a. C C U U
b. Anti codon
c.
1. About 20 amino acids;
2. Triplet gives 64 permutations/ 4
3

3. Presence of 4 bases
4. Lowest number of bases enough
permutations/ 1 or 2 bases no enough
permutation/ more codes than needed
5. Code is degenerate/ some amino acids
have more than one code.
d. Ensure that the collect amino acid coded to
polypeptide for given anticodon. The correct
sequence of amino acids to correct
polypeptide structure. Presence of
complementary base pairing.
e.i. 1. Radioactivity in protein notes sharply;
and falls more slowly.
2. Protein peaks between 5-7 mins;
3. Radioactivity in RNA falls through out;
4. Compare rate before and after about 5
mints;
5. Reference to a relationship between protein
and RNA.
ii. 1. Amino acids had been taken up by tRNA;
2. tRNA released amino acid at ribosomes;
3. Became part of protein during translation

SAQ232.a. P. mRNA Q. tRNA R. Amino
acid S. Anticodon
b. .DNA, transcription, mRNA, translation,
Complementary, Uracil, Guanine, peptide.

SAQ233.a. Plasma proteins are too large to
pass out during formation of tissue fluid
{Soluble / plasma} proteins {decrease the
water potential / increase the solute
potential} of blood . Water is drawn back into
blood By osmosis
b.i. Sequence of {bases / nucleotides} on DNA /
section of DNA which codes for a (specific)
{protein /polypeptide}
ii. 1. mRNA lines up at the ribosome
2. tRNA picks up specific amino adds ;
3. Codon-anticodon bonding (at the ribosome)
/ tRNA-mRNA complementary base
pairing
4. Formation of peptide bonds (between
adjacent amino acids)
5. Ribosome moves along the mRNA strand
6. Use of {start / stop} codon
7. Polypeptide released and folds into tertiary
structure.
iii. Hydrogen; Disulphide ;Ionic / electrovalent ;
Peptide ;

SAQ234.a.i. Relates to the sequence or amino
acids
ii. 1. Reference to R groups;
2. Reference to (specific) folding of the chain /
tertiary structure / eq;
3. Reference to named bonds [not peptide]
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 48

b. 1. Enzymes have a (specific) active site
2. will only fit substrate with the correct shape
/ eq:
3. Reference to Lock ft key / enzyme-substrate
complexes / induced fit:
c. 1. Correct reference to translation:
2. mRNA Lines at the ribosome / eq:
3. tRNA attaches to specific amino acids) eq:
4. Codon- anticodon binding complementary
base pairing between mRNA and tRNA;
5. Peptide bond:
6. Correct reference to start-) stop codons;

SAQ235. a.i.
ii. An explanation to include three from:
1. appropriate reference to {secondary
structure / -helix or -pleated sheet};
2. polypeptide chain folded in a specific shape
/ reference to tertiary structure;
3. reference to R groups;
4. bonding between R groups determines the
shape;
5. named bond ie. hydrogen, disulphide, ionic
b. i. 6
ii. transcription
iii. AUG CCA UAC GGU UGG AAG

SAQ236. (a) AGC; TTC;
(b) anticodon complementary to codon/reads
message on mRNA; specific amino acid;
carried/transferred (to ribosome); correct
sequence of amino acids along polypeptide;
(c)

AQA/BYB2/JAN06
SAQ237.a. i.E: phosphate;
F: ribose;
G: uracil;
ii. nucleus
b.i. Tyr, Val, Glu, Arg;
ii. Transalation
iii. 1. change in amino acid sequence / primary
structure of the protein;
2. Tyr replaced by a stop codon / UAG;
3. {polypeptide chain/protein} would be shorter
/ eq;
4. protein would have a different
shape/structure / fold differently / eq;
5. protein would not function (normally);
6. RNA polymerase not functioning would
mean that {no/less} transcription could take
place;
7. {no/less} RNA could be synthesised by this
cell;
8. {no/less} proteins could be made by this
cell.

SAQ238. Translation: Using the genetic
information (sequence of bases) on mRNA to
form a polypeptide chain with a specific
sequence of amino acids is called translation.
It occurs on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
A ribosome attaches to the mRNA at an
initiation codon (AUG). The ribosome encloses
two codons. met-tRNA diffuses to the
ribosome and attaches to the mRNA initiation
codon by complementary base pairing.
The next amino acid-tRNA attaches to the
adjacent mRNA codon (ala in this case).
The bond between the amino acid and the
tRNA is cut and a peptide bond is formed
between the two amino acids.
The ribosome moves along one codon so that
a new amino acid-tRNA can attach. The free
tRNA molecule leaves to collect another amino
acid.
The polypeptide chain elongates one amino
acid at a time, and peels away from the
ribosome, folding up into a protein as it goes.
This continues for hundreds of amino acids
until a stop codon is reached.
A single piece of mRNA can be translated by
many ribosomes simultaneously. A group of
ribosomes all attached to one piece of mRNA
is called a polysome.


SAQ239. a. Ribosomes
b.i. Amino acid
ii. A sequence of three bases on tRNA which
pairs with complementary codons on the
mRNA
iii. tRNA is folded into a clover leaf structure
due to hydrogen bonds between the bases,
where as mRNA bases do not pair or bond with
each other.

Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 49

SAQ240. a. P Inorganic phosphate
Q Deoxyribose sugar
R Adenine
S Nucleotide

b. DNA Polymerase
c. S phase of interphase

SAQ241.a.

b.i. There are 123 amino acids in the chain.
Each amino acid is coded for by three
nucleotides (one codon). Thus, 123 amino
acids will be coded for by 369 nucleotides
(123 x 6).
ii. CGA AAT TCA CTC
c.i. On the ribosomes
ii. During translation, the genetic information
on mRNA is used to determine the sequence of
amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The mRNA
attaches to the ribosome and tRNA molecules
carrying specific amino acids enter the
ribosome and match the amino acids to their
specific codons within the ribosome, by
complementary base pairing between the
codon and anticodon. The amino acids are
linked by peptide bonds and a polypeptide
chains with a specific sequence of amino acids
is built up, until a stop codon is reached.
d. The DNA is double stranded this allows it
to remain uncontaminated and unreactive. The
double strand prevents the nitrogenous bases
from reacting with chemicals in the cell or
nucleus.
The Hydrogen bonds between the base pairs
can be broken by enzymes, causing the two
strands to unzip. This makes it possible for the
bases to be exposed during transcription and
translation.
The DNA is coiled and wound into a double
helix, when not in use. This makes it compact
and enables it to be transferred easily during
cell division.


SAQ242.a.
DNA RNA
Double stranded
molecule
Single stranded
molecule
Contains
Adenine,
Thymine,
Guanine and
cytosine, but no
Uracil.
Contains Adenine,
Uracil, Guanine
and cytosine, but
no Thymine.
Contains
Deoxyribose
sugar
Contains Ribose
sugar
b.i. The part X is the amino acid attachment
site.
ii. Part Y is the anti codon. It is a sequence of
three bases, which pairs with the codons on
DNA and matches the amino acids to their
respective codons during translation.
c.i. Because a sequence of three bases codes
for a single amino acids along the DNA. These
triplets do not overlap and can code only for a
specific sequence of amino acids.

ii. A single amino acid may be coded for by
more than one codon.

SAQ243.a.i. transfer RNA or tRNA
Ii. UAG (anticodon)
b. During translation, the genetic information
on mRNA is used to determine the sequence of
amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The mRNA
attaches to the ribosome and tRNA molecules
carrying specific amino acids enter the
ribosome and match the amino acids to their
specific codons within the ribosome, by
complementary base pairing between the
codon and anticodon. The amino acids are
linked by peptide bonds and a polypeptide
chains with a specific sequence of amino acids
is built up, until a stop codon is reached.

SAQ244.a.i. In the nucleus
ii. Condensation reactions
b.i. Six amino acids
ii. GCT TGG CGG GCT TAG TGG
c. This is because of the occurrence of the
start codon and stop codon on the mRNA.
Some of the nucleotides from the mRNA may
also be removed before it moves out of the
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 50

nucleus. This is referred to as post
transcriptional modification.
d. During translation, the genetic information
on mRNA is used to determine the sequence of
amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The mRNA
attaches to the ribosome and tRNA molecules
carrying specific amino acids enter the
ribosome and match the amino acids to their
specific codons within the ribosome, by
complementary base pairing between the
codon and anticodon. The amino acids are
linked by peptide bonds and a polypeptide
chains with a specific sequence of amino acids
is built up, until a stop codon is reached.

SAQ244. a. On the diagram
b. During transcription, the genetic information
from the sense strand of DNA is copied by the
formation of a single stranded mRNA
molecule. The sense strand serves as a
template for the free ribonucleotides to pair up
with complementary bases on the sense
strand, following the base pairing rule:
DNA to mRNA
Adenine with Uracil;
Thymine with Adenine;
Guanine with Cytosine;
Cytosine with Guanine;
The enzyme RNA polymerase joins the
individual nucleotides by the formation of
phosphodiester bonds. A single gene is copied
during this process and will be used to form a
single polypeptide chain. The genetic
information is then carried out of the nucleus
in the form of mRNA.
c.i. In the ribosomes

saq246. a. Ribosomes are made up of two
subunits a larger subunit and a smaller
subunit. The larger subunit is made up of two
rRNA and proteins, while the smaller subunit is
made up of one rRNA molecule and proteins.
b. Amino acids 2 and 3 are Glycine and lysine
respectively.

SAQ247. (a) EITHER
1. amniocentesis ;
2. amniotic fluid removed (from amniotic sac of
mother) / eq ;
3. {fetal / embryonic} cells present in amniotic
fluid /{fetal / embryonic} cells needed ;
4. DNA can be analysed / eq ;
5. to detect {defective / eq} gene(s) (in sample)
/ eq ;
OR
1. chorionic villus sampling ;
2. placental tissue removed (from womb of
mother) / eq ;
3. fetal cells present in {placenta / placental
tissue / chorionic tissue} / fetal cells needed ;
4. DNA can be analysed / eq ;
5. to detect {defective / eq} gene(s) (in sample)
/ eq ;
(b) Benefit:
1. gives information about abnormalities (in
fetus) / eq ;
2. {opportunity for choice / eq} / {consider
termination / eq} / time for {preparation /
treatment / eq } / {peace of mind / eq} ;
Risk:
3. possibility of miscarriage (due to procedure)
/ eq ;
4. {potentially a healthy baby would be lost /
eq} / {risk to mother / eq} ;
OR
3. idea of {false positive / false negative} result
4. wrong decision made / description of wrong
decision ;
OR
3. {damage / harm} to fetus ;
4. subsequent health issues / miscarriages / eq
(c) 1. idea that a fetus is living ;
2. abortion is {wrong / murder} / eq ;
OR
1. who has right to decide if tests should be
performed / eq ;
2. implications of medical costs /
disagreements over next step ;
OR
1. issues relating to confidentiality of {parents /
child} / eq ;
2. idea that {some other abnormality may be
found / paternal DNA does not match / other
family members have right to know results} ;
OR
1. that or some other abnormality may be
found ;
2. comment on possible problems with {future
employment / insurance / what constitutes a
serious condition} / eq ;
OR
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 51

1. not fully understanding possible risks of
prenatal testing;
2. possibility of {miscarriage / harm to child} /
OR
1. {who has the right to make the decision for
the fetus / fetus has decision rights} (if the test
is positive) ;
2. {denying them the opportunity to live / fetus
should be allowed to live / fetus has a right to
live} ; Edexcel/June2009/unit1

SAQ248. (a) (i)

(ii) arg-met-leu-arg
(c) (i) No effect/still codes for arg(inine);
Important part of triplet is beginning/any triplet
starting GC gives
Arg(inine)/code is degenerate/3rd base does
not matter;
(ii) Met(hionine) replaced by iso(leucine);
As TA/ first two bases followed by any other
letter is iso(lucine); 2
(d) Deletion causes frame shift/alters
base/nucleotide sequence (from point of
mutation);
Changes many amino acids/sequence of
amino acids (from this point); 2
AQA/BYB2/JUN08

SAQ249. (a) Two suitable mutagenic agents;;
e.g. High energy radiation / High energy
particles; X-rays/cosmic rays; Gamma rays; UV
light; Alpha particles; Beta particles; Nitrous
oxide; Benzene; Tar from cigarettes; Mustard
gas; Phenols; Colchicines;
(b) 1 (Defective)CFTR/ carrier / intrinsic protein
/ channel in membrane / epithelial cells;
2 Blocks outward passage of chloride ions;
3 Water retained in cell/prevents water leaving
/ water enters the cells;
4 Unable to remove mucus in lungs so
infection / coughing more likely;
5 Narrowing/blocking of air passages so
reduced air flow / breathing more difficult;
6 Increased diffusion distance / reduced
surface area for gas exchange reduced /
reduced surface area so insufficient oxygen
received;
7 Pancreatic duct blocked so less enzymes
present / less efficient
digestion;
8 Damage to pancreas can cause diabetes;
9 Mucus in intestines so poor absorption of
nutrients/undernourished;
10 Blocked ducts (in reproductive organs)
causes fertility problems /
sterility;
(c) 1 Use liposomes (as vector);
2 Fuse with cell membrane;
3 Applied by aerosol/sprayed/inhaled;
4 Use (harmless) viruses;
5 These enter epithelial cells/inject DNA;
6 (Healthy) CFTR gene attaches to cells DNA;
7 (Healthy) CFR gene expressed/normal CFTR
produced; AQA/BYB2/JUN08

SAQ250. (a) One e.g. from; Ionising radiation
High energy radiation High energy particles
Example of radiation Named mutagenic agent;
(b) Methionine:
Substitution (always) gives different amino
acids; Substitution of C gives isoleucine;;
Glycine or isoleucine: Substitution of either of
first two bases gives different amino acid;
In glycine, substitution of third base still codes
for glycine; AQA/BYB2/JAN07

SAQ251. (a) 387;
(b) (i) CCAG;
(ii) 5;
(c) high energy radiation / X rays / ultraviolet
light / gamma rays; high energy particles /
alpha particles / beta particles; named
chemical mutagens e.g. benzene / caffeine /
pesticide / mustard gas / tobacco tar / free
radicals;
length of time of exposure (to a mutagen);
dosage (of mutagen);
(d) (i) UAC UUA UGG;
(ii) addition and deletion (of Bases /
nucleotides ); thymine added; adenine deleted;
(addition of thymine and deletion of adenine =
3 marks)
(allow addition of adenine (RNA) and deletion
of uracil (RNA) =2 marks) AQA/BYB2/JAN05

SAQ252. (a) high energy radiation /ionising
particles; named particles/, , ; colchicine;
x rays/cosmic rays; uv (light); carcinogen /
named carcinogen; mustard gas / phenols / tar
(qualified);
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 52

(b)(i) removal of one or more Bases/nucleotide;
frameshift/(from point of mutation) base
sequence change;
(ii) sequence of bases in mRNA would change;
(sequence of) amino acids different / different
primary structure;
(active site / enzyme 1) changed tertiary shape
/ changed active sites;
white pigment does not bind;
lilac pigment not produced / white pigment
remains unchanged/
enzyme 1 does not function; AQA/BYB2/JAN06

SAQ253. blue and lilac; white;

AQA/BYB2/JAN06
SAQ254. (a) (i) allele;
(b) (i) reduced/blocked/stopped/slower; (CFTR)
protein(one)amino acid missing / changed
tertiary/3D shape; (reject irregular shape)
(ii) water potential gradient reduced/water
potential less negative/ higher in mucus
(accept ref to concentration differences)
reduced/no movement of water out of the cell /
water moves into the cell, by osmosis; (must
be in context)
(c) transfer of healthy/normal gene; viral /
liposome transfer / vector; (reject plasmids)
gene transcribed and translated; (or
description) gene expressed/functional /
normal protein/CFTR produced;
AQA/BYB2/JAN06

SAQ255. a. Tryptophan - glycine - lysine -
valine - glycine;
b.i. Substitution / point mutation;
ii. Codes for a different amino acid / could be a
stop codon / changes sequence of amino
acids, affects primary structure of protein;
reference to different bonding in protein; this
affects the tertiary structure;
changes shape of protein / active site /
changes activity in protein;
ref. to redundancy explained / possibly has no
effect;

SAQ256. a. Sequence: mutant allele leads to
formation/ref. transcription of mRNA; with
incorrect base(s)/incorrect codon; Order of
amino acids: therefore translation/arrangement
of/order of amino acids is incorrect; so protein
has wrong secondary/tertiary structure/shape;
b. pancreatic enzymes/amylase/lipase found in
blood; where not normally present;
OR low levels of pancreatic enzymes found in
faeces; where not normally so low.
c. (i) Glucose oxidase
(glucose oxidase) catalyses oxidation /
breakdown of glucose
(ii) Peroxidase
H2O2 reduced/broken down (by peroxidase
enzyme).

SAQ257. Not in syllabus ignore
(a) is always expressed (in the phenotype) /
produces (functional) proteins;
(b) codominance;
(c)

AQA/BYB4/JAN06

SAQ258. (a) Expressed (in the phenotype);
In the absence of the dominant allele/ only
when homozymous/not when heterozygous;
(b)

AQA/BYB4/JAN07

SAQ259.a. Parents Hh and hh;
Gametes of each parent shown:
Correct genotypes of offspring Hh and hh:
Probability 50% 11 in 2/0.5
b.i. 1. Reduce risk of heart disease:
2. Allows early medical intervention / prenatal
testing / abortion /decision not to have
children;
3. Allows a change in lifestyle:
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 53

4. Able to reduce risk factors:
5. Named risk factor;
6. Able to monitor cholesterol levels:
7. Take diuretic drugs / sympathetic nerve
inhibitors lowers blood pressure;
8. Use beta-blockers reduces heart rate and
blood pressure.
9. Use (anticoagulant /platelet inhibiting drugs/
dot busting drugs) reduces the risk of a clot
forming
10. Eat less salt to reduce blood pressure
11. Have a low fat diet/ reduce Intake of
cholesterol/ have a more balanced diet /eat
less saturated fat / eat more fibre - prevents
the build up of (fatty plaques / atheromas/
atherosclerosis / narrowing arteries):
12. Eat five portions of fruit or vegetables a
day / take vitamin supplements /take
antioxidants prevents cellular damage duo
to free radicals.
13. Exercise more - to increase strength of
cardiac muscle /make heart stronger / help
prevent build up of (atheroma / fatty plaques)
reduce fat (bums fat) / reduce BMI/ reduce risk
of obesity
14. Stop smoking to reduce (nicotine / free
radical) levels:
15. Reduce stress - lowers blood pressure;
16. Avoid heavy drinking - avoid risk of
damaging (heart tissue / liver tissue) / reduce
production;
ii. Depression or stress or problems with life
insurance companies. SNAB/JAN/2004

SAQ260.a. Suitable symbols used (dominant
upper case, recessive same letter lower case) ;
Parent gamete shown ;
F1 genotype ;
F2 genotypes ;
F2 phenotypes related to genotypes ;
F2 genotypes related to 3:1 ratio.
b. (Back) cross to suitable recessive plant /
self fertilise ;
Examine phenotypes of offspring ;
Suitable ratios e.g. if back cross then
(phenotypes) offspring all dominant or 1:1
dominant : recessive / if self fertilize all
dominant or 3:1 dominant : recessive ;
Linked to explanation i.e. if all dominant then
F2 plant is homozygous / if mix of dominant
and recessive then F2 plant is [heterozygous /
carrier]. SNAB/JAN/2005

SAQ261.a. A change or damage to a gene /
DNA / chromosome / allele / change in base
sequence (on DNA);
b.i. Parents phenotypes: normal / unaffected
and normal I unaffected: [Reject carrier]
Parents' genotypes: Tt and Tt:
iii. 3 in 4 / / 75% / 0.75:
iv. Genetic screening / amniocentesis /
chorionic villus sampling / embryo screening:
[Altow genetic testing]

SAQ262. a. change in code / base sequence;
detail e.g. substitution / addition / deletion;
of base(s);
different amino acid(s) inserted into protein /
polypeptide;
role of tRNA
b. protein has different shape;
tyrosine no longer fits into active site

SAQ263.a. gene is a specific sequence /
length / eq. of DNA / occurs at a locus on
a chromosome;
with a specific function / codes for a
particular polypeptide / protein
responsible for a characteristic;
alleles are alternative / different forms of a
gene;
only one allele present at a locus / alleles
are separated in melosis;
b.i. 1I
O
I
O
;
2I
A
I
B
;
4I
A
I
O
;
5I
B
I
O
;
6I
B
I
O
;
ii. could be either A or B / I
A
I
O
or I
B
I
O
/
AO or BO;
would inherit either (I)
A
or (I)
B
from
mother / female / one parent;
but (I)
O
only from father / male / other
parent / OR father is homozygous O;

SAQ264. a. One form of a / the same gene;
b. Probability = . Probability (girl with cystic
fibrosis) = 1 in 8 / 1/8 / 0.125 / 12.5%;
Prob. Of cystic fibrosis = 1/4/ 0.25/ 25% and P
girl = 1/2 / 0.5/ 50%;
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 54

c. 1.Chiasma formation / crossing over;
Random / independent assortment /
segregation

SAQ265.a. Restriction endonuclease
b. 1. Gel electrophoresis is
Use of (agarose / polyacrylamide) gel:
2. DNA loaded into wells / description:
3. Use of a buffer;
4. (Negatively charged) DNA moves to
(positive) electrode:
5. DNA fragments move according to {charge /
size) / (smaller go further or faster / converse)
6. Transfer DNA to (nylon / nitrocellulose)
(paper) / southern blotting:
7. DNA strands separate (exposing base
sequences) /single stranded / use of alkali:
A gene probe
1. Gene probe with complementary sequence:
2. (Binds ) to faulty genes:
3. Use of (radioactive fluorescent) labelling:
4. Use of imaging technique (e.g. X-ray, UV,
laser)
c.i. 1. Chloride (ions) (cannot leave / retained
by) cell;
2. Correct reference to sodium ions:
3. (Decreases water potential I increases solute
concentration) inside cell / eq:
4. Water (diffuses /moves) into cell / water
leaves the mucus;
5. By osmosis:
6. Therefore less water in mucus.
ii. (Bacteria /pathogen / microorganism)
trapped in sticky mucus / antibodies
inactivated;

SAQ266.

SAQ267. a. 1. Test is inexpensive:
2. Test is reliable / no false Positives
3. Test is (simple / painless
4. Quick turnaround of results;
5. Counseling follow up;
6. Education about the test / advertise the test:
7. Confidentiality:
b.i. Amniocentesis / chorionic villus sampling;
ii. 1. Reference to extraction of DNA (from
cells)
2. Use of restriction enzymes
3. Gel electrophoresis;
4. Any detail of gel electrophoresis e.g. (large
and small sections / positive and negatively
charged sections) separate;
5. Southern blotting /use of nylon sheet
6. Correct reference to use of gene probe;
7. Detail of (gene probe) e.g. (complementary/
radioactive):
8. Reference to comparison to identify the
gene.
c.i. 4440
ii. 1. change in amino acid sequence / primary
structure.
2. Affects the (specific) shape /tertiary
structure of the protein;
3. channel does not allow passage of chloride
ions:
4. Does not allow chloride (ions) to leave
epithelial cells:
iii. 1. chloride (ion concentration) builds up in
the cell.:
2. Causes water to move into the cell;
3. By osmosis:
4. Loss of water from mucus makes it sticky.

SAQ268.

SAQ269.

SAQ270.

SAQ271. a.i. 1. Copy of (normal / correct)
(allele / gene) inserted into a Loop of DNA /
plasmid / vector- / (retro)virus};
2. Reference to (restriction enzyme /
endonuclease):
3. Reference to DNA Ligase;
4. Forms liposome-DNA complex / (gene)
inserted into liposome;
5. CF patient breathes in (aerosol containing
complexes / (retro)virus / DNA) I targeted to
lungs:
6. Use of nebuliser:
7. Liposome fuses with membrane and DNA
released in cell / (retro)virus inserts DNA into
nucleus:
8. Normal (allele / gene] enters nucleus and
CFTR protein is transcribed
ii. 1. Effect is temporary / process has to be
continually repeated / (Because) cells lining
airways are continually replaced now chance
of success
2. (Retrovirus) may cause (disease / toxic
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 55

affects):
3. New gene may disrupt normal genes:
4. Doesn't help other aspects (of CF) e.g.
digestive problems / sterility etc.
5. Treatment at early stage or development.
b. 1. Physiotherapy ;
Helps (loosen / remove) mucus / improve
airflow into and out of lungs / reduce risk of
infection
2. Flutter device Vibrations dislodge mucus
and aid mucus movement ;
3. Digestive enzymes ;Because pancreatic duct
is blocked
4. Bronchodilators Relax muscles in airways
resulting in them opening up.

SAQ272. a. 1. Correct reference to vector
2. Reference to functional gene codes for
(CFTR) protein ;
3. CFTR protein (in cell membrane)
4. Allows chloride ions to leave the cells ;
5. Sodium ions (diffuse) out of cells
6. Lowers water potential in the [lumen /
airways} ;
7. Draws water out of the cells by osmosis ;
8. Mucus is kept runny
b. 1. (Regular) physiotherapy / rhythmical
tapping of the chest cavity Loosens mucus ;
2. Flutter device ;
Alters air pressure in respiratory passages
Loosens mucus ;
3. Digestive enzyme supplements / other
suitable example of dietary change ;
Replaces enzymes missing due to blocked
pancreatic duct / explained
4. Antibiotics
Prevent infections; Due to build up of mucus
Cells (lining the Lung die and) need to be
replaced /replacement cells do not contain the
new gene.

SAQ273. a. 4,1,6,2,3,5
b. Somatic gene therapy
c.i.
Somatic gene
therapy
Germ line gene
therapy
1. Alteration in
somatic cell
genes.
2. The changes
wont pass to
1. Alteration in
gamete cell genes.
2. The changes will
pass to future
generations.
future generations
ii.

SAQ274. IGNORE NOT IN SYLLABUS.
A description to include five from:
1. correct reference to use of restriction
enzymes;
2. use of agarose gel / DNA loaded into wells in
the gel;
3. pass current through the gel / ref. to
electrophoresis / negatively
charged DNA moves to positive electrode /
anode;
4. smaller fragments travel faster / further (in a
given time);
5. reference to (use of alkali) to make DNA
single stranded / reference to
southern blotting / use of nylon membrane /
eq;
6. reference to probe with complementary
bases to faulty gene;
7. probe contains radioactive or fluorescent
markers

SAQ275.

SAQ276. i. amniocentesis / chorionic villus
sampling / CVS / pre-implantation
genetic diagnosis / PIGD.
ii. 1. extract DNA from cells;
2. cut DNA using a restriction enzyme;
3. gel electrophoresis;
4. credit one further correct detail of gel
electrophoresis;
5. treat with alkali / make DNA single stranded;
6. southern blotting / transfer to a
{nylon/nitrocelluose} membrane;
7. use of a gene probe;
8. further detail of a gene probe
(complementary sequence /radioactively
labelled / fluorescent marker.
9. disclosure {x-ray film / UV light / laser};
10. comparison with marker gene;

SAQ277. 1. CFTR protein defective / eq;
2. chloride ions remain in cells / eq;
3. mucus lacks water/is very sticky / eq;
4. mucus blocks pancreatic (duct);
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 56

5. {fewer enzymes / correctly named enzyme}
released into the small intestine;
6. lower concentration of enzymes / fewer
active sites;
7. fewer collisions between substrate and the
active site of the enzymes /named substrate
and enzyme;

SAQ278. a. Mother and father both
heterozygotes / Tt / carriers;
Probability of thalassaemia 1/4 and female 1/2;
Probability of both 1/8;
b.i. Cut at same base sequence as same
enzyme used;
Fragments are same length / size / have same
charge;
Only differs by a single base;
ii. Single base occurs many times;
Sequence of 20 unlikely to occur elsewhere;

SAQ279. a. High chloride concentration inside
cells lining of lungs because lack of protein
CFTR, it prevents chloride ions from escaping;
Water removed from mucus lining by osmosis.
b. By increasing the thickness of the (gas
exchange) surface and diffusion distance or
blocks bronchioles and prevents ventilation.
c. Chorionic villus sampling can be carried out
(earlier / at 8-12weeks) instead of 15-17 weeks.
If an abortion is to be carried out the earlier it
is done the earlier it is for the mother.

SAQ280. a. DNA strands separated;
Complementary base sequence/ DNA; Probe
base sequence bind to mutant sequence DNA;
Marker shows position.
b. Test genotype of offspring during early
pregnancy; Choice of termination of
homozygous/ embryo selection; Preparation fo
early treatment or of parents; Peace of mind if
normal; Particular risk for these parents.
c. 1. Gene copied to all cells of individuals/ cell
division/ transfer gene;
2. Normal allele is dominant will be expressed;
3. All cells have normal allele produce normal
protein.

SAQ281. i. 1. CFTR (protein channel) does not
work / eq;
2. Lack of CU ions transported into mucus / eq;
3. water does not move into mucus by osmosis
/ eq;
ii. 1. Mucus blocks airways/bronchioles/alveoli.
2. Reduces surface area for gas exchange /
diffusion:
3. Less oxygen (diffuses) into blood.
4. Long diffusion pathway:

SAQ282.a. parents genotypes shown (Nn and
Nn):
parents' gametes shown (N and n for both):
son NN and daughter nn
b. A description to include four from:
1. cells obtained by cheek (cell) swab / blood
test.
2. DNA extracted (from cells)
3. reference to use of restriction enzymes
4. any detail or get electrophoresis method, for
example, reference to pipetting Into wells / use
of agarose gel / electrodes /electric current /
use of buffer /correct reference to fragment
size and speed.
5. reference to use of alkali /eq;
6. transferred to {nylon / nitrocellulose)
membrane / southern blotting.
7. reference to use of gene probe;
8. further detail of gene probe, for example,
radioactive/complementary.
9. reference to use of X ray film.
c.i. amniocentesis / chononic villus sampling
ii. peace of mind if result is negative / can
consider abortion /
can prepare for another child with cystic
fibrosis:

SAQ283.a. 1 genetic, testing / screening:
2 for inherited disease
3 (test to see if) individual is carrier:
4 premarital testing / predict if (potential)
offspring may inherit the disease:
5 antenatal testing:
6 ref to termination:
7 embryo selection (to ensure embryo
healthy); R selection of sex
8 (test for genes that contribute to) diseases
that develop later in life:
9 those with genes given, advice to limit
effects / counseling:
10 faster! earlier, diagnosis;
11 develop more, effective / efficient, drugs (to
combat disease):
Marking schemes for AS past papers by Stafford Valentine Redden, Head of Biology, VIHS. 57

12 drugs have direct effect, on genes / protein
made from specific gene code:
13 gene therapy! correct the base sequence of
faulty gene:;c
14 economic implications / Aw:
15 AVP: e.g. ref. to method used / use of gene
probes / biopsy
16 AVP: allows targeting of drug treatment
b. anxiety about (future) health / may not want
to know / Aw:
many diseases we can test for have no
treatments:
discrimination by employers:
discrimination by, insurance companies /
banks:
reliability of tests in question: A false, positive/
negative, result
example of disease given in context:
cost to. NHs / government:
rich people can benefit poor will not benefit:
e.g. moral issues associated with embryo
selection
eugenics
parents feelings towards child
presence of allele may not cause disease / ref
to multifactorial diseases
ref to storage of data and freedom or
information / invasion of privacy question of
paternity
R 'playing God/ cloning.

END OF TOPIC TWO
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