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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction
Abuses and violence against women and children has far-reaching
consequences among them, and society as a whole. Women and children who
experience abuses and violence suffer a range of health problems, and their
ability to earn a living and to participate in public life is diminished. They are
significantly more at risk of health problems, poor performance, and behavioral
disturbances. Abuses and violence against women and children impoverishes
their persons, their families, the community, and nations. It lowers economic
production, drains resources from public services and employers, and reduces
human capital formation (Somach and Abouzeid, 2009).
Owing to this, there are two sections in Article II of the Philippine
Constitution of 1987 which deals with the protection of children. The first is
Section 12, which reads that, the state recognizes the sanctity of family life and
shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It
shall equally protect the life of the mother, and the life of the unborn from
conception. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of
youth for civic efficiency and development of moral character shall receive the aid
and support of the government. The second is Section 13, which read that, the
state recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation building, and shall promote
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and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well-being. It
shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism and encourage their
involvement in public and civic affairs. While Section 14 of the same article,
provides that, state shall recognize the role of women in nation building and
shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men (Cruz,
2002).
By the preceding constitutional provisions which provides for the
inalienable rights of women and children, the joint Congress have enacted
numerous statutes to ensures that proper protection will be accorded to them by
the government. Corollary this, two of the salient provisions of R.A. 8551,
otherwise known as the Police Reform and Reorganization Law, provides
among others that (Section 57, Title II), the Philippine National Police (PNP)
shall established womens desk in all police stations throughout the country to
administer and attend to cases involving crimes against chastity, sexual
harassment, abuses committed against women and children and other similar
offenses. Provided, that the municipalities and cities presently without
policewomen will have two (2) years upon the effectivity of the said act within
which to comply with the requirement of the provision of said law, and (Section
58, Title II), within the next five (5) years, the PNP shall prioritize the recruitment
and training of women who shall serve in the womens desk. Pursuant to this
requirement, the PNP shall reserve ten percent (10%) of its annual recruitment,
training, and education quota for women (R.A. 8551).
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Addressing women and children concern was given premium in the area
of policing activities and community relations by the PNP since the
NAPOLOCOM issued a Memorandum Circular Number 92-010, which paved the
way to the establishment of the Child and Youth Relations Section (CYRS) in
highly urbanized cities, including Metro Manila, and the designation of Child and
Youth Relations Officer (CYRO) in other police stations nationwide. The police
need to recognize that, in dealing with violence against women, and more
importantly, child abuse cases, they join other forces in an integrated approach to
send a clear message that these crimes are not and will never be tolerated in a
highly civilized community (http://www.pnp.gov./pcr/content/wccp.09/20/20110).
As a law enforcement institution, the PNP is sharing its manifest
adherence to its social contract with the people--that issues and concerns for
women and children can never be demonstrated merely by the fact that crimes
against these defenseless members of the society are simply being solved but
that also the police, as part of the society, should ensure that these crimes,
especially against children, never exist at all (pcrg@pnp.gov.ph. 09/16/2011).
Considering the fact that the WCPD had just recently upgraded, and it is still in its
headway towards operations of this type of policing activities, whose main
concern is protecting the rights, interest, morale and welfare of women and
children. Obviously it is not yet free from the different factors constituting inherent
problems that hamper the performance of its functions. Hence, this study was
come into being.
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Background of the Study
The setting of the study is the Province of Nueva Ecija. The research
locale of the study occupies the Eastern rim of the Central Luzon plains, and is
completely landlocked by the provinces of Pampanga and Bulacan in the South,
Pangasinan and Nueva Vizcaya in the North, Aurora and Quezon in the East and
Tarlac in the West. Geographically, it is situated between 120
O
3628 to
121
O
2145 East Longitude and 15O
O
930 to 160
O
930 North Latitude. The
province is consisting of four congressional districts, five cities and twenty seven
municipalities, with an aggregate total of 849 barangays, a total population of
1,659,883, a population density of 314 per square kilometers, and its capital is
Palayan City, which is about 130 kms. North of Manila (http://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki /nueva_ecija.09/16/2011). Figure 1 presents the research locale of the
study.
The province is the largest in Central Luzon, and is within the area of
responsibility of the Nueva Ecija Police Provincial Office (NEPPO). Under the
said police office are the three (3) Provincial Public Safety Company (PPSC), five
(5) City Police Stations (CPS), and twenty-eight (28) Municipal Police Stations
(MPS). Both the C/MPS and the PPSC are taking charge in implementing anti-
criminality activities thru checkpoint operations in their respective area of
responsibilities, more particularly along the major thoroughfares, with a minimum
of 36/man-hours per day each mobile checkpoints, while the strong chokepoints
were being observed on 24/7 basis.
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Figure 1
Research Locale of the Study
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Across the research locale of the study, abuses and violence against
women and children poses a high burden on policing. Women and children are
particularly susceptible to abuses and violence because often they have fewer
rights or lack of legal protection. Many women and children victims of violence
and abuses know their perpetrators - often as family members or intimate
partners - and are sometimes hesitant to report the crimes. Sometimes, a
vicious cycle of violence and abuses occurs, in which the victims eventually
becomes a perpetrator.
It is a widespread problem, not only in the research locale of the study, but
also in some other places. This is with long-term consequences to the victim and
all the family members as well as to the abusers themselves, and it is becoming
a national epidemic. It is proliferating in an environment that accepts the lesser
status of women and children. Shrouding the violence in secrecy allows this
behavior to continue. Both are occurring with some regularity, often increasing
and becoming more serious, and for a number of reasons including shame,
secrecy, and isolation, both types of abuse are underreported. Therefore,
educating the publicgiving emphasis with women and children about the extent
of the problem establishes a foundation that permits victims and would-be victims
to come forward. Therefore the occurrence of the said problems requires a more
effective role performance of the Women and Childrens Protection Desk
(WCPD), capable of protecting the rights and interest and ensuring the safety of
its clienteles.
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Conceptual Framework
This study was anchored on the Upgrading of Women and Children
Concerns Division (WCCD) to Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD),
pursuant to General Orders Number DPL 07-03 dated October 15, 2007,
National Headquarters, Philippine National Police, Camp Crame, Quezon City.
This General Orders is in accordance with the vested powers of the Chief, PNP
under Section 26 of R.A. 6975, and provides among others that the WCCD shall
perform the following functions (Alejandrino, 2007):
1. Enforce all laws for the protection of women and children from
abuse, exploitation, discrimination and neglect including children who are in
conflict with the law;

2. Investigate cases of women and children who fall victim to physical
and sexual abuse and other gender-based crimes;

3. Participate in the legal and judicial process of addressing causes of
violence against women and children with the purpose of serving the ends of
justice for the victims;

4. Coordinate with other government agencies, non-government
organizations and local community in pursuing and inter-disciplinary and multi-
jurisdictional responses to the rights and needs of the victims of abuse and
violence;

5. Initiate crime prevention programs aimed at reducing and
eliminating the victimization of women and children at home, in the
neighborhood, in the workplace, and in society; and

6. Extend necessary assistance to women and children in need of
special protection, conduct projects and activities related to women and children
protection, and perform analogous responsibilities.

Based on the preceding functions, it is therefore necessary that the
meaning of gender and sexuality and the balance of power between women,
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men and children at all levels of society must be reviewed. Changing people's
attitude and mentality towards women and children will take a long timeat least
a generation, many believe, and perhaps longer. Due this, the PNP was able to
implement several projects and activities aimed at enhancing police response to
the women and children victims of abuses and violence. The confrontational
issues that might soon rise in this special concern of policing activities can be
used to serve as yardstick to gauge the capabilities of the WCPD in providing
responsive police service to their clienteles (Directorate for Operations, 2002).
To further discuss the theoretical framework of this study the Input,
Process, Output and Outcome (IPOO) concept was adopted and hereunder
illustrated. The input deals with the socio-demographic profile of the police
personnel assigned at the womens and childrens protection desk complaints
center, extent of the responsiveness of the womens and childrens complaints
center, and degree of the problems met by the womens and childrens
complaints center; the process deals with normative survey with the use of
questionnaire checklists, statistical treatment and analysis of data from survey
instrument, personal interviews from among the target respondents, actual
observations in the research locale of the study, and textual and tabular
presentation of results; the output deals with more responsive womens and
childrens complaints center; while the outcome deals with the implications of the
results of the study to public safety management. Figure 2 presents the research
paradigm of the study.
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More Effective
WCPD



Implications to
Clienteles Safety



Feedback



Figure 2

Research Paradigm of the Study

Statistical
Treatment and
Tabular
Presentation of
Data
Structured and
Unstructured
Interviews and
Actual
Observations
Extent of the
Effectiveness
Degree of the
Problems Met
Normative
Survey with the
Use of
Questionnaire
Checklist
Role
Performance of
Women and
Children
Protection Desk
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Statement of the Problem
This study attempted to find the extent of the effectiveness of role
performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD), and its
implications to its clienteles safety. Specifically it sought to answer the following
problems:
1. What is the demographic profile of female police personnel
assigned at the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in terms of:
1.1. educational qualification;
1.2. appropriate eligibility;
1.3. number of years in service;
1.4. number of cases handled; and
1.5. relevant seminar attended?
2. What is the extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the
Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in terms of:
2.1. investigation of violation of laws;
2.2. addressing domestic violence; and
2.3. referral to concerned agencies?
3. What is the degree of problems met in role performance of the
Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in terms of:
3.1. organizational resources;
3.2. inter-agency coordination; and
3.3. support from local government?
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4. Is there a significant difference in the assessment of respondents
on the extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the responsiveness of
the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD)?
5. Is there a significant difference in the assessment of respondents
on the degree of problems met in role performance of the by the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)?
6. What are the implications of the results of the study to its clienteles
safety?

Hypotheses
The researchers have hypothesized the following:
1. There is no significant difference in the assessment of respondents
on the extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD).
2. There is no significant difference in the assessment of respondents
on the degree of problems met extent in role performance of the by the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD).

Significance of the Study
The results of the study were significant to the following:
1. The Women and Children Victims (WCV) in terms of improved
services that could be provided to them by the Philippine National Police (PNP)
through the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD), wherein it might
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possibly open new doors of opportunity for the women and children in reporting
their own victimization, purposely to prevent its future and repeated occurrences.
Optimistically it might likewise results to their empowerment as members of the
community.
2. The Community-at-Large (CAL) as the citizen-clienteles of the
policing activities, considering the fact that they are the end-users to the input
derived from a responsive police unit nationwide which will be taking charge with
the victimization of women and children. Awareness on the part of the
community-members is also expected with regard offenses constituting violations
of the rights, interest and welfare of women and children victims of crimes.
3. The Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) owing to the
fact that the results of the study might lead to the re-assessment and re-
validation of the actual level of performance of the said police unit, and it might
resort in the modifications of the mechanics in handling cases involving women
and children. This may also provide new directions to the said police unit in
furthering the rights, interest and welfare of women and children which is their
prime and foremost considerations.
4. The Philippine National Police (PNP) due to the fact that it can be
used as parameter whether the functioning and purpose of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD) are effectively being carried out in the different
police office and/or units nationwide. This is likewise due to the same reason that
the results of the study can be used as basis on the organizational hierarchy as
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basis in the formulation of policies, rules and regulations towards room for
changes and improvements of the WCPD.
5. Other Researchers (OR) taking into consideration that it might also
serve as a basis in the conduct of other research on areas related to the present
study. It may also serve as a reference material in the formulation of policy
guidelines to be observed by the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD)
in the performance of its functions with the aim purpose addressing the problem
met and enhancing its present level of responsiveness to perfection.

Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study was conducted in the Province of Nueva Ecija. The
respondents were the Chiefs of Police (COP), the Section Chiefs, Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD), the City/Municipal Social Welfare
Development Officers (C/MSWDO), and Presidents, Association of Barangay
Captains (ABC) in the different localities within the territorial jurisdictions of the
research locale of the study.
The study was conducted for a period of one school year, and that is from
November 2011 to March 2012, and was limited only to the items and specific
problems in the questionnaire checklists, giving emphasis on the following:
demographic profile of female police personnel assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD), extent of the effectiveness of role
performance of the responsiveness of the Women and Children Protection Desk
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(WCPD), and degree of problems met in role performance of the by the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD).

Definition of Terms
For a clearer understanding, the following terms were given operational
meaning according to the context of the study.
Addressing Domestic Violence. This refers to the process by which the
Women and Children Protection Center (WCPC) is pro-actively finding solutions
to minimize if not to totally prevent the occurrence of offenses involving women
and children.
Degree of the Problems Met. This refers to the internal and external
problems borne out by the performance of the functions of the Women and
Children Protection Center (WCPC) in providing responsive services to the
women and children victimization.
Demographic Profile. This refers to the individual characteristics and
qualifications of police personnel assigned at the Women and Children Protection
Center (WCPC), and which are very much important in the performance of
individual functions
Enforcement of Related Statutes. This refers to the process of the
implementation of any related laws enacted by the joint Congress towards the
aim purpose of protecting the rights, interest, morale and welfare of women and
children.
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Extent of the Responsiveness. This refers to the present level of the
performance of the functions of the Women and Children Protection Center
(WCPC) in the research locale of the study towards providing the would-be
clienteles with effective policing activities.
Implications. This refers to the chain-reactions of the responsive
performance of functions of the Women and Children Protection Center (WCPC)
towards providing the community-members in the different places of the country
with an equally effectively public safety management--this may be positive or
negative.
Indifference of the Public. This refers to the traditional apathy displayed
with the community-members, as manifested by the lack of support and
cooperation shown by the stake holders with the different policing activities, more
particularly in the prevention of women and children victimization.
Inter-Agency Coordination. This refers to the rapport and linkages
between the key role players in the government and non-government sectors
which is taking charge in advocating the rights, interest, morale and welfare of
women and children., as vulnerable and susceptible sector of society.
. Investigation of Violation of Laws. This refers to the process of reactively
looking into the occurrence of the women and children victimization which is
geared towards the aim purpose of filing of corresponding cases against violators
of related laws concerning women and children.
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Organizational Resources. This refers to the human and material
resources employed and utilized by the Women and Children Protection Center
(WCPC) in the performance of functions of preventing women and children
victimization.
Police Personnel. This refers to the officers and members of the Philippine
National Police (PNP) who are assigned at the Women and Children Protection
Center (WCPC), and who are tasked to perform the analogous functions of not
only preventing the victimization, but also of overseeing the rights, interests,
morale, and welfare of women and children.
Public Safety Management. This refers to the holistic process of ensuring
public safety from among the end-users of the government service, and it does
not only encompasses maintenance of peace and order, but it also involved
ensuring public security from any forms of threats to their persons as guaranteed
by the constitution.
Referral to Concerned Agencies. This refers to the process of calling the
attention of other concerned government agencies to make remedial actions on
any violations of laws concerning women and children.
Support from Local Government. This refers to the material and financial
support provided by the different Local Government Units (LGU) to police forces
in their respective territorial jurisdictions, more particularly with the Women and
Children Protection Center (WCPC) policing activities.
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Womens and Childrens Protection Desk (WCPD). This refers to the
newly upgraded operational support unit of the Philippine National Police (PNP)
which will be taking charge with analogous performance of functions as provided
by General Orders Number DPL 07-03 dated October 15, 2007, National
Headquarters, Philippine National Police, Camp Crame, Quezon City.


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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter contains the exploration of related literature and studies, both
foreign and local, and the synthesis of the reviewed literature studies to the
present study.

Foreign Literature
For much of history and throughout the world, social and legal traditions
have tolerated or even promoted the physical assault of women by men. In
ancient Rome, a husband could legally divorce, physically punish, or even kill his
wife for behaviors that were permitted for men. Punishment of wives was called
chastisement, a term that emphasized the corrective purpose of the action and
minimized the violent nature of the behavior. Under medieval English common
law, a husband could not be prosecuted for raping his wife because the law
provided that a wife could not refuse consent for sex to her husband. Because
much of U.S. law was modeled on English common law, this definition of rape
remained in effect in the United States until the 1970s, when many states
modified their rape statutes. Although laws in the United States have always
prohibited wife beating, these laws often were not enforced. Furthermore, laws
prohibiting assault and battery set different standards for guilt if the victim was
the wife of the assailant. That is, to be found guilty of a crime for hitting his wife, a
husband had to more severely strike and more seriously injure her than if he had
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hit a stranger. Courts treated victims of assault differently because the husband
had a legal right to chastise his wife. The right to chastise wives was first
overruled by courts in Alabama and Massachusetts in 1871. Since the 19th
century, women have acquired greater legal and political rights, such as the right
to vote (see Woman Suffrage). As the status of women has improved, attitudes
toward domestic violence have shifted and laws have been changed. The
National Organization for Women (NOW) and other womens rights organizations
in the United States have sponsored campaigns to raise public awareness of
intimate violence. Whereas 30 years ago spouse abuse occurred behind closed
doors and was largely considered a private matter, today it is widely recognized
as an important, dangerous, and harmful social problem (Microsoft Encarta
Reference Library 2003. 1993-2002).
Accordingly, largely hidden from public view, violence in the home places
women and children at much greater risk than any violence committed on the
street. Domestic violence is by far the most prevalent form of violence
confronting our society today. Only a small proportion of this violence is ever
reported to the police. Unfortunately, much of society and many police agencies
traditionally turned their back on the problem, refusing to become involved in
family quarrels. Until recently there was no evidence that police intervention
was in any way helpful to women injured in the home. The typical police
response included mediating the dispute among the parties, threatening all
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parties, asking one of the parties to leave and cool off, or making an arrest
(Peak & Glensor, 1996).
Law enforcement officers called to the scene of a domestic disturbance
have generally been wary of intervening, not only because of the danger to the
officers themselves, but also because there was no general policy that required a
formal action. Thus the earlier police responses were to physically separate and
calm both persons and make referrals to social services agencies. Often the
police officers would have to return to the same address in a short time, to repeat
the generally ineffective non-intervention. Now there is a growing consensus
across the nation that the best policy is to address the batterer, and for
prosecutors and judges to use criminal sanctions to force a cessation of the
battering and provide treatment to batterers. Court-ordered counseling and
education program can stop domestic abuse, if court orders contain enforcement
sanctions and compliance is monitored. Yet much remains to be done to initiate
safe havens for the battered spouse, train counselors, find community funding,
educate justice personnel and intervene successfully with the battered wife
syndrome (Allen & Simonsen, 1992).
There were many important developments in the control of crime and
juvenile delinquency in the United States in 1945. Many states came to the
realization that adult crime has its roots in the delinquencies of youth and that the
prevention of major crimes must be based on effective programs for the control
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of juvenile delinquency. Many states undertook studies and surveys essential to
the formulation of a crime prevention program (Sametz & Streib, 2003).
Police officers usually follow a set of objectives of handling juveniles. In
most jurisdictions, the law specifies that the first objectives are to protect the
juvenile. Second, officers are to investigate. Third, they are to determine the
cause of the victimization or delinquency. These causes are usually exposed in a
dialogue between the youth and authority. Fourth, every effort is made to prevent
further victimization or delinquency. And fifth, the officers seek proper disposition
of the case. Officers try to dispose of juvenile cases in a way that considers the
best interests of both the juveniles and the community. The intake process of the
juvenile justice system requires the development of employee screening
practices, certification standards, and caseload guidelines. Caseworkers should
be certified to practice on the basis of education, training and experience
(Drowns and Hess, 2000).

Local Literature
The protection of society is the primary responsibility of the government.
Specifically, it is the governments duty to ensure that the rights of every
individualespecially the childrens are protected. As the principal agent of the
government authorized to enforced laws and to maintain peace and order in the
community, the police plays a crucial role in the protection of childrens rights.
Since, aside from teachers and social workers, policemen are in the best position
to deal with children than any other group. It is also recognized that the
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responsibility of the police in the protection and care for the welfare of children is
comprehensive. If policemen carry out their jobs more effectively, less-children
will languish in jail and more will receive appropriate interventions and immediate
protection from hazardous conditions in the community. The manner by which
various categories of children are handled by the police considerably influences
and guides the course of the juvenile justice system (DSWD, NAPOLCOM and
PNP, 1993).
The Womens Crisis and Child Protection Center (WCCPC) has the
following objectives: to bring together key people from law enforcement, in
particular the various professionals who could interact and respond to child
abuse and violence against women cases in a coordinated fashion; to organize,
pool, train these human resources whose potentials to serve the greater interest
of women and children can be harnessed in full; to establish a one-stop in the
PNP where all sexual and physical abuses committed against children may be
referred for proper police intervention, treatment and attention; to provide quick-
response professional inter-disciplinary services to the victims; to establish a
team approach by eliminating unnecessary duplication of effort and promoting
proper and expeditious collection and preservation of evidence to improve
investigative outcomes of child abuse cases referred to the center; to establish
expertise in the collection and preservation of evidence, in crime scene
examination, and in taking statement and confessions; to make all team
members work not actually in all aspects of the investigation, but inactively
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coordinating the total police intervention process drawing from the resources
made available by the disciplines involved; and to develop a more responsive
and innovative law enforcement mechanisms to address violence against women
and children (DIDM, 2002).
Domestic abuse and violence has now become a phenomenon. Ordinarily,
when a murder, or an estafa, or even a robbery takes place, it is the victim who
normally bears to suffer for the wrong done. Crimes, after all, are purely an
individual fight for those whose rights to life and property have been violated. On
the other hand, it took a village to raise a child. There must be no big secret
therefore, when child abuse is committed. Just because it is never been seen,
just because it isnt believed, doesnt mean it is not happening. Abuse, whether
physical or sexual, occurs with alarming frequency . . . in all kinds of families . . .
to all kinds of kids. This village must be expected, and it means everyone in the
community, to howl in outrage when it learns a story of child abuse. For when a
child dies, or is harmed or injured at the least, a part of this community suffers-
the future (Usana, 1998).
As stated on the declaration of policy of Anti-Violence Against Women and
Their Children Act, it is hereby declared that the state shall values the dignity of
women and children, and guarantees full respect to human rights. The state also
recognizes the need to protect the family ands its members particularly women
and children from violence and threats to their personal safety and security.
Towards this end, the state shall exert efforts to address violence committed
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against women and children in keeping with the fundamental freedoms
guaranteed under the Constitution and the provision of the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights, the Convention of the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination
Against Women, Convention on the rights of the Child and other international
human rights instruments of which the Philippine is a party (R.A. 9262).
The PNP-WCCD has surfaced in several local and international forms.
Domestic violence is one of the outcomes of vulnerable households relations
especially in poor communities. This report recommends support of police
stations managed by women as a priority potential solution. The National Police
Commission (NAPOLCOM) recognized the rising report of incidence violence
committed in the home. This can be attributed by the NAPOLCOM in crime
prevention and criminal justice in monitoring and preventing domestic violence in
1993. Violence on women and children is a broad and complex and cannot be
adequately addressed by the law enforcement. The intervention of police is not
enough to ease the suffering of the majority of women and children with cases.
Therefore, the setting up of WCCD is a probable start in improving access of
poor and abused women and children within the jurisdiction of law enforcement
(Memorandum Circular No. 99-0001).

Foreign Studies
In foreign setting, Ringel (1997), conducted study on criminal victimization
in 1996, changes in 1995-1996 with trends 1993-1196, arrived with the following
findings: 1) persons between ages 12 and 15 and 16 and 19 had higher rates of
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violent crime victimization that those 25 or older; 2) persons age 12 to 19 were
twice as those age 25 to 34 and 3 times as likely as those age 35 to 49 to be
victims of violent crimes; 3) persons age 12 to 19 had a violent crime
victimizations rate 20 times higher than those age 65 or older; and 4) for the
crime of aggravated assault, individuals between age 16 to 19 had a significantly
higher rate of victimization that any other group.
Martin and Besharov (1991) undertook a study of the police response to
abused children. The major findings of the study were as follows: 1) the vast
majority of police agencies routinely report abuse and neglect to their local child
protective service agencies; 2)over three-quarters of police agencies believe that
child protective service agencies inform the police of all cases of sexual abuse
brought to their attention; 3) police and sheriffs departments conduct a large
number investigations of child abuse and neglect; 4) of those cases closed by the
police, nearly 40 percent of the sexual abuse cases, and about a quarter of
physical abuse and neglect cases results in the arrest of a suspected perpetrator;
5) nearly two-thirds of the police agencies surveyed have child abuse policies; 6)
the vast majority of police agencies provide at least some training on identifying
child abuse cases to all new recruits, and provide training on handling of
investigations to new child abuse investigators; 7) about half of police agencies
with more than 250 officers have squad of investigators who have received
specialized training and work full-time on investigating child abuse cases; 8) in
more than three-quarters of the police agencies specialized investigator is either
26

on duty or on call 24-hours a day; 9) the presence of a specialized child abuse
squad, but not its organizational location, affects case disposition; and 10) eighty-
one percent of the responding departments have inter-agency agreements
regarding child abuse investigations.
Sprinthall and Collins (1994), conducted study on adolescent psychology,
a developmental view, made the following findings: delinquent behavior starts
prior to adolescence, during adolescence the anti-social acts increased in
seriousness and frequency; 2) the home environment-especially the quality of the
mother-son relationshipis a major causative factor; 3) the economic status of
delinquency-prone families is lower that that of non-delinquent families, even
though there is no difference in the level of parental employment; 4) there is
virtually 100 percent rate of school drop out for the delinquents; and 5) follow-up
studies indicate that in adulthood, almost one-third of the delinquents engage in
serious crimes.
The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
(1996) conducted study in combating violence and delinquency, made the
following recommendations: 1) provide immediate intervention and appropriate
sanctions and treatment for delinquent juveniles; 2) prosecute certain serious,
violent, and chronic juvenile offenders in criminal court; 3) reduce youth
involvement with guns, drugs and gangs, and provide opportunities for children
and youth; 5) break the cycle of violence by addressing youth victimization,
abuse and neglect; 6) strengthen and mobilize community; 7) support the
27

development of innovative approaches to research and evaluation; and 8)
implement an aggressive public outreach campaigns on effective strategies to
combat juvenile offenders.
National Center for Missing & Exploited Child (2006) (1990), conclude in
the discussion of can we believe that children say abuse sexual abuse, it is not
necessarily the lying child we are concerned about, but, rather the child who is
not abused who, believing it, says he or she is because, of some external
influence. There is some research indicating that, in rare cases children may
have had their memories influenced top the extent that they describe abuse that
never happened, but which they truly believe. All in all the research indicates that
children, even young children as there have good memories and the ability to
accurately recount things they have experienced. The danger is failure of an
interviewer to properly identify when he or she is being overly suggestive. The
literature reflects wide, disparate and varying on the ages and extent of the
provide suggestion, which would adversely affect a childs account of what
happened to him or her.

Local Studies
Maure (2006) on his study on, Childrens Exploitation in Cabanatuan City
as Perceived by the Barangay Captains and Barangay Social Welfare and
Development Officers, made the following recommendations: 1) continuous
conduct of seminars and workshops from among the Barangay Captains (BC)
and Barangay Social Welfare and Development Officers (BSWDO) to further
28

enhance their awareness as the first line of defense concerning rights and
interests of children, with the active support of the Local Government Unit (LGU),
purposely to minimize if not totally eliminated occurrence of childrens
exploitation; 2) strict enforcement of the laws concerning rights and interest of
children to be actively undertaken by the Barangay Captains (BC) and Barangay
Social Welfare and Development Officers (BSWDO), and the different concerned
government agencies for more proactive and reactive efforts in threshing out the
existence and would-be existence of childrens exploitation; 3) address the
contributory factors to childrens exploitations through the formulation of
programs, projects and activities to be spearheaded by the social welfare agency
which is geared toward eliminating the root-causes of violating the rights and
interest of children, and the breeding grounds that abet the proliferation of the
conditions placing the welfare of children in jeopardy; 4) more orchestrated
efforts on the part of the Barangay Captains (BC) and Barangay Social Welfare
and Development Officers (BSWDO) with the active support of Local
Government Agencies (LGA), and Non-Government Organizations (NGO), and
the community-members as well in addressing the problems on childrens
exploitation in respective communities; and 5) jointly institute corrective
measures through periodic consultations to deal with the symptoms of the
contributory factors to childrens exploitation to be instituted by the community-at-
large through the stewardship of the Local Government Unit (LGU), and the
29

Local Government Agencies (LGA), and the Non-Government Organizations
(NGO).
Taborada (2004) on her study on the Responsiveness of the Womens
and Children Protection Desks (WCPD) in the Management of Children in
Conflict with the Law: An Assessment, made the following recommendations:
1) enlistment of the services of experts in the different discipline concerning
rights and interests of the children, and employment of professionals who could
obviously and effectively addressed problems confronted by the children in
conflict with the law; 2) initiation of activities and programs that would help
developed awareness from among the community members on the problems
confronted by the children in conflict with the law, and active support from the
Local Government Unit (LGU), Local Government Agencies (LGA), and Non-
Government Organizations (NGO) in response to the alarming incidents involving
children; 3) enhance collaboration with the different sectors of the society for a
more orchestrated effort in the protection of the rights and interests of children,
protection of children from violence and abuses, and reduction of occurrence of
incidence involving children in conflict with the law; 3) assignment and placement
of more female police personnel in the Womens and Children Protection Desks
(WCPD) for a more effective management of children in conflict with the law, and
sophistication and modernization of facilities and equipment, and allocation of
fund and material resources for an improved discharge of mandated functions; 5)
establishment of crisis centers for a more responsive management of children in
30

conflict with the law, purposely to cater the needs of the victims, witness, and
accusedlegally, psychologically, physically, and morally, and that could attend
the well-being of children in conflict with the law; and 5) providing the children in
the management of children in conflict with the law with the restorative justice for
engendered individuals owing to the protection of their rights and interests.
Elefanio (2002), on her study on the effectiveness of Women and Children
Protection Desk, Southern Police District (WCPC, SPDO) in handling child abuse
cases made the following recommendations: 1) the study reveals that the desk
officers are indeed qualified to handle the works assigned to them, however it is
still recommended that there should be a continuing seminars/trainings for the
program to upgrade and reinforced the personnels capability; 2) the PNP,
DSWD, and other government agencies should strengthen their program and all
other supervisory trainings which aimed to develop effectiveness of obtain
excellent performance for the betterment of public service; 3) the WCPD should
be the conduit for the networking of community-co-producers for the welfare and
protection of women and children in the society; 4) closes coordination and
cooperation from among the law enforcement groups should always be focused
to assure speedy investigation and solution of cases, this may easier said than
done, but the need for such is so vital that those in the higher echelon of
leadership should set the example by leading all the way to achieve such virtues,
it is also important that petty jealousies be avoided and that women gender
should not be a stumbling block for cooperation and coordination between
31

opposite sex; and 5) to ease somewhat the apprehension of women about
reporting their victims of domestic violence, there is a need for a gender-
synthesizing the PNP, through the creation if more WCPDs where children
victims can relate more to the police women officers.
The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) (1999),
conducted study on commercial sexual exploitation of children in the Philippines,
a situation analysis, made the following recommendations on prevention aspect:
1) for local government offices and non-government organizations, conduct
information and education programs on situations that lead to commercial sexual
exploitation of children, and on the aftermath or implications of commercial
sexual exploitation of children; 2) for concerned organizations, provide programs
and services on the following areas: sports and recreation, alternative mode of
education, values clarification, livelihood skills development, and intensive law
enforcement and surveillance activities, these areas were identified as priority
needs of the children-victims; 3) develop and harness the capabilities of
community members in prevention activities through the conduct of commercial
sexual exploitation of children awareness campaigns, monitoring of commercial
sexual exploitation of children, detecting and reporting the abusers or
perpetrators, providing facilities, and initiating activities aimed at re-channeling
the energies of children and youth, particularly the out-of-school, to more
productive endeavors; 4) for Department of Education, integrate in the school
curricula lessons on the forms, causes and consequences of commercial sexual
32

exploitation of children, they must start at the primary level so that young children
may be equipped early with the knowledge of their rights and of the things that
lead to commercial sexual exploitation of children, educating them on commercial
sexual exploitation of children, adolescent sexuality, and other child welfare
concerns can heighten their awareness and lessen their risk of becoming victims
of commercial sex; and 5) develop and introduce more creative and indigenous
advocacy tools, i.e., community theater and other forms of popular education to
depict child abuse exploitation.
Decano (1999) on his assessment on the effectiveness of the PNP
program for the protection of women and children, evolving a doctrine on women
and children desk, made the following solutions and doctrine proposals: 1)
integrated approach in protecting women and children from crime victimization
through close coordination between the women and children desk, the various
media, and the public; 2) upgrading of the women and childrens protection
program through continuous, and rigorous public information campaign; 3)
networking between the women and children desk and key players in the
community can disseminate the existence of women and childrens desk in every
police station.

Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature
The responsiveness of the protection of women and children from the
violation of their rights, interests, morale and welfare is one effective way of
influencing the onset of change in the social values and culture of the Filipino
33

people with respect to women and children. The values program of the
government directly aimed at the reformation of values and culture, i.e., gender
sensitivity program, moral recovery program, child and youth welfare program,
and many others are, by themselves, not enough. By and large, the value and
cultural practice reformation are indispensable factors in the promotion of change
in the negative values and practices of the society. The literature cited in this
chapter of study are very relevant to the present study, considering the fact that
all of them are focused on violence against women and children, and aimed at
one universal objectives of controlling the occurrence of said incidents, and
making the services of the concerned law enforcement agencies more
responsive in effectively dealing with this problem involving the immediate
members of the family.
Similarly, the literature deals with the monitoring and investigation of
cases involving women and children which are also the focus of the present
study. Strategies and approaches presented are almost synonymous with what
are provided in the mandated powers and functions of the womens and
childrens complaints center in the local setting. The problems met in the
presented foreign literature and studies cited in this portion of study are almost
the same as what is it existing in the local setting. They only differ in degrees. In
like manner that the present study only differs from the previous foreign studies
in setting, respondents, time, and obviously in the findings and conduct of the
study. But in one way or another, they all similarly deal with the protection of
34

women and children from all forms of abuses, exploitation and indiscrimination
physical and verbal, which are all important considerations in the civilized
society.

35

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES

This chapter presents the following, i.e., research methods, population
and sample of the study, procedure in data gathering, research instrument,
reliability and validity of instruments, and statistical treatment of data.

Research Methods
This study used the descriptive type of research. The descriptive type of
research was employed through the normative survey by utilizing the
questionnaire-checklist, undertaking personal interviews from among the
selected respondents, and conducting actual observations in the research locale
of the study. To better understand what the descriptive type of research is,
Soriano (2011) defines it as a study that finds answer to the questions who, what,
when, where and how. This type of research describes a situation or given state
of affairs in terms of special aspects or factors.
This study also both used the qualitative and quantitative research
designs. The quantitative approach was made through use of a questionnaire-
checklist which aims to relate the perception of the respondents to the identified
issues and problems, while the qualitative approach was used to determine and
analyze the situation where issues and problems were identified and analyzed.
The preceding research methods were used based on the rationale that the true
picture of the problems at hand were to be determined (Gay, 2006).
36

Population and Sample of the Study
The respondents of the study were the thirty-two (32) Chiefs of Police
(COP), the thirty-two (32) Section Chiefs, Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD), the thirty-two (32) City/Municipal Social Welfare Development Officers
(C/MSDWO), and the thirty-two (32) Presidents, Association of Barangay
Captains (ABC) in the different localities within the territorial jurisdictions of the
research locale of the study. Table 1 presents the population and sample of the
study.

Table 1

Population and Sample of the Study

Respondents Population Sample
Chiefs of Police 32 32
Section Chiefs, WCPC 32 32
Social Welfare Officers 32 32
Presidents, ABC 32 32
T o t a l 128 128

The respondents in the conduct of this study were in the right position to
make reliable assessments on the extent of responsiveness of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD), vis--vis with the degree of problems met by
the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD). They were having first hand
information and relative experiences relatively with the said policing activities.
This is owing to the fact that the C/MSDWO are the counterparts of the COP in
the implementation of laws concerning women and children, while the ABCs are
usually the first person in authority that takes cognizance on any incidents
involving women and children in their respective communities.
37

The samples were selected through total enumeration or 100% of the total
number of the different groups of participants. The different groups of participants
have in one way or another having direct and/or indirect involvement relatively
with the above stated policing activities. They likewise typically represent the
people of different walks of life in the research locale of the study, and are
considered as reliable source of information and data needed in the conduct of
this study.

Procedure in Data Gathering
The researchers have first sought permission from the Provincial Director,
Nueva Ecija Police Provincial Office (PD, NEPPO) of allowing them to float the
questionnaire checklists from among the target respondents. The researcher has
personally administered and explained the mechanics in answering the
questionnaire for the period of one (1) month in each group of the target
respondents.
Individual approach was also made with the target respondents to
facilitate the expeditious and early retrieval of the duly accomplished
questionnaire checklists, purposely to avoid inconvenience of repeatedly getting
in touch with the target respondents.
Personal interviews from among the target respondents, and actual
observations in the research locale of the study were likewise conducted. The
data that came from the conduct of personal interviews, and actual observations
38

were used to supplement, contribute in the solution, and in the clarity of the
problems being studied.

Research Instrument
The study used a questionnaire checklist that was formulated by the
researcher with the help and guidance of her adviser. It was divided into as three
parts as follows:
Part I of the instrument was designed to draw information on the
demographic profile of police personnel assigned at the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD), i.e., educational attainment, appropriate eligibility,
number of years in service, number of cases handled, and relevant seminar
attended.
Part II of the instrument was composed of fifteen-item checklist under four
headings, i.e., investigation of violation of laws, addressing domestic violence,
and referral to concerned agencieswhich was designed to draw information on
extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD). The responses to each item were evaluated according
to bipolar scale as shown below:
Ranges Scale Verbal Interpretation
4.21 5.00 5 Very Responsive (VR)
3.41 - 4.20 4 Responsive (RS)
2.61 3.40 3 Moderately Responsive (MR)
1.81 2.60 2 Slightly Responsive (SR)
39

1.00 1.80 1 Not Responsive (NR)
Part III of the instrument was composed of fifteen-item checklist under four
headings, i.e., organizational resources, inter-agency coordination, and support
from local government--which was designed to draw information on the degree of
problem met i met in role performance of the by the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD). The responses to each item were evaluated according
to bipolar scale as shown below:
Ranges Scale Verbal Interpretation
4.21 5.00 5 Very Serious (VS)
3.41 - 4.20 4 Serious (SR)
2.61 3.40 3 Moderately Serious (MS)
1.81 2.60 2 Slightly Serious (SS)
1.00 1.80 1 Not Serious (NS)

Reliability and Validity of the Instrument
The reliability which refers to the consistency of measuring instrument,
often used to describe a test was determined through the conduct of test-retest
method by administering the instrument to the same groups of respondents in an
interval of one (1) month.
The validity, which refers to the degree to which a study supports the
intended conclusions drawn from the results will be establish through construct
validity by examining each item to know whether the instrument in question does
in fact measure what it has been designated to measure. The reliability
40

coefficient was computed by using the Pearson r or machine formula (Ybaez,
2007).
Formula:

r = NXY - (X) (Y) . .

[NX
2
- (X)
2
] [NY
2
- (Y
2
)] . . .
Where:

r = Reliability Coefficient

N = Number of Cases

X = 1st Group of Respondents

Y = 2nd Group of Respondents

. . . = 3rd and 4th Group of Respondents

The reliability coefficient obtained for the questionnaire on the extent of
the effectiveness of role performance of the responsiveness of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD was 0.98, while for degree of problems met in
role performance of the by the Women and Children Protection Desk was 0.96.
With the said results, both parts of the instrument were significant at 0.05 level.
The questionnaire checklist was revised further for fine tuning, purposely to suit
the needs of the study (Hagan, 2003).

Statistical Treatment of Data
The data on the questionnaire that dealt with demographic profile of the
respondents of female police personnel assigned used the frequency and
41

percentage distribution of the responses. Data gathered in Part I of the
instrument was computed, discussed, and analyzed for significant findings.
The extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the responsiveness
of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD), and the degree of
problems met in role performance of the by the Women and Children Protection
Desk (WCPD) were studied from the responses derived from Part II and Part III
of the instrument. The weighted frequency and weighted mean were computed in
order to be able to evaluate the responses. From the responses, the information
had provided insights on the problems being studied.
The hypotheses placed in this study, there is no significant difference in
the assessments of respondents on the extent of the effectiveness of role
performance of the responsiveness of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD), and there is no significant difference in the assessment of
respondents on the problems met in role performance of the by the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD), were both tested by using the analysis of
variance or the f-ratio test. The level of significance was established at 0.05 level
(Downie & Heath, 2005).
Formula:
f = Between-Groups Variance
Within-Groups Variance

f = Mean Square Between (MSB)
Mean Square Within (MSW)

f = MSB
MSW
42

Where:

MSB = Sum of Squares Between = SSB
Degrees of Freedom Between dfb

MSW = Sum of Squares Within = SSW
Degrees of Freedom Between dfb

To find SSB and SSW:

Formula:

SST = X
2
(X)
2

N

SSB = (X
C
)
2
- (X
2
)
2
= SST SSB
n N

f = MSB
MSW

Where:

MSB = Sum of Squares Between = SSB
Degrees of Freedom Between dfb

SST = Total Sum of Squares

X = Item Values Per Column

N = Total Sample Size

SSB = Sum of Square Between

X
C
= Sum of the Value per Column

n = Sample Size

SSW = Sum of Squares Within





43

Note:
Find the SSB and SSW to solve the MSB and MSW, and then
finally the f-ratio.
Rule:
If after the computation, the result of the computed f-ratio is larger
than critical value of F
05
, reject Ho., or otherwise accept it.

.
44

CHAPTER 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter provides the presentation of statistical data relative to the
problems earlier posited. Corresponding analysis and interpretation of the said
data are also incorporated in this portion of this study.

Demographic Profile of Female Police Officers Assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)
1. Educational Qualification
Table 2 presents the frequency and percentage distribution, and ranking
of educational qualification of female police personnel assigned at the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD).

Table 2
Educational Qualification of Female Police
Personnel Assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)

Educational Qualification f % R
with Masters Units 2 3.13 3
Law Graduate 1 6.24 2
College Graduate 29 90.63 1
T o t a l 32 100.00 -

Ranked first and obtained a frequency of 29 and percentage distribution of
90.63% are college graduates, ranked second and obtained a frequency of 2 and
percentage distribution of 6.24% are law graduate, and ranked third and obtained
a frequency of 1 and percentage distribution of 3.13% is with masters units.
45

As can be deduced from the table, all of the female police officers
assigned at the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in the locality
have acquired the necessary educational qualification as provided by R.A. 8551,
entitled An Act Providing for the Reform and Reorganization of the PNP and for
Other Purposes. This profile on educational qualifications clearly reflects of the
academic preparation of the female police personnel towards professionalism,
vis--vis of their responsiveness in dealing with cases involving women and
children, and which is not only the concern of the country, but also of the United
Nations and the contemporary humane community.
2. Appropriate Eligibility
Table 3 presents the frequency, percentage distribution, and ranking of
appropriate eligibility of female police personnel assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD).

Table 3

Appropriate Eligibility of Female Police
Personnel Assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)

Appropriate Eligibility f % R
PNP Entrance Exam. 2 6.25 4.5
Police Officer Exam. 16 50.00 1
Senior Police Officer Exam. 6 18.75 2
Inspector Exam. 1 3.13 5
Teachers Board Exam. 2 6.25 4.5
Criminology Board Exam. 5 15.62 3
T o t a l 32 100.00 -

Ranked first and obtained a frequency of 16 and percentage distribution of
50.00% are Police Officer Examination eligible; ranked second and obtained a
46

frequency of 6 and percentage distribution of 18.75% are Senior Police Officer
Examination eligible; ranked third and obtained a frequency of 5 and percentage
distribution of 15.62% are Criminology Board Examination eligible; both ranked
fourth and obtained a frequency of 2 and percentage distribution of 6.25% are
the PNP Entrance Examination and Teachers Board Examination eligible, and
ranked sixth and obtained a frequency of 1 and percentage distribution of 3.13%
is Inspector Examination eligible. .
As can be surmised from the table, all the female police officers assigned
at the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in the locality also possess
the appropriate eligibility relatively with the police service. This not only shows
their competency in performing the job delegated to them, but likewise their
suitability in handling cases involving women and children that might possibly
transpired in their respective area of responsibilities. This profile on appropriate
eligibility is sine-qua-non to more effective performance of functions as required
by the said police desk. Due this, the female personnel assigned at WCPD, while
performing various functions can provide responsive policing activities to be
provided to the women and children who are becoming a victims from within an
evolving society.
3. Number of Years in Service
Table 4 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of number of
years in service of female police personnel assigned at the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD).
47

Table 4

Number of Years in Service of Female Police
Personnel Assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)

Number of Years in Service f % R
1 5 12 37.50 2
6 10 13 40.62 1
11 15 6 18.75 3
16 20 1 3.13 4
T o t a l 32 100.00 -

Ranked first and obtained a frequency of 13 and percentage distribution of
40.62% are 6 to 10 years in service; ranked second and obtained a frequency of
12 and percentage distribution of 37.50% are 1 to 5 years in service; ranked third
and obtained a frequency of 6 and percentage distribution of 18.75% are 11 to 15
years in service; and ranked fourth and obtained a frequency of 1 and
percentage distribution of 3.13% is 16 to 20 years in service.
As can be gleaned from the table, all the female police officers assigned at
the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in the locality have already
acquired the necessary experiences with regard number of years in service, and
which is relatively equally important towards making the said policing activities
more responsive to the needs and wants of the women and children. This profile
on the number or years in service had most likely honed the technical know-how
and required investigative skills as required to female police officers in making
the WCPD in the different localities in the research locale of the study to be more
responsive and effective in dealing with the occurrence of cases involving women
and children.
48

4. Number of Cases Handled
Table 5 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of number of
cases handles by female police personnel assigned at the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD).

Table 5

Number of Cases Handled by Female Police
Personnel Assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)

Number of Cases Handled f % R
1 5 5 15.63 4
6 10 13 40.62 1
11 15 4 12.50 3
16 20 10 31.25 2
T o t a l 32 100.00 -

Ranked first and obtained a frequency of 13 and percentage distribution of
40.62% are 6 to 10 number of cases handled; ranked second and obtained a
frequency of 10 and percentage distribution of 31.25% are 16 to 20 number of
cases handled; ranked third and obtained a frequency of 5 and percentage
distribution of 15.63% are 1 to 5 number of cases handled; and ranked fourth and
obtained a frequency of 4 and percentage distribution of 12.50% are 11 to 15
number of cases handled.
As can be elicited from the table, all the female police officers assigned at
the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in the locality has already
handled numerous cases involving women and children. This actual exposure in
handling of cases involving women and children forms part of their first hand
experiences in actually dealing with the real life scenario of different situations
49

requiring their best imaginations and discretions in making decisions of disposing
complaints involving women and children. This profile on number of cases
handled by female police officers in the locality have made them applies in
practice the theories and principles learned in the different seminars and
trainings they have attended.
5. Relevant Seminars Attended
Table 6 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of relevant
seminar attended by female police personnel assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD).

Table 6

Relevant Seminar Attended by Female Police
Personnel Assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)

Relevant Seminars Attended f % R
Rights of Women & Children 8 25.00 2
Investigation of Cases of WC 14 43.75 1
Response to the Needs of WC 6 18.75 3
Mgmt. of WC in Conflict with Law 4 12.50 4
T o t a l 32 100.00 -


Ranked first and obtained a frequency of 14 and percentage distribution of
43.75% has attended the Investigation of Cases of Women and Children
Seminar; ranked second and obtained a frequency of 8 and percentage
distribution of 25.00% has attended the Rights of Women and Children Seminar;
ranked third and obtained a frequency of 6 and percentage distribution are
18.75% has attended Response to the Need of Women and Children Seminar;
and ranked fourth and obtained a frequency of 4 and percentage distribution of
50

12.50% has attended the Management of Women and Children in conflict with
the Law Seminar.
As can be inferred from the table, all the female police officers assigned at
the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in the locality has attended
the different relevant seminar relatively with their tasks. This implies that the
female police personnel performing the tasks of handling cases involving women
and children are on their toes and responsive in any eventualities that require
their service. They are equipped not only of the scientific skills necessary in the
conduct of investigations, but they are also armed with legal parameters to be
sure that they will be dealing with different walks of life under the premise of
women and children cases within the bounds of the laweffectively and
responsively, without fear or favor, and hence, protecting the rights and interests
of their clienteles. Thus, it is able to perform its basic duties and responsibilities
as protector of the women and children in the contemporary society, and is also
considered as an important functions of the national government..

Extent of the Effectiveness of Role Performance of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)
1. Enforcement of Related Statutes
Table 7 presents the weighted mean, verbal description, overall mean,
grand mean and, overall description of responses on the extent of the
effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD) as to investigation of violation of laws.
51

Table 7

Effectiveness of Role Performance of the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as to
Investigation of Violation of Laws

Item Statement on
Investigation of Violation of
Laws
COP WCPD C/MSWO ABC CPT O
M
V
D WM VD WM VD WM VD WM VD
1.Conduct of preliminary
investigation on cases
involving violations of rights of
women and children.
4.63 VR 4.75 VR 4.53 VR 4.38 VR 4.57 VR
2.Surveillance and casing of
persons and places where
violation of women and
childrens rights reportedly
occurred.
4.06 RS 4.22 VR 4.25 VR 4.22 VR 4.19 RS
3.Making of spot maps on high
incidence places and
presence of cases involving
women and children.
3.88 RS 4.09 RS 4.03 RS 4.09 RS 4.02 RS
4.Collection of the women and
childrens data, narration of
the circumstances, and
evidences.
4.38 VR 4.66 VR 4.22 VR 4.31 VR 4.39 VR
5.Preparation of cases for
subsequent referral at the
prosecutors office, and filing
to the proper court.
4.66 VR 4.78 VR 4.28 VR 4.41 VR 4.53 VR
GM & OD 4.32 VR 4.50 VR 4.26 VR 4.28 VR 4.34 VR
Legend:

WM - Weighted Mean VR - Very Responsive
OM - Overall Mean RS - Responsive
VD - Verbal Description MR - Moderately Responsive
GM - Grand Mean LR - Less Responsive
OD - Overall Description NR - Not Responsive

As indicated in the table, the different groups of respondents described the
extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD) as to investigation of violation of laws as very
responsive, based on the following statements: conduct of preliminary
investigation on cases involving violations of rights of women and children, with a
52

weighted mean of 4.57; preparation of cases for subsequent referral at the
prosecutors office, and filing to the proper court, with a weighted mean of 4.53;
and collection of the women and childrens data, narration of the circumstances,
and evidences, with a weighted mean of 4.39. The same category is described
by the respondents as responsive, based on the following statements:
surveillance and casing of persons and places where violation of women and
childrens rights reportedly occurred, with a weighted mean of 4.19; and making
of spot maps on high incidence places and presence of cases involving women
and children, with a weighted mean of 4.02. The grand mean is 4.34, with overall
mean ranging from 4.02 to 4.57, and overall description of very responsive.
As can be elicited from the table, the respondents described the extent of
the effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children Protection
Desk (WCPD) as to investigation of violation of laws as responsive. This is a
clear manifestation that aside from proactively addressing the cases involving
women and children in the locality, the WCPD is able to reactively address the
said occurrence of the said problems that traditionally occurring in the research
locale of the study by responsively investigating all the violations of laws.
2. Addressing Domestic Violence
Table 8 presents the weighted mean, verbal description, overall mean,
grand mean and, overall description of responses on the extent of the
effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD) as to addressing domestic violence.
53

Table 8

Effectiveness of Role Performance of the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as to
as to Addressing Domestic Violence

Item Statement on
Addressing
Domestic Violence
COP WCPD C/MSWO ABC CPT O
M
V
D WM VD WM VD WM VD WM VD
1.Providing psychological first
aid to the women and children
who are victims of abuses and
maltreatment.
4.06 RS 4.31 VR 4.28 VR 4.22 VR 4.22 VR
2.Counseling of women and
children victims during initial
encounters with criminal
justice system officials.
4.31 VR 4.47 VR 4.41 VR 4.25 VR 4.36 VR
3.Providing immediate
assistance to the women and
children victims of abuses and
maltreatment.
4.47 VR 4.69 VR 4.47 VR 4.34 VR 4.49 VR
4.Offering of professional help
through the crisis centers and
women and children shelter.
4.19 RS 4.09 RS 4.06 RS 4.16 RS 4.13 RS
5.Sensitive and responsive
treatment of women and
children victims of abuses and
maltreatment.
4.25 VR 4.50 VR 4.22 VR 4.28 VR 4.31 VR
GM & OD 4.26 VR 4.41 VR 4.29 VR 4.25 VR 4.30 VR
Legend:

WM - Weighted Mean VR - Very Responsive
OM - Overall Mean RS - Responsive
VD - Verbal Description MR - Moderately Responsive
GM - Grand Mean LR - Less Responsive
OD - Overall Description NR - Not Responsive


As embodied in the table, the different groups of respondents described
the extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD) as to addressing domestic violence as very responsive,
based on the following statements: providing immediate assistance to the women
and children victims of abuses and maltreatment, with a weighted mean of 4.49;
counseling of women and children victims during initial encounters with criminal
54

justice system officials, with a weighted mean of 4.36; sensitive and responsive
treatment of women and children victims of abuses and maltreatment, with a
weighted mean of 4.31; and providing psychological first aid to the women and
children who are victims of abuses and maltreatment, with a weighted mean of
4.22. The same category is described by the respondents as responsive with
regard to offering of professional help through the crisis centers and women and
children shelter, with a weighted mean of 4.13. The grand weighted mean is
4.30, with overall mean ranging from 4.13 to 4.49, and overall description of very
responsive.
As can be gleaned from the table, the respondents described the extent of
the effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children Protection
Desk (WCPD) as to as to addressing of domestic violence as very responsive.
The WCPD is equally able to address the occurrence of domestic violence
involving women and children as victims of abuses and violence in the locality.
Addressing the occurrence of domestic violence, as components of incident
driven policing activities can be considered as half the battle won in performing
the mandates relatively with the creation and organization of the WCPD.
3. Referral to Concerned Agencies
Table 9 presents the weighted mean, verbal description, overall mean,
grand mean and overall description of responses on the extent of the
effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD) as to referral to concerned agencies.
55

Table 9

Effectiveness of Role Performance of the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as to
Referral to Concerned Agencies

Item Statement on Referral
to Concerned Agencies
COP WCPD C/MSWO BGY CPT O
M
V
D WM VD WM VD WM VD WM VD
1.Endorsing of cases involving
women and children offenders
to social welfare agencies for
case studies.
4.59 VR 4.66 VR 4.56 VR 4.38 V R 4.55 VR
2.Disposition of women and
children victims for
professional care and medical
services.
4.38 VR 4.50 VR 4.38 VR 4.31 VR 4.39 VR
3.Transfer of custody of
women and children offenders
for professional diagnose and
treatment.
4.25 VR 4.38 VR 4.44 VR 4.28 VR 4.34 VR
4.Referral of cases involving
women and children to other
professional service providers
agencies.
4.25 VR 4.38 VR 4.38 VR 4.38 VR 4.34 VR
5.Representation to the local
government councils on
matters involving women and
children, either victims or
offenders.
4.28 VR 4.25 VR 4.34 VR 4.31 VR 4.30 VR
GM & OD 4.35 VR 4.43 VR 4.42 VR 4.33 VR 4.38 VR
Legend:

WM - Weighted Mean VR - Very Responsive
OM - Overall Mean RS - Responsive
VD - Verbal Description MR - Moderately Responsive
GM - Grand Mean LR - Less Responsive
OD - Overall Description NR - Not Responsive

As presented in the table, the different groups of respondents described
the extent of responsiveness of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD) as to referral to concerned agencies as very responsive, based on the
following statements: endorsing of cases involving women and children offenders
to social welfare agencies for case studies, with a weighted mean of 4.55;
.disposition of women and children victims for professional care and medical
56

services, with a weighted mean of 4.39; transfer of custody of women and
children offenders for professional diagnose and treatment, with a weighted
mean of 4.34; referral of cases involving women and children to other
professional service providers agencies, with a weighted mean of 4.34; and
representation to the local government councils on matters involving women and
children, either victims or offenders, with a weighted mean of 4.30. The grand
mean is 4.38, with overall mean ranging from 4.30 to 4.55, and overall
description of very responsive.
As can be deduced from the table, the respondents described the extent
of responsiveness of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as to a
referral to concerned agencies as very responsive. This is a clear showing that
the WCPD in the said locality, despite of the instances of non-criminal incidents
reported, is likewise able to responsively address the problems of women and
children by referring their cases to the concerned agencies and other service
providers in the government agencies and non-government organizations.

Degree of Problems Met in Role Performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD)
1. Organizational Resources
Table 10 presents the weighted mean, verbal description, overall mean,
grand mean, and overall description of responses on the degree of problems met
in role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as to
organizational resources.
57

Table 10

Problems Met in Role Performance of the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as
to Organizational Resources

Item Statement on
Organizational Resources
COP WCPD C/MSWO ABC CPT O
M
V
D WM VD WM VD WM VD WM VD
1.Insufficiency of female
personnel to be assigned in
women and children
protection center.
2.53 MS 3.06 MS 2.31 LS 2.91 MS 2.70 MS
2.Lack of facilities to be
utilized in attending and
investigation of cases
involving women and children.
2.72 MS 3.09 MS 2.38 LS 2.69 MS 2.72 MS
3.Inadequacy of office
supplies, and other
miscellaneous and
administrative requirements of
the center.
2.41 LS 2.78 MS 2.38 LS 2.53 LS 2.52 LS
4.Non-allocation of mobility,
firepower, communication,
and other operational
requirements of the center.
2.50 LS 2.91 MS 2.41 LS 2.53 LS 2.59 LS
5.Non-existence of high-tech
equipment for surveillance,
and intelligence operation
activities of the center.
3.16 MS 3.47 SR 2.75 MS 2.59 LS 2.99 MS
GM & OD 2.66 MS 3.06 MS 2.44 LS 2.07 LS 2.56 LS
Legend:

WM - Weighted Mean VS - Very Serious
OM - Overall Mean SR - Serious
VD - Verbal Description MS - Moderately Serious
GM - Grand Mean LS - Less Serious
OD - Overall Description NS - Not Serious


As presented in the table, the different groups of respondents described
the degree of problems met in role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD) as to organizational resources as to organizational
resources as moderately serious, based on the following statements: Non-
existence of high-tech equipment for surveillance, and intelligence operation
activities of the center, with a weighted mean of 2.99; lack of facilities to be
58

utilized in attending and investigation of cases involving women and children,
with a weighted mean of 2.72; and insufficiency of female personnel to be
assigned in women and children protection center, with a weighted mean of 2.70.
The respondents described the same category as less serious, based on the
following statements: non-allocation of mobility, firepower, communication, and
other operational requirements of the center, with a weighted mean of 2.59; and
.inadequacy of office supplies, and other miscellaneous and administrative
requirements of the center, with a weighted mean of 2.52. The grand mean is
2.56, with overall mean ranging from 2.52 to 2.99, and overall description of less
serious.
The respondents described the degree of problems met in role
performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as to
organizational resources as less serious. Although less serious problem is
experienced in this regard, , the WCPD in the said locality are not yet free from
this time-immemorial problem serving as constraints in maintaining its level of
responsiveness in providing an effective delivery of police service to the would-
be clientele of their policing activitiesthe women and children.
2. Inter-Agency Coordination
Table 11 presents the weighted mean, verbal description, overall mean,
grand mean, and overall description of responses on the degree of problems met
in role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as to
inter-agency coordination.
59

Table 11

Problems Met in Role Performance of the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as
to Inter-Agency Coordination

Item Statement on Inter-
Agency Coordination
COP WCPD C/MSWO ABC CPT O
M
V
D WM VD WM VD WM VD WM VD
1.Lack of cooperation
from other law
enforcement agencies
that effect the handling of
cases.
2.34 LS 2.47 LS 1.94 LS 2.06 LS 2.30 LS
2.Absence of rapport at
the prosecutors office
that impede the early
disposition of cases.
2.38 LS 2.66 MS 1.88 LS 2.28 LS 2.30 LS
3.Disparity of the
decisions made by the
court on cases involving
women and children.
2.34 LS 2.56 LS 1.84 LS 2.28 LS 2.26 LS
4.Non-responsive
treatment and
rehabilitation program for
women and children
offenders.
2.56 LS 2.53 LS 1.78 NS 2.03 LS 2.23 LS
5.Indifference of the
concerned government
agencies in overseeing
the rights of women and
children.
2.44 LS 2.41 LS 2.00 LS 1.91 LS 2.19 LS
GM & OD 2.41 LS 2.53 LS 1.89 LS 2.11 LS 2.23 LS

Legend:

WM - Weighted Mean VS - Very Serious
OM - Overall Mean SR - Serious
VD - Verbal Description MS - Moderately Serious
GM - Grand Mean LS - Less Serious
OD - Overall Description NS - Not Serious


As embodied in the table, the different groups of respondents described
the degree of problems met in role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD) as to inter-agency coordination as less serious, based
on the following statements: lack of cooperation from other law enforcement
60

agencies that effect the handling of cases, with a weighted mean of 2.30;
absence of rapport at the prosecutors office that impede the early disposition of
cases, with a weighted mean of 2.30; disparity of the decisions made by the court
on cases involving women and children, with a weighted mean of 2.26; non-
responsive treatment and rehabilitation program for women and children
offenders, with a weighted mean of 2.23; and indifference of the concerned
government agencies in overseeing the rights of women and children, with a
weighted mean of 2.19. The grand mean is 2.23, with overall mean ranging from
2.19 to 2.30, and overall description of less serious.
As can be gleaned from the table, the respondents described the degree
of problems met in role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD) as to inter-agency coordination as less serious. This problem on inter-
agency coordination is something common from among the service providers in
the different government agencies. This is also considered as time immemorial
within bureaucracies that are particularly being felt at the local government level
serving as constraints in providing the constituents with a competent and efficient
service in accordance with their wants and needs.
3. Support from Local Government
Table 12 presents the weighted mean, verbal description, overall mean,
grand mean, and overall description of responses on the degree of problems met
in role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as to
support form local government.
61

Table 12

Problems Met in Role Performance of the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) as
to Support from Local Government

Item Statement on Support
from Local Government
COP WCPD C/MSWO BGY CPT O
M
V
D WM VD WM VD WM VD WM VD
1.Non-involvement of the local
council in the protection of the
rights of women and children.
2.22 LS 2.22 LS 2.06 LS 1.97 LS 2.12 LS
2.Non-responsiveness of the
concerned local government
units towards ensuring the
rights of women and children.
2.09 LS 2.31 LS 1.81 LS 1.88 LS 2.02 LS
3.Unavailability of support from
local government units in
protecting the rights of women
and children.
2.09 LS 2.31 LS 1.91 LS 2.03 LS 2.09 LS
4.Insensitivity of the local
government units in
developing good working
relationship from other
agencies.
2.25 LS 2.25 LS 1.66 LS 2.00 LS 2.04 LS
5.Non-involvement of the local
government units in the
different elated undertakings of
the center.
2.38 LS 2.25 LS 1.69 LS 1.88 LS 2.05 LS
GM & OD 2.21 LS 2.27 LS 1.83 LS 1.95 LS 2.06 LS
Legend:

WM - Weighted Mean VS - Very Serious
OM - Overall Mean SR - Serious
VD - Verbal Description MS - Moderately Serious
GM - Grand Mean LS - Less Serious
OD - Overall Description NS - Not Serious

As indicated in the table, the different groups of respondents described the
degree of problems met in role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD) as to support form local government as less serious,
based on the following statements: non-involvement of the local council in the
protection of the rights of women and children, with a weighted mean of 2.12;
unavailability of support from local government units in protecting the rights of
62

women and children, with a weighted mean of 2.09; non-involvement of the local
government units in the different elated undertakings of the center, with a
weighted mean of 2.05; insensitivity of the local government units in developing
good working relationship from other agencies, with a weighted mean of 2.04;
and non-responsiveness of the concerned local government units towards
ensuring the rights of women and children, with a weighted mean of 2.02. The
grand mean is 2.06, with overall mean ranging from 2.02 to 2.12, and overall
description of less serious.
As can be elicited from the table, the respondents described the degree of
problems met in role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD) as support from local government as less serious. This problem on local
government support can be attributed to the present political situations and
conditions in the locality, wherein the individual political figures at the provincial,
city and municipal level are pre-occupied in giving attention with some significant
issues of the time involving the cities and some municipal local government units.

Significant Difference in the Assessment of Respondents on the Extent of
the Effectiveness of Role Performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD)
Table 13 presents the f-computed, f-critical and the interpretation of
significant difference in the assessment of respondents on extent of the
effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD).
63

Table 13

Significant Difference Matrix on the Extent of the Effectiveness
of Role Performance of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)

Variables f-Computed f-Critical Interpretation
1.Enforcement of Related Statutes 0.50

2.68
Not significant at 0.05 level
2.Investigation of Violation of Laws 5.60 Significant at 0.05 level
3.Addressing Domestic Violence 6.85 Significant at 0.05 level
4.Referral to Concerned Agencies 6.05 Significant at 0.05 level
Overall 4.75 Significant at 0.05 level


As reflected in the table, the f-computed, f-critical, and interpretation of
significant difference in the assessment of respondents on the extent of the
effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD), are as follows: enforcement of related statutes with f-computed of
0.50, not significant; investigation of violation of laws with f-computed of 5.60,
significant; addressing domestic violence with f-computed of 6.58, significant;
and referral to concerned agencies with f-computed of 6.05, significant. The
overall f-computed is 4.75, which is higher than the f-critical of 2.68, significant at
0.05 level.
The different groups of respondents are having different assessment on the
extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD) in the locality. This is due to the fact that despite having
first hand information and knowledge with regard responsiveness of the said
police unit, they are playing different roles in providing services to the women
and children, thus causing the disparities. However, despite differences in
assessments, the respondents have commonality in their perceptions in ensuring
64

the interest and welfare of women and children, more particularly in terms of
enforcement of related statutes, investigation of violation of laws, addressing
domestic violence, and referral to concerned agencies.

Significant Difference in the Assessment of Respondents on the Degree of
Problems Met in Role Performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD)
Table 14 presents the f-computed, f-critical and the interpretation of
significant difference in the assessment of respondents on the degree of
problems met in role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD)

Table 14

Significant Difference Matrix on the Degree of Problems
Met in Role Performance of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)

Variables f-Computed f-Critical Interpretation
1.Organizational Resources 34.20

2.68
Significant at 0.05 level.
2.Inter-Agency Coordination 215.73 Significant at 0.05 level
3.Support from Local
Government
126.66 Significant at 0.05 level
4.Indifference of the Public 48.04 Significant at 0.05 level
Overall 424.63 Significant at 0.05 level


As indicated in the table, the f-computed, f-critical, and interpretation of
significant difference in the assessment of respondents on the degree of
problems met in role performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk
(WCPD), are as follows: organizational resources with f-computed of 34.20,
significant; inter-agency coordination with f-computed of 215.73, significant;
65

support from local government with f-computed of 126.66; and indifference of
the public with f-computed of 48.04, significant. The overall f-computed is
424.63, which is higher than the f-critical of 2.68, significant at 0.05 level.
The different groups of respondents are having different assessment on the
degree of problems met in role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD) in the research locale of the study. Again, similar with
responsiveness of the WCPD, the differences in assessments of respondents is
largely due to the variations of experiences encountered with regard different
factors constituting the degree of the problems met by the WCPD in the exercise
of its inherent functions. This is mainly because of the differences in the
scarcities in organizational resources, variations in experiences with other
agencies, differences in support from local government, and typologies of
experiences with public.

Implications to Its Clienteles Safety
The results of the study are having positive implications to the Women and
Children Protection Desks (WCPD) clienteles safety owing to the fact that the
present level of the responsiveness of WCPD can be considered as part and
partial of the total gamut of the public undertakings of the local government unit
the police serving as prime mover in delivery of equally effective public service to
the constituents in general, and the women and children in particular.
The WCPD are able to meet the purpose of its creation by responsively
and ensuring the rights of women and children in any forms of abuses, and
66

discriminations, vis--vis of their interests, morale and welfare. Henceforth, its
level of the extent of responsiveness despite the degree of the problems met can
also be used as an indicator in determining the level of public management in the
said locality.
The said police unit, aside from protecting the women and children, as
required by its functions and purpose also serve as the show windows of the
different local government units in the said locality with regard delivery of public
and social services to the community members, as it is jointly spearheaded by
the different sectors of the society, collectively and as required by the
contemporary humane society.


67

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings, and the corresponding
conclusions derived in the conduct of this study. It also provides
recommendations that could be pursued by other researchers conducting future
undertakings relatively with the present study.

Summary
This study was anchored on the Upgrading of the Women and Children
Concerns Division (WCCD) to Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD),
pursuant to General Orders Number DPL 07-03 dated October 15, 2007,
National Headquarters, Philippine National Police, Camp Crame, Quezon City.
It attempted to find the extent of the effectiveness of role performance of
the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD), and its implications to its
clienteles safety. Specifically it sought to answer the following problems:
1. What is the demographic profile of female police personnel
assigned at the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in terms of:
1.1. educational qualification;
1.2. appropriate eligibility;
1.3. number of years in service;
1.4. number of cases handled; and
1.5. relevant seminar attended?
68

2. What is the extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the
Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in terms of:
2.1. investigation of violation of laws;
2.2. addressing domestic violence; and
2.3. referral to concerned agencies?
3. What is the degree of problems met in role performance of the
Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD) in terms of:
3.1. organizational resources;
3.2. inter-agency coordination; and
3.3. support from local government?
4. Is there a significant difference in the assessment of respondents
on the extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the responsiveness of
the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD)?
5. Is there a significant difference in the assessment of respondents
on the degree of problems met in role performance of the by the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD)?
6. What are the implications of the results of the study to its clienteles
safety?
This study tested the hypotheses, there is no significant difference in the
assessment of respondents on the extent of the effectiveness of role
performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD), and there is
no significant difference in the assessment of respondents on the degree of
69

problems met extent in role performance of the by the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD).
It was conducted in the Province of Nueva Ecija. The respondents were
the Chiefs of Police (COP), the Section Chiefs, Women and Children Protection
Desk (WCPD), the City/Municipal Social Welfare Officers (C/MSWO), and
Presidents, Association of Barangay Captains (ABC) in the different localities
within the territorial jurisdictions of the research locale of the study. The study
was conducted for a period of one (1) semester, and that is from November 2011
to March 2012.
The descriptive method of research was employed in the conduct of this
study through the use of questionnaire checklist, conduct of personal interviews
and actual observations in the research locale of the study. The statistical tools
used were frequency, percentage distribution, weighted frequency, weighted
mean, and the f-ratio test. The level of significance was established at 0.05.
The following findings were obtained:
1. Demographic profile of female police officers assigned at the
Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD), were as follows: educational
qualification the highest was the college graduate with 26 or 90.63%;
appropriate eligibility the highest was Police Officer 1 eligible with 16 or
50.00%; number of years in service the highest was 6 to 10 years in service
with 13 or 40.62%; number of cases handled the highest was 6 to 10 number of
cases handled with 13 or 40.62%; and relevant seminars attended the highest
70

was Investigation of Cases of Women and Children Seminar with 14 or 43.75%,
respectively in terms of frequency and percentage distribution.
2. Extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD), were as follows: investigation of violation of
laws - the grand mean was 4.34, addressing domestic violence - the grand mean
was 4.30, and referral to concerned agencies the grand mean was 4.38.
3. Degree of problems met in role performance of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD, were as follows: organizational resources - the
grand mean was 2.56, inter-agency coordination - the grand mean was 2.23, and
support from local government - the grand mean was 2.06.
4. Significant difference in the assessment of respondents on the
extent of the effectiveness of role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD): investigation of violation of laws; addressing domestic
violence; and referral to concerned agencies - the overall f-computed was 4.75,
which was higher than the f-critical of 2.68, significant at 0.05 level.
5. Significant difference in the assessment of respondents on the
degree of problems met in role performance of the Women and Children
Protection Desk (WCPD) in terms of organizational resources, inter-agency
coordination, and support from local government - the overall f-computed was
424.63, which was higher than the f-critical of 2.68, significant at 0.05 level.
6. Implications to its clienteles safety management - the results of the
study were having positive implications to its clienteles safety, and can be used
71

as parameters in assessing the effectiveness of the total gamut relatively with the
public undertakings of the local government unitthe police providing responsive
public service to the constituents in general, and the women and children.

Conclusions
Based on the above findings, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. Majority of the female police personnel assigned at the WCPD were
college graduates, all were having the appropriate eligibility, acquired sufficient
years and experience relatively with the police service, handled numerous cases
involving women and children, and all have attended the relevant seminars
towards making their individual roles more responsive.
2. The role performance of the WCPD in the research locale of the
study was very effective in terms of investigation of violation of laws; addressing
domestic violence; and referral to concerned agencies, and was therefore able to
protect and serve the rights and interest of women and children, more particularly
those victims of violence, abuses and indiscrimination.
3. The role performance of the WCPD in the locality was meeting less
serious problems in terms organizational resources, inter-agency coordination,
and support from local government, and was likewise able to meet wants and
needs of the clienteles, thus accomplishing the purpose with regard creation of
the said police unit.
4. The hypothesis of no significant difference in the assessment of the
different groups of respondents on the extent of the effectiveness of role
72

performance of the WCPD in terms of the following: investigation of violation of
laws; addressing domestic violence; and referral to concerned agencies was not
accepted.
5. The hypothesis of no significant difference in the assessment of the
different groups of respondents on the degree of problems met in role
performance of the WCPD in terms of the following: organizational resources,
inter-agency coordination, support from local government, and indifference of the
public was likewise not accepted.
6. The results of the study were having positive implications to the
Women and Children Protection Desks (WCPD) clienteles safety--the local
government units in the different localities within the research locale was able to
provide their respective constituents with a competent and efficient delivery of
public service by serving and protecting the community-members.

Recommendations
In the light of the above findings and conclusions, the following
recommendations were made:
1. Adoption of a program of instruction designed for a more
comprehensive formal training from among the female police personnel assigned
at the said police unit to ensure the continuous enhancement and development
of human resources assigned at WCPD.
2. Benchmarking with other places, more particularly in highly
urbanized places with regard constraints encountered, and the corresponding
73

solutions derived from experiences as a continuous options towards room for
changes and improvement of the functioning of the WCPD in the locality.
3. Continuous consultative conferences with other sectors of the
society for a more orchestrated approach geared towards totally eliminating the
problems met in the delivery of the public service undertakings to be jointly made
by the different agencies of the government, the WCPD serving as secretariat.
4. Conduct of information dissemination to develop awareness from
among the different sectors of the society on what constitutes victimizations,
abuses, violence, discriminations, more particularly to women and children as a
viable option of the would-be victims empowerment.
5. Organization and activation of the Women and Children Protection
Council (WCPC) in the different levels of society, that is from provincial city,
municipal and barangay level, serving as the coordinating machinery of the
different functions in ensuring the rights and interest of women and children.
6. Similar study be conducted in another time and setting which will
focus on the extent of responsiveness of the WCPD, giving emphasis with other
factors serving as variables, purposely to confirm or negate the findings and
conclusions derived relatively with the conduct of the present study.

74

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. Books.

Allen, Harry E. & Clifford E. Simonsen (2002), Corrections in America: An
Introduction, Sixth Edition, New York, USA: Macmillan Publishing
Company.

Cruz, Isagani A. (2002), Philippine Political Law, Quezon City: Central
Lawbook Publishing Co., Inc.

Dionela, Ana Maria Del Rosario (2008), Handling Worst Forms of Child Labor:
The Sagip Batang Mangagawa Approach, Quezon City: United Nations
Childrens Fund (UNICEP).

Gay, L.R. (2006), Educational Research, Fourth Edition, Ohio, USA: Charles E.
Merril Publishing Company.

Hagan, Frank E. (2003), Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology,
Third Edition, New York, USA: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Peak, Kenneth J. & Ronald W. Glensor, (1996) Community Policing and Problem
Solving: Strategies and Practices, New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Somach, Susan D. and Gihan H. AbouZeid (2009), Egypt Violence Against
Women Study: Literature Review of Violence Against Women,
Washington D.C. USA: United States Agency for International
Development

Soriano, Oscar Gatchalian (2011), Criminological Research and Basic Statistics,
Quezon City: Great Books Publishing.

United Nations Childrens Fund (2000), Violence Against Women and Girls,
Florence, Italy: Inocenti Reseach Center.

B. Unpublished Materials.

Centro, Amie M. (2008), Women and Children Protection Center (WCPC) in
Valenzuela City: Its Roles in Ensuring Womens and Childrens Rights,
Unpublished Masters Thesis: Emilio Aguinaldo College, Ermita, Manila..

Macatiag, Lynelle V., Marvic L. Pante, Ferdinand E. Galgao, Jose Ruben S.
Sumajit, and Jaymar G. Donato (2005), Responsiveness of the Womens
Desks in Addressing Domestic Violence: Its Impact to the Family as an
75

Institution of Social Control, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis:
Wesleyan University-Philippines, Cabanatuan City.

C. Articles, Journals, Magazines, Laws & Issuances.

Alejandrino, Charlemagne S. (2008), Upgrading of Women and Children
Concerns Division (WCCD) to Women and Children Protection Center
(WCPC), Quezon City: National Headquarters, Philippine National Police.

Directorate for Investigation and Detective Management (2002), The PNP
Womens Crisis and Child Protection Center, Quezon City: Quezon City:
National Headquarters, Philippine National Police.

Directorate for Operations (2002), Memorandum Circular No. 2002-0001,
Quezon City: Quezon City: National Headquarters, Philippine National
Police.

DSDW, NAPOLCOM and PNP (2003), Police Handbook on the Management of
Cases of Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances, Quezon City:
United Nations Childrens Fund.

Memorandum Circular No. 2002-001, Establishment of the Child and Youth
Relations Section in Highly Urbanized Cities, Including Metro Manila, and
Designation of Child and Youth Relations Officers in Other Police Stations
Nationwide, Makati City: National Police Commission.

Primero, Silvestre A. (2008), Upgrading of Women and Children Concern
Division to Women on and Children Protection Center, City of San
Fernando City, Pampanga: Police Regional Office 3.

Provincial Planning and Development Office (2003), Socio-Economic Profile of
Nueva Ecija, Palayan City: Provincial City Planning and Development
Office.

Republic Act No. 9262, Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act
of 2004.

Republic Act No. 8551, An Act Establishing the Reform and Reorganization of
the Philippine National Police and for Other Purpose.

Usana, Ildebrandi N. (2008), A Pro-Active Community Response to Child Abuse,
Quezon City: National Headquarters, Philippine National Police.


76

D. Internet Research.

http://iom.edu/Reports/2011/Preventing-Violence-Against-Women-and-Children-
Workshop-Summary.10/20/2011.

http://www.unfpa.org/rights/violence.htm.09/20/2011.

http://www.childabuse.com/fs20.htp.10/20/2011.

http://www.pnp.gov./pcr/content/wccp.09/20/20110.

http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/03/20895/55137. 09/20/2011.

pcrg@pnp.gov.ph.09/16/2011.

MicrosoftEncartaReference@Library20031993-2002.

http:// www.mincava.umn.edu/documents/wingsp/wingsp.html.09/16/2011).

http://www.unifem.org/cedaw30/attachments/resources/WomensAndChildrensRi
ghtsInnAHumanRightsBasedApproach.pdf.09/16/2011.

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jmj2.htm.09/16/2011.

http://www.aseanlawassociation.org/9GAdocs/w5. Philipines1.pdf.09/16/2011.

http://www.pnp.gov.ph/pcr/ content/wccp.html/09/16/2011.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nueva_Ecija.09/16/2011.


77

APPENDIX A


REQUEST TO GATHER DATA

January 16, 2012

PSSUPT. ROBERTO L. ALLIGAYU, PESE
Provincial Director
Nueva Ecija Police Provincial Office
Cabanatuan City

S i r:

This is to request permission from your good office of allowing the undersigned
researchers to conduct their study, entitled Role Performance of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD): Implications to Its Clienteles Safety, in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in
Criminology (BSCrim.).

It will involve the Chiefs of Police (COP), the Section Chiefs, Women and
Children Protection Center (WCPC), the City/Municipal Social Welfare Officers
(SWO), and the Presidents, Association of Barangay Captains (ABC) in the
different localities within your area of responsibility as respondents to the herein
attached questionnaire checklist.

Personal interviews and actual observations in the research locale of the study
shall likewise be conducted to reinforce and supplement the data elicited from
the instrument.

They are anticipating your favorable consideration, and her profound gratitude.

MORE POWER AND GOD BLESS!

Very truly yours,



MARLON F. FRONDA, JR.



JEFFREY R. PAPIO LORETO V. DELA CRUZ, JR.

78

APPENDIX B


LETTER TO THE RESPONDENTS

January 16, 2012

DEAR RESPONDENTS:

Greetings!

The undersigned researchers are presently conducting her research study,
entitled Role Performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD):
Implications to Its Clienteles Safety, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree Bachelor of Science in Criminology (BSCrim.).

In connection with the above, they are requesting your utmost cooperation and
support by answering the herein attached questionnaire checklists.

Rest assured that your answer will be treated with strict confidentiality.

THANK YOU!

Very truly yours,


MARLON F. FRONDA, JR.



JEFFREY R. PAPIO LORETO V. DELA CRUZ, JR













79

APPENDIX C

QUESTIONNAIRE CHECKLIST

PART I. Demographic Profile of Police Personnel Assigned at the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD).

DIRECTIONS:

Please check appropriate boxes corresponding to your answers.

1. Educational Qualification : ( ) College Graduate
: ( ) With Masters Units
: ( ) Masters Graduate
: ( ) Doctorate Graduate
: ( ) Others, please specify:
__________________

2. Appropriate Eligibility : ( ) PNP Entrance Exam.
: ( ) PO Exam.
: ( ) SPO Exam.
: ( ) Inspector Exam.
: ( ) Superintendent Exam.
: ( ) Others, please specify:
__________________

3. Years in Service : ( ) 1 - 5
: ( ) 6 - 10
: ( ) 11 - 15
: ( ) 16 - 20
: ( ) Others, please specify:
__________________

4. Number of Cases Handled : ( ) 1 - 5
: ( ) 6 - 10
: ( ) 11 - 15
: ( ) 16 - 20
: ( ) Others, please specify:
__________________

5. Seminar Attended : ( ) Investigation of Cases Involving
Women and Children
: ( ) Police Response to the Needs of
Women and Children
80

: ( ) Management of Women and
Children
Conflict with the Law
: ( ) Others, please specify:
__________________

PART II. Extent of the Effectiveness of Role Performance of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD).

DIRECTIONS:

Following are statements measuring the extent of the effectiveness of role
performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD. Feel free to
express your opinion by putting a check mark on the appropriate columns
provided opposite each item statement.

LEGEND:

Very Effective (VE) - 5
Effective (EF) - 4
Moderately Effective (ME) - 3
Slightly Effective (SE) - 2
Not Effective (NE) - 1

Effectiveness of Role Performance of the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD)
V
E
E
F
M
E
S
E
N
E
I. Investigation of Violation of Laws
1.Conduct of preliminary investigation on cases
involving violations of rights of women and children.

2.Surveillance and casing of persons and places
where violation of women and childrens rights
reportedly occurred.

3.Making of spot maps on high incidence places and
presence of cases involving women and children.

4.Collection of the women and childrens data,
narration of the circumstances, and evidences.

5.Preparation of cases for subsequent referral at the
prosecutors office, and filing to the proper court.

II. Addressing Domestic Violence 5 4 3 2 1
1.Providing psychological first aid to the women and
children who are victims of abuses and
maltreatment.

81

2.Counseling of women and children victims during
initial encounters with criminal justice system
officials.

3.Providing immediate assistance to the women and
children victims of abuses and maltreatment.

4.Offering of professional help through the crisis
centers and women and children shelter.

5.Sensitive and responsive treatment of women and
children victims of abuses and maltreatment.

III. Referral to Concerned Agencies 5 4 3 2 1
1.Endorsing of cases involving women and children
offenders to social welfare agencies for case studies.

2.Disposition of women and children victims for
professional care and medical services.

3.Transfer of custody of women and children
offenders for professional diagnose and treatment.

4.Referral of cases involving women and children to
other professional service providers agencies.

5.Represetation to the local government councils on
matters involving women and children, either victims
or offenders.


PART III. Degree of Problems Met in Role Performance of the Women and
Children Protection Desk (WCPD).

DIRECTIONS:

Following are statements measuring the degree of problems met in role
performance of the Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD). Feel free to
express your opinion by putting a check mark on the appropriate columns
provided opposite each item statement.

LEGEND:

Very Serious (VS) - 5
Serious (SR) - 4
Moderately Serious (MS) - 3
Slightly Serious (SS) - 2
Not Serious (NS) - 1



82

Problems Met in Role Performance of the Women
and Children Protection Desk (WCPD)
V
S
S
R
M
S
S
S
N
S
I. Organizational Resources 5 4 3 2 1
1.Insufficiency of female personnel to be assigned in
women and children protection center.

2.Lack of facilities to be utilized in attending and
investigation of cases involving women and children.

3.Inadequacy of office supplies, and other
miscellaneous and administrative requirements of
the center.

4.Non-allocation of mobility, firepower,
communication, and other operational requirements
of the center.

5.Non-existence of high-tech equipment for
surveillance, and intelligence operation activities of
the center.

II. Inter-Agency Coordination 5 4 3 2 1
1.Lack of cooperation from other law enforcement
agencies that effect the handling of cases.

2.Absence of rapport at the prosecutors office that
impede the early disposition of cases.

3.Disparity of the decisions made by the court on
cases involving women and children.

4.Non-responsive treatment and rehabilitation
program for women and children offenders.

5.Indifference of the concerned government
agencies in overseeing the rights of women and
children.

III. Support from Local Government 5 4 3 2 1
1.Non-involvement of the local council in the
protection of the rights of women and children.

2.Non-responsiveness of the concerned local
government units towards ensuring the rights of
women and children.

3.Unavailability of support from local government
units in protecting the rights of women and children.

4.Insensitivity of the local government units in
developing good working relationship from other
agencies.

5.Non-involvement of the local government units in
the different elated undertakings of the center.



83

CURRICULUM VITAE

PERSONAL INFORMATION:

Name : Marlon F. Fronda, Jr.
Address : Poblacion Norte, Licab, Nueva Ecija
Tel. Nos. : 0935-748-4340
Birthdate : August 21, 1991
Birthplace : Licab, Nueva Ecija
Civil Status : Single
Religion : Roman Catholic
Sex : Male
Age : 30
Blood Type : B
Height : 57
Weight : 79 kgs.
Parents : Mr. Marlon F. Fronda
: Mrs.Imelda F. Fronda

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT:

College : Wesleyan University-Philippines
: Cabanatuan City
: B.S.Criminology
: SY: 2008 - 2012

High School : Saint Christopher Academy
: Licab, Nueva Ecija
: SY: 2000 - 2004

Elementary : Saint Christopher Academy
: Licab, Nueva Ecija
: SY: 1990 - 2000

SEMINARS AND TRAININGS ATTENDED:

: Forensic Science Investigation Training

: Automated Fingerprint Identification System

MEMBERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS:

: WES-JPO
: WUP-SCOR
84

CURRICULUM VITAE

PERSONAL INFORMATION:

Name : Jerry R. Papio
Address : Davi-Davilan, Dingalan, Aurora
Tel. Nos. : 0946-724-2848
Birthdate : October, 13, 1990
Birthplace : Cabanatuan City
Civil Status : Single
Religion : Methodist
Sex : Male
Age : 21
Blood Type : O
Height : 511
Weight : 787 kgs.
Parents : Mr. Arthuro C. Papio
: Mrs. Elvira R. Papio

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT:

College : Wesleyan University-Philippines
: Cabanatuan City
: B.S.Criminology
: SY: 2008 - 2012

High School : Dingalan National High School
: Dingalan, Aurora
: SY: 2000 - 2004

Elementary : Dingalan Central Elementary School
: Dingalan, Aurora
: SY: 1990 - 2000

SEMINARS AND TRAININGS ATTENDED:

: Forensic Science Investigation Training

: Automated Fingerprint Identification System

MEMBERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS:

: WES-JPO
: WUP-SCOR
85

CURRICULUM VITAE

PERSONAL INFORMATION:

Name : Loreto V. Dela Cruz, Jr.
Address : Poblacion, Bongabon, Nueva Ecija
Tel. Nos. : 09165-5545-783
Birthdate : April 23, 1989
Birthplace : Bongabon., Nueva Ecija
Civil Status : Single
Religion : Roman Catholic
Sex : Male
Age : 23
Blood Type : O
Height : 56
Weight : 57 kgs.
Parents : Mr. Loreto S. Dela Cruz, Sr.
: Mrs. Yolanda Y. Dela Cruz
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT:

College : Wesleyan University-Philippines
: Cabanatuan City
: B.S.Criminology
: SY: 2008 - 2012

High School : Bongabon National High School
: Bongabon,. Nueva Ecija
: SY: 2000 - 2004

Elementary : Bongabon Central Elementary School
: Bongabon, Nueva Ecija
: SY: 1990 - 2000

SEMINARS AND TRAININGS ATTENDED:

: Forensic Science Investigation Training

: Automated Fingerprint Identification System

MEMBERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS:

: WES-JPO
: WUP-SCOR