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2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Na Shee Lee 1

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 1 Introduction to Heat Transfer

1. A solid aluminum sphere of emissivity is initially at an elevated

temperature and is cooled by replacing it in a chamber. The walls of the

chamber are maintained at a lower temperature, and a cold gas is circulated

through the chamber. Obtain an equation that could be used to predict the

variation of the aluminum temperature with time during the cooling process.

Do not attempt to solve.

Guide:

Apply energy balance around the sphere. According to the problem, there will not be

any energy flowing into the control volume and energy generated within the control

volume. Hence, 0

.

=

in

E and 0

.

= g E . As a result, energy flowing out of the control

volume, ( ) T mc

dt

d

E E

p

st out = =

. .

2. Radioactive wastes are packed in a long thin-walled cylindrical container.

The wastes generate thermal energy nonuniformly according to the relation

, where the is a constant, and is the radius of the

container. Steady state conditions are maintained by submerging the

container in a liquid that is at and provides a uniform convection

coefficient h. Obtain an expression for the total rate at which energy is

generated in a unit length of the container. Use this result to obtain an

expression for the temperature of the container wall.

Guide:

As Energy is escaping from the container to the liquid, 0

.

=

in

E , and the container

is a thin-walled container, this could be assumed that the temperature outside the

container is same as the inner side of the container (practically, a thick wall would

not have a same temperature inside and outside the wall). In this case, the

question stated that this is a case of steady state, the energy storage, 0

.

= st E .

Hence, applying energy balance onto the cylindrical container surface will

give g out E E

. .

= .

Additional Hint:

=

0

0

. .

r

g dV q E

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 1 Introduction to Hear Transfer

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Na Shee Lee 2

3. A slab of ice in a thin-walled container 10mm thick and 300mm on each side

is placed on a well-insulated pad. At its top surface, the ice is exposed to

ambient air for which = and the convective coefficient is 25W/ K.

Neglecting heat transfer from the sides and assuming the ice-water mixture

remains at 0oC, how long will it take to completely melt the ice? The density

and latent heat of fusion of ice are 920 kg/m3 and 334 kJ/kg, respectively.

Guide:

In this problem, since only the top surface is exposed and all other surfaces are

well insulated, heat is only transferring across the top surface. Applying energy

balance across the surface will show that, heat transfer into the system through

convection is equal to the heat used to melt the ice.

By understanding the concept of the heat storage in a mass, the latent heat of

fusion can be used to calculate the amount of heat needed to fully melt the ice.

However, note the assumption that the system temperature remains constant

throughout the process.

4. An experiment to determine the convection coefficient associated with

airflow over the surface of a thick steel casting involves insertion of

thermocouples in the casting at distances of 10 mm and 20 mm from the

surface along a hypotheical line normal to the surface. The steel has a

thermal conductivity of 15 W/mK. If the thermocouples measure

temperatures of 50oC and 40oC in the steel when the air temperature is

100oC, what is the convection coefficient?

Guide:

1

st

step will be taking the boundary of the solid as a control volume. Apply energy

balance, since this is an infinitesimal small control volume, there will not be any

heat generate or stored. Hence all the heat transfer into the control volume

through convection will be transferred out and into the solid through conduction.

Simply by setting up the energy balance equation will easily yield the convection

coefficient.

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 2 Introduction to Hear Transfer

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Cheung Ka Ho 1

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 2 Mathematical Formulation and Boundary Conditions

1. Beginning with a differential control volume in the form of a cylindrical shell,

derive the heat conduction equation for a one-dimensional, cylindrical, radial

coordinate system with internal heat generation

Guide:

1) Apply energy balance eqn.

2) In this question, we should take note of the change in radius which affect

Eout

.

. = q

r+dr

= q

r

+ (q

r

) dr = q

r

+ [ -k * 2r * ) dr.

3) Hence, energy balance becomes:

q

r

{q

r

+ [-k * 2r * ] dr} + * 2rdr = *2rdr*c

p

* .

2. Beginning with a differential control volume in the form of a spherical shell,

derive the heat conduction equation for a one-dimensional, spherical, radial

coordinate system with internal heat generation.

Guide:

This question is similar to Q1. The only thing need to take note is the A

r

= 4r

2

.

The rest of the step will be same as Q1.

3. One surface of a plate of thickness L is suddenly subjected to a radiant heat

flux q

o

, as shown below. The initial temperature of the plate is equal to the

ambient temperature T. The heat transfer coefficient h is the same for both

surfaces. Develop the mathematical formulation of the problem of

determining the unsteady temperature distribution in the plate.

Guide:

In this question, final solution is not required. The mathematical solution is far

complicated, and would not be discuss here.

* For more information about solving the mathematical formulation of this

question, please refer the text TWO DIMENSIONAL, STEADY-STATE

CONDUCTION.

Apply General Heat Conduction Eqn and make a few assumptions:

1) No internal heat generation.

2) One-dimensional in x-direction. .

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 2 Introduction to Hear Transfer

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Cheung Ka Ho 2

Apply Boundary Condition: at x = 0, = h/k ( - T

s

).

Apply Initial Condition: at x = L, = (h * (T

s

- ) q

o

)/k

4. Consider a tube of inside radius r1, outside radius r2 and thermal

conductivity k. The inside surface is kept at a temperature of 100

o

C by

boiling water, while the outside surface dissipates heat by convection with a

heat transfer coefficient of 15 W/m

2 o

C into ambient air at a temperature of

20oC. Develop the mathematical formulation of the problem of determining

the steady-state distribution within the tube.

Guide:

Apply General Heat Conduction Eqn and make a few assumptions: 1) No internal

heat generation. 2) One-dimensional in x-direction. 3) Steady state condition

= 0 or

= constant

Apply Boundary Condition: 1)At inner radius, r1 T(r1) = 100 oC

2) At outer radius, r2 r

2

= h/k * ( - T

s

)

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 3 One-Dimensional Steady State

Conduction without Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Tung How Run (TUNG0003@ntu.edu.sg ) 1

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 3 One-Dimensional Steady State Heat Conduction without Heat Generation

1. Assume steady-state, one-dimensional heat conduction through the

symmetric shape shown below:

Assuming that there is no internal heat generation, derive an expression for

the thermal conductivity k(x) for these conditions: A(x) = (1 x),

T(x) = 300(1 2x x

3

), and q = 6000 W where A is in m

2

, T in K, and x in m.

Guide:

Assumption: 1) steady-state condition;

2) 1-D Heat Conduction (X-direction is only considered);

3) No Internal Heat generation;

In this case, first apply the GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION:

Since NO internal Heat generation, 1-D or X direction heat transfer, and steady

state, the GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION reduced to

The above equation shows the Heat Conducted is in Steady State and without

internal Heat generation. That means Q

in

= Q

out

in the control volume. Hence, The

Q

in

= q

x

. Now, we must find a relation that can link up the Heat Conduction q with

temperature gradient. Hence, we need to apply Fourier Law.

FOURIER LAW:

From here, the k could be found when A, dT/dx and q were given.

Control Volume

Qout Qin

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 3 One-Dimensional Steady State

Conduction without Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Tung How Run (TUNG0003@ntu.edu.sg ) 2

2. In a manufacturing process, a transparent film is being bonded to a substrate

as shown in the sketch. To cure the bond at a temperature T

o

, a radiant

source is used to provide a heat flux q

o

(W/m

2

), all of which is absorbed at the

bonded surface. The back of the substrate is maintained at T1 while the free

surface of the film is exposed to air at T and a convection heat transfer

coefficient h. [Lf = 0.25 mm, kf = 0.025 W/mK, Ls = 1.0 mm, ks = 0.05 W/mK]

(a) Show the thermal circuit representing the steady-state heat transfer

situation. Label all elements, nodes, and heat rates. Leave in symbolic form.

(b) Assume the following conditions: T = 20

o

C, h = 50 W/m

2

K, and T

1

=

30

o

C.Calculate the heat flux qo that is required to maintain the bonded

surface at T

o

= 60

o

C.

Guide:

In this problem, there are two problem solving methods. Thermal resistance

method was preferred because the problem is simplified in a clear manner.

First, to start with this method, q could be represented as current in a circuit. Each

medium of heat transfer could be modeled as resistor with respective variables.

For example, R

con

= L/k

f

A; R

conv

= 1/hA; where A is the cross sectional area

perpendicular to the direction of heat flow. h is the convective heat transfer

coefficient. k is the heat conductivity.

Heat is radiated perpendicular to the page.

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 3 One-Dimensional Steady State

Conduction without Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Tung How Run (TUNG0003@ntu.edu.sg ) 3

Each temperatures is acted as potential of the point in a circuit. Hence, when there

is a temperature difference, there will be heat transfer carried out. This is

analogical to current must be flow from point with high potential to point with

low potential.

Bear in mind, the heat resistor method could only be used when:

1) Steady -State

2) No internal heat generation

Bear in mind, in this question, the source of heat radiation heat transfer onto

the surface between film and substrate. Hence, do not mistaken the heat is

transferred through the surface via conduction through film.

With the thermal resistor and the temperature gradient (temperature gradient is

constant for each conduction mediums. Think for yourselves! Hint: GENERAL

HEAT CONDUCTION equation). Temperature gradient could be obtained.

Temperature gradient= [(T

0

-T

1

)/thickness]; (1)

q = -k*temperature gradient. (2)

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 3 One-Dimensional Steady State

Conduction without Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Tung How Run (TUNG0003@ntu.edu.sg ) 4

There are two directions of heat flow, namely q

1

heat flow up from bond to film

and q

2

heat flow down from bond to substrate. Hence, the summation of heat

transfer q

1

and heat transfer q

2

will give you the answer q

0

, the radiant source.

3) A silicon chip is encapsulated such that, under steady-state conditions, all of the

power it dissipates is transferred by convection to a fluid stream for which h =

1000 W/m

2

K and T = 25

o

C. The chip is separated from the fluid by a 2-mm-

thick, aluminum cover plate, and the contact resistance of the chip-aluminum

interface is 0.510

4

m

2

K/W. If the chip surface area is 100 mm

2

and its

maximum allowable temperature is 85

o

C, what is the maximum allowable power

dissipation in the chip?

Guide:

From the table A.1, the aluminum, the k = 238 W/m.K at (T=325K).

Since the interest part of the question is about the chip. Hence, the control surface is

drawn around the chip. The analysis starts with writing down the conservation energy

equation on the control surface.

E

in

-E

out

+E

gen

= E

store

Hence, the E

out

= E

gen

. In this case, the problem could be simplified to simple thermal

circuit problem. In this problem, there are 3 thermal resistors, namely, 1 convective

resistor, 1 conductive resistor and 1 contact resistor. Given the temperature in fluid and

maximum inner temperature, the maximum power could be found via

Control volume

around the chip

Summation of 3 thermal resistors

Maximum allowable temperature

Maximum power dissipated

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 3 One-Dimensional Steady State

Conduction without Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Tung How Run (TUNG0003@ntu.edu.sg ) 5

There is something worth to see, in the magnitude or resistance; the convective resistance

gives the highest resistance among 3 resistors. Try and see!

4) Steam flowing through a long, thin-walled pipe maintains the pipe wall at a

uniform temperature of 500 K. The pipe is covered with an insulation blanket

comprised two different materials, A and B. [r1 = 50 mm, r2 = 100 mm, kA = 2

W/mK, kB = 0.25 W/mK, Ts,1 = 500 K] The interface between the two materials

may be assumed to have an infinite contact resistance, and the entire outer

surface is exposed to air for which T = 300 K and h = 25 W/m2K.

(a) Sketch the thermal circuit of the system. Label all pertinent nodes and

resistances.

(b) For the prescribed conditions, what is the total heat loss from the pipe? What

are the outer surface temperatures Ts,2(A) and Ts,2(B)?

Guide:

In radial system, the tricky part is direction is different from direction in conventional

Cartesian axis. First write down GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION equation in

CYLINDRICAL axis. To simplify the equation, the following assumptions have to be

made.

Assumptions:

1) 1-D steady-state heat conduction

2) No internal energy generation

3) Infinite contact resistance between A and B

In this case, the direction to choose obviously is in r direction. The Heat can flow into

two directions, namely via A or via B to reach the common fluid temperature. Hence, if

the problem was solved by using the thermal resistors method, there must be a pair of

parallel thermal resistor connecting to the same temperatures.

First, look at the X-X red line drawn across the cylinder. The red line passes through free

stream outside the wall of A, wall A, center portion, wall B, Free stream outside the wall

B. The inner wall of A and B share the same temperature T

s1

, as well as outer wall A and

X

X

Good choice to use thermal resistor method

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 3 One-Dimensional Steady State

Conduction without Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Tung How Run (TUNG0003@ntu.edu.sg ) 6

B share the common FREESTREAM temperature T (BUT NOT SAME OUTER

WALL TEMPERATURE!!). Hence, there must pair of parallel thermal resistors

connecting these two temperatures. Also, since both outer walls of A and B have different

temperatures with free stream temperature (TA TBT), there must be another two

convective thermal resistances before connected to the common free stream temperature,

T.

As a summary, whenever there are temperature differences across the mediums, there

must be heat transfer and hence, there must be thermal resistance, if the thermal

resistance method was used within the limitation of the condition.

In this case, since the heat flow through the wall A and wall B respectively at half

cylinder area, hence the cross sectional heat transfer area reduced by 2, hence, the R

should be multiple by 2 ( why? Try to think in term of electrical circuit resistor, the lower

cross sectional area, the higher the resistance, because less current passing through the

particular resistor).

Hence, the R (cond) for wall A, R (cond) = ln(r/r

i

)/k

A

;

R (conv) for wall A, R (conv) = 1/ (h**r*L);

R (cond) for wall B, R (cond) = ln(r/r

i

)/k

B

;

R (conv) for wall B, R (conv) = 1/ (h**r*L);

#Hint: Full cylinder area, A is 2rL.

Half cylinder area, A is rL.

Hence, the conduction thermal resistance for whole cylinder area is:

R=ln (r/r

i

)/2LK

Hence, the finished thermal circuit as shown below:

R(cond) for 360 heat transfer radially.

R (conv) for 360 heat transfer radially

T

s1

T

T

s2B

T

s2A

R(cond) A R(conv) A

R(cond) B R(conv)B

Heat Flow Direction

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 3 One-Dimensional Steady State

Conduction without Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

Done by: Tung How Run (TUNG0003@ntu.edu.sg ) 7

In this case, the total heat loss could be found from the adding the total heat flow through

two walls.

Q (total) = Q

(A)

+ Q

(B);

Hence, the T

s2A

and T

s2B

could be found by using the definition of Thermal resistance:

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 4 One dimensional

Steady-State Heat Conduction

with Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

1

Done by: Na Shen Lee

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 1 Introduction to Heat Transfer

The steady-state temperature distribution in a one-dimensional wall of thermal

conductivity 50 W/mK and thickness 50 mm is observed to be T(oC) = a + b x2,

where a = 200oC, b = 2000oC/m2, and x is in meters.

(a) What is the heat generation rate q in the wall?

(b) Determine the heat fluxes at the two wall faces. In what manner are these heat

fluxes related to the heat generation rate?

Guide:

This question can simplified to be solved by using the general heat transfer equation

and together with the Fouriers law.

First, try to use GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION equation.

Steady state implies the temperature is independent of the change of time.

One dimensional Means the 1-D or X direction heat transfer was only considered

as the heat transfer direction.

After the cancellation, the equation only left with:

Since the k is a constant, k could be pull out from the differentiation and solve it like

solving second order differential equation.

In the part b) the Heat flux could be found by using FOURIER LAW.

" = (/)| =

" = (/)| = 0

#Heat transfer in conduction, there will not no heat transfer if temperature gradient is

zero or

= 0

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 4 One dimensional

Steady-State Heat Conduction

with Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

2

Done by: Na Shen Lee

The cylindrical system illustrated below has negligible variation of temperature in the

r and z directions. Assume that r = r

o

r

i

is small compared to r

i

and denote the

length in the z direction, normal to the page, as L.

(a) Beginning with a properly defined control volume and considering energy

generation and storage effects, derive the differential equation that prescribes the

variation in temperature with the angular coordinate .

(b) For steady-state conditions with no internal generation and constant properties,

determine the temperature distribution T() in terms of the constants T1, T2, ri,

and ro. Is this distribution linear in ?

(c) For the conditions of part (b) write the expression for the heat rate q

.

Guide:

The equation can be derived by setting up the control volume. Then do an energy

balance onto the control volume. The process is very similar to the derivation of

the 3D heat transfer equation. Consider the heat into the control volume as q

in

,

heat out of the control volume as q

in

+ q. dividing throughout by volume, and

with some manipulations, the final equation can be obtain.

Making use of the equation that is obtained previously, setting the related term to

zero and performing integral twice onto the equation. Then make use of the 2

boundary condition of solve for C1 and C2.

Make use of Fouriers law.

q

q

+d

r

i

R

i

*

d

E

g

E

str

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 4 One dimensional

Steady-State Heat Conduction

with Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

3

Done by: Na Shen Lee

One thing worth to take noted, is the final expression is consistent with GENERAL

HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION.

There are some mathematics equations need to take noted.

Hints: q

+d

= q

For the later part, the equation could be reduced to simpler form, with certain

conditions.

The problem is a steady-state problem

The problem is without heat generation.

Constant k;

Hence the equation could be reduced to a homogenous second order ordinary

differential equation. Then it could be solved and the final equation solves is a liner

close form solution.

In the later part, you need to find the heat rate.

Bear in mind, when the heat was found, you need the cross sectional area which is

[(r

0

-r

i

)*L] according to the FOURIER LAW. Be careful! The cross section area used

in this case is as shown below:

Hints: The cross sectional area used in (r

0

-r

i

)*L.

L

r

i

r

0

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 4 One dimensional

Steady-State Heat Conduction

with Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

4

Done by: Na Shen Lee

3) Passage of an electric current through a long conducting rod of radius r

i

and

thermal conductivity k

r

results in uniform volumetric heating at a rate of q. The

conducting rod is wrapped in an electrically non-conducting cladding material

of outer radius r

o

and thermal conductivity k

c

, and convection cooling is

provided by an adjoining fluid. For steady-state conditions, write appropriate

forms of the heat equations for the rod and cladding. Express appropriate

boundary conditions for the solution of these equations.

Guide:

1) In this problem, no further mathematical problem solving skill needed, just leave

the mathematical expression will do.

2) First the GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION in cylindrical axis

is needed.

3) There are some assumptions have to be taken.

i) The problem dealing is steady-state.( Hint: temperature do not change with

time)

ii) The heat transfer is 1-D problem.(Hint: r-direction remained)

iii) The properties is uniform all over the body and constant value.(Hint: k is

constant)

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 4 One dimensional

Steady-State Heat Conduction

with Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

5

Done by: Na Shen Lee

iv) Until here, you should know what term in the above equation to be equated to

be zero.

4) From the question, the electrical rod have the internal heating due to the electrical

heating effect. The q

gen

could not be neglected in the above equation.

5) The cladding, according to the above question, the cladding have not internal heat

generation. Hence, the GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION equation, the q

gen

is

equated to be zero.

6) There are 4 boundary conditions:

i) The temperature gradient in the center of the rod is zero.(why? Try to analyse

it with infinitesimal control volume with GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION

EQUATION). This is the 1

st

boundary condition.

ii) The surface joining the cladding and the electrical rod is assumed to have

infinite thermal resistance. Hence, the temperature is the same at this

boundary. This is the 2

nd

boundary condition.

iii) Also at the boundary, draw a control surface enveloped the electrical rod, you

will find that the heat generated by the electrical rod will transfer to the

cladding. Hence, by applying FOURIER LAW at the surface, that will be 3

rd

boundary condition.

iv) The heat that was transfered from the electrical rod to cladding is keeping

transfer the heat to wall that contacting the freestream.Equated the conductive

heat transfer with convective heat transfer, that would be 4

th

boundary

condition.

4) Consider one-dimensional conduction in a plane composite wall. The outer

surfaces are exposed to a fluid at 25oC and a convection heat transfer coefficient

of 1000 W/m2K. The middle wall B experiences uniform heat generation qB,

while there is no generation in walls A and C. The temperatures at the interfaces

are T1 = 261oC and T2 = 211

o

C. The thermal conductivities of walls A and C are

kA = 25 W/mK and kC = 50 W/mK, respectively. The length of walls A, B and C

are LA = 30 mm,LB = 30 mm and LC = 20 mm, respectively. Assuming

negligible contact resistances at the interfaces, determine the volumetric heat

generation q

B

and the thermal conductivity kB.

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 4 One dimensional

Steady-State Heat Conduction

with Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

6

Done by: Na Shen Lee

Guide:

Before start anything, we must clear that to check is there any internal heat generation

in A, B, C. In this case, the only B has internal heat generation. Hence, When the

GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION was applied; q

gen

could not be

ignored.

1) Construct an individual thermal circuit for block A and C( thermal circuit could be

used when no internal heat generation, are A and C have internal heat generation?),

consisting of the Rcond and Rconv. The total heat flux can be solved. Dividing

the total heat flux by (2 L

b

), then will arrive at the heat generation per unit volume.

2) Now, after solving the block A, C. It is time to solve the block B. In this case,

applied GENERAL HEAT CONDUCTION equation. Setting up the

heat transfer equation( with internal heat generation), then integrate twice to

obtain the T(x) in terms of C

1

and C

2

and K

b

. Putting in the suitable boundary

conditions, at x=0, T=T

1

; X=2L

b

, T=T

2

; at X=0, heat flux = - heat flux of block A.

The three boundary conditions will make the equation consisting of three

unknown solvable.

.

MP3003 Heat Transfer

Tutorial 4 One dimensional

Steady-State Heat Conduction

with Heat Generation

2007/08 Sem 1

7

Done by: Na Shen Lee

3) Cannot draw the thermal circuit for B as B is having internal heat generation

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