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Poliomyeliti

s
Dr. Mejbah Uddin
Ahmed
• Caused by poliovirus
• Destroys nervous system  paralysis
Poliovirus
• Nonenveloped, ssRNA virus of the
Picornavirus family and Enterovirus group
• Nonenveloped, ssRNA.
• Three serotypes: type-1, type-2, type-3
• Reservoir: humans only
• Transmitted through fecal-oral route.
Transmission& pathogenesis
• Entry into mouth
• Replication in pharynx & GI tract in local
lymphoid tissue
• Hematogenus spread to central nervous
system
• Virus can also spread along nerve fibers
• Virus replicates in the anterior horn cells of
spinal cord
• Destruction of motor neurons & alos affect
brainstem
Polio Infection

An acute infection, ranging from:


- Asymptomatic infection
- Abortive poliomyelitis http://data2.arc
hives.ca/e/e10
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- Non-paralytic (aseptic meningitis)
- Paralytic poliomyelitis
Paralytic
poliomyelitis
• Initial constitutional
symptoms followed
by paralysis.
• Three types:
– Spinal polio
– Bulbar polio
– Bulbospinal polio
Paralytic poliomyelitis

• Spinal polio: Flaccid type


paralysis of muscles
occur.
• Bulbar polio: Life
threatening respiratory
paralysis occur.
• Bulbospinal polio.
Spinal
Polio
Lab Diagnosis
• Definitive diagnosis is made by isolation
of the virus from stool, CFS,
oropharyngeal secretions
• Detection of antibody By:
• ELISA
• IFA
• CFT
Prevention
• Both oral polio vaccine( OPV live,
attenuated , Sabin, 1957)
• and inactivated poliovirus are
avilable.
Prevention
• Active:
• Killed vaccine
(IPV , Salk)
• Live attenuated vaccine
(OPV , Sabin)
**Current version of IPV is
eIPV.
• Passive: Immunoglobulin
is available.