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Basics of Astronomy Worksheet

SCI/151 Version 5
University of Phoenix Material
Basics of Astronomy Worksheet
Complete the table based on the readings for this week: Ch. 14 of The Essential Cosmic
Term or concept efinition and e!planation
The Universe
1. What is "arth#s $%n& and what is its role in the
solar system'
(. What is the )ilky Way gala!y and the s%n#s
position in it'
*. What is the Big Bang& and what does it say
abo%t the age of the %ni+erse'
4. What is meant by the phase ,looking o%t in
the %ni+erse is looking back in time'-
1. The $%n is a star in o%r solar system that
generates heat and light to o%r planet.
(. The )ilky Way gala!y is an island of stars
in space with h%ndreds of billions of stars
like o%r $%n.
*. The Big Bang is a theory of when the
%ni+erse started e!panding abo%t 14
billion years ago.
4. The phrase ,looking o%t in the %ni+erse is
looking back in time- refers to the light
from other stars we see at night that
happened in 1.1* beca%se light takes
time to tra+el thro%gh space.
Location in the Universe
/. What is "arth#s place in the solar system'
0. 1ow close are the nearest stars to the $%n
as compared to the distance between the
$%n and the "arth'
2. 1ow large is the )ilky Way gala!y'
3. 1ow many stars are estimated to e!ist in this
.. 1ow old is the earth compared to the
%ni+erse itself'
/. "arth#s place in the solar system is the
third planet nearest to the $%n.
0. The nearest star to the $%n is Alpha
2. The )ilky Way gala!y is abo%t one
h%ndred tho%sand light years in diameter.
3. 4t is estimated that there are one h%ndred
billion stars in o%r gala!y.
.. The "arth is only fo%r and one half billion
years old in comparison to the %ni+erse
which is 14 billion years old.
Motion in the Universe
15. 1ow fast does the "arth mo+e aro%nd the
$%n' Compare that to fast things in day6to6
day life.
11. 1ow is the $%n mo+ing in the gala!y'
1(. 1ow are the gala!ies aro%nd the )ilky Way
gala!y mo+ing from h%mans# point of +iew'
15. "arth orbits the $%n at 00&555 mph that is
e7%al to 152&555 kph which is one
h%ndred times faster than a speeding
11. The $%n mo+es at 45&555 mph in o%r
1(. We do not notice the gala!ies mo+ing fast
aro%nd the )ilky Way gala!y beca%se of
the enormo%s distance from %s.
Significance of the Celestial Sphere
1*. What important directions and coordinate
systems help yo% find yo%r way aro%nd the
14. Why do stars ha+e different le+els of
brightness& and how does one describe their
brightness as compared to one another'
1/. What are constellations'
1*. The hori8on is the bo%ndary between the
"arth and the $ky& the 9enith is the
o+erhead point& and the )eridian is the
imaginary half circle from the 1ori8on d%e
so%th and north thro%gh the 9enith.
14. $ome stars seem brighter than others
beca%se of the differences in the
1/. Constellations are a gro%p of stars in a
Copyright : (51* by ;ni+ersity of <hoeni!. All rights reser+ed.
Basics of Astronomy Worksheet
SCI/151 Version 5
10. What is <olaris& and what is its significance in
the sky'
12. Why does the )oon change its phase& how
does it mo+e& and how do these combine to
create eclipses'
region that forms a pattern in the sky.
10. The <olaris is the =orth $tar& many
+oyagers tra+el by %sing it as a main
directional point when %sing the stars to
12. The alignment of the )oon and $%n
determines the moon phases as the
)oon orbits the "arth. An eclipse
happens when the $%n& "arth& and )oon
fall in a straight line.
History of Astronomy
13. What is the science of astronomy'
1.. What is the scientific method& and how does it
relate to the science of astronomy'
(5. Who was Aristotle& and what was his
relationship to the science of astronomy'
(1. What was the Copernican re+ol%tion'
((. What obser+ations did >alileo make that
pro+ed that planets go aro%nd the $%n'
(*. What laws tell abo%t how the planets mo+e
aro%nd a star'
13. The science of astronomy is the st%dy of
mo+ements and positions of the stars
belie+ed to ha+e some infl%ence on
h%man acti+ities.
1.. The scientific method is a way to ask and
answer 7%estions thro%gh obser+ations
and e!periments.
(5. Aristotle was a philosopher and st%dent of
<lato& who was wrong abo%t gra+ity and
the "arth#s location. Aristotle belie+ed that
the mo+ements and positions of the
celestial bodies ha+e an infl%ence in o%r
(1. The Copernican re+ol%tion lead scientists&
philosophers& and theologians to rethink
the "arth#s place in the %ni+erse and the
two6tho%sand year process of
Seasons of the arth
(4. 1ow does the "arth rotate& and how does
that relate to day and night or the seasons'
(/. 1ow does the "arth re+ol+e& and how does
that relate to day and night or the seasons'
(0. What ca%ses the seasons' 4s it the tilt of the
"arth#s a!is or its changing distance from the
$%n thro%gho%t the year'
(4. The "arth rotates once each day aro%nd
its a!is co%nter6clockwise. When the "arth
rotates to the light side it is day and when
it rotates to the dark side it is night. When
the "arth tilts on its a!is& the season
(/. The "arth re+ol+es aro%nd the $%n as it
spins on it a!is and re+ol+es aro%nd the
$%n *0/ days. epending on how it tilts
towards or away from the $%n is what
ca%ses o%r season.
(0. The seasons are ca%sed by the "arth
tilting either away from the $%n or towards
the $%n.
!ravity" #ree #all" an$ %r&its
(2. What is gra+ity& and how m%ch weaker does it
get as yo% get farther from the center of a
(3. Are ob?ects in orbit of the "arth still %nder the
infl%ence of gra+ity'
(.. An ob?ect in orbit falls aro%nd the "arth. What
do planets& comets& and asteroids fall
(2. >ra+ity is a force that p%lls a body
towards the center of the "arth or towards
two masses. >ra+ity does not get weaker
as a person p%lls away from it@ instead his
or her body will become weightless.
(3. The ob?ects in orbit of the "arth are still
%nder the infl%ence of gra+ity beca%se
they are constantly in the free fall state.
(.. <lanets& comets& and asteroids fall
aro%nd the $%n beca%se the $%n#s gra+ity
is stronger than that of the "arth.
Copyright : (51* by ;ni+ersity of <hoeni!. All rights reser+ed.
Basics of Astronomy Worksheet
SCI/151 Version 5
Copyright : (51* by ;ni+ersity of <hoeni!. All rights reser+ed.