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 Three species have been generally
accepted as parasites of man:
 Echinococcus granulosus - Hydatid
 Echinococcus multilocularies - Alveolar
hydatid disease.
 Echinococcus vogeli - Hydatid disease.
 This is the smallest of all
 Only 3 proglottids an
immature, a mature, and a
gravid proglottid.
 The scolex is globular, and has
a prominent rostellum, armed
with a double row of between
30 and 36 hooks.

 Larvae:
 Is called 'Hydatid cyst‘

 Large spherical, fluid filled hollow bladders

 Contents: numerous protoscolices forming

the hydatid sand, brood capsules and
daughter cysts
 Cyst wall has an outer laminated hyaline
layer and inner nucleated germinal layer.
Life cycle

 Definitive host: Dogs or other canids.

 Intermediate host: Man is accidental and dead
end intermediate host, cattle are optimum or
natural intermediate hosts.
Life cycle
 Sometimes the infection is asymptomatic, the
only evidence of infection being the presence
of calcified cysts on autopsy after death.
 The major pathology is due to the size of the
cyst, giving rise to pressure related injury
 Rupture of the cyst possibly due to blows to the
body, or during operations
 Cyst fluid is highly allergenic and may result in
anaphylactic shock and rapid death.
 Contents of the cyst is released into the body's
circulatory system and the liberated
protoscolices may give rise to numerous
secondary cysts.

 Diagnosis is done by
 Hydatid cysts are found during X-radiography,
ultrasonography, CT scans
 Immunodiagnostic techniques
 Microscopy: Fluid aspirated from hydatid cyst
will show many protoscolices