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INSTRUMENTATION

FOR ENGINEERING
MEASUREMENTS
Second Edition
JAMES W. DALLY
University of Maryland
WILLIAM F. RILEY
KENNETH G. McCONNELL
Iowa State University
JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore
CONTENTS
LIST OF SYMBOLS
xvi i
CHAPTER 1 APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT
SYSTEMS 01
1.1 INTRODUCTION 01
1.2 THE ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEM 02
1.3 ENGINEERING ANALYSIS 03
1.4 PROCESS CONTROL 04
1.4.1 PROCESS CONTROL DEVICES 06
1.5 EXPERIMENTAL ERROR 12
1.5.1 ACCUMULATION OF ACCEPTED ERROR 13
1.5.2 IMPROPER FUNCTIONING OF
INSTRUMENTS 14
1.5.3 EFFECT OF THE TRANSDUCER ON THE
CHAPTER
1.6
1.7
R 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
PROCESS
1.5.4 DUAL SENSITIVITY ERRORS
1.5.5 OTHER SOURCES OF ERROR
MINIMIZING EXPERIMENTAL ERROR
SUMMARY
REFERENCES
EXERCISES
ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS
INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS
BASIC ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
KIRCHHOFF' S CIRCUIT LAWS
DIODES, TRANSISTORS, AND GATES
2.4.1 DIODES
2.4.2 TRANSISTORS
2.4.3 GATES
DC CIRCUITS
PERIODIC FUNCTIONS
AC CIRCUITS
2.7.1 IMPEDANCE
FREQUENCY RESPONSE FUNCTION
SUMMARY
REFERENCES
EXERCISES
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18
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21
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CONTENTS
CHAPTER 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
CHAPTER 4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
ANALOG RECORDING INSTRUMENTS
INTRODUCTION
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RECORDING
INSTRUMENTS
VOLTMETERS FOR STEADY-STATE
MEASUREMENTS
3.3.1 D'ARSONVAL GALVANOMETER
3.3.2 AMMETER
3.3.3 DC VOLTMETERS
3.3.4 VOLTMETER LOADING ERRORS
3.3.5 AMPLIFIED VOLTMETERS
3.3.6 POTENTIOMETRIC VOLTMETERS
VOLTMETERS FOR SLOWLY VARYING
SIGNALS
3.4.1 STRIP-CHART RECORDERS
3.4.2 X-Y RECORDERS
VOLTMETERS FOR RAPIDLY VARYING
SIGNALS
3.5.1 OSCILLOGRAPH RECORDERS
3.5.2 TRANSIENT RESPONSE
OF GALVANOMETERS
3.5.3 PERIODIC SIGNAL RESPONSE
OF GALVANOMETERS
3.5.4 OSCILLOSCOPES
3.5.5 MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDERS
SUMMARY
REFERENCES
EXERCISES
DIGITAL RECORDING SYSTEMS
INTRODUCTION
DIGITAL CODES
CONVERSION PROCESSES
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTERS
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTERS
4.5.1 SUCCESSIVE-APPROXIMATION
METHOD
4.5.2 INTERGRATION METHOD
4.5.3 PARALLEL OR FLASH METHOD
DATA DISTRIBUTION
4.6.1 BUS STRUCTURES
INTERFACES
DIGITAL VOLTMETERS
DATA-LOGGING SYSTEMS
DATA-ACQUISITION SYSTEMS
PC-BASED DATA-ACQUISITION SYSTEMS
DIGITAL OSCILLOSCOPES
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CONTENTS ix
4.13 WAVEFORM RECORDERS
4.14 ALIASING
4.14.1 ANTIALIASING FILTERS
4.15 SUMMARY
REFERENCES
EXERCISES
CHAPTER 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
10
11
12
13
14
CHAPTER 6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
SENSORS FOR TRANSDUCERS
INTRODUCTION
POTENTIOMETERS
DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMERS
RESISTANCE STRAIN GAGES
CAPACITANCE SENSORS
EDDY-CURRENT SENSORS
PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
PIEZORESISTIVE SENSORS
PHOTOELECTRIC SENSORS
5.9.1 VACUUM-TUBE DETECTORS
5.9.2 PHOTOCONDUCTIVE CELLS
5.9.3 SEMICONDUCTOR PHOTODIODES
RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS
THERMISTORS
THERMOCOUPLES
CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS
SUMMARY
REFERENCES
EXERCISES
SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUITS
INTRODUCTION
POWER SUPPLIES
6.2.1 BATTERY SUPPLIES
6.2.2 LINE VOLTAGE SUPPLIES
POTENTIOMETER CIRCUIT (CONSTANT
VOLTAGE)
POTENTIOMETER CIRCUIT (CONSTANT
CURRENT)
WHEATSTONE BRIDGE (CONSTANT VOLTAGE)
WHEATSTONE BRIDGE (CONSTANT
CURRENT)
AMPLIFIERS
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
6.8.1 INVERTING AMPLIFIER
6.8.2 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
6.8.3 VOLTAGE FOLLOWER
6.8.4 SUMMING AMPLIFIER
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117
119
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x CONTENTS
6.8.5 INTEGRATING AMPLIFIER 188
6.8.6 DIFFERENTIATING AMPLIFIER 189
6.9 FILTERS 189
6.9.1 HIGH-PASS RC FILTER 190
6.9.2 LOW-PASS RC FILTER 191
6.9.3 ACTIVE FILTER 193
6.10 AMPLITUDE MODULATION
AND DEMODULATION 194
6.11 TIME-MEASURING CIRCUITS 197
6.11.1 BINARY COUNTING UNIT 197
6.11.2 GATES IN COUNTER APPLICATIONS 198
6.11.3 TRIGGERS 198
6.11.4 COUNTING INSTRUMENTS 199
6.12 SUMMARY 202
REFERENCES 205
EXERCISES 206
CHAPTER 7 RESISTANCE-TYPE STRAIN GAGES 211
7.1 INTRODUCTION 211
7.2 ETCHED-FOIL STRAIN GAGES 212
7.3 STRAIN-GAGE INSTALLATION 212
7.4 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE SIGNAL CONDITIONING 214
7.5 RECORDING INSTRUMENTS FOR STRAIN
GAGES 219
7.5.1 DIRECT-READING STRAIN INDICATOR 220
7.5.2 NULL-BALANCE BRIDGES 220
7.5.3 STRAIN-GAGE SIGNAL CONDITIONERS 222
7.5.4 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE AND
OSCILLOSCOPE 222
7.5.5 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE AND
OSCILLOGRAPH 224
7.6 CALIBRATION METHODS 227
7.7 EFFECTS OF LEAD WIRES, SWITCHES, AND
SLIP RINGS 229
7.7.1 LEAD WIRES 229
7.7.2 SWITCHES 232
7.7.3 SLIP RINGS 234
7.8 ELECTRICAL NOISE 234
7.9 TEMPERATURE-COMPENSATED GAGES 236
7.10 ALLOY SENSITIVITY, GAGE FACTOR, AND
CROSS-SENSITIVITY FACTORS 238
7.11 DATA-REDUCTION METHODS 241
7.11.1 THE UNIAXIAL STATE OF STRESS 241
7.11.2 THE BIAXIAL STATE OF STRESS 242
7.11.3 THE GENERAL STATE OF STRESS 242
7.12 HIGH-TEMPERATURE STRAIN
MEASUREMENTS 244
CONTENTS xi
7.13 SUMMARY
REFERENCES
EXERCISES
245
248
249
CHAPTER 8 FORCE, TORQUE, AND PRESSURE
MEASUREMENTS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 FORCE MEASUREMENTS (LOAD CELLS)
8.2.1 LINK-TYPE LOAD CELL
8.2.2 BEAM-TYPE LOAD CELL
8.2.3 RING-TYPE LOAD CELL
8.2.4 SHEAR-WEB-TYPE LOAD CELL
8.3 TORQUE MEASUREMENT (TORQUE CELLS)
8.3.1 TORQUE CELLS - DESIGN CONCEPTS
8.3.2 TORQUE CELLS-DATA TRANSMISSION
8.4 COMBINED MEASUREMENTS OF FORCE AND
MOMENTS OR TORQUES
8.4.1 FORCE-MOMENT MEASUREMENTS
8.4.2 FORCE-TORQUE MEASUREMENTS
8.5 PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS (PRESSURE
TRANSDUCERS)
8.5.1
8.6
8.7
8.9
DISPLACEMENT-TYPE PRESSURE
TRANSDUCER
DIAPHRAGM-TYPE PRESSURE
TRANSDUCER
PIEZOELECTRIC-TYPE PRESSURE
TRANSDUCER
MINIMIZING ERRORS IN TRANSDUCERS
8.6.1 DUAL SENSITIVITY
ZERO SHIFT WITH TEMPERATURE
CHANGE
BRIDGE BALANCE
SPAN ADJUST
SPAN CHANGE WITH TEMPERATURE
FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF TRANSDUCERS
8.7.1 RESPONSE OF A FORCE TRANSDUCER TO
A TERMINATED RAMP FUNCTION
8.7.2 RESPONSE OF A FORCE TRANSDUCER TO
A SINUSOIDAL FORCING FUNCTION
CALIBRATION OF TRANSDUCERS
SUMMARY
REFERENCES
EXERCISES
8.5.2
8.5.3
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.6.4
8.6.5
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CHAPTER 9 DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY, AND
ACCELERATION MEASUREMENTS
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 THE SEISMIC TRANSDUCER MODEL
293
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xii CONTENTS
9.3 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THE SEISMIC
MODEL 295
9.3.1 SINUSOIDAL EXCITATION 295
9.3.2 TRANSIENT EXCITATIONS 298
9.4 SEISMIC MOTION TRANSDUCERS 299
9.4.1 SEISMIC DISPLACEMENT
TRANSDUCERS 300
9.4.2 SEISMIC VELOCITY TRANSDUCERS 301
9.4.3 SEISMIC ACCELERATION
TRANSDUCERS 301
9.5 PIEZOELECTRIC FORCE TRANSDUCERS 305
9.6 PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR CIRCUITS 306
9.6.1 CHARGE SENSITIVITY MODEL 306
9.6.2 VOLTAGE-FOLLOWER CIRCUIT 308
9.6.3 CHARGE-AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT 311
9.6.4 BUILT-IN VOLTAGE FOLLOWERS 313
9.7 RESPONSE OF PIEZOELECTRIC CIRCUITS
TO TRANSIENT SIGNALS 317
9.8 ACCELEROMETER CALIBRATION 320
9.9 DYNAMIC CALIBRATION OF FORCE
TRANSDUCERS 323
9.9.1 FORCE TRANSDUCER CALIBRATION
BY IMPACT 325
9.10 OVERALL SYSTEM CALIBRATION 327
9.11 SOURCES OF ERROR WITH PIEZOELECTRIC
TRANSDUCERS 328
9.12 DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENTS IN A
FIXED REFERENCE FRAME 331
9.12.1 DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENTS WITH
RESISTANCE POTENTIOMETERS 331
9.12.2 DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENTS WITH
MULTIPLE-RESISTOR DEVICES 335
9.12.3 PHOTOELECTRIC DISPLACEMENT
TRANSDUCERS 336
9.13 OPTICAL DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENTS 337
9.13.1 OPTICAL TRACKER SYSTEM 337
9.13.2 VIDEO CAMERA MOTION
ANALYSIS 338
9.14 VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS 339
9.14.1 LINEAR-VELOCITY
MEASUREMENTS 340
9.14.2 ANGULAR-VELOCITY
MEASUREMENTS 342
9.14.3 LASER-DOPPLER SYSTEM 343
9.15 SUMMARY 344
REFERENCES 345
EXERCISES 347
CONTENTS xiii
CHAPTER 10 ANALYSIS OF VIBRATING SYSTEMS 356
10.1 INTRODUCTION 356
10.1.1 TEMPORAL MEAN 358
10.1.2 TEMPORAL MEAN SQUARE
AND ROOT MEAN SQUARE 358
10.2 SINUSOIDAL SIGNAL ANALYSIS 358
10.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF SIGNALS 3 61
10.3.1 PERIODIC SIGNALS 362
10.3.2 TRANSIENT SIGNALS 363
10.3.3 RANDOM SIGNALS 366
10.4 LUMPED MASS-SPRING VIBRATION
MODELS 368
10.4.1 UNDAMPED NATURAL FREQUENCY
AND MODE SHAPE 369
10.4.2 FORCED VIBRATION RESPONSE
(DIRECT SOLUTION) 370
10.4.3 FORCED VIBRATION RESPONSE
(MODAL SOLUTION) 370
10.5 CONTINUOUS VIBRATION MODELS 373
10.5.1 FUNDAMENTAL EQUATION
OF MOTION 373
10.5.2 STEADY-STATE MODAL SOLUTION 374
10.6 THE LINEAR INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL 376
10.6.1 IMPULSE RESPONSE 377
10.6.2 RANDOM INPUT-OUTPUT
RELATIONSHIPS 379
10.7 BASICS OF A DIGITAL FREQUENCY
ANALYZER 380
10.7.1 TIME SAMPLING PROCESS 380
10.7.2 CONVOLUTION 381
10.7.3 FILTER LEAKAGE 385
10.7.4 BLOCK DIAGRAM 387
10.8 USING A DIGITAL FREQUENCY ANALYZER 387
10.8.1 RELATIONSHIPS FOR FREQUENCY
ANALYZERS 388
10.8.2 FILTER CHARACTERISTICS 390
10.8.3 FOUR COMMON WINDOW
FUNCTIONS 392
10.8.4 UNCERTAINTY IN THE MAGNITUDE
OF SPECTRAL LINES 394
10.8.5 SUMMARY OF WINDOW USE 395
10.9 ACCELEROMETER CROSS-AXIS SENSITIVITY 396
10.9.1 SINGLE ACCELEROMETER CROSS-AXIS
COUPLING MODEL 396
10.9.2 TRIAXIAL ACCELEROMETER
MODEL 397
10.9.3 CORRECTING ACCELERATION VOLTAGE
READINGS 397
xiv CONTENTS
10.9.4 APPLICATION TO MODAL ANALYSIS
SIGNALS 399
10.9.5 CROSS-AXIS RESONANCE 399
10.10 FORCE TRANSDUCER-STRUCTURE
INTERACTION 400
10.10.1 GENERAL TWO-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM
FORCE TRANSDUCER MODEL 401
10.11 SUMMARY 406
REFERENCES 408
EXERCISES 409
CHAPTER 11 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS 412
11.1 INTRODUCTION 412
11.2 EXPANSION METHODS FOR MEASURING
TEMPERATURE 415
11.3 RESISTANCE THERMOMETERS 416
11.3.1 RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE
DETECTORS (RTDS) 417
11.3.2 RTDS AND THE WHEATSTONE BRIDGE 420
11.3.3 THERMISTORS 424
11.4 THERMOCOUPLES 428
11.4.1 PRINCIPLES OF THERMOCOUPLE
BEHAVIOR 430
11.4.2 THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS 434
11.4.3 REFERENCE IUNCTION TEMPERATURE 437
11.4.4 FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION
PROCEDURES 439
11.4.5 RECORDING INSTRUMENTS FOR
THERMOCOUPLES 442
11.4.6 NOISE SUPPRESSION IN THERMOCOUPLE
CIRCUITS 444
11.5 INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT TEMPERATURE
SENSORS 444
11.6 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF TEMPERATURE
SENSORS 446
11.7 SOURCES OF ERROR IN TEMPERATURE
MEASUREMENTS 449
11.8 CALIBRATION METHODS 453
11.9 RADIATION METHODS (PYROMETRY) 454
11.9.1 PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION 454
11.9.2 THE OPTICAL PYROMETER 456
11.9.3 INFRARED PYROMETERS 458
11.9.4 PHOTON DETECTOR TEMPERATURE
INSTRUMENTS 460
11.10 SUMMARY 463
REFERENCES 465
EXERCISES 466
CONTENTS xv
CHAPTER 12
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
FLUID FLOW MEASUREMENTS
INTRODUCTION
FLOW VELOCITY (INSERTION-TYPE
TRANSDUCERS)
12.2.1 PITOT TUBE (INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW)
12.2.2 PITOT TUBE (COMPRESSIBLE FLOW)
12.2.3 HOT-WIRE AND HOT-FILM
ANEMOMETERS
12.2.4 DRAG-FORCE VELOCITY TRANSDUCERS
12.2.5 CURRENT METERS
12.2.6 TURBINE FLOW METERS
12.2.7 VORTEX-SHEDDING TRANSDUCERS
FLOW RATES IN CLOSED SYSTEMS BY
PRESSURE-VARIATION MEASUREMENTS
12.3.1 VENTURI METER
12.3.2 FLOW NOZZLE
12.3.3 ORIFICE METER
12.3.4 ELBOW METER
FLOW RATES IN PARTIALLY CLOSED SYSTEMS
FLOW RATES IN OPEN CHANNELS FROM
PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
12.5.1 SLUICEGATE
12.5.2 WEIRS
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW EFFECTS IN CLOSED
SYSTEMS
OTHER FLOW-MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR
CLOSED SYSTEMS
12.7.1 CAPILLARY FLOW METER
12.7.2 POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT FLOW
METERS
12.7.3 HOT-FILM MASS FLOW TRANSDUCERS
12.7.4 LASER VELOCIMETRY SYSTEMS
SUMMARY
REFERENCES
EXERCISES
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CHAPTER 13 STATISTICAL METHODS 521
13.1 INTRODUCTION 521
13.2 CHARACTERIZING STATISTICAL
DISTRIBUTIONS 522
13.2.1 GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS OF THE
DISTRIBUTION 522
13.2.2 MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY 524
13.2.3 MEASURES OF DISPERSION 524
13.3 STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS 526
13.3.1 GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION 526
13.3.2 WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION 529
CONTENTS
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR PREDICTIONS 532
COMPARISION OF MEANS 537
STATISTICAL CONDITIONING OF DATA 537
REGRESSION ANALYSIS 538
13.7.1 LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS 539
13.7.2 MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION 541
CHI-SQUARE TESTING 544
ERROR ACCUMULATION AND PROPAGATION 545
SUMMARY 548
REFERENCES 549
EXERCISES 550
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX
558
572
AUTHOR INDEX 577
SUBJECT INDEX 579