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Live-in- FIELD EXPERIENCE (LFE)

LFE, Sumer, 2014


Section# 04
Venue: Natore

Report on: Family Planning knowledge of Jongli village
Prepared by
Mr. Shafayet Islam
ID: 1120741

Submitted to
Mr. Iftekhar Mahfuz
Instructor, LFE, Sec: 04,
Lecturer, School of Business
Independent University, Bangladesh


Date of Submission: 29
th
May, 2014
May 29, 2014.
To
Mr. Iftekhar Mahfuz
Lecturer, School of Business
Independent University, Bangladesh
Dhaka

Subject: Letter of Transmittal
Dear Sir,
With due honor I would like to inform you that I want to submit my Live-in Field-Experience
(LFE) report, which was performed from 25th April to 6th May 2014 in Natore, jointly
organized by Independent University, Bangladesh and Thengamara Mohila Sabuj Sangha
(TMSS). My area of survey was Boro Jongli & Hindu Para of Jongli village in Natore Sadar. I
have performed the survey as I was instructed. Even though it was a bit hectic I have enjoyed
it thoroughly. I tried to analyze the obtained data correctly as possible. This event and the
experience that I gained will help me in the area of practical research. I hope that the enclosed
information will be helpful and self-explanatory to get a clear idea about Jongli village.
I therefore looking forward to you that my report will be able to achieve your approval. If you
need any kind of clarifications I will be ready to do so.

Yours Sincerely,
Md. Shafayet Islam
ID: 1120741



Acknowledgement
I, Md. Shafayet Islam have completed my survey on Jongli village, a micro unit of whole
Live in Field Experience (LFE) Summer, 2011 survey under the supervision of our teacher
Mr. Iftekhar Mahfuz (SB), Mr. Suman Prosad Saha (SB), Ms. Shaila Shams (SLASS) and
with my group member which was performed from 25th April to 6th May 2014 in Natore,
jointly organized by Independent University, Bangladesh and Thengamara Mohila Sabuj
Sangha (TMSS) of Natore. Our staying at TMSS while performing our survey was amazing.
We got all kind of help from the organizing host institution and our LFE coordinators. Our
teachers were very friendly with us along with TMSS authority. My learning and experience
from the LFE would be very useful in my future career. For this reason, firstly I would love
to thank our LFE instructors Mr. Iftekhar Mahfuz, Mr. Suman Prosad Saha, Ms. Shaila
Shams for guiding us throughout the LFE. Thanks to all the staff of TMSS for taking good
care of us and cooperate with us in all those twelve days, specially thanks to Mr. Mohosin ali
and Anwar Hossain for guiding us during the survey in Boro jongli and Hindu para in Jongli
village. I am grateful to our four monitors Mr. Rakeeb Meem, Mr. Shahadat Jewewl, Ms.
Nusrat Jahan Jyote, and Mr. Tanveer Rakib Evan for being beside us to complete our on field
and off field works. Thanks to the students of LFE Section: 4 for making it an unforgettable
experience and thanks for sharing information regarding LFE. Among them I would love to
thank Dilruba Chowdhury for being my partner during the LFE and helping me with the
survey and presentation work. I would also love to thank whole Jongli group for being so
helpful during the mapping session. My heart full thanks goes to Aman Ahmed, Mohammed
Fahim, Arif Mahmood, Adnan Rafid, Mazharul Islam Evan and Aminur rasul niloy as we all
shared the same room. Last but not the least I would love to thank all the villagers of Jongli
for being very friendly, cooperative and providing me the information I needed.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................... 2
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Defining Family Planning ............................................................................................... 1
1.2 Methods of Family Planning ................................................................................................ 2
Natural Family Planning ................................................................................................. 2
Barrier methods condoms, diaphragms and cervical caps .............................................. 2
Pills ................................................................................................................................. 3
An injection ..................................................................................................................... 3
Internal Uterine Device (IUD) into her uterus ................................................................ 3
Sterilization ..................................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Current condition of Bangladesh ......................................................................................... 3
1.4 Importance of Family planning ............................................................................................ 4
For women ...................................................................................................................... 4
For children: .................................................................................................................... 5
For men: .......................................................................................................................... 5
For families ..................................................................................................................... 5
For Couple: ..................................................................................................................... 6
For nation: ....................................................................................................................... 6
Economic benefits:.......................................................................................................... 6
2.0 Methodology ........................................................................................................................ 7
2.1 Village Name ....................................................................................................................... 7
2.2 Area Name: .......................................................................................................................... 7
2.3 Sample Size .......................................................................................................................... 7
2.5 Data Collection Method ....................................................................................................... 7
Primary Data: .............................................................................................................. 8
Structured Interview: ............................................................................................... 8
Unstructured Interview: ........................................................................................... 8
Observation:............................................................................................................. 8
Secondary Data: .......................................................................................................... 8
3.0 Social Map ........................................................................................................................... 9
4.0 Family planning knowledge of Jongli villagers ................................................................. 10
4.1 Ways of getting knowledge of Family Planning ................................................................ 11
5.0 Factors affecting knowledge Family Planning .................................................................. 11
Age ................................................................................................................................ 11
Education ...................................................................................................................... 11
No. of son ...................................................................................................................... 12
Religion ......................................................................................................................... 12
Unavailability of birth control ...................................................................................... 12
Expensive ...................................................................................................................... 12
6.0 Recommendation ............................................................................................................... 13
Share the knowledge ..................................................................................................... 13
Educate people .............................................................................................................. 13
Increase Popularity of contraceptive methods .............................................................. 14
7.0 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 14
Annexure .................................................................................................................................. 15




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1.0 Introduction
Family planning is a major concern of a family, society and nation. In a highly populated
country like Bangladesh, family planning is very important to stabilize the population growth
which is a barrier for nation's improvement. Bangladesh faced no greater problem than
population growth. As a developing country Bangladesh needs to control its population
growth and utilize the population to build a strong economy to stay in the competition.
Family planning is the only way to control the population growth. With the help of family
planning Bangladesh can improve education level, economic condition, health and sanitation
condition etc.
During my LFE (LIVE- in- Field Experience) I had the opportunity to get to know about
Natore and the people of Jongli village. I have found out that in some parts of Jongli village
people are suffering to improve their living condition. There are many inter-related reasons
which are hindering people to improve their living condition. One of the possible reasons is
that "Lack of knowledge about Family Planning" of local people.
1.1 Defining Family Planning
To understand family planning first we need to know what a 'Family' is. A family is group of
people consisting of two parents and their children living together as a unit. In other words, a
family is a group of two or more people that are related by blood, marriage (registered or de
facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who usually live together in the same household. To
plan the construction of a family can be considered as family planning.

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Family planning is the voluntary planning and action taken by individuals to prevent, delay or
achieve a pregnancy. Family planning mainly describes birth control. When parents plan the
number of child and timing of getting child this can be described as family planning.
In our life we plan every single thing to have a better organized life. Children are the most
important part of people's life. So, people need to plan for their children. Without planning
for a child a family can suffer in a various ways. Most importantly the child will suffer in the
life. In this report, I tried to put some light on the present condition of Jongli village and tried
to found out the reasons behind this situation. I also tried to find some ways to overcome this
situation in future.
1.2 Methods of Family Planning
There are several methods of family planning available to couples not ready to start a family.
The methods differ greatly. It is good to completely understand all the available options when
making a choice on birth control.
Natural Family Planning
Woman can take hints from the bodys natural fertility signs and follow their menstrual
cycles to know when they are most likely fertile. During those times intimacy is avoided to
prevent pregnancy. This method is not always accurate, but it does offer a hormone and
chemical free alternative.
Barrier methods condoms, diaphragms and cervical caps
Condoms are now available for men and women. All barrier methods of family planning are
made more effective with the use of spermicides. Spermicides are liquids, foams, or films
that contain a chemical to kill sperm. The barrier method works well as prevent pregnancy,
but can cause sex to lose some spontaneity.

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Pills
Birth control pills are taken once daily to prevent pregnancy. The same medication in the pill
is also available as a patch worn on the womans skin or a ring inserted into the vagina. Both
are worn for three week and then removed for one week during menstruation.
An injection
Depo-Provera is a shot given to women every three months to prevent pregnancy. This
method of family planning is highly effective.
Internal Uterine Device (IUD) into her uterus
An IUD is a T shaped device made of either plastic or copper and may stay in uterus up to
twelve years, however if family plans change the IUD can be removed at any time by a
doctor.
Sterilization
Men and women can decide on surgical sterilization as a permanent method of family
planning. Men receive an outpatient procedure called, vasectomy, where the tubes that carry
sperm out the urethra are clipped. Women also get tubes clipped in a tubal ligation to stop
ovaries from entering the uterus. This is an operation that does require hospitalization and
recovery time.
1.3 Current condition of Bangladesh
Bangladesh has the third largest population in South Asia, after India and Pakistan. In July
2011, the results of Bangladeshs fifth population census were released. The population now
stands at 142.3 million people, nearly double the countrys 1974 statistic and 18 million more
than 10 years ago. This level of growth is approximately equivalent to an annual population
growth rate of 1.34% over the past decade. The population density has increased from 834 to

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964 people per square kilometer. About one-third of Bangladeshis live in urban areas; at the
current growth rate, it is projected that by 2040 the total population will balloon to 230
million people where 52% will live in urban areas.
The average household size in Bangladesh is 4.4 persons per family, down from 4.8 in 2001
and 5.5 in 1991. The average Bangladeshi woman now has 2.15 children compared to 5.1
children in 1981. Traditionally in the developing world, having large families is like an
insurance policy against illness and poverty in old age. Clearly, a shift has occurred in the
attitude towards family planning, but it is not enough to head off the potentially catastrophic
effects of a rapidly increasing population against a markedly slower food production rate. The
Government of Bangladesh drafted a population policy in 2009 seeking to introduce and
promote the concept of a single-child family by 2015, but it has not taken assertive enough
strides to achieve that goal.
From the above information we can understand that Bangladesh is working on population
control but this topic should get more emphasis. Because proper family planning can not only
improve family condition but also improves overall nation's condition.
1.4 Importance of Family planning
For women
Family planning helps women to protect themselves from unwanted, too early, too late and
too frequent and too many pregnancies. These types of pregnancies are risk for health for
women. In other ways family planning program saves lives of many women by preventing
high-risk pregnancy and unsafe abortion. It is estimated that if all women could avoid high-
risk pregnancies, the number of maternal death could fall by one quarter. It has been
discovered that family planning has other health related benefits for women besides

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preventing unintended pregnancies. For example: combined oral cramps and pain, and even
help to prevent several type of cancer. Condom help prevent STDs/HIV transmission.
Similarly family planning also helps women to continue education, learn skillful training and
develop career to improve overall quality of life.
For children:
Family planning saves the lives of children by helping women space births. A study by
researcher at the Demographic Health Survey program finds that children born 3 years or
more after a previous births are healthier at birth and more likely to survive at all stages of
infancy and childhood through age five. It is estimated that between 13 and 15 million
children under age 5 die each year. If all children were born at least 2 years apart, 3 to 4
million of these deaths would be avoided.
For men:
Family planning method especially condom helps men to protect STDs/HIV for themselves
as well as for their spouses. If a man uses family planning to protect pregnancy, it would be
one of the good supports to their spouse in reproductive health and better live of whole family
members being the main responsible person of the family. Family planning helps men to
educate children, provide nutritious food, less money to provide treatment for ill health and
too many deliveries and less absenteeism form office and regular work.
For families
Family planning improves overall quality of life of family members. Couples with fewer
children are in a better position to provide quality education, good food, clothing and shelter.
This will ultimately help to enjoy life.

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For Couple:
Family planning improves overall quality of life of family members, couples with fewer
children are in a better position to provide quality education good food, clothing and shelter.
This will ultimately help to enjoy the family life.
For nation:
Family planning helps a nation to improve status of economics and overall development by
reducing child and mother death, providing opportunity develop career for men and women,
giving good schooling to children especially women, there will be chance to have good food
for people. These all factors will help to develop nation.
Economic benefits:
Investing in family planning opens a window of opportunity for faster economic growth in
nations as a whole by reducing fertility and changing the population's age structure and
dependency ratio. As the number of workers increase relative to the number of children they
must support, saving and investment can increase. Investing in family planning also cuts the
cost of social services as for example fewer children attend school and fewer, healthier
pregnant women seek antenatal and delivery care, depending on which social services
offered, each dollar spend on family planning may save government up to US $ 31 in
expenditure on health, education, food, housing, water sewage and the like. Slower
population growth also places less stress on limited natural resources, including fresh water
and arable land.



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2.0 Methodology
This report is fully based on the information that was collected during the thirteen days of
LFE at Natore.
At Natore we were divided in three groups to cover up three villages Jongli, Akdala and
Bonbelghuria.
GROUP 16 was our pair number and we were instructed to do the survey in pair. Our survey
location was Jongli village.
2.1 Village Name
As the part of Jongli group we (20 students 10 pair groups) were sent to Jongli village under
Natore sadar.
2.2 Area Name:
We were instructed to survey Boro Jongli of Jongli village.
2.3 Sample Size
I and my partner had to accomplish survey of 10 households, 5 of each during the time of
field work and in this report I am going to use this sample of 10 households to do the
analysis.
2.5 Data Collection Method
The data represented on the report were collected from primary and secondary data sources.
In primary source I have used the structured and unstructured interview system and
observation. Secondary data source has been used as well.

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Primary Data: Primarily the data was collected using Structured, unstructured
interview, observation.
Structured Interview: I have done the survey as I was instructed to do from IUB.
And I have successfully completed doing survey entitled as IUB Health and Socio
Economic Survey on 10 households. IUB provided the structured questionnaire to
conduct the survey.
Unstructured Interview: I have also interviewed the members of my surveyed
household to know more about my chosen report topic and the surveyed area. I talked
with some senior citizen of that village. I also talked with teachers of BRAC School,
Primary School and Madrassa.
Observation: I have also look around and explored the area to know more about the
people and the surrounding of Jongli village. And observed the villagers lifestyle.
Secondary Data: To make this report I have also took the help of internet and went to
few websites to extract relevant information related to my topic.




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3.0 Social Map

Figure 3.1: Social map of Jongli village
Social map is the map that gives you a guideline of a society (figure 3.1). In the village the
position of everything can be found from social map. It helped me site my survey households
and landmarks like mosque and schools helped me to locate where I am at the very
beginning. By observing and discussing with the members of Jongli village we have formed
this Social map. I also collected the map made by government.

Figure 3.2: Social map of Jongli village (govt.)

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4.0 Family planning knowledge of Jongli villagers
Jongli is a very big village. There are several parts in the village and all those are known by
the people who are living there. Most of the people of Jongli village came from other parts of
the country and started living here. There are comilla para, bogra para, choto jongli, boro
jongli. I along with my partner observed the whole village but our households were in boro
jongli. There were two important parts of boro jongli and those are guchogram and
hindupara.
While observing the village I noticed that guchogram was more populated than any other
parts of the village. In every family there were more than two children. Moreover they had
less amount of land to live in. That is why that part was denser than others. So, I tried to
know if they have any idea about family planning. But it was really shocking that they have
idea about family planning but they are not interested in using those. But in hindupara people
are more concerned about family planning. They have not more than two children. There are
certainly many reasons behind this situation. I tried to focus on those in the latter part of the
report.
For me it was quite challenging to extract the information from a casual conversation about
how they are taking action about family planning. The Jongli villagers were very cordial and
humble enough they cooperated by all means and help me to come up with the courage to
make this report.



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4.1 Ways of getting knowledge of Family Planning
There are mainly two ways of getting knowledge about family planning. They are listed
below:
Government initiative: Government is demotivating people to get more children by
two slogans- "Two is good enough boy or girl" and "One child is good, but no more
than two".
Working of NGOs: A lot of NGOs is working on this problem like BRAC, TMSS, and
RDA etc.
5.0 Factors affecting knowledge Family Planning
Age
Age is a barrier for family planning. While our survey in Jongli village we saw that people
got married at a very early age and for that reason they did not have any idea about family
planning. For example: Mr. Fazar Ali and his wife Hosne Ara was under aged while they got
married. As a result they have no idea about family planning and they gave birth to 6
children. On the other hand Shubash saha and his wife Rina saha got married after getting 20
years old so they had clear idea about family planning.
Education
Education rate is very low in the villages. We noticed that in Jongli village male children do
not go to school but female children go to school more. But this is the recent scenario of
education. The people on whom we surveyed were not learned at all. For example: Lokman
Gazi and his wife Kurshida begum were illiterate. That is why they have no idea about family
planning and they gave birth to 5 children. On the other hand Shubash saha and his wife Rina
saha were well educated and they had only two children.

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No. of son
In Jongli village we saw that people want more male child. Because most of them are farmers
and they think that if they had a boy he would have earned for them. So, if their first two or
three children are female they keep getting babies to get a male child. They also think a boy
will look after them when they will grow old. So this is also a barrier for family planning.
Religion
While doing our survey we talked with a lot of people. And in Jongli village most of them are
Muslims. But the problem was they believe that they should not use any methods of family
planning. So, somehow this hampers the acceptance of family planning.
Unavailability of birth control
There are a lot of methods for birth control but in Jongli village those are not available. In
guchogram there is no dispensary. So, people have to go to Tebaria bazar to get any kind of
precaution. This decreases the interest among them to use any methods for birth control.
Expensive
Some people of Jongli village think that family planning is very expensive. They can hardly
manage money for food. So, they do not want to expense money for any kind of medicine.





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6.0 Recommendation
Share the knowledge
In every year IUB organizes LFE for the student to collect the data from the same people as it
is a longitudinal survey. But while doing the survey if students are encouraged to share their
knowledge about family planning, education, health and sanitation etc. then the condition of
the village people might improve. I along with my partner went to BRAC School to share our
ideas about health and sanitation with the children.

Figure 6.1: Sharing ideas with kids at BRAC School
Educate people
Education is the key factor to get rid of this problem. Government and NGOs are taking
initiative to educate the young kids of the locality. But they should educate the adult people
also. If the parents do not know the importance of education, health, family planning then
they cannot teach their children.

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Increase Popularity of contraceptive methods
There need to increase popularity to contraceptive methods among the rural as well as urban
population, the following measures should be considers-
Emphasis on social mobilization approach at community and district level as a strong
tool concerning on family planning.
Every married couple should be given opportunity in the educational session during
their visit in the family planning center.
Government facilities as well as non-government organizations should supplied in
free of cost in all over Bangladesh.
Train more health personnel and volunteers on family planning counseling. And
family planning distribution.
There need to develop training curriculum on condom negotiation skills and other
communication skill to all development workers including politician for active
involvement of the male participation.
Various Information, Education and Communication activities should be develop for
literate and illiterate population on Family Planning.
7.0 Conclusion
Natore is a very beautiful place and it has a lot of potentials to become a very important part
of our economy. For that the population growth of Natore mainly in villages has to be
controlled. Along with this the literacy rate has to be increased. In Jongli village people are
mainly dependent on agriculture. They grow sugarcane, maize, peas, rice etc. There are
couples of factories in Natore. Those are Natore sugar mills limited, North Bengal sugar mills
limited, Pran agro ltd., Jamuna distillery limited. Beside agro based economy Natore has to
focus on industry based economy.
Every improvement can be done in Natore if the basic problems can be solved. And
population growth is the main problem. Before trying to solve other problems this problem
has to minimize.

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Annexure

I. Wikipedia: Natore (2014), Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natore_District
II. Demographics of Bangladesh, Available at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Bangladesh#Fertility
III. World Health Organization, Available at: http://www.who.int/
IV. Population control and urban family control Bangladesh:
http://urbanpoverty.intellecap.com/
V. Thengamara Mohila Sabuj Sangha, Available at: http://www.tmss-bd.org/
VI. Bangladesh bureau of statistics, Available at: http://www.bbs.gov.bd/home.aspx
VII. Directorate General of Family Planning, Available at: http://www.dgfpmis.org/
VIII. Family planning association of Bangladesh, Available at: http://www.fpab.org.bd/


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LFE summer, 2014