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CES EduPack

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USERS MANUAL
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Permission to Reprint, Acknowledgements,


References
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1.1 Read this First!
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2.3 Registering Your Copy of CES EduPack


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12

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4.1 The EduPack Materials Data Tables for
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15

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16

CES EduPack Users Manual

4.2 The EduPack Process Data Tables for


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Chapter 4 CES EduPack Databases

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CES EduPack Users Manual

4.2.3 Contents of the Surface Treatment Data Table


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Chapter 4 CES EduPack Databases

19

4.3 Use of the Database


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~= ~= = = ~~= = ~= NP= = ~=
= K= Eq= ~= = ~= = = = =
i=P= ~~~FK= b~= = = ~= = ~= =
==~====~~=K=
=

5 Getting Started with CES EduPack


q===
~=~=~==~====
`bp=bm~=
~K= q= = `bp=e= = = = ~=
==~=~K=^======~~~=
=~==K~~KK=

5.1 Thumbnail Sketch of CES EduPack


q=`bp=bm~=~=~==i==a~~~=~===
q~=QJNK= ^= ~= i= = ~= ~= = = a~~= q~K= q=
= ~= ~W= j~~I= p~= mI= g=
mI=~=p~=q~K=
b~=====~==~==
_oltpfkd= b==~~~= ~===~=
~=~~=K=
pb^o`efkd= c= ~= ~= ~= J= ~= =
K=
pbib`qflk= r= = = = = = = =
~==~=~~===~K=
`bp= bm~= = ~= = ~= K= _= = = = = =
~K=
=

22

CES EduPack Users Manual

5.2 Browsing and Searching


q=abc^riq==~=
j^qbof^ip=rkfsbopb=

`bp=bm~=i=N=C=O==ibsbi=NI=

Exercise 1 Browse Materials


File E Edit V View S Select T Tools W Window

Browse
Table:

Search

Select

MaterialUniverse
MaterialUniverse
MaterialUniverse

Subset: Edu
EduLevel
Level111
Edu
Level
MaterialUniverse

Ceramics and glasses

Hybrids: composites etc

Metals and alloys

Polymers and elastomers

=
=
c===pq^fkibpp=pqbbi=
c===`lk`obqb=
c===mlivmolmvibkb=
b=mlivmolmvibkb==~=ibsbi=O=
c= mol`bppbp= ~= ~= ~= mlivmolmvibkb= = =
ifkh=~======

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

23

Exercise 2 Browse Processes


Browse
Table:

Search

Select

ProcessUniverse
ProcessUniverse
ProcessUniverse

Subset: Edu
EduLevel
Level222
Edu
Level
ProcessUniverse

Joining

Shaping

Surface treatment

=
=
_=mrW=ibsbi=OI=^ii=mol`bppbp=
c===fkgb`qflk=jliafkd=
c===i^pbo=proc^`b=e^oabkfkd=
c===cof`qflk=tbiafkd=Ejbq^ipF=

c=j^qbof^ip=~=~==afb= `^pqI===ifkh= ~==


=====afb=`^pqfkd=

24

CES EduPack Users Manual

Exercise 3 The Search Facility


Browse

Find what:

Search

Select

Polylactide

Look in table: MaterialUniverse

=
c==~~=mlivi^`qfab=
c=~~==`rqqfkd=qllip=
c===oqj=
=
Em~==~=~~==~=~===~==F=

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

25

m~==~===~=~~W==
Polypropylene (PP) (CH2-CH(CH3))n
Polypropylene, PP, first produced commercially in 1958, is the
younger brother of polyethylene - a very similar molecule with
similar price, processing methods and application. Like PE it
is produced in very large quantities (more than 30 million tons
per year in 2000), growing at nearly 10% per year, and like PE
its molecule-lengths and side-branches can be tailored by
clever catalysis, giving precise control of impact strength, and
of the properties that influence molding and drawing. In its
pure form polypropylene is flammable and degrades in
sunlight. Fire retardants make it slow to burn and stabilizers
give it extreme stability, both to UV radiation and to fresh and
salt water and most aqueous solutions.

General properties
Density
Price
Mechanical
properties
Young's Modulus
Shear Modulus
Bulk modulus
Poisson's Ratio
Hardness - Vickers
Elastic Limit
Tensile Stre ngth
Compressive Strength
Elongation
Endurance Limit
Fracture Toughness
Loss Coefficient

Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Thermal Conductivity
0.113 Thermal Expansion
122.4 Specific Heat
1870 Melting Point
149.9 Glass Temperature
-25.15 Maximum Service Temperature
82.85 Minimum Service Temperature
-123.2 -

0.89

0.91

Mg/m 3

1.102

1.61

USD/kg

0.896
0.31
2.5
0.40
6.2
20.7
27.6
25.1

1.55
0.54
2.6
0.42
11.2
37.2
41.4
55.2

GPa
GPa
GPa
HV
MPa
MPa
MPa

Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Resistivity
3.3e22 - 3e23

ohm.cm

100
11.0
3
0.025

600
16.5
4.5
0.044

%
MPa
MPa.m1/2

Dielectric Constant
Power Factor
Breakdown Potential

1000000*V /m

2.2
5e-4
22.7

0.167
180
1956
174.9
-15.15
106.9
-73.15

2.3
7e-4
24.6

W/m.K
strain/K
J/kg.K
C
C
C
C

_
Design guidelines
Standard grade PP is inexpensive, light and ductile but it has low strength. It is more rigid than PE
and can be used at higher temperatures. The properties of PP are similar to those of HDPE but it
Re
is stiffer and melts at a higher temperature (165 - 170 C). Stiffness and strength can be improved
further by reinforcing with glass, chalk or talc.When drawn to fiber PP has exceptional strength and
resilience; this, together with its resistance to water, makes it attractive for ropes and fabric. It is
more easily molded than PE, has good transparency and can accept a wider, more vivid range of
colors. PP is commonly produced as sheet, moldings fibers or it can be foamed. Advances in catalysis promise new
co-polymers of PP with more attractive combinations of toughness, stability and ease of processing. Monofilaments
fibers have high abrasion resistance and are almost twice as strong as PE fibers. Multi-filament yarn or rope does not
absorb water, will float on water and dyes easily.
Technical notes
The many different grades of polypropylene fall into three basic groups: homopolymers (polypropylene, with a
range of molecular weights and thus properties), co-polymers (made by co-Polymerization of propylene with other
olefines such as ethylene, butylene or styrene) and composites (polypropylene reinforced with mica, talc, glass powder
or fibers) that are stiffer and better able to resist heat than simple polypropylenes.
Typical uses
Ropes, general polymer engineering, automobile air ducting, parcel shelving and air-cleaners, garden furniture,
washing machine tank, wet-cell battery cases, pipes and pipe fittings, beer bottle crates, chair shells, capacitor
dielectrics, cable insulation, kitchen kettles, car bumpers, shatter proof glasses, crates, suitcases, artificial turf.

26

CES EduPack Users Manual

m~==~===~=W===

Injection molding
No other process has changed product design more than injection
ldi
Injection
molded products appear in every sector of product
co nisumer products, business, industrial, computers,
medical andiresearch products, toys, cosmetic packaging and
equipment. The most common equipment for molding thermoplastics is
r eciprocating screw machine, shown schematically in the figure.
gralnules are fed into a spiral press where they mix and soften to a
lke chionsistency that can be forced through one or more channels
in
to the'd ie. The polymer solidifies under pressure and the component
then ejected.
Thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers can all be injection molded.
injection allows molding of components with different materials, colors
fe a tures. Injection foam molding allows economical production of
m olded components by using inert gas or chemical blowing agents to
co mponents that have a solid skin and a cellular inner
k
Physical Attributes
Mass range
0.01 - 25 kg
Shape
Range of section thickness
0.4 - 6.3 mm
Circular Prismatic
Non-circular Prismatic
Tolerance
0.2 - 1
mm
Surface
roughness (A=v. smooth) 0.2 - 1.6 m
Roughness
Solid 3-D
A
Hollow 3-D
Economic Attributes
Economic batch size (units)
Relative tooling cost
Relative equipment cost
Labor intensity

True
True
True
True

1e4 - 1e6
ve ry high
high
low

Design guidelines
Injection molding is the best way to mass-produce small, precise, polymer components with complex shapes.
h surface finish is good; texture and pattern can be easily altered in the tool, and fine detail reproduces
Declorative labels can be molded onto the surface of the component (see In-mould Decoration). The only
oiperai tion is the removal of the sprue.
Technical notes
Most thermoplastics can be injection molded, although those with high melting temperatures (e.g. PTFE)
difficult. Thermoplastic based composites (short fiber and particulate filled) can be processed providing the
lill oading is not too large. Large changes in section area are not recommended. Small re-entrant angles and
shape s are possible, though some features (e.g. undercuts, screw threads, inserts) may result in increased
cos ti s. The process may also be used with thermosets and elastomers. The most common equipment for
the rmi oplastics is the reciprocating screw machine, shown schematically in the figure. Polymer granules are
into a spiral press where they mix and soften to a dough-like consistency that can be forced through one or
channels ('sprues') into the die. The polymer solidifies under pressure and the component is then
j
d
Typical uses
Extremely varied. Housings, containers, covers, knobs, tool handles, plumbing fittings, lenses,
The economics
Capital cost are medium to high, tooling costs are usually high - making injection molding economic only for b atch
sizes. Production rate can be high particularly for small moldings. Multi-cavity moulds are often
Pro t otype moldings can be made using single cavity moulds of cheaper
il

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

27

5.3 Property Charts


Exercise 4 Making Property Charts
Browse

Search

Select

1. Selection data
Edu
Level
Edu
Edu
Level
Level2:
2:
2:Materials
Materials
Materials
2. Selection Stages
Graph

Limit

Tree

X-axis

Y-axis

List of properties
Density
Yield strength
Youngs modulus
etc.

p=j~~rW=ibsbi=OI=j^qbof^ip=

j~=~=_^o=`e^oq==vlrkdp=jlarirp=EbF=
Ep=J~==v=X=~=J~=~=Yk[F=
=
=
=

28

CES EduPack Users Manual

E`= = ~= = ~~= = ~= X= J= = = = =
===a~~=q~F=
=

j~= ~= _r__ib= `e^oq==vlrkdp=jlarirp=EbF= ~~=


abkpfqv=E F=

Ep==J~=~=J~X==~==~=J=F=
Ej~~=~==~=~====~=~====~X=
=abi===~=~F=
=

=
=
=
abibqb=qeb=pq^db=
Eo===~==p=p~=~==aF=

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

29

5.4 Selection using a Limit Stage


Exercise 5 Selection with a Limit Stage
Browse

Search

Select

Print

Search web

1. Selection data

A Limit stage

Edu
Level 2:
Materials
Edu
EduLevel
Level2:2:Materials
Materials

Mechanical properties

2. Selection Stages
Graph

Limit

Thermal properties

Tree

Min.

Maximum service temperature


Thermal conductivity

Results

Ranking

2230

113

Material 2
Material 3

2100
1950

300
5.6

Material 4

1876

47

25

Specific heat

Prop 1 P Prop
2 2
X out of 95 pass
Prop

Material 1

Max

200

C
W/m.K
J/kg .K

Electrical properties
Electrical conductor
or insulator?

Good conductor
Poor conductor
Semiconductor
Poor insulator
Good insulator

etc...

=
c=~~===
j^uK=pbosf`b=qbjmbo^qrob=

[=OMM=`=

qeboj^i=`lkar`qfsfqv=

[=OR=tLK=

bib`qof`^i=`lkar`qlo=
lo=fkpri^qlo\=

Z=dlla=fkpri^qlo=

Eb======~= ~=~~== ~== ^F=


Eo=~=i=N==OW=~=I=~~I==F= abibqb=qeb=pq^db=

30

CES EduPack Users Manual

5.5 Graph Selection


Exercise 6 Selection with a Graph Stage
Browse

Search

Select

Print

Search web

1. Selection data
Bar chart

Edu
Level
2:
Materials
Edu
Level
Materials
Edu
Level
2:2:
Materials

Box
selection

2. Selection Stages
Graph

Results

Limit

Ranking

Prop 1 P Prop
2 2
X out of 95 pass
Prop

Material 1

2230

113

Material 2

2100

300

Material 3

1950

5.6

Material 4

1876

47

Tree

Bubble chart
Line
selection

etc...

Density

j~= ~= _^o= `e^oq= = vfbia= pqobkdqe= E y F= E= = J


~F=
r=~=_lu=pbib`qflk=
===~~===~==
~==E=F=
E`===I==J~J~====F=
=

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

31

=
Selection box

Selection line,
slope 1

=
^I====~I=abkpfqv=E

F=

EbW= = p~= N= = p= p~I= J= ~= =


b=p~===X==J==~=~==F=
=

r=~=_lu=pbib`qflk===~~====~=
==

32

CES EduPack Users Manual

o~==_lu==~=ifkb=pbib`qflk=
==~====I=

y /

===~~=
=

E`==~==I===W=N===~K=
`===~==

=======~=~~=K=

`= ~===== =
= === ~= ~~W= ~====
=~== y / ===~ K==
k===== =
=~~KF=

= = ~=~=~I======

Selection line,
slope 1

=
Eo= ~= i= N= = OW=
j~=~F=
=
abibqb=qeb=pq^db=

`com= EFI= q~= ~I=

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

33

5.6 Tree Selection


Exercise 7 Selection with a Tree Stage
Browse

Search

Select

Print

1. Selection data

Search web
Tree stage for material

Edu Level
2: Materials
Edu
Edu Level
Level 2:
2: Materials
Materials

Ceramics

Steels

2. Selection Stages
Graph

Limit

Tree

Material

Results

Hybrids

Al alloys

Metals

Cu alloys

Polymers

Ni alloys...

Tree stage for process

X out of 95 pass

Cast

Material 1
Join

Material 2
Material 3
Material 4

Process

Shape
Surface

etc...

Deform
Mold
Composite
Powder
Prototype

=
c=j^qbof^ip=~=~==jliaba=
Ef=q=p~=I==mrI=~=
=I==jI=~==fI==lhF=

p~==

abibqb=qeb=pq^db=
c=mol`bppbp===pqbbip=
Ec=~=p=a~~===mW=ibsbi=OI=glfkfkd= mol`bppbpF=
EqI==q=p~=I==j~~rI=~=j~=
~=~===I==cI=~==fI==lhF=
abibqb=qeb=pq^db=
=

34

CES EduPack Users Manual

5.7 Getting It All Together


Exercise 8 Using All 3 Stages Together
Browse

Select

Search

Print

Search web
Stacked stages

1. Selection data
Edu
Level
2:
Materials
Edu
Level
Materials
Edu
Level
2:2:
Materials

Cast

2. Selection Stages
Graph

Limit

Process

Tree

Density
Strength

Ranking

2230

113

Material 2

2100

300

Material 3

1950

5.6

T-conduction

etc...

=
`~=p=a~~===j~~W=
p=ibsbi=OI=j^qbof^ip=
=
c=j^qbof^ip=====
abkpfqv=

Y=OMMM=LP=

pqobkdqe=Eb~=F=

[=SM=jm~=

qeboj^i=`lkar`qfsfqv=

Y=NM=tLKh=

EP===~=i=p~F=

Min

Mold
Composite
Powder
Prototype
Max

2000

Modulus

Prop 1 P Prop
2 2
X out of 95 pass
Prop

Material 1

Deform

Surface

Intersection of all 3 stages


Results

Join
Shape

60
10

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

35

=
`~==jliaba=
E~=q=p~W=mr==p~==jF=
=
o~====mof`b=
E~=d~=p~W==~=~==mF=
El==~=d~=p~I=
~=~~=~=~====~=
~= ~JX= ~= = ~= ~~I= = ~= ~= ~K=
q=obpriqp====~~=~=~=~==~KF=
EoI=~=W=mbqI=bI=mjj^I=F=
=
=
=
=
=
Exercise 9 Finding Supporting Information
Eo=f=F=
t==mbq==I===pb^o`e=tb_=
E`bp=~~==~~=fa===~==
~===
J~=~~=~==~==~===
K=p====
~==
~I===
~=J
~=~K=q=^pj===~~=KF=
=
`ilpb=qeb=a^q^pebbq=

36

CES EduPack Users Manual

5.8 Process Selection


Exercise 10 Selecting Processes
Browse

Search

Select

Print

Search web

1. Selection data
Edu
Level
2:
Edu
Level
Processes-- Shaping
-Shaping
Shaping
Edu
Level
2:2:Processes
Processes

2. Selection Stages
Graph

Limit

Tree

Shape
Dished sheet

Physical attributes

Ceramics

10
Section thickness
4
Process characteristics
Mass

Primary shaping

Material
12
4

Hybrids
Metals
Polymers

Thermoplastics
Thermosets

Economic attributes
Economic batch size
1000

`~=p=a~~===mW=
p=ibsbi=OI=pe^mfkd=mol`bppbp=
c=mofj^ov=pe^mfkd=mol`bppbp==~=~===
pe^mb=

Z=a==

j^pp==

Z=NM==NO==

pb`qflk=qef`hkbpp==

Z=Q==

b`lkljf`=_^q`e=pfwb==

[=NMMM=

ER===~=i=p~F=

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

37

=
j~==~=qebojlmi^pqf`=
E~= q= p~W= j~~r= = m=
m==q~F=

~= ~= =

EoW= ~~= = I= ~~= I= F=

38

CES EduPack Users Manual

5.9 Saving, Copying, and Report Writing


Exercise 11 Saving Selection Stages as a Project
File

Edit V View e etc

Open Project
Save Project
Print

=
=
p^sb====~= ~==~= ~===t=E== ~=
~= ~= = ~X= `bp= = = ~= =
=KF=
=

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

39

Exercise 12 Copying CES Output into a Document


File

Edit V View e etc


Cut
Copy

C Clipib
oardoard
Clipibboard
board

Paste

Word
processor

=
`~I= o= ~= o= = ~= = = E`qoiJ`F= ~=
~=E`qoiJsF==~===~~=
a~= ~= ~I= = = I= = `lmv= ~= m^pqb= = = ~=
==

a==~==~~===o===~=
=~~I====~~I==`lmv=~=m^pqb==

`===o=I==`lmv=~=m^pqb==
q====
Eq= ~~= = b= P= ~= = = ~= = b= Q=
~=S==~===~KF=
=
Et~W= q= = ~= = = tloa= OMMMW= = ~= = = = = =
~= = = K= q= = = = =
==~=~=~==~~===tloa==
~=~=absf`b=fkabmbkabkq=_fqj^mKF=
=

40

CES EduPack Users Manual

5.10 Eco Audit


q=b= ^=q=~~==== ~= `l O ==
= = = = ~= = ~= = E~~I= ~~I=
~I=I=~===F=~=====~=
~K=q===~===J~~==I=
~==
==~~====~====J
===K=
Exercise 13 Eco Audit Project
^= ~= = = ~= ~= = = = N= = mbq=
===~K= ^===QM=~X= =
~= N=~K= _= ~= ~= ~= I= I= ~= ~=
RRM== = = c= ^= = b~= =
NQ==I=~==O=~=
~=
=K=q=
~=======~K=
File

Edit V View S Select T Tools W Window


Eco Audit

=
=
m=a=
Eco Audit Project
Product Definition

New

O Open

S Save

Product name: PET Bottle

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

41

NK=j~~I=~~I=~====
_==~~I=~==I=~====
Quantity C Component name M Material

Bottle

PET

MaterialUniverse
Ceramics and glasses

Recycle content

Primary process

0%

Molding

0%

Molding

100%

Extrusion

M Mass (kg) E End of life

0.04

Recycle
Landfill
Combust

Hybrids: composites etc

Downcycle

Metals and alloys

Recycle

Polymers and elastomers

Re-engineer

Elastomers

Reuse

Polymers
Thermoplastics
PET

Cap

Water

PP

0%

Molding

0.001

Recycle

=
OK=q~=
q~~====~~====~=
Stage name

Bottling plant to point of sale

Transport type

14 tonne truck

Distance (km)

550

Sea freight
Rail freight
14 tonne truck
Air freight long haul

42

CES EduPack Users Manual

PK=r=
m==~=~===
Product life:

years

Country electricity mix: United Kingdom


France
Germany
United Kingdom

=
p~==
b===~==
~===~=E~~==
==~=N==~=Q`=Z=N=tF=

Product uses the following energy:

Energy input and output: Electric to mechanical (electric motors)


Power rating:

Usage:

days per year

Usage:

24

hours per day

Fossil fuel to thermal, enclosed system


Fossil fuel to electric
Electric to thermal
Electric to mechanical (electric motors)

Chapter 5 Getting Started with CES EduPack

43

QK=o= View Report


b=~=`~=c=p~W=

=
Energy (MJ)

Energy (%)

CO2 (kg)

CO2 (%)

Material

3.44

72.5

0.0958

50.9

Manufacture

0.402

8.5

0.0322

17.1

Transport

0.487

10.3

0.0344

18.3

Use

0.386

8.1

0.0241

12.8

End of life (collection & sorting)

0.0287

0.6

0.00172

0.9

4.75

100

0.188

100

End of life (potential saving/burden)

-2

-42.1

-0.0555

-29.5

Total (including end of life saving/burden)

2.75

Phase

Total

0.133

=
=
EoW=j~~===~==~=
=c===
= = ~L= ~= = = = = J= =
F=
`~= = b= = = = = `= ~= = =
=~======b=C=`l O

44

CES EduPack Users Manual

Exercise 14 Saving Eco Audit Product Definition


b= ~=====~==
==~=~~K=

~===

~==

Eco Audit Project


Product Definition

New

O Open
OpenS Save
Save
Save
Save As

p^sb=====E== ~=~= ~==


~X=`bp=b=^===~===KF=
=
Exercise 15 Saving/Exporting Eco Audit Report
4. Report

View Report

Eco Audit Project


Report

Print

Export
Excel
Acrobat (PDF) file

=
dbkbo^qb===~==
bumloq===~==~=~=mac=
EkW=v===j=b==~=mac=~==~=^=
o~======~=F=
=

APPENDICES

Appendix A Toolbars
CES EduPack
Browse the
database
tree

Select entities
using design
criteria

Search for
text in the
database

Search for
information on
the Web

Print contents of
the active
window

Open
CES Help

c=^NK= q=p~~=~==`bp=bm~=
Zoom Un-zoom
Add text
Cancel
selection
Box selection
tool
Line selection
tool

Add envelopes
Black and white
chart
Grey failed
materials
Hide failed
materials

=
c=^OK= q=d~=p~=~==`bp=bm~=
=

Appendix B General Information


File Types
Projects
GK=

d~~=a~~~==

GK=

`bp=bm~=m==EF=

GK=

p=q~==

GK=

b=^=m=a==

Currency File
K=
=

Appendix B General Information

49

Options for Preferred Currency and Units


=
=

a~~~=l=

p==

m=`=

m=r=p=

Y^~[=

q=o~=p==
=~===
=====~~K=
q=~===
=~=^~=
KK=Y^~=J=d_m[K=

q=o~=p==

a~~==~===
====~~~K=
`=~~==~=
==~=`=
E=a~~~=m=
~FK=

a~~==~===
====~~~K=
^=~~==~=
=====
~==E=
q~=m=~FK=

Yk[=

k~=p= k~=====
~=~~=KK=rp=a~=
ErpaFK=

=~====
=====~~K=
q=~===
=~=^~=
KK=Y^~=J=j[K=

k~======
~=~~=KK=jK=

Appendix C Conversion of Units


Physical constants and conversion of units
=

^==~=

JOTPKO`=

^~===~I==

VKUMTLO

^~=I=k^

SKMOO==NMOP

_~==~~=~I==

OKTNU=

_~=~I==

NKPUN==NMJOP=gLh=

c~~~=~==

VKSQU==NMQ=`L=

d~=~I= R =

UKPNQ=gLLh=

m~=~I==

SKSOS==NMJPQ=gL=

s====~I==

OKVVU==NMU=L=

s===~=~=pqm=

OOKQN==NMJP=PL=

Appendix C Conversion of Units


^I==

N=~=

aI==

N=L

a=`I=a=

NPL=

NKM==NMJQOL=

bI=r=

p==

cI=c=

N==

VKUMT=k=

N==

QKQQU=k=

N==

NKM==NMJRk=

N==

PMQKU==

iI= =

j~I=j=

RTKPM
NSKMP=LP

N==

ORKQM==

N=

MKN==

N==

NMMM==

N===

VMU==

N===

NNMT==

N==~=

MKQRQ==

mI=m=

p==

pI==

p==

p=e~I=`

N=~L~K `=

QKNUU=gLK`=

_LK c=

QKNUT=LK`=

p=fI=hN

N===

NKNM=jkLPLO

p~=b==

N=L

N=gLO

q~I=q=

Nc=

q~=`==

N=~LKK`=

QNUKU=tLK`=

N=_LKK c=

NKTPN=tLK`=

N=f~=~=

QKRQS==NMJPP=

N=rp=~=

PKTUR==NMJPP

N==

MKN=kKLO

N==K=

MKNRNT=kKLO

MKRRSh=

sI=s=
sI==

51

52

CES EduPack Users Manual

Conversion of units - stress and pressure*


jm~=

LO

jm~=

N=

NMT

NKQR==NMO

MKNMO=

NM

N=

NKQR==NM

NKMO==NM

=
O

JT

SKUV==NM

JP

SKUV==NM

LO

VKUN=

~=

MKNM=

NMS

NRKQQ=

NKRQ==NM

=L=

JR

N=

LO

LO

TMP==NM

JQ

VKUN==NMT NKQO==NMP
NQKQU=
U

JU

OKOQ==NM

~=

=LO

NM=

SKQU==NMJO

NM

SKQU==NMJV

JS

SKUV==NM

QKQS==NMJQ

JO

N=

VUKN=

NKMO==NMJO

N=

NKRQ=

NKRQ==NM

SPKR==NMJO
SKQU==NMJP
O

N=

=
Conversion of units - energy*
=

g=

g=

N=

NMJT
QKNV=

~=

~=

s=

NM

MKOPV=

SKOQ==NM

N=

OKPV==NMJU

SKOQ==NMNN

QKNV==NMT

N=

OKSN==NMNV

PKVT==NMJP

PKMV=

N=

NKRO==NMJOO

NKNU==NMJNV
TKTU==NMO

_=
NU

VKQU==NM

VKQU==NMJNN

s=

NKSM==NMJNV NKSM==NMJNO PKPU==NMJOM

_=

NKMS==NMP

NKMS==NMNM

OKRO==NMO

SKRV==NMON

N=

NKPS=

NKPS==NM

MKPOQ=

UKQS==NM

NKOV==NM

==

NU

==
JQ

JP

MKTPU=
TKPU==NMJU

N=

=
Conversion of units - power*
t=EgLF=

L=

t=EgLF=

N=

NMJNM

NKPQ=

TKPU==NMO

L=

NMJNM

NKPQ==NMJNM

TKPU==NMJU

TKQS==NM

N=

NRKRM==NMO

c=L=

NKPS==NM

N=
JN

TKQS==NM

JP

NKPS==NM

NKUO==NM

=L=

JP

N=

=
G=q======I=====
I==N=jm~=Z=NM=~K=

~====