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GANPAT UNIVERSITY

U. V. Patel College of Engineering


Ganpat University, Kherva-382711
Ta & Dist.: Mehsana (North Gujarat)
Ph.: 02762-286805, 286081
Fax (D): 286080
E-mail: info@uvpce.ac.in
Web: www.uvpce.ac.in






AUTOMATIC CAN CRUSHER
Project Report

By
Aman Baviskar (09MC03)
Vihar Doshi (09MC17)
Taher Parekh(09MC47)









Automatic Can Crusher

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CERTIFICATE

Towards partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of Degree of
Bachelor of MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING of GANPAT
UNIVERSITY, this is the record of candidates own work carried out by
them under our supervision & guidance. In our opinion the work
submitted has reached a level required for being accepted for exam. The
matter embodied in this project has not been submitted to any other
university or institute.

Project Report on AUTOMATIC CAN CRUSHER




Submitted By:
Aman Baviskar (09MC03)
Vihar Doshi (09MC17)
Taher Parekh (09MC47)







GUIDE: COUNTERSIGNED:
Prof. N. J. Thakkar Prof. J. P. Patel
Assistant Professor, Head of Department,
Mechatronics Department, Mechatronics Engg.,
U.V. Patel College of Engineering, U.V. Patel College of Engineering,
Mehsana. Mehsana.

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INDEX
Contents Page no.
Index 3
List of Figures 5
List of Tables 6
Abstract 7
Acknowledgements 8
1. Introduction 9
1.1. Project Synopsis 10
1.2. Problem statement 10
1.3. Scope Of The Project 10
1.4. Requirements 10
1.5. Why To Recycle? 11
2. Concept 12
2.1. Can Crusher Calculations 12
2.2. Objectives 13
3. Design and Construction 15
3.1. Components Design 15
3.1.1. Pneumatic Cylinder 15
3.1.2. Can Basher And Feed Strip 16
3.1.3. Can Placing Area And Guideway 17
3.1.4. Foundation 18
3.1.5. Hopper 19
3.1.6. Complete Assembly 20
3.2. Material Selection 22
3.3. Components Details 23
3.3.1 Pneumatic cylinder 23
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3.3.2 Solenoid valve 23
3.3.3 Microcontroller (P89V51RD2) 24
3.3.4 MAX232 IC 27
3.3.5 ULN2003APG IC 31
3.3.6 Sensor 32
3.3.7 MCT2E: Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output 33
3.3.8 Hopper 33
3.3.9 Guideway 33
3.3.10 Can basher and feed strip 33
4. Serial communication 34
4.1. Serial Communication Between Computer And P89V51RD2 35
5. Circuit diagram 36
5.1. Pneumatic circuit 36
5.2. Electrical circuit 37
6. Working 38
7. Future scope 40
8. Conclusion 40
9. References 40

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LIST OF FIGURES:
Fig. No. Contents Pg. No.
1. Types of can crusher 9
3.1.1.a 3D drawing of Pneumatic Cylinder 15
3.1.1.b 2D drawing of Pneumatic Cylinder. 15
3.1.2.a 3D drawing of Can Basher and Feed Strip 16
3.1.2.b 2D drawing of Can Basher and Feed Strip 16
3.1.3.a 3D drawing of Can Placing Area and Guideway 17
3.1.3.b 2D drawing of Can Placing Area and Guideway 17
3.1.4.a 3D drawing of Foundation 18
3.1.4.b 2D drawing of Foundation 18
3.1.5.a 3D drawing of Hopper 19
3.1.5.b 2D drawing of Hopper 19
3.1.6.a 3D drawing of Complete Assembly 20
3.1.6.b 2D drawing of Complete Assembly 21
3.3.1 Janatics Pneumatic Cylinder 23
3.3.2 Janatics Solenoid Valve 24
3.3.3 Microcontroller (P89V51RD2) Pin Diagram 25
3.3.4.a MAX232IC Pin Diagram 28
3.3.4.b MAX232IC Block Diagram 29
3.3.5.a ULN2003APG 31
3.3.5.b ULN2003APG Pin Connections 32
3.3.5.c ULN2003APG Schematics 32
3.3.6. Infrared Sensor Schematic 32
3.3.7 MCT2E Opto-coupler 33
4. Serial Port Pin Diagram 34
4.1 Serial Communications 35
5.1 Pneumatic Circuit 36
5.2 Electronics Circuit 37
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LIST OF TABLES:
Table No. Contents Pg. No.
2.2 Objectives of Project 13
3.2 Mechanical Properties, composition and
specifications of Cold rolled steel as per
IS 513: 22
3.3.3 Microcontroller Pin Description 26
3.3.4 MAX 232 Pin description 30
4. Serial Port Pin Description 35

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Abstract
An automatic can crusher is a product that fulfils customer needs. This project uses
many materials such as sheet metal, hollow steel bar and others. The pneumatic
system and a microcontroller make up the backbone for this project. Overall, this
project involves processes like design, fabrication and assembling procedures. Even
though there are many types of the can crusher machine in the market, the completion
of this new model provides a more practical usage.

A can crusher can be defined as A device used for crushing aluminum cans for easier
storage in recycling bins thereby giving you extra space by flattening of cans.

Pneumatics is a section of technology that deals with the study and application of
pressurized gas to produce mechanical motion.

In autonomous mode the pneumatic system, microcontroller and sensor system work
in unison to successfully crush the cans while in assistive mode, the pneumatic system
can be manually operated.

The project incorporates the study of pneumatic systems, Computer Aided Design
softwares and microcontroller.























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Acknowledgments
Our project has been a result of our own hard work but this project could not have
become a reality without the support and help of many of our friends and faculty
members. We take this opportunity to acknowledge their help and thank them for their
goodwill.
We would like to thank our Vice-Principal and Head of Department Prof. J. P. Patel
for his unwavering support and kind co-operation. He has been a great teacher and
true mentor to us throughout our degree.
We would also like to thank our project guide Prof. Nehul Thakkar for his support
and conceptual help at various technical problems. Weve had the opportunity of
being his students during three semesters and have learnt a great deal from him. The
very concept of the project as well as its realization would not have been possible
without him.
We would also like to acknowledge and thank Mr. Chirag Patel (B.R. Enterprise) for
his help in fabrication work of the project.
We would also like to thank Prof. J.P. Patel, Prof. N.J. Thakkar and Prof. K.J.
Patel for teaching us the challenging subjects like Pneumatic systems and
Microcontrollers.
Lastly we would like to thank all the faculty members of Mechatronics department
for their support throughout the year.
Apart from our faculty members weve also gained a lot of experience and expertise
from interacting with our classmates and friends. We would like to thank them all for
being with us in this journey and making it memorable.

Aman Baviskar (09MC03)
Vihar Doshi (09MC17)
Taher Parekh (09MC47)


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1. Introduction
This project consists of designing and fabrication of an automatic can crusher. In
order to reduce the waste, we planned to create a can crusher that will reduce the
volume of aluminum cans by eighty percent. Can crushers are primarily used to
save space and for recycling. It can be placed everywhere, in the park, restaurants,
canteens etc. This project needs skills, information and knowledge of Computer
Aided Design softwares like AutoCAD and Solidworks, use of laser cutting
machine, Truma Bend V Series(bending machine), shearing machine, vertical
bend saw, bench work and welding processes.

A can crusher can be defined as A device used for crushing aluminum cans for
easier storage in recycling bins thereby giving you extra space by flattening of
cans.

Different types of existing can crushers:



Manual single can crusher Manual multiple can crusher




Pneumatic single can crushers
Figure 1

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1.1 Project Synopsis:
Recycling is wonderful way to help the environment, even if you think otherwise
when you're hauling big, bulky bags crammed with empty cans to the curb. One
device that will make our life easier, and our recycling haul much more compact,
is the can crusher. Can crushers are available in a number of styles, sizes and
speed, with models to suit everyone from the heavy soda drinker to the recycling
center manager.
In this project, we have developed an automatic can crusher that can crush the tin
as flat and as symmetrically as possible before landing into the bin. The design is
environment friendly and uses simple mechanism and automation properties.
1.2 Problem Statement:
In today's times, most of the food items available in the market are canned. Cold
drinks and other beverages are also packed in cans. Commercial establishments
like cafeterias and bars, have to deal with these empty or leftover cans. Storage is
often a problem as these cans consume too much space, thereby increasing the
total volume of the trash. As canned beverages and foods are frequently consumed
even in homes, these cans can take up a lot of storage space. The transportation
cost is also high for moving such huge no of cans.
Even if people footstep on the tin after finishing their drink, the tin does not
always look symmetrically flat and it looks messy. This condition of the tin
sometimes leads to sharp edges that can harm or injure people.
Furthermore, people always throw the can here and there. These conditions lead to
polluting the environment and surroundings.
So this design is used to crush the can as flat as possible and try to reduce time,
volume, cost consumption, save fuel and eliminate sharp edges.
1.3 Scope of the project:
The main aim of a can crusher is to smash an empty aluminum can into the
smallest unit possible. Anyone who drinks a couple of sodas a week may never
see the need to compact the cans, but others who are heavy drinkers may find
these devices very helpful. Canteens, restaurants, bars, catering halls, cinema halls
and recycling plants are places where a can crusher is pretty much a must.

1.4 Requirements:
Design must have a continuous can feeding mechanism.
Only one can must be fed at a time for crushing.
Can must be in good condition when supplied to the device (i.e not dented,
twisted or pressed).
Device must be a standalone unit.
80% volume reduction must be achieved.
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Crushed aluminum can must immediately fall into the aluminum can bin
without human intervention.
Arrangement for the aluminum can to slide from hopper to the crushing area.
Must be completely automated using microcontroller and sensor system.
Compressed air for reciprocating of pneumatic cylinder.

1.5 Why to Recycle?
Aluminum doesnt occur naturally in the earths crust, it has to be extracted from
its ore bauxite which is mined and then smelted in a very energy-intensive
process. Although great care is taken to rebuild the land after mining, changes do
occur as a result of mining that are detrimental to the surrounding environment. It
takes 80-100 years for aluminum can to decompose.
Compared to mining and smelting, recycling aluminum drink cans is far less
energy intensive. Recycling aluminum requires only 5% of the energy and
produces only 5% of the CO2 emissions as compared with primary production. A
recycled aluminum can saves enough energy to run a television for three hours.
More than 100 billion aluminum cans are sold in the United states each year, but
less than half are recycled. A similar number of aluminum cans in other countries
are also incinerated. Aluminum cans are one of the easiest materials to recycle.
New drinks cans appear on the shelf just six weeks after recycling. A single
aluminum can is said to, when recycled, saves about as much as oil as would be
poured into it to fill up.










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2. Concept:
The design can be decomposed into different mechanisms according to the
functions i.e. crushing mechanism, slot disposal, retraction mechanism and
automatic feeding mechanism.
2.1 Can Crusher Calculations:
Can dimensions: 65mm diameter (32.5 mm in radius) and height 120mm.
Volume of an uncrushed can:
V = r
2
h
V = x 32.5
2
x 120
V=398196.86 mm
3
Volume of a crushed can:
V = r
2
h
V = x 32.5
2
x 20
V=66366.144 mm
3
Percentage reduction in volume= 88%
No of crushed cans that can be stored in the space occupied by an
uncrushed can=6.
Force required to crush a can:
Experimentally it is found that the force required to crush a can is about
2300N.
Bore diameter of our pneumatic cylinder = 60 mm (0.06m).
We know P=



P =
4 2300
0.06 (0.06)


= 813458.59 N/m
8 bar









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2.2 Objectives:
Table 2.2: Objectives





Performance Safety Appearance Inexpensive
Performance
Ease of
operation
Easy to use
Easy to start
Easy to stop
Easy to
maintain
Easy to
clean
Easy to
disassemble
Easy
accessible
interior
Convinience
Quick
Low loading
height
Operator
free
operation
Cans removed
automatically
Runs on
standard
power
supply
Efficiency
Low
vibrations
Utilizes
gravity
Stand-alone
unit
High Material
strength
Large capacity
Hoppper
Safety
Closed
crushing
area
Risk-free
Low noise
Virtually accident
free
No flying debris
Little or no heat
produced
No sharp corners
Wiring kept away
from moving parts
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Appearance
Appearance
pleasing to eye
Blends with
surrounding
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3. Design and construction:
3.1 Components design:
3.1.1 Pneumatic cylinder

Fig. 3.1.1.a


Fig. 3.1.1.b





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3.1.2 Can Basher and feed strip

Fig. 3.1.2.a


Fig 3.1.2.b





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3.1.3 Can placing area and guideway

Fig. 3.1.3.a



Fig. 3.1.3.b

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3.1.4 Foundation

Fig. 3.1.4.a


Fig. 3.1.4.b


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3.1.5 Hopper

Fig. 3.1.5.a


Fig 3.1.5.b


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3.1.6 Complete Assembly Design:



Fig. 3.1.6.a






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Fig. 3.1.6.b
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3.2. Material selection:
Factors considered for material selection:
Cost of the material
Weight of the material
Welding and forming ability of the material.
We have used mild steel sheets to build all the components. Mild steels used in
sheet metal work have low carbon content. They are commonly categorized as
either "hot rolled" or "cold rolled". Cold rolled steel sheets offer a variety of
outstanding properties, including easy formability, a smooth, clean surface,
material consistency, accuracy in thickness and are available in a wide variety of
thicknesses. One main advantage of cold rolled steel is the ease of resistance spot
welding. They are used in precision sheet metal applications, automobiles,
appliances, furniture, and many other everyday items.
Cold rolling increases the strength and hardness and decreases ductility of steel by
rolling it at ambient temperature (or below its recrystallization temperature). In
addition to improvement of mechanical properties, the cold rolling produces steel
sheet of the desired physical dimensions. Steel may be annealed subsequent to the
cold rolling process to restore the original mechanical attributes. Even with
multiple passes through rollers, cold rolling is more limited in its ability to effect
dimensional changes (versus hot rolling) because of the increased hardness and
decreased ductility.
Table 3.2
Mechanical Properties, composition and specifications of Cold rolled steel used as
per IS 513:
Chemical
composition
% (Max.)
Mechanical properties





3.3. Components Details:
Grade Process
requirement
C Mn S Ph Tensile
strength
Kgf/mm
2

%
Elongation
(Min.)
Yield
stress
Kgf/mm
2

Rockwell
B
Hardness
HRB
Drawing
D
Moderate
Bending,
forming &
welding

0.12

0.5


0.04

0.04

32-40

27

20

65
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3.3.1 Pneumatic Cylinder:
Pneumatic cylinders (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices
which use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating
linear motion. Pneumatic cylinders force a piston to move in the desired direction.
The piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops
to the object to be moved. Pneumatic cylinders are preferred because they are
quieter, cleaner, and do not require large amounts of space. Because the operating
fluid is a gas, leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out and contaminate
the surroundings, making pneumatics more desirable where cleanliness is a
requirement.

Janatics model no: A12063160O

Fig. 3.3.1
Specifications:
Type: Double acting
Maximum pressure: 10 bar
Stroke length: 160 mm
Bore diameter: 60 mm
3.3.2 Solenoid valve:
A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The valve is controlled
by an electric current through a solenoid. Their tasks are to shut off, release air.
They are found in many application areas. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching,
high reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the materials
used, low control power and compact design.




Janatics model no: DS255SR61
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Fig. 3.3.2

Specifications:
Type: 5/2 spring return
Operating voltage: 24 V
Pressure range: 2-10 bar
Power: 5 W

3.3.3. Microcontroller (P89V51RD2):
A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a
processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program
memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well
as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded
applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other
general purpose applications.

How Microcontroller works:-
The original task of a Microcontroller involved the interconnection of input signals
according to a specified program and, if "true", to switch the corresponding output.
Microcontroller will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for
an event such as a button press or other interrupt; power consumption while sleeping
(CPU clock and most peripherals off) maybe just nanowatts, making many of them
well suited for long lasting battery applications. In our Project, we are going to Control
a solenoid valve with the help of a microcontroller which will give a signal when the
sensor senses the can.








Features:
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o 80C51 Central Processing Unit
o 5 V Operating voltage from 0 to 40 MHz
o 64 kB of on-chip Flash program memory with ISP (In-System Programming)
and IAP (In-Application Programming)
o Supports 12-clock (default) or 6-clock mode selection via software or ISP
o SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) and enhanced UART
o PCA (Programmable Counter Array) with PWM and Capture/Compare
functions
o Four 8-bit I/O ports with three high-current Port 1 pins (16 mA each)
o Three 16-bit timers/counters
o Programmable Watchdog timer (WDT)
o Eight interrupt sources with four priority levels
o Second DPTR register
o Low EMI mode (ALE inhibit)
o TTL- and CMOS-compatible logic levels
Pin diagram:


Fig. 3.3.3

Table 3.3.3 Symbol Pin Type Description:
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SYMBOL TYPE DESCRIPTION
P0.0 to P0.7 I/O Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. Port 0
pins that have 1s written to them float, and in this state can be
used as high-impedance inputs .Port 0 is also the multiplexed low-
order address and data bus during accesses to external code and
data memory. In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups
when transitioning to 1s. Port 0 also receives the code bytes
during the external host mode programming, and outputs the code
bytes during the external host mode verification. External pull-ups
are required during program verification or as a general purpose
I/O port.
P1.0 to P1.7 I/O with
internal pull-up
Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-
ups. The Port 1 pins are pulled high by the internal pull-ups when
1s are written to them and can be used as inputs in this state. As
inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally pulled LOW will source
current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. P1.5, P1.6, P1.7 have
high current drive of 16 mA. Port 1 also receives the low-order
address bytes during the external host mode programming and
verification.
P1.0 I/O T2: External count input to Timer/Counter 2 or Clock-out from
Timer/Counter 2
P1.1 I T2EX: Timer/Counter 2 capture/reload trigger and direction
control
P1.2 I ECI: External clock input. This signal is the external clock input
for the PCA.
P1.3 CEX0: Capture/compare external I/O for PCA Module 0.Each
capture/compare module connects to a Port 1 pin for external I/O.
When not used by the PCA, this pin can handle standard I/O.
P1.4 I/O SS: Slave port select input for SPI
CEX1: Capture/compare external I/O for PCA Module 1
P1.5 I/O MOSI: Master Output Slave Input for SPI
CEX2: Capture/compare external I/O for PCA Module 2
P1.6 I/O MISO: Master Input Slave Output for SPI
CEX3: Capture/compare external I/O for PCA Module 3
P1.7 I/O SCK: Master Output Slave Input for SPI
CEX4: Capture/compare external I/O for PCA Module 4
P2.0 toP2.7 I/O with
internal pull-up
Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-
ups. Port 2 pins are pulled HIGH by the internal pull-ups when 1s
are written to them and can be used as inputs in this state.
P3.0 toP3.7 I/O with
internal pull-up
Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-
ups. Port 3 pins are pulled HIGH by the internal pull-ups when 1s
are written to them and can be used as inputs in this state.
P3.0 I RXD: serial input port
P3.1 O TXD: serial output port
P3.2 I INT0: external interrupt 0 input
P3.3 I INT1: external interrupt 1 input
P3.4 I T0: external count input to Timer/Counter 0
P3.5 I T1: external count input to Timer/Counter 1
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P3.6 O WR: external data memory write strobe
P3.7 O RD: external data memory read strobe
PSEN I/O Program Store Enable: PSEN is the read strobe for external
program memory. When the device is executing from internal
program memory, PSEN is inactive(HIGH). When the device is
executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated
twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are
skipped during each access to external data memory. A forced
HIGH-to-LOW input transition on the PSEN pin while the RST
input is continually held HIGH for more than 10 machine cycles
will cause the device to enter external host mode programming.
RST I Reset: While the oscillator is running, a HIGH logic state
on this pin for two machine cycles will reset the device. If the
PSEN pin is driven by a HIGH-to-LOW input transition while the
RST input pin is held HIGH, the device will enter the external host
mode, otherwise the device will enter the normal operation mode.
EA I External Access Enable: EA must be connected to VSS in order to
enable the device to fetch code from the external program memory.
EA must be strapped to VDD for internal program execution.
However, Security lock level 4 will disable EA, and program
execution is only possible from internal program memory. The EA
pin can tolerate a high voltage of 12 V.
ALE/PROG I/O Address Latch Enable: ALE is the output signal for latching the
low byte of the address during an access to external memory. This
pin is also the programming pulse input (PROG) for flash
programming. Normally the ALE is emitted at a constant rate of
16 the crystal
frequency and can be used for external timing and clocking. One
ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory.
However, if AO is set to 1,
NC I/O No Connect
XTAL1 I Crystal 1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the
internal clock generator circuits.
XTAL2 O Crystal 2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
V
DD
I Power supply
V
SS
I Ground


3.3.4. MAX232IC:
The MAX232 IC is used to convert the TTL/CMOS logic levels to RS232 logic levels
during serial communication of microcontrollers with PC. The controller operates at
TTL logic level (0-5V) whereas the serial communication in PC works on RS232
standards (-25 V to + 25V).



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Pin Diagram:











Fig. 3.3.4.a


The intermediate link is provided through MAX232. It is a dual driver/receiver that
includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply RS232 voltage levels from a single
5V supply. Its a 16pin IC which accepts logic level from PC & connects it to
microcontroller. Each receiver converts RS232 inputs to 5V TTL/CMOS levels. These
receivers (R
1
and R
2
) accept 30V inputs.





















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Block Diagram:
Fig. 3.3.4.b
& R ) can
1 2


The transmitters take input from controllers serial transmission pin and send the
output to RS232s receiver. The receivers, on the other hand, take input from
transmission pin of RS232serial port and give serial output to microcontrollers
receiver pin. MAX232 needs four external capacitors whose value ranges from 1F to
22F. Here, we have used capacitors of 10 F.

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Table 3.3.4: Pin Description:
Pin No Function

Name
1

Capacitor connection pins
Capacitor 1 +
2 Capacitor 3 +
3 Capacitor 1 -
4 Capacitor 2 +
5 Capacitor 2 -
6 Capacitor 4 +
7 Output pin; outputs the
serially transmitted data at
RS232 logic level; connected
to receiver pin of PC serial
port

T2 Out

8 Input pin; receives serially
transmitted data at RS 232
logic level; connected to
transmitter pin of PC serial
port.
R2 In

9 Output pin; outputs the
serially transmitted data at
TTL logic level; connected to
receiver pin of controller.
R2 Out

10 Input pins; receive the serial
data at TTL logic level;
connected to serial
transmitter pin of controller.
T2 In

11 T2 Out

12 Output pin; outputs the
serially transmitted data at
TTL logic level; connected to
receiver pin of controller.
R1 Out

13 Input pin; receives serially
transmitted data at RS 232
logic level; connected to
transmitter pin of PC serial
port
R1 In

14 Output pin; outputs the
serially transmitted data at
RS232 logic level; connected
to receiver pin of PC serial
port
T1 Out

15 Ground (0V) Ground

16 Supply voltage; 5V (4.5V
5.5V)
Vcc










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3.3.5. ULN2003APG:
The ULN2003APG/AFWG Series are high voltage, high current Darlington drivers
comprised of seven NPN Darlington pairs. All units feature integral clamp diodes for
switching inductive loads. Applications include relay, hammer, lamp and display
(LED) drivers.

Features:
Output current (single output): 500 mA max.
High sustaining voltage output: 50 V min.
Output clamp diodes.
Inputs compatible with various types of logic
Package Type-APG: DIP-16pin
Package Type-AFWG: SOL-16pin



Fig 3.3.5.a








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Fig. 3.3.5.b Fig. 3.3.5.c

3.3.6. Sensor:
Schematic:

Fig. 3.3.6

Description:
The LM2904, LM358/LM358A, LM258/LM258A consist of two independent, high
gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed
specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltage.
Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current
drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. Application areas
include transducer amplifier, DC gain blocks and all the conventional OP-AMP
circuits which now can be easily implemented in single power supply systems.






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3.3.7 MCT2E: Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output

Fig. 3.3.7
Description:
In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical
isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits
by using light. Opto-isolators prevent high voltages from affecting the system
receiving the signal. Commercially available opto-isolators withstand input-to-output
voltages up to 10 kV and voltage transients with speeds up to 10 kV/s. A common
type of opto-isolator consists of an LED and a phototransistor in the same package.
Opto-isolators are usually used for transmission of digital (on/off) signals, but some
techniques allow use with analog (proportional) signals.

3.3.8. Hopper:
This is a component that stores bulk of cans. It is tapered in shape. An opening is
provided at the bottom. Hopper needs to be vibrated in order to facilitate cans to fall
on the guideway via the opening.

3.3.9. Guideway:
This is a channel shaped component which enables the can to slide under gravity. It is
placed at an angle of 40 degrees with respect to ground. It is placed in such a way that
the can falls exactly in the crushing area.

3.3.10. Can basher and feed strip:
Can basher is a strong rigid stepped cylindrical shaped that crushes the can by
pressing it against the opposite face of M.S. plate.
Feed strip is attached to the can basher in order to feed only one can at a time in the
crushing area.









Automatic Can Crusher

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4. Serial Communication:
Serial communication is used to transfer data to a device located many meters
away. In serial communication single data line is used to transfer data instead of
8-bit data line. The fact that serial communication uses a single data line instead
of 8 bit data lines of parallel communication not only makes it much cheaper but
also enables computer located in two different cities to communicate over the
telephone.

For serial data communication to work, the byte of data must be converted to
serial bit using a parallel-in-serial-out shift register, that it can be transmitted over
a single data line. This also means that at the receiving end there must be a serial-
in-parallel-out shift register to receive the data and pack them into a byte. Of
course if a data is to be transferred on a telephone line, it must be converted from
0s and 1s to audio terms, which are sinusoidal shaped signals. This conversion is
performed by a periphery devise called a modem, which stands for a
modulator/demodulator.

Serial data communication used two methods, asynchronous and synchronous.
The synchronous method transfers a block of data (characters) at a time, while
asynchronous method transfer a single byte at a time. There are special IC chips
made by many manufactures for serial communication. These chips are commonly
referred to as UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) and USART
(Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter). 8051 chip has a
built in UART.












Fig. 4 Serial Port Pin Diagram

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Table 4: Pin Description




















4.1. Serial Communication between Computer and P89V51RD2:

To allow compatibility among data communication equipment made by various
manufactures, and interfacing standard called RS232 is used. As input and output
voltage levels of RS232 is not TTL compatible a line driver such as the MAX232
chip to convert RS232 voltages to TTL levels, and vice versa. One advantage of
the MAX232 chip is that it uses a +5 V power source which is the same as the
source voltage for the 8051.
The 8051 has two pins that are used specifically for transferring data serially.
These two pins are called TxD and RxD and are part of the port 3 group (P3.0 and
P3.1). Pin 11 of the 8051 is assigned to TxD and pin 10 is designated as RxD. The
T1in pin (11) is the TTL side and is connected to TxD of the microcontroller,
while T1out (14) is the Rs232 side that is connected to the RxD pin of Rs232 DB
connector. The R1IN (13) is the RS232 side that is connected to the TxD pin of
the RS232 DB connector, and R1out (12) is the TTL side that is connected to the
RxD pin of the microcontroller.





Fig. 4.1
Automatic Can Crusher

36
5. Circuit Diagram:

5.1. Pneumatic circuit:





Fig. 5.1










Automatic Can Crusher

37


5.2 Electrical circuit:


Fig. 5.2
Automatic Can Crusher

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5.3 Program

//Header Files for P89V51RX2 MCU's
#include <P89V51Rx2.H>
#include<stdio.h>
sbit signal= P1^0;
sbit solenoid= P2^0;
//Loop for Initializing Serial Communication
void init_serial()
{
SCON = 0x50; //SCON BIT Configuration
//Bit 7 = 0 <--SM0 Mode 1 for UART
//Bit 6 = 1 <--SM1 8-Bit UART mode
//Bit 5 = 0 <--Multi Processor Communication Disabled
//Bit 4 = 0 <--Disabled Serial Reception
//Bit 3 = 0 <--Used only for Transmission in MODE 2 and 3
//Bit 2 = 0 <--Used only for Reception in MODE 2 and 3
//Bit 1 = 1 <--Transmit Interrupt Flag Enabled
//Bit 0 = 0 <--Receive Interrupt Flag Disabled
T2CON = 0x30; //T2CON BIT Configuration
//Bit 7 = 0 <--Timer 2 OverFlag Disabled
//Bit 6 = 0 <--Timer 2 External Flag Disabled
//Bit 5 = 1 <--RCLK Receive Clock Flag Enabled
//Bit 4 = 1 <--TCLK Transmit Clock Flag Enabled
//Bit 3 = 0 <--Timer 2 External Enable Flag Disabled
//Bit 2 = 1 <--Starts Timer 2 to run
//Bit 1 = 0 <--Internal Timer is selected
//Bit 0 = 0 <--Capture/Reload Flag Disabled
T2MOD = 0x00; //T2MOD BIT Configuration
//Bit 7 to 2 <--Reserved for Future purposes set to 0
Automatic Can Crusher

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//Bit 1 = 0 <--Timer 2 Output Enable
//Bit 0 = 0 <--Down Counter Enable Flag Disabled
RCAP2H = 0xFF;
RCAP2L = 0xBF; //Baud Rate of 9.6kBs
TR2 = 1;
TI = 1;
}
//Loop For Producing Delay in the Program
void Delay_ms(int time) //This function produces a delay in msec.
{
int i,j;
for(i=0;i<time;i++)
for(j=0;j<1275;j++);
}
// Main Program
void main()
{
signal=1;
init_serial(); //Initialize Serial Communication
printf("\nstart !\n"); //Print "start" on the PC
Delay_ms(10); //Delay For 10ms
while(1)
{
if(signal==1)
{
solenoid=1;
printf("\nsolenoid on");
Delay_ms(500);
solenoid=0;
printf("\nsolenoid off");
Delay_ms(500);
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}
}
}




























Automatic Can Crusher

41
6. Working
A bulk of cans is put into the hopper. The opening provided at the bottom of the
hopper facilitates cans to fall one after the other on the guideway.
The guideway which is kept at an angle enables the cans to slide down under
gravity.
The feeding strip which is attached to the can basher allows feeding of only one
can at a time into the can placing area.
Once, the can appears in front of the can basher, the IR sensor which is interfaced
with the microcontroller senses the can.
After receiving the input, from the sensor the microcontroller provides 5 volt
output. This 5 volt output is then given to ULN through an opto-coupler.
A 24v DC is given to common pin of ULN IC. A 24 volt relay is used to operate
solenoid valve.
When input is given to ULN, relay is operated and 24 volt is given to solenoid
valve.
The single acting spring return 5/2 solenoid operated direction control valve is then
operated.
This enables the pressurized air to pass through and the cylinder extracts to
complete the forward stroke.
The can basher attached to the piston rod of the cylinder crushes the can by
pressing it against the opposite M.S. plate.
The crushed can falls under gravity into the bin via the opening provided below the
crushed can.









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Flowchart:

























Step 1
Cans are put in the
hopper
Step 2
Guideway guides the
can onto the crushing
area
Step 3
Can is sensed by the IR
sensor
Step 4
Solenoid valve activates
and the cylinder starts
the forward stroke
Step 5
Can gets crushed
Step 6
Crushed can falls in the
bin
Automatic Can Crusher

43
7. Future Scope:
This project has various futuristic technologies which are still under R&D and hence
itll surely have use in the near future. Much work in the project is constrained
because of lack of essential resources and their high-cost.
With an Industrial grade camera this system can become more robust.
Image processing is a cheap and comparatively more robust option for
environmental sensing for an AGV. It needs to be experimented with to understand
its true potential.
Crushing multiple cans with the help of a strong, rigid and larger can basher.
Developing code and hardware to calculate number of cans crushed.
Providing red light to indicate crushing mechanism in operation.
Yellow light to indicate improper use of machine.
Crushing plastic bottles can also be thought of.
Adjustable mechanism to accommodate varying can and bottle sizes.

8. Conclusion:
In our project we carried out the study of the current can crushers and the various
mechanisms employed. We also successfully implemented some of the technological
aspects. Overall the project was very enriching in terms of technical fabrication and
design process along with electronics knowledge. The knowledge gained while
solving and understanding the complexities of our project would help us in our
professional life.
9. References:
http://myzerowaste.com/articles/food/why-recycle-tins-and-cans/
http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-electro-pneumatic-cancrusher.
http://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=can%20crusher%20project%20report
&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&ved=0CFEQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcancrus
her2011.wikispaces.com%2Ffile%2Fview%2FPowerpoint.ppt%2F228354074%2F
Powerpoint.ppt&ei=AHZzUcXELIiQrQfM6AE&usg=AFQjCNFc5mvVkahFMrV
OL13UByMyg7s2Lw&bvm=bv.45512109,d.bmk
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=4EQAK2eLxLgC&pg=PA110&lpg=PA110&dq=automat
ic+feed+mechanism+for+can+crusher&source=bl&ots=sy0r-
7cKjA&sig=wb_HiCx3AcdEI0Jy-
BTLzAxQ5Ko&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eyVVUcKjGMm8rAeDyYDwCQ&sqi=2&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBA
#v=onepage&q=automatic%20feed%20mechanism%20for%20can%20crusher&f=false
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fM1mRDtxxdsC&pg=PA121&lpg=PA121&dq=automa
tic+feed+mechanism+for+can+crusher&source=bl&ots=9LitlWjhKk&sig=lg5LXh5fIYWBW4
GPOEVeGS-
Dxfs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eyVVUcKjGMm8rAeDyYDwCQ&sqi=2&ved=0CEsQ6AEwAg#v=onep
age&q=automatic%20feed%20mechanism%20for%20can%20crusher&f=false
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium_recycling
http://www.tmaintl.com/cold-rolled-steel-sheets.html
Design Data Book PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore