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Acquired Immunity

Dr. Mejbah Uddin Ahmed


WELL COME
Adaptive (acquired) immunity

 Adaptive (acquired) immunity refers to


antigen-specific defense mechanisms
that take several days to become
protective and are designed to remove a
specific antigen This is the immunity one
develops throughout life.
Adaptive (acquired) immunity

Acquired immunity is acquired after


exposure to foreign substance and is
exquisitely specific. It supplements and
amplifies the protection offered by innate
immunity.
Acquired immunity

Crieteria of acquired immunity:


 Specific 3rd Line of Defense.
 Like snipers in the military they have a specific
target i.e. Antigen specific.
 Mediated by lymphocytes: key cells of the
acquired immune response.
2 main types of lymphocytes:
• 80% T cells (cell mediated).
• 15% B cells (antibody mediated).
Acquired immunity

 Crieteria of acquired immunity:


 Efficient and selective immune responses
 Systemic – not restricted to the initial infection
site
 Has memory – recognizes and mounts a
stronger attack on previously encountered
pathogens
Classification of Immunity
Acquisition of Acquired Immunity

Can be acquired naturally or


artificially:
 Natural acquisition—person acquires
immunity through natural means:
Active & Passive.
 artificial acquisition—person is given
something that results in immunity:
Active & Passive.
Acquisition of Acquired Immunity
A.Naturally Acquired Active
Immunity:

Antigens or pathogens enter body
naturally.
 Body generates an immune
response to antigens.
 Immunity may be lifelong
(chickenpox or mumps) or
temporary (influenza or intestinal
infections).
Acquisition of Acquired Immunity
B. Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity:
 Antibodies pass from mother to fetus
via placenta or breast feeding
(colostrum).
 No immune response to antigens.
 Immunity is usually short-lived (weeks
to months).
 Protection until child’s immune
system develops.
Acquisition of Acquired Immunity
1.Artificially acquired active immunity:
 Antigens are introduced in vaccines
(immunization).
 Body generates an immune response
to antigens.
 Immunity can be lifelong (oral polio
vaccine) or temporary (tetanus toxoid).
Acquisition of Acquired Immunity
2.Artificially acquired passive
immunity:
 Preformed antibodies (antiserum) are
introduced into body by injection: ATS
or TIG
 Immunity is short lived (half life three
weeks).
 Host immune system does not
respond to antigens.
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