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Bacteriophage

 Definition - Obligate intracellular parasites that


multiply inside bacteria by making use of some or all
of the host biosynthetic machinery.
A bacteriophage is any one of a number of viruses
that infect bacteria.
 Typically bacteriophages consist of an outer protein
enclosing genetic material. The genetic material can
be ssRNA, dsRNA, ssDNA, or dsDNA with either
circular or linear arrangement.
Types of Bacteriophage
 Lytic or virulent phage: Phage that can only
multiply within bacteria and kill the cell by
lysis.
 Lysogenic or temperate phage: Phage that
can either multiply via the lytic cycle or enter
a quiescent state in the bacterial cell.
Lysis or Lysogeny

 Lysis: Infection by phage produces many


progeny and lyses the host bacterium
 Lysogeny: After infection, the phage DNA
integrates into the host genome and resides
there passively
– No progeny
– No lysis of the host
Lysogenic Pathway Lytic Pathway

Replication of phage
Integration
DNA and Protein

(prophage)

Assembly

e le ase
Lysi s&R
Lytic vs Lysogenic Cycle?

 Role of repressor (c-I gene).


 Role of anjtagonizer of cro gene product.
Significance of Lysogeny
 Lysogenic or phage conversion
 Definition: A change in the phenotype of a
bacterial cell as a consequence of lysogeny
 Modification of Salmonella O antigen
 Toxin production by Corynebacterium
diphtheriae
Infection by temperate phage leads to
lysis or lysogeny
E. coli cell E. coli cell E. coli chromosome
λ phage
+ +

lyticgrowthof phage cell undergoeslysogeny

λ λ prophage