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Basics of Astronomy Worksheet

SCI/151 Version 5
1
University of Phoenix Material
Basics of Astronomy Worksheet
Complete the table based on the readings for this week: Ch. 14 of The Essential Cosmic
Perspective.
Term or concept efinition and e!planation
The Universe
1. What is "arth#s $%n& and what is its role in the
solar system'
(. What is the )ilky Way gala!y and the s%n#s
position in it'
*. What is the Big Bang& and what does it say
abo%t the age of the %ni+erse'
4. What is meant by the phase ,looking o%t in
the %ni+erse is looking back in time'-
1. The $%n is a star in o%r solar system that
generates heat and light to o%r planet.
(. The )ilky Way gala!y is an island of stars
in space with h%ndreds of billions of stars
like o%r $%n.
*. The Big Bang is a theory of when the
%ni+erse started e!panding abo%t 14
billion years ago.
4. The phrase ,looking o%t in the %ni+erse is
looking back in time- refers to the light
from other stars we see at night that
happened in 1.1* beca%se light takes
time to tra+el thro%gh space.
Location in the Universe
/. What is "arth#s place in the solar system'
0. 1ow close are the nearest stars to the $%n
as compared to the distance between the
$%n and the "arth'
2. 1ow large is the )ilky Way gala!y'
3. 1ow many stars are estimated to e!ist in this
gala!y'
.. 1ow old is the earth compared to the
%ni+erse itself'
/. "arth#s place in the solar system is the
third planet nearest to the $%n.
0. The nearest star to the $%n is Alpha
Centa%ri.
2. The )ilky Way gala!y is abo%t one
h%ndred tho%sand light years in diameter.
3. 4t is estimated that there are one h%ndred
billion stars in o%r gala!y.
.. The "arth is only fo%r and one half billion
years old in comparison to the %ni+erse
which is 14 billion years old.
Motion in the Universe
15. 1ow fast does the "arth mo+e aro%nd the
$%n' Compare that to fast things in day6to6
day life.
11. 1ow is the $%n mo+ing in the gala!y'
1(. 1ow are the gala!ies aro%nd the )ilky Way
gala!y mo+ing from h%mans# point of +iew'
15. "arth orbits the $%n at 00&555 mph that is
e7%al to 152&555 kph which is one
h%ndred times faster than a speeding
b%llet.
11. The $%n mo+es at 45&555 mph in o%r
gala!y.
1(. We do not notice the gala!ies mo+ing fast
aro%nd the )ilky Way gala!y beca%se of
the enormo%s distance from %s.
Significance of the Celestial Sphere
1*. What important directions and coordinate
systems help yo% find yo%r way aro%nd the
sky'
14. Why do stars ha+e different le+els of
brightness& and how does one describe their
brightness as compared to one another'
1/. What are constellations'
1*. The hori8on is the bo%ndary between the
"arth and the $ky& the 9enith is the
o+erhead point& and the )eridian is the
imaginary half circle from the 1ori8on d%e
so%th and north thro%gh the 9enith.
14. $ome stars seem brighter than others
beca%se of the differences in the
distance.
1/. Constellations are a gro%p of stars in a
Copyright : (51* by ;ni+ersity of <hoeni!. All rights reser+ed.
Basics of Astronomy Worksheet
SCI/151 Version 5
(
10. What is <olaris& and what is its significance in
the sky'
12. Why does the )oon change its phase& how
does it mo+e& and how do these combine to
create eclipses'
region that forms a pattern in the sky.
10. The <olaris is the =orth $tar& many
+oyagers tra+el by %sing it as a main
directional point when %sing the stars to
na+igate.
12. The alignment of the )oon and $%n
determines the moon phases as the
)oon orbits the "arth. An eclipse
happens when the $%n& "arth& and )oon
fall in a straight line.
History of Astronomy
13. What is the science of astronomy'
1.. What is the scientific method& and how does it
relate to the science of astronomy'
(5. Who was Aristotle& and what was his
relationship to the science of astronomy'
(1. What was the Copernican re+ol%tion'
((. What obser+ations did >alileo make that
pro+ed that planets go aro%nd the $%n'
(*. What laws tell abo%t how the planets mo+e
aro%nd a star'
13. The science of astronomy is the st%dy of
mo+ements and positions of the stars
belie+ed to ha+e some infl%ence on
h%man acti+ities.
1.. The scientific method is a way to ask and
answer 7%estions thro%gh obser+ations
and e!periments.
(5. Aristotle was a philosopher and st%dent of
<lato& who was wrong abo%t gra+ity and
the "arth#s location. Aristotle belie+ed that
the mo+ements and positions of the
celestial bodies ha+e an infl%ence in o%r
li+es.
(1. The Copernican re+ol%tion lead scientists&
philosophers& and theologians to rethink
the "arth#s place in the %ni+erse and the
two6tho%sand year process of
disco+eries.
Seasons of the arth
(4. 1ow does the "arth rotate& and how does
that relate to day and night or the seasons'
(/. 1ow does the "arth re+ol+e& and how does
that relate to day and night or the seasons'
(0. What ca%ses the seasons' 4s it the tilt of the
"arth#s a!is or its changing distance from the
$%n thro%gho%t the year'
(4. The "arth rotates once each day aro%nd
its a!is co%nter6clockwise. When the "arth
rotates to the light side it is day and when
it rotates to the dark side it is night. When
the "arth tilts on its a!is& the season
change.
(/. The "arth re+ol+es aro%nd the $%n as it
spins on it a!is and re+ol+es aro%nd the
$%n *0/ days. epending on how it tilts
towards or away from the $%n is what
ca%ses o%r season.
(0. The seasons are ca%sed by the "arth
tilting either away from the $%n or towards
the $%n.
!ravity" #ree #all" an$ %r&its
(2. What is gra+ity& and how m%ch weaker does it
get as yo% get farther from the center of a
body'
(3. Are ob?ects in orbit of the "arth still %nder the
infl%ence of gra+ity'
(.. An ob?ect in orbit falls aro%nd the "arth. What
do planets& comets& and asteroids fall
aro%nd'
(2. >ra+ity is a force that p%lls a body
towards the center of the "arth or towards
two masses. >ra+ity does not get weaker
as a person p%lls away from it@ instead his
or her body will become weightless.
(3. The ob?ects in orbit of the "arth are still
%nder the infl%ence of gra+ity beca%se
they are constantly in the free fall state.
(.. <lanets& comets& and asteroids fall
aro%nd the $%n beca%se the $%n#s gra+ity
is stronger than that of the "arth.
Copyright : (51* by ;ni+ersity of <hoeni!. All rights reser+ed.
Basics of Astronomy Worksheet
SCI/151 Version 5
*
Copyright : (51* by ;ni+ersity of <hoeni!. All rights reser+ed.