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Title IV.

- ESTOPPEL

Art. 1431. Through estoppel an admission or representation is
rendered conclusie upon the person ma!ing it" and cannot #e
denied or disproed as against the person rel$ing thereon.
Art. 143%. The principles o& estoppel are here#$ adopted inso&ar as
the$ are not in con&lict 'ith the proisions o& this (ode" the (ode o&
(ommerce" the )ules o& (ourt and special la's.
Art. 1433. Estoppel ma$ #e in pais or #$ deed.
Art. 1434. *hen a person 'ho is not the o'ner o& a thing sells or
alienates and deliers it" and later the seller or grantor ac+uires title
thereto" such title passes #$ operation o& la' to the #u$er or
grantee.
Art. 143,. I& a person in representation o& another sells or alienates
a thing" the &ormer cannot su#se+uentl$ set up his o'n title as
against the #u$er or grantee.
Art. 143-. A lessee or a #ailee is estopped &rom asserting title to the
thing leased or receied" as against the lessor or #ailor.
Art. 143.. *hen in a contract #et'een third persons concerning
immoa#le propert$" one o& them is misled #$ a person 'ith respect
to the o'nership or real right oer the real estate" the latter is
precluded &rom asserting his legal title or interest therein" proided
all these re+uisites are present/
011 There must #e &raudulent representation or 'rong&ul
concealment o& &acts !no'n to the part$ estopped2
0%1 The part$ precluded must intend that the other should act
upon the &acts as misrepresented2
031 The part$ misled must hae #een una'are o& the true &acts2
and
041 The part$ de&rauded must hae acted in accordance 'ith
the misrepresentation.
Art. 1433. One 'ho has allo'ed another to assume apparent
o'nership o& personal propert$ &or the purpose o& ma!ing an$
trans&er o& it" cannot" i& he receied the sum &or 'hich a pledge has
#een constituted" set up his o'n title to de&eat the pledge o& the
propert$" made #$ the other to a pledgee 'ho receied the same in
good &aith and &or alue.
Art. 1434. Estoppel is e&&ectie onl$ as #et'een the parties thereto
or their successors in interest.