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ONLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

OF

HOTEL WHITE PALACE SWAT

DEVELOPED BY:

ISRAR AHMAD

BACHELOR OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (HONS)

(SESSION 2005-2009)

SUPERVISED BY:

Mr. FAKHR UDDIN

(LACTURER IN DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE &

IT)

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & IT

UNIVERSITY OF MALAKAND

N-W.F.P, PAKISTAN

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

For the completion of this work, I am thankful to Almighty Allah, whose

grace and mercy blessed me with good health and enthusiasm .It was sheer boon of

Allah that I got loving, inspiring and talented teacher who provided me the

intellectual guidance, moral support and all-round help for the fulfillment of my

assignments.

I offer my humblest thanks from my heart to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W),

who is forever a torch of guidance and knowledge for humanity as a whole.

I am very thankful to Professor Dr. Rasool Jan, Vice Chancellor University

of Malakand, whose personal interest in the establishment of labs, encouraging

attitude, unfailing patience and strong commitment made it possible to conduct this

project on a venue too young for such kind of activities.

I am grateful to Mr. Muhammad Salaam Muslim Chairman Department of

Computer Science & IT, for his sincere guidance, continuous co-operation and useful

suggestions.

I deem it utmost pleasure to avail this opportunity to express my heartiest

gratitude to my supervisor, Mr. Fakhr Uddin, lecturer department of Computer

Science & IT, University of Malakand. His skillful guidance, technical approach,

art of making useful suggestions and inspiring attitude which helped me to

undertake and accomplish this manuscript.

ii
I am also thankful to all the teachers of Computer Science & IT

Department, University of Malakand.

I extend my heartiest gratitude to my ever co-operative and sincere teacher;

Mr. Muhammad Zahid Khan (doing phd in UK).

I extend words of acknowledgment to my respected colleagues, Faisal

Nawaz Khan, Muzzamil Khan, Atta Ur Rehman,Ali Shah, Abdul Samad Khan,

Abdul Ahad, Irfan ul Haq, Khalid Imran, Kushdil, Sajjid, Arshad khan, Kashif

Khan.

I am also thankful to my brother Dr.Jamil Ahmad whose sincere whishes

accompanied me all the time.

Finally I am very much grateful to my parents, kins whose sincere praying

accompanied me all my career. It was in fact their moral and financial support that

gave me the confidence for taking this work.

To err is human, to forgive is divine.

Israr Ahmad

iii
PROJECT IN BRIEF

Project Name: Online Reservation System for Hotel White


Palace

Objectives: To Develop Software That will facilitate


The online Room reservation for Hotel
White Palace

System Developed by: Mr. Israr Ahmad

Supervised By: Mr. Fakhr Uddin


(Lecturer in department of Computer
Science University of Malakand)

Duration: One Month.

Software Used
PHP, My SQL Html, CSS
Java Script, ASP
Macromedia Dream weaver
Ms FrontPage, Macromedia Flash MX
Adobe Photoshop.

System Used: Pentium IV, 1.8GHZ, 512MB of RAM

Operating System: Windows XP 2006 SP2 Professional edition

iv
DEDICATION

My most beloved Parents, brothers and sisters whose prayers and


supports enabled me to complete my BCS degree with the successful
completion of this project.

v
APPROVAL CERTIFICATE

It is certified that thesis submitted by Mr. Israr Ahmad is up to the


standard and we hereby approve it for acceptance as a partial fulfillment for
the award of Bachelor’s Degree(Hons) in Computer Science.

Internal Examiner &


Supervisor:

Mr. Fakhr Uddin Lecturer in


Department Of Computer Science & IT,
University Of Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan.

External Examiner:

Chairman:

Chairman,
Department Of Computer Science &IT,
University Of Malakand, Pakistan.

vi
Introduction to Organization
CHAPTER # 1

In This Chapter

 Introduction

 Objectives

 Present Departments Structure

 Requirements of Organization

 Project Definition
Chapter 1 Introduction to Organization

CHAPTER 1

1.1 Introduction

White Palace was built in 1941 By the 1st King of Swat valley (Mian Gul Abdul
Wadood) Later the palace was converted into a tourist resort hotel. The Hotel is located at
7000 feet above sea level on Marghazar Hill Swat valley offers beautiful views and good
service and good food.

Hotel White Palace has a rich historical background built in 1941 as the summer resort
for the King of Swat, Hotel White Palace is the place which was desired & admired
by Artisan, Scholar, King and Queens. The resort is located in SWAT Valley.

The Chinese pilgrims in the 5th & 6th century called it the Valley of Hanging
Chains. At one time, SWAT, represented the famous GANDHARA CIVILIZATION.
Hotel White Palace, built in 1941 by King Wadood as a summer house, was a proud host
to Queen Elizabeth as a guest. Enjoy a relaxing vacation - angling for Swat river trout
& local tours to Archaeological sites. For the more active, try golf, hunting or skiing.
During the season, savior apples, apricot, pears etc. within resort compound.

Queen Elizabeth of Great Britain stayed at White Palace for three days, as she
discovered the deep traditions & history which surround the Swat Valley. Even the
marble used in the palace have the significance, coming from the same quarry that
supplied the Taj Mahal. The longer you stay, the richer your experience will become as
you discover all that the Swat Valley has offer.

1.2 Objectives

Objectives of the Hotel White Palace:

 To provide guests with a place to stay for a certain amount of time for a certain
amount of money and to direct his/her working staff in a positive and professional
manner. Making sure staff are getting paid and well cared for.
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 To promote international, regional and domestic tourism .


 The objective of Hotels in Galicia is to offer you the most complete source of hotel
accommodation possible in this beautiful region of green or Swat
 The management Of White Palace Believe in an exceptional workface to provide
world-class services to their customers. They want to ensure that not only they
satisfy their customer but also delight them.
1.3 Present Departments Structure:

Director

Manager

Human Resource Executive

Administration officer

Administration Super-visor

Reservation Officers

Office Assistance

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1.4 Detail Requirements of the Organization.

Following are some of the requirements that the organization expecting from this
computerize system

Initial Requirements:

a) Maintain Reservations

1.1) Create a reservation: obtain a reservation no. and enter all reservation details

2.2) Update a reservation: change any reservation details except reservation number

3.3) continue a reservation: continue a complex reservation of more than one input screen

4.4) accept a reservation: finalize a reservation

b) Confirm reservation

1.1) massage to client confirming the reservation details

c) Reports

1.1) room type report: Lists room types and availability

2.2) reservation report: Lists arrival date and reservation number for the reservation’s
billing name and address

Room data used relates to room type, price and description in English.

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Any one can make reservation for room type. The system confirms a reservation in
English.

 To computerize reservation process of the Hotel White Palace


 To facilitate the administration in handling the reservation .
 To eradicate the discrepancies in the manual system.
 Keeping Record of the reservation form.
 Make able the customers to reserve rooms online.
 A website that gives day to day information.

1.5 Project Definition

Overview:

This online reservation system is part of an accommodation system of hotel White


Palace. This section provides an overview of requested system. The detailed functionality of
Hotel White Palace reservation system together with the navigation to reach it within the
hotel system will be described in requirements section.

The Online reservation system supports the following functions related to the letting
of hotel rooms:

1- maintain reservations
2- confirm reservation

Room data used related to room type, price and description and anyone can make a
online reservation for rooms. The system confirms a reservation in English, It also
possible to cancel reservation.

So the main function of reservation process is to request for rooms. Below is the
detailed process of reservation process.

A) Determine the room and rate availability


B) Create the reservation record
C) Confirm the reservation record
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D) Maintain the reservation record


E) Produce reservation reports.

.the system has been designed in a powerful RDBMS tool called mySQL Server and
PHP which manages the huge database very efficiently and provide high performance. The
system can be run stand alone and network environment without the hazard of making
changes to the code of the program.

The software is very user friendly and no need of expert person for its operation, but
everyone can easily run the software and can get the result.

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Online Reservation System of Hotel White Palace
Present System
CHAPTER # 2

In This Chapter

 Present System

 Reservation Procedure

 Drawbacks in the Present


System
Chapter2 Present System

CHAPTER 2

2.1 THE PRESENT SYSTEM


The current reservation system of Hotel White Palace is a manual system. In order to make a
computer based online Reservation system, we first check the current system so that we get to know about
the flaws and shortcomings in this system. This study will help us to design such a computerized online
system of reservation which would be free of all the flaws, now present in this manual system of the Hotel
and will facilitate both the customers as well as the administrative staff of the Hotel White Palace.
The present manual system of reservation Process is only to determine Basic Room Availability.
That is to say, the reservation clerk can only tell the potential guest that a room is reserved for him/her.
However, the reservation clerk can not tell the customers the type of the room and rate.

At last, in the case of present manual system all the record is kept in document form. There is no system
for proper record storage and sorting the information provided by the customers. All this is done manually
and every now and then, there is a chance of getting erratic information. The manual system is thus no
guarantee.

2.3 The reservation procedure


Reservation process consists of the following steps:
 Guests can communicate their reservation inquiries in person, over the telephone, via mail,
through facsimile, telex, e-mail… Moreover, reservation inquiries can be made through a Central
Reservation System or an Intersell Agency.

 While getting a reservation inquiry, the reservation agent obtain the following guest-related
information:

a) Guest’s name, address and telephone number


b) Company or travel agency name
c) Date of arrival and departure
d) Type and number of rooms requested
e) Desired room rate
f) Number of people in the group, if applicable
g) Method of payment and/or guarantee
h) Any other special requests

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2.4 Drawbacks in the present system

During the system study, many drawbacks have been observed as following:
 Time factor

 Chances of loss of data

 Chances of errors

 Redundancy

 Inconsistency

 Wastage of stationery

 Wastage of man power

 Wastage of efforts

 To search the data quickly is difficult

 More labor to human.

 No backup facilities.

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Online Reservation System of Hotel White Palace Swat
Proposed System
CHAPTER # 3

In This Chapter

 Proposed System

 Objectives of the Proposed

System

 Features of the Proposed

System
Chapter 3 Proposed System

CHAPTER 3

3.1 PROPOSED SYSTEM


After the detailed study of current system, it is good to propose a new system. As
computer is one of the leading technologies now a day, so we proposed a computer-based
system, which fulfill all the requirements of the organization easily and will be the solution to the
problem faced by manual system.
The computerization of a system means to change it from manual to a computer-based
system. To audiometer the work and to provide efficiency, accuracy, timelessness, security and
economy. A computer-based system is a tool, which can help the management to exercise an
Effective and timely decision-making.

3.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM


Before designing any computer-based system, it is necessary to establish the objectives
that proposed system should satisfy. The relative important of each objective also needs to
establish.
An effective system is proposed with the following features
 The proposed system is replacement of the existing system, which is conventional.
 The proposed system should be more efficient and useful than the existing manual
system.
 It should minimize the time involved in processing and retrieval of information.
 It should be error free and provide accurate information.
 The new computer-based system should have the capacity to store and manipulate data
entered into it.
 The proposed system should comprehensive database, which provides access, insertion,
updation and deletion on each file and facilitate online queries and data promoting at
where cursor is placed.
 The new system should be simple so that its structure, operation and procedure should be
maintained easily.

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 The system should be sufficiently flexible, to cope with future requirements, i.e. system
should support large amount of data, which will be increasing in future with the passage
of time very efficiently.
 The system should be user friendly and menu driven so that any data entry operator can
easily enter the data and the management can get the reports easily and the computer
screens should guide the user, where to find the required menu.
 The proposed system should minimize the data redundancy, which frequently occurs in
non-computerize system.
 The proposed system enables the management to get adhoc reports for making quick
decisions, which are not possible in manual system

3.3 FEATURES OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM


Primary
1) To animate the process of addition/updating of data files.
2) To remove the possibility of data redundancy.
4) To develop the user-friendly system.
User interface
For better user interaction, whether operator or executive, interactive inputs screen is well
designed. They would make data entry simple and easy for the user and data will be accepted in
the same manner as it is done manually but in a much attractive way.
Updating
This facility should be provide to update the field of the record in the system in updation,
user could change any field of the record except, the key field of the existing records.
Data validation
Various checks should be provide in the database for the data entry updation to ensure
data security and validity. Data validation checks would be provided to ensure that no duplicate

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keys are allowed to be entered. In an attempt to enter a record thus eliminate the chance of
duplications. Similarly all coded fields are checked for valid range of values and error messages.
Generality
The good quality of the proposed system is that it can be used in almost every
organization, whether it is institutional, public or personal sector.
Simple to use
The program requires no special training for its operation, because it is user friendly and
communicates with user in simple English language. Thus any person who has some knowledge
of computer and English language can use it.
Updation of records
The system provides updating facility. The user can update any of the candidate record.
Deletion of records
The system also provides deletion facility. The user can delete any of the record etc, if
he/she is authorized.
Data handling
The present manual system requires stationary for the entry of data. There is therefore a
greater chance of mistakes leading to errors, which result in system inefficiency and inadequacy.
In proposed system data validity checks have been incorporated to minimize the chances
of entering incorrect data.
Backup facility
A backup facility is provided which helps in making the duplicate copy of the data year
wise. In case of any damage to data by virus (these are malicious programs which attach itself to
other programs) or power failure the whole record can be fed into the computer again
Search facilities
Search facilities are provided as Search by name, the system can display the total number
of records matching that name at the moment.
Bio Data of Members
By entering password, being an authorized user the complete bio data of Member can be
seen

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3.4 Project Feasibility


Definition
Feasibility study is a test of a system proposal according to its workability, impact on the
organization, ability to meet user needs and effective use of resources.
The data collected during the preliminary investigation determine the project feasibility
i.e. whether the system will be beneficial to the organization.
It focuses on three major questions:
 What are the user’s demonstrable needs and how does a candidate system meet them?
 What resources are available for a given candidate system? Is the problem worth solving?
 What are the likely impacts of the system on the organization?
Operational feasibility
 Operational feasibility depicts whether a system will work successfully whenever
developed & installed.
 There is sufficient support for the new system from management.
 ii) The current method is not acceptable to the user. So user may welcome a change that
will bring more operational & useful system.
 The proposed system will not cause any poor result in any section.
 The accessibility of information will not be lost are delayed.
 Performance will neither be slow nor insecure in any system.
Technical feasibility
Technical feasibility is concerned with the technology
 The necessary technology requirement IBM PIV along with a laser Printer, double drive,
a mouse and at least 40 GB hard disk.
 The proposed equipment has the technical capability to hold the data required to use the
new system.
 System can be expanded whenever required.
 There are technical guarantees of accuracy, reliability, ease of access and data security.
Financial and Economic Feasibility
It is also known as cost/benefit analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits and
saving that are expected from a present system and compare them with cost.

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Description of The Tools
CHAPTER # 4

In This Chapter

 Introduction of the Tools


 HTML
 PHP
 Scripts
 Dreamweaver 8
 MySQL
 CSS
 Adobe Flash Mx
 Adobe Photoshop
 Apache web server
Chapter 4 Description of the tools

CHAPTER 4

4.1 Introduction
The system is developed to the user’s point of view using hardware and software
components that required supporting the system is designed.
Program functional specifications are to describe all functions performed by each
program. Database dictionary, single sources that define the names and contain all data
elements in the system are also included. For this purpose we use ASP as background for
the database connectivity and HTML as front end for the forms and JavaScript for the
programming.
The selection of the software for the designing the application is important and it
depends upon the requirement. After analysis various languages, and tools are selected
which are discussed as follows.

4.2 HTML
The explosive growth of the World Wide Web is relatively unprecedented,
although it resembles the desktop publishing revolution of the early and mid-1980s. As
personal computers became more common in homes and offices, people began to learn to
use them for document creation and page programmer. Although early word processing
programs were not terribly intuitive and often required memorizing bizarre codes, people
still picked them up fairly easily and managed to create their own in-house publications.

Suddenly, the same kind of growth is being seen as folks rush to create and
publish pages of a different sort. To do this, they need to learn to use something called
the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML).

History of HTML
HTML developed a few years ago as a subset of SGML (Structure Generalized
Mark-up Language), which is a higher-level mark-up language that has long been a
favorite of the Department of Defense. Like HTML, it describes formatting and hypertext
links, and it defines different components of a document. HTML is definitely the simpler
of the two, and although they are related, there are few browsers that support both.
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Because HTML was conceived for transmission over the Internet (in the form of
Web pages) it is much simpler than SGML, which is more of an application-oriented
document format. While it's true that many programs can load, edit, create, and save files
in the SGML format (just as many programs can create and save programs in the
Microsoft Word format), SGML is not exactly ideal for transmission across the Internet
to many different types of computers, users, and browser applications. HTML is more
suited to this task. Designed with these considerations in mind, HTML lets user, the
designer, create pages that user are reasonable, sure can be read by the entire population
on the Web. Even users who are unable to view user graphics, for instance, can
experience the bulk of what user are communicating, if user design, user HTML pages
properly.

At the same time, HTML has a simple enough format (at least currently) that
typical computer users can generate HTML documents without the benefit of a special
application. Creating a WordPerfect-format document would be rather difficult by hand
(including all of the required text size, font, page break, column, margin, and other
information), even if it weren't a "proprietary"—that is, nonpublic—document format.
HTML is a public standard, and simple enough that user can get through a book like this
one and have a very strong ability to create HTML documents from scratch. This
simplicity is part of a trade-off, as HTML-format documents don't offer nearly the
precision of control or depth of formatting options that a WordPerfect- or Adobe
PageMaker-formatted document would.

4.3 Hypertext Preprocessor

PHP, or Hypertext Preprocessor, is a widely used, general-purpose scripting language


that was originally designed for web development, to produce dynamic web pages. It can
be embedded into HTML and generally runs on a web server, which needs to be
configured to process PHP code and create web page content from it. It can be deployed
on most web servers and on almost every operating system and platform free of charge.
PHP is installed on over 20 million websites and 1 million web servers.

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PHP was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995 and has been in continuous
development ever since. The main implementation of PHP is now produced by The PHP
Group and serves as the de facto standard for PHP as there is no formal specification.
PHP is free software released under the PHP License, which is incompatible with the
GNU General Public License (GPL) because of restrictions on the use of the term PHP.

PHP has evolved to include a command line interface capability and can also be used in
standalone graphical applications.

4.4 Scripts
A script is a series of sentences placed one below the other in the form of a
paragraph. each sentence tells the CPU what it should be doing at that moment in time,
the sentences will be written in the syntax (grammar) of the scripting language of choice
thus the paragraph created (which clubs together all the sentences) will be the script.
A script for example:
 Assign a value to a variable: A variable is a named storage location that can
hold data
 Instruct the Web Server to send something: Such as the value of a variable,
to a browser.
 Combine commands into procedures: A procedure is named sequence of
commands and statements that acts as a unit.
Executing a script sends the series of commands to a script engine, which interprets and
relays them to the computer’s CPU. Scripts are written in languages that have specific

JavaScript
JavaScript is a new scripting language that is being developed by Netscape. With
JavaScript programmer can easily create interactive web pages. Many people believe that
JavaScript is Java because of the similar names. This is not true though.
What is needed in order to run scripts written in JavaScript? Programmers need a
JavaScript-enabled browser. Of course programmers’ need a basic understanding of
HTML before programming in java script.

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4.5 Dreamweaver:

Adobe Dreamweaver (formerly Macromedia Dreamweaver) is a web development


application originally created by Macromedia, and is now developed by Adobe Systems,
which acquired Macromedia in 2005.

Dreamweaver is available for both Mac and Windows operating systems. Recent versions
have incorporated support for web technologies such as CSS, JavaScript, and various
server-side scripting languages and frameworks including ASP, ColdFusion, and PHP.

4.6 MySQL
MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that has more than 6
million installations. MySQL stands for "My Structured Query Language". The program
runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases.

The project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General
Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL is owned
and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now a
subsidiary of Sun Microsystems. As of 2009 Oracle Corporation began the process of
acquiring Sun Microsystems.

MySQL is often used in free software projects that require a full-featured database
management system, such as WordPress, phpBB and other software built on the LAMP
software stack. It is also used in very high-scale World Wide Web products including
Wikipedia, Google and Facebook.

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Features
As of April 2009, MySQL offers MySQL 5.1 in two different variants: the
MySQL Community Server and Enterprise Server. They have a common code
base and include the following features:

 A broad subset of ANSI SQL 99, as well as extensions


 Cross-platform support
 Stored procedures
 Triggers
 Cursors
 Updatable Views
 True Varchar support
 INFORMATION_SCHEMA
 Strict mode
 X/Open XA distributed transaction processing (DTP) support; two phase commit
as part of this, using Oracle's InnoDB engine
 Independent storage engines (MyISAM for read speed, InnoDB for transactions
and referential integrity, MySQL Archive for storing historical data in little space)
 Transactions with the InnoDB, BDB and Cluster storage engines; savepoints with
InnoDB
 SSL support
 Query caching
 Sub-SELECTs (i.e. nested SELECTs)
 Replication support (i.e. Master-Master Replication & Master-Slave Replication)
with one master per slave, many slaves per master, no automatic support for
multiple masters per slave.
 Full-text indexing and searching using MyISAM engine
 Embedded database library
 Partial Unicode support (UTF-8 and UCS-2 encoded strings are limited to the
BMP)
 Partial ACID compliance (full compliance only when using the non-default
storage engines InnoDB, BDB and Cluster)

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 Shared-nothing clustering through MySQL Cluster

4.7 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

CSS is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (that is, the look
and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common
application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can be
applied to any kind of XML document, including SVG and XUL.

CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content (written in


HTML or a similar markup language) from document presentation, including elements
such as the layout, colors, and fonts. This separation can improve content accessibility,
provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics,
enable multiple pages to share formatting, and reduce complexity and repetition in the
structural content (such as by allowing for tableless web design). CSS can also allow the
same markup page to be presented in different styles for different rendering methods,
such as on-screen, in print, by voice (when read out by a speech-based browser or screen
reader) and on Braille-based, tactile devices. While the author of a document typically
links that document to a CSS style sheet, readers can use a different style sheet, perhaps
one on their own computer, to override the one the author has specified.

CSS specifies a priority scheme to determine which style rules apply if more than one
rule matches against a particular element. In this so-called cascade, priorities or weights
are calculated and assigned to rules, so that the results are predictable.

Use of CSS

Prior to CSS, nearly all of the presentational attributes of HTML documents were
contained within the HTML markup; all font colors, background styles, element
alignments, borders and sizes had to be explicitly described, often repeatedly, within the
HTML. CSS allows authors to move much of that information to a separate style sheet
resulting in considerably simpler HTML markup.

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Headings (h1 elements), sub-headings (h2), sub-sub-headings (h3), etc., are defined
structurally using HTML. In print and on the screen, choice of font, size, color and
emphasis for these elements is presentational.

Prior to CSS, document authors who wanted to assign such typographic characteristics to,
say, all h2 headings had to use the HTML font and other presentational elements for
each occurrence of that heading type. The additional presentational markup in the HTML
made documents more complex, and generally more difficult to maintain. In CSS,
presentation is separated from structure. In print, CSS can define color, font, text
alignment, size, borders, spacing, layout and many other typographic characteristics. It
can do so independently for on-screen and printed views. CSS also defines non-visual
styles such as the speed and emphasis with which text is read out by aural text readers.
The W3C now considers the advantages of CSS for defining all aspects of the
presentation of HTML pages to be superior to other methods. It has therefore deprecated
the use of all the original presentational HTML markup.

4.8 Adobe Flash Mx

Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform originally acquired


by Macromedia and currently developed and distributed by Adobe Systems. Since its
introduction in 1996, Flash has become a popular method for adding animation and
interactivity to web pages. Flash is commonly used to create animation, advertisements,
and various web page Flash components, to integrate video into web pages, and more
recently, to develop rich Internet applications.

Flash can manipulate vector and raster graphics, and supports bidirectional streaming of
audio and video. It contains a scripting language called ActionScript. Several software
products, systems, and devices are able to create or display Flash content, including
Adobe Flash Player, which is available free for most common web browsers, some
mobile phones and for other electronic devices (using Flash Lite). The Adobe Flash
Professional multimedia authoring program is used to create content for the Adobe
Engagement Platform, such as web applications, games and movies, and content for
mobile phones and other embedded devices.

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Files in the SWF format, traditionally called "ShockWave Flash" movies, "Flash movies"
or "Flash games", usually have a .swf file extension and may be an object of a web page,
strictly "played" in a standalone Flash Player, or incorporated into a Projector, a self-
executing Flash movie (with the .exe extension in Microsoft Windows or .hqx for
Macintosh). Flash Video files[spec 1] have a .flv file extension and are either used from
within .swf files or played through a flv-aware player, such as VLC, or QuickTime and
Windows Media Player with external codecs added.

4.8 Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop, or simply Photoshop, is a graphics editing program developed and


published by Adobe Systems. It is the current market leader for commercial bitmap and
image manipulation software, and is the flagship product of Adobe Systems. It has been
described as "an industry standard for graphics professionals" and was one of the early
"killer applications" on the Macintosh, later also for MS Windows.

Adobe's 2005 "Creative Suite" rebranding led to Adobe Photoshop 8's renaming to
Adobe Photoshop CS. Thus, Adobe Photoshop CS4 is the 11th major release of Adobe
hotoshop. The CS rebranding also resulted in Adobe offering numerous software
packages containing multiple Adobe programs for a reduced price. Adobe Photoshop is
included in most of Adobe's Creative Suite offerings.

Photoshop's popularity, combined with its high retail price, makes Photoshop's piracy rate
relatively high. Adobe countered by including SafeCast DRM starting with Adobe
Photoshop CS.

4.9 Apache web server

The Apache HTTP Server is a web server for Unix-like systems, Microsoft
Windows, Novell NetWare, Mac OS X and other operating systems. Apache is notable
for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web.

When first released, Apache was the only viable open source alternative to the Netscape
Communications Corporation web server (currently known as Sun Java System Web

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Chapter 4 Description of the tools

Server). It has since evolved to rival other Unix-based web servers in terms of
functionality and performance. Since April 1996 Apache has been the most popular
HTTP server on the World Wide Web; as of February 2007 Apache served 58% of all
websites.

Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the


auspices of the Apache Software Foundation. Released under the Apache License, the
Apache HTTP Server is free software.

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System Design
CHAPTER # 5

In This Chapter

 SDLC

 Why we choose this model


Chapter 5 SDLC

CHAPTER 5

3.4 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)


The traditional methodology used to develop, maintain and replace information systems.
System development life cycle is shown in the following figure.

Recognition
of Feasibility
Problems Study

Analysis

Design

Implementation Testing &


& Debugging
Maintaince

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Chapter 5 SDLC

Activities Recognition of Problems


Feasibility Study
Analysis
Top Level Design
Detail Level Design
Testing

Implementation
Maintenance

Time
a) Recognition of Problem:
To develop preliminary understanding of the problem that has caused a request for a
new or enhanced information system.
b) Feasibility Study:
Feasibility is the study of requirements that leads to pursue the selected approach or I
can say that feasibility study is the study of current system, which is to be changed
with new system.
c) Analysis:
Analysis is essentially about identifying and defining business problems, which are
worth solving within the sources likely to be available.
d) Design:
The design process translates requirements into a representation of the software that
can be assessed for quality before coding begins.
e) Testing:
Testing is the process of checking the software for different types of errors, order to
remove errors.

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Chapter 5 SDLC

f) Implementation and Maintenance:


Implementation is the process of converting a new or revised system design an
operational one. Maintenance is very much important, which means restoring
something to its original position.
3.5 WHY WE CHOSE THIS MODEL
i) We analyze the requirements in well manner at the beginning of our
project through meetings and interviews.
ii) It is much flexible, because changes are easily accommodated.
iii) When one phase is completed, we don’t need to roll back that phase.
iv) Specifications are clear from the scratch.

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System Design
CHAPTER # 6

In This Chapter

 Introduction

 System Design

 Logical Design

 Physical Design

 Input Design

 Input Validation

 Output Design
Chapter 6 System Design

CHAPTER 6

DESIGN
5.1 Introduction
In this chapter we describe the design phase of software development. The design
phase may be defined as “the process of applying various techniques and principles for
the purpose of defining a device, a process or system in sufficient detail to permit its
physical realization.”
Design is the first step in the development phase for engineering system. It refers
to the technical specification that will be applied in implementing the candidate system.
5.2 System design
System design is the phase where proposed system is actually designed keeping in
mind the user requirements. Design is actually the process of analyzing the organization
and its environment, developing a database model that accurately reflects the
organization’s functionality in the real world, and implementation of that model by
creating a database requires an appropriate methodology. System design can be divided
into two phases.
 Logical design
 Physical design
5.3 Logical design
Logical design describes the detail specification for the proposed/new system. We
can say that it describes its own features. Input, output, file (table) and database in a
manner that meets the project needs.
Logical design is formulated when detailed specifications for the new system are
written. Therefore from the new system specification we can know how the inputs,
outputs, files, database and procedures should be designed so that it satisfies the
user requirements.

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Chapter 6 System Design

In logical design work with user is done to develop general system design, choose
best design, develop system flow charts, identify hardware, software and personal needs
and revise estimates etc.

5.4 Physical design


Physical design is a program written in a programming language that takes input,
process it and gives output in the form of reports and also stores the data. In other words,
the logical design is implemented in physical form in this phase. Physical design refers to
the practical work, which is described in logical design. It includes application
development i.e. software development/user interface etc. in physical design we do
technical design, plan program modules algorithm, files, databases, I/O forms.
5.5 Input design
The input design specifies the number in which the user enters the data to the
system for processing at later stages. Input design can ensure the reliability of the system
and provide accurate data. The input determines weather the user interacts with the
system efficiently or not. The input design can also be explained as link between the user
and the world. Input design consists of those steps necessary to put transaction data into
usable for processing data entry and activity of submitting the data into computer for
processing. A lot of care is required while entering the data. The reason is that invalid
input results in invalid outputs. While designing the input for the Hotel White Palace, I
kept the following objectives in mind as guidelines.
 Reducing the amount of data
 Avoiding errors in data
 Avoiding extra steps
 Keeping process multiple
 Avoiding delays
In my project, input is the information about the customers, general clients
communicating through feedback facility. The operators enter this information

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Chapter 6 System Design

 Homogenous data elements


I have take special care in order to make the nature of all the data elements to be
same, so that they all are relevant with the customer information and no irrelevant data is
included. This helps in keeping the main focus on the information related to
customer only.
 Input forms design
The forms used to take the inputs are designed in a simple way. All the
logically related items are grouped together or tried to place near each other, so
that the user has no difficulty in filling the form.
 Screen display
While displaying the reservation forms on the screen all the data
elements included in the forms are well separated from each other, so that the
user feels no difficulty in viewing, finding and filling in the required
information.
5.6 INPUT VALIDATION
Input validation is a general term given to methods, aimed at detecting errors in
the input. The main thing, which is considered in the input, is that what the chances of
errors are.
Following are input validation used for designing the admission system for
Hotel White Palace:
 Empty entry control
 Data Type Validation
5.7 OUTPUT DESIGN
Another step in designing a system is to design its output according to the
requirements of the user .the phase of output design has great importance because
inadequate outputs indicate the overall system to be designed poorly. A system is
considered to be successful or failed on the basis of output design. The term “Output”
means after the completion of physical design what comes out of the computer system for
the user? The output design in project is considered as the backbone of the project. The
major form of output is a hard copy from the printer. All managerial decision is actually

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Chapter 6 System Design

made through these reports. Basically the reports in responses to queries and then reports
can be printed.
I took the following points into consideration while designing the output.
 Outputs required
 Required data elements
 Length of data elements
 Who will receive the output
 How much detail is needed
 Data type of the data element.

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Analysis Modeling and Design

In This Chapter
CHAPTER # 7

 Logical Database Design

 Entity Relationship Model

 Relationships

 Entities

 Functional Analysis

 DFD Notations

 Physical Database Design

 Entity Relationship Diagram

 Data Flow Diagram


Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

CHAPTER 6

6.1 Logical Database Design

The basic and important step in the database development process is Database
Analysis, in which we determine user requirements for data and develop data models to
spycify those requirement. A conceptual data model is one that Represent data from the
viewpoint of the user independent of any technology that will be used to implement the
model.

For conceptual data modeling there are different techniques.


1. The Entity-relationship Model
Object relationships among these objects. It is intended primarily for the DB
design process by allowing the specifications of an enterprise Scheme. This represent the
overall logical structure of the DB.

An E.R model is a detailed, logical representation of the data for an organization


or for a business area. The ERD is notation that is used to conduct the data modeling
activity. Using ERD the software engineers creates a representation all data objects that
are important for the system. Representing “Data Network “that exists for a given
system.

6.2.1 Object-Oriented Modeling

The main concepts and techniques involved in the object-oriented modeling,


including objects and Classes, encapsulation of attributes and operations, associations,

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

generalization, and aggregation relationships; cardinalities and other types of constraints;


polymorphism; and inheritance.

6.2.2 Key Elements of ERD

 Entities/Data objects

 Attributes

 Relationships

6.2.3 Entity/Data object

Entity: a person, place, object, event, or concept in the user environment about which the
organization wishes to maintain data. Examples in Reservation are:

Person: Customer.

Place: Room.

Object: item

Event: sale

Concept: Account

Entity Type: a collection of entities that share common properties or characteristics. For
example, Customer, Room..In ERD it is represented by rectangle. Each entity type in an
E-R model is given a name. Since the name spycify a class, it is singular; we use capital
letters in naming an entity type. In an E-R diagram, the name is replaced inside the box
representing the entity:

SYMBOL CUSTOMER

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

Entity Instance: A single occurrence of an entity, figure illustrates the distinction


between an entity type and one of its two instances. Any entity type is described

just once in a database, while many instances of that entity type may be represented by
data stored in the database.

For example, there is one CUSTOMER entity type, but there may be hundreds of
instances of this entity type that are store in that database.

For example, CUSTOMER is entity and CUSTOMERid “id” is its instance

Entity Instance:

A single occurrence of an entity, figure illustrates the distinction between an entity


type and one of its two instances. Any entity type is described just once in a database,
while many instances of that entity type may be represented by data stored in the
database.

For example, there is one CUSTOMER entity type, but there may be hundreds of
instances of this entity type that are store in that database.

For example, CUSTOMER is entity and CUSTOMER id “id” is its instance.

STRONG ENTITY TYPE VS WEAK ENTITY TYPE:

Strong Entity type:

An entity type that exists independently of other entity types, e.g. CUSTOMER.

SYMBOL
Strong Entity type

Weak Entity Type:

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

An entity type whose instances depend on some other entity type. A weak entity
type has no business meaning and is not needed in the E-R Diagram. In ERD weak entity
type is represented by double lined rectangle.

SYMBOL
Weak entity type

Identifying Owner:

The entity on which weak entity depends is called identifying owner or Owner.

Identifying Relationship:

The relationship between a weak entity type and its owner is called identifying
Relationship.

Data object

A data object is almost any composite information that must understood by


software. By composite information we mean that something that has a number of
different properties or attributes.

ATTRIBUTES
Attributes define the properties of a data object and take on one of three different
characteristics.

They can be used to Name an instance of the data object.

Describe the instance. Make a reference to another instance in another table.

SYMBOL
Attribute

For Example, the entity type CUSTOMER has attributes i.e. name, nic, custid etc.

Composite Attribute:

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

An attribute that can be broken down into component parts, e.g. address, which can
be broken into street address, city, state, and postal code, village etc. The component
attributes may appear above or below the composite attribute on ERD as shown in figure.

ADDRESS

Street village

City

Multi-valued Attribute:

An attribute that may take on more than one value for a given entity instance, e.g.
discount may be retail discount, market discount. Multi-valued attribute is represented by
double line ellipse on ERD.

SYMBOL multi-valued
Skill

Derived attribute: An attribute whose values can be calculated from related attribute
values.

Identifier: An attribute (or combination of attributes) that uniquely identifies individual


instances of an entity type, e.g. custid, identify each customer uniquely. In ERD identifier
attribute is underlined.

6.3 RELATIONSHIPS:
A relationship is a logical and meaningful connection or association among one or
more data objects. A relationship is association that holds together various components of

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

ERD. A relationship is an association among the instances of one or more entity types
that is of interest of organization.

SYMBOL Relationship
name

6.3.1 Terms associated with Relationship:

 Degree of relationship

 Modularity of Relationship

 Cardinality of relationship

DEGREE OF RELATIONSHIP:
The number of entity types that participate in a relationship is called degree of
relationship.

UNARY RELATIONSHIP:
A relationship between the instances of a single entity type is called unary
relationship .It is also called recursive relationship.

BINARY RELATIONSHIP:
A relationship between the instances of two different entity types is called binary
relationship.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

TERNARY RELATIONSHIP:
A relationship between the instances of three entity types is called ternary
relationship.

6.3.2 MODALITY OF RELATIONSHIP:


Modality provides an indication of whether or not particular data object must
participate in the relationship .To specify this information, the data models adds modality
to the object relation pair.

6.3.3 CARDINALITY OF RELATIONSHIP:


Specify the number of instances of one entity that can be associated with each
instance of another entity.

MINIMUM CARDINALITY:
The minimum number of instances of one that may be associated with each instance
of another entity.

MAXIMUM CARDINALITY:
The maximum number of instances of one entity that may be associated with a
single occurrence of another entity. If the minimum cardinality is zero the participant is
optional and if the minimum cardinality is one the cardinality is mandatory.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

Mandatory One

Mandatory many

Optional one

Optional many

6.4 ENTITIES USED IN ERD:


RESERVATION

ADMIN

CANCELLATION

These entities are on next page.


.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

RESERVATION:
This entity type contains all the attributes related to the reservation.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

CANCELLATION: This entity type contains all the attributes related to the cancel
reservation.

ADMIN: This entity spycify the authorized user to perform different operation on
database.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

6.5 FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND MODELING:

The functional analysis and modeling focuses on the main functions of the system
and the detailed functionality. The main entity in the functional analysis modeling is flow
model.

THE FLOW MODEL IS DISCUSSED AS:


1. Information is transformed as it flow through the computer based System.

2. The system accepts input in a verity of forms from external world.

Apply hardware, software and human element to transformed input into output,
and produces the output in a variety to the external world.

Structured analysis began as an information flow modeling technique .A


computer based system is represented as information transforms. Overall function of the
system may be represented as information transformed.

6.6 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM:


As information moves through software, it is modified by a series of
transformations. A DFD is a graphical technique that depicts information flow and
transform data replied as data moves from the input to output. DFD is also known as data
flow graph .A DFD may be used to represent the system or software at any level of
abstraction.

Infect DFD may be partitioned into levels that represent increasing information
flow and functional detail. Therefore DFD provides mechanism for functional modeling
as well as functional modeling.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

A DFD is constructed as various degree of detail about the process of the function.
At zero level or the first level DFD, also called fundamental system model or a context
model, represent the entire software elements as a single bubble with an input and output
data indicated by incoming and outgoing arrows respectively.

Level zero DFD expresses the overall system functions as a single transformation
.DFD also specifies the external entities that are either feeding data to the system or
consumed data by the system.

Symbol used in DFD

Symbol Meaning

1. External entity A source of information that

Reside outside the bounds

Of the system to be modeled

2.Process A transformation of information

That resides inside of the bounds


of the system to be modeled

3.Data flow A data object indicates the

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

direction of the data flow.

4.Data store a repository of data that is to be

stored by one or more processes.

6.7 PHYSICAL DATABASE DESIGN

Properties and Domains of Entities and Relationships:

We can specify the properties and domains of entities and relationships as below.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

Reservation:

 name: It spycify the name of the customer.()

 companyname: It spycify Companyname of the customer.

 Address: It spycify the address of customers.

 City: It specify city of the customers

 State: It specify the state name of the customer .

 Country: It specify the country of the customer.

 Postalcode: It specify postalcode of the customer city.

 Telephone: It specify telephone number of the customer.

 Email: It specify the email of the customer.

 DArr: It specify the arrival date of the customer.

 Depdate: It specify the departure date of the customer.

 numberofguest: It specify the total number of the customers.

 Numberofrooms: It specifies the total number of the rooms.

 Numberofnights: It specify the nuber of nights .

 Cominfrom: It specify the place from which the customer coming.

 Airport: It specify the airport pickup facility.

 Prefferedroom: It specify the type of room to be reserved.

 MOC: It contains mode of communication for contact purpose.

 Craditcard: It specify type of credit card.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

 Nameofcardholder: It specify the credit card holder name.

 Cardnumber: It specify the pincode of the cradit card.

 Validtill: It specify the credit card valid date.

ADMIN:
 Username: It spycify the username of the administrator.
 Password: It spycify the password of the administrator.

CANCELLATION:
 Name: It spycify the name of client which cancel reservation.
 Email: It spycify the email of the client which cancel reservation.
 Reasons: It spycify the reasons of cancellations.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

6.7.1
6.7.2 Primary key:
Primary key is unique identifier which identifies each record in a specific table. following
are the primary keys which identifies each relation.
 Reservation: “id of the reservation” is our primary key.
 Admin: “id of the administrator” is our primary key.
 Cancellation: “id of the cancellation” is our primary key.

6.8 ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM


Here is the associated E-R diagram of our database.

RESERVATION Has CANCELLATION

ADMIN

6.9 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM

DFD of Hotel White Palace is on next Page.

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Chapter 7 Analysis Modeling and Design

Context-level DFD for White Palace Hotel Swat.

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Data Dictionary
CHAPTER # 8

In This Chapter

 Data Dictionary
Chapter 8 Date Dictionary

CHAPTER 8

Data dictionary overview


Data dictionary in database management system is a file that defines the basic

organization of a database; it contains a list of all files in database, the number of

records in each file and the names and types of each field.

Most database management system keeps the data dictionary hidden from users to

prevent them from accidentally destroying its contents.

In any database management system [DBMS], you have many objects tables, indexes,

etc and many other things going on. The database needs to keep track of all these

things. It does this with the help of something called the data dictionary.

The data dictionary is a structure that stores meta-data, or data about data. Data

dictionary is actually the memory of the database where he keeps all the activities

going on in the database and retrieves that information in the future for further

processing.

It is actually the data dictionary, which keeps the information about database

objects, its security and auditing. Data stored as fields and different database files

along with their fields name, type and size.

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Chapter 8 Date Dictionary

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Chapter 8 Date Dictionary

RESERVATION It contains all the description and attributes of the Reservation.

reservation_id It represents reservation no.

name It represents the name of the customer.

companyname It represents Companyname of the customer.

address It represents the address of customers.

city It represents city of the customers

state It represents the state name of the customer .

country It represents the country of the customer.

postalcode It represents postalcode of the customer city.

telepone It represent telephone number of the customer.

email It represent the email of the customer.

DArr It represents the arrival date of the customer.

Depdate It represents the departure date of the customer.

numberofguest It represents the total number of the customers.

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Chapter 8 Date Dictionary

numberofrooms It represents the total number of the rooms.

numberofnights It represents the nuber of nights .

cominfrom It represents the place from which the customer coming.

Airport It represent the airport pickup facility.

prefferedroom It represents the type of room to be reserved.

MOC It contains mode of communication for contact purpose.

Craditcard It represents type of credit card.

nameofcardholder It represents the credit card holder name.

cardnumber It represents the pincode of the cradit card.

validtill It represents the credit card valid date.

LOGIN It represents the username and password of the authorize user.

Username It represent the username of the administrator.

Password It represent the password of the administrator.

CANCELLATION This table represents the Clients information sending feedback.

Name It represent the name of client which cancel reservation.

Email It represent the email of the client which cancel reservation.

reasons It represent the reasons of cancellations.

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System Testing
CHAPTER # 9

In This Chapter

 Testing Strategies

 Developed System Testing

 System Evaluation

 Merits of the System

 System Conversion

 Developed System

Conversion
Chapter 9 system testing

CHAPTER 9

SYSTEM TESTING
8.1 Testing Strategies
Development of a software system involves a series of production activities
where opportunities for injection of human fallibilities are enormous. Errors may begin to
occur at the very inception of the process where the objectives may be erroneously of
imperfectly specified, as well as in the later design and development stages. Because of
human inability to perform and communicate with perfection, software development is
accompanied by a quality assurance activity, Software Testing. Software testing is a
critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of
specification, design and coding. The basic testing strategies are as follow

 Unit testing

In the unit testing different modules of the system are tested separately. The
purpose of this testing is to determine that each module is functioning properly and to
locate error in modules. In unit testing we can locate and remove error easily. We have
tested different modules of our system individually; note that each is working according
to the desired specification and requirements.

 Integration testing

After the unit testing all the modules are combined and tested at the same time. The
purpose of this testing is to determine whether all the modules are interfacing with each
other correctly or not. We have tested our system in integrated form which was also
working correctly.

 System testing

System testing is carried out whether the developed system is working according to
the desired specification and requirement or not. The system is checked using the actual

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data values. Also the reports and queries generated by the system are checked against the
requirements.

8.2 Developed system testing

All these testing strategies are adopted during the testing of the developed system
the working of the system is almost perfect.

The basic testing techniques are as follows

8.2.1 White- Box Testing:

White-box testing strategy is actually applied to know the internal workings of a


product. Tests are conducted to ensure that “Natural Medicine Information System”
either works properly, that is, internal operation performs according to the specification
and all internal components are adequately exercised. Following steps were conducted to
perform white-box testing strategy.

 All the independent paths within all the modules were exercised once or more
during the time of development and after the development was completed.
 All logical decisions on their “true” and “false” sides were exercised.
 All loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds were executed.
 Exercising them one by one ensured the validity of all the internal data structures.
8.2.2 Black- Box Testing
Black-box testing strategy is used to know the specified function that a product
has been designed to perform. Tests are conducted to demonstrate that each function is
fully operational at the same time errors in each function are searched.
For the purpose of carrying out this testing strategy, we involved our end users to operate
the software and check its functionality especially in terms of following considerations:
 Is searching of the patient should be carried out by ID or Name.
 Do you find it comfortable to retrieve the date about any product?
 Do you feel it easy to edit, add new, refresh or save the data using forms?
 Don’t you feel it easy to generate reports on the basis of different criteria?
 Are you confronted to any problem in searching the Records?
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Chapter 9 system testing

 Is the software is capable to provide correct record retrieve from database?


After this evaluation process, answers given by the end users helped us positively to
uncover errors and drawbacks in the software, which were successfully removed in the
“Debugging Phase”.

8.3 System Evaluation


When the system is implemented successfully, the designer evaluates the system
to see whether the objectives of the system are accomplished or not, also developed
system is complete or not. There is always need for improvements. All exercise may
achieve an immediate goal and arrive at a stage that logically seems an appropriate point
for termination of given object. However, a point that appears to be a terminal point for
one project may be a good beginning of another. So discussing features of the developed
system and the future enhancements carries out evaluation of the system.
8.4 Merits of the System
 Efficiency: The system is very efficient than the previous one because it
performs all the tasks in lesser time and with no complexity at all.
 Error Reduction: Errors are reduced in the newly designed system. A
number of checks are implemented on fields where required, which help while
entering the data. In this way most of the errors at entry time are reduced.
 User Friendly: System is user friendly. The user feels easy while using the
system. Interface of the system is very interactive. If the users enter wrong
input, proper messages are displayed.
 Security: The system works by providing a password. In this way it is
secured. Unauthorized person cannot access data.
8.5 System conversion
After the completion of the testing phase the process of conversion is performed.
Conversion is the process of switching over the old system to new system. There are
three different methods for the system conversion ensuring proper working of the system.

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8.5.1 Direct Approach


In this approach the old system is immediately replaced by the new developed
system. This method requires the careful advanced planning. Failure of the new
system will destroy the system.
8.5.2 Parallel approach
In this approach we run both the new and old system side by side. It means that user
continuous to use the old system and simultaneously learn to operate the new system
thus if any problem occur in using the new system, the organization can still fall back
on the old system without loss of information.
8.5.3 Pilot Approach
In this method a working version of the system is implemented in one portion of
the organization. The advantage of this method is that it provide sound basis for the
whole system to install.
8.6 Developed System Conversion
The most feasible conversion technique, in this case should be parallel conversion
approach. Although this implementation approach is more expensive and involve
additional work load, the old system will be safe and the procedure followed for the some
time until it is conformed that the newly designed is working satisfactorily.

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System Access and Application
Integration
CHAPTER # 10

In This Chapter

 Database Access and

Application Integration

 Control Flow and a Simple

Application

 Effective Programming

Techniques

 Browser as Database Front End


Chapter 10 Database Access and Application Integration

CHAPTER 10

Database Access and Application Integration


9.1 Database Access and Application Integration
This is the fastest-growing area of the Web. At first, as people were just getting
accustomed to HTML and the Web, most sites featured fairly static HTML pages. Even if
well designed, the ultimate effect was a very easy to use and splashy catalog with the
ability to reference other sites. Database integration changes all of that. Databases allow
the user to search through reams of data far too large to browse through manually, even
in summary form. They allow for different views of the same data, creating and utilizing
data relationships on the fly. And most importantly, by using "live" data on the Web, the
site is always kept up-to-date, accurate, and interesting.
The different uses for database interfaces on the Web are as complex and
interesting as the Web itself. Customers visiting a well-wired retail site can easily check
the status of their orders, browse through a customized list of inventory items, or request
to be notified via e-mail when a product becomes available. A tourist planning a trip to a
city may search for available suites at a resort, register online for activities that interest
them, or download the menu - and the pages which later show the scenic points of the
city are customized to the user's interests. The site is now much more useful than its
equivalent paper counterpart, since it reflects the data on the site in a manner that is
customized to each particular user. Just like we have applied a medium size database to
allow the students to see their results on line and also the administrator can enter, update,
delete student’s records. Students wanting to see their result in their homes do not want to
retrieve documents that describe their result.
9.2 Control Flow and a Sample Application
Because of the design of the Web, designing a database interface for the Web is
different than traditional procedural or event-driven database applications. The program
must be designed to work with pages; a database program is called when a form is

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Chapter 10 Database Access and Application Integration
Submitted or a link is chosen, and must generate a new HTML page to be returned to the
user.
 Gathering Query Information
 Execution of User's Query
 Adding a Record
 Modifying a Record
9.3 Effective Programming Techniques
Following are a few programming hints that were applied that make our Web
application easier to use and more effective.
 "Hidden" Input Fields
Hidden fields can be a great benefit to the database designer. Hidden fields
are fields that are included in HTML forms and are submitted with the rest of the
user's data entry, but the user never sees them and cannot normally change the
values. Administrator may use hidden fields to pass information along to later
database programs that is not of interest to the user, such as the record IDs of the
row being updated, deleted, inserted etc and so on.
 Use of POST and GET Submission Types
When implementing an HTML Form, the form designer may choose
whether the user's data will be submitted using the "GET" or "POST" methods.
According to the HTML 2.0 specification, the "GET" method should be used
when submitting the form has no side effects on the database (such as queries, or
the start of an update), and the "POST" method should be used when submission
will change the state of the database (such as add, update, or delete operations).
 Maintaining Security
Implementing secure PHP programs is important since the programs can possibly
alter data on the machine itself. However, with database programming, the problem is
magnified greatly since the programs work directly with data that can be fairly easily
corrupted if the programmer is not careful. An important thing to remember is that the
user can alter any of the data on a form, even in ways not usually possible using a normal
Web browser. For example, a radio button may be returned to the PHP script as a value
that is not legal and never appeared in any of the choices to the user. A malicious user

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Chapter 10 Database Access and Application Integration
may change the values of “hidden” fields at any time. Fields that has a length limitation
that the browser normally enforces may be submitted with longer strings. As a database
Programmer who is concerned about the integrity of the data, no one can assume that any
of the data that comes from the user's browser will fit the constraints of the calling page.
 User Authentication
The Web is rapidly advancing in its ability to have servers automatically
recognize and verify which user is accessing an PHP program, but such automatic
solutions to this problem are still too sparsely implemented to be able to be used
in a generic environment. However, database programmers may still make use of
password fields or HTML's almost-official browser authentication to verify users
at the beginning of the application, and have the browser keep track of
authentication credentials as the user moves through the application.
 User Preferences
If a site already has users who are logging in or registering themselves,
then one of the best things that a site can do is track their interests and preferences
to customize the site for that user. This makes a site come "alive" and become
more interesting and useful to all of the users, since they get information that is
customized and appropriate for their interests. It also makes a site more
memorable and more likely to be revisited and passed around through word-of-
mouth, which is am important consideration for sites that are seeking popularity.
9.4 Browsers as Database Front Ends
Creating a Web interface to a database may do more than just give users outside a
company access to your information - it may also provide an easy, cross-platform
solution for in-house use. Once a good, robust gateway is written between the Web and
An existing database server, users can immediately have cross-platform access
and update ability to that database by using their Web browser as a database client.
Almost every hardware platform and operating system has a World Wide Web browser
available, which eliminates the need for company’s MIS staff to worry about creating a
client for Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX.

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Linking Documents
CHAPTER # 11

In This Chapter

 Links

 Links in this Project

 Some Validation Checks


Chapter 11 Linking Documents

LINKING DOCUMENTS
10.1 Links
HTML allows linking to other HTML documents as well as images. clicking on a section
of text or an image in one web page will open an entire web page or an image. The text or
an image that provide such linking is called hypertext, a hyperlink, or a hotspot.
The browser distinguishes hyperlinks from normal text.
Every hyperlink has the following properties
 Appear blue in color. the default color setting in a browser for hyperlink text
or image.
 The hyperlink text or image is underlined.
 When the mouse cursor is placed over it the drop menu appears.

 Links in this project


 Home
 About
 Sensuality
 Discipline
 Destination (travel guide)
 Confidence
 Packages
Home
Clicking on this link the main page of the site will appear.
About
Clicking on this link the page “information about hotel introduction and history ”
will open.
Sensuality
Clicking on this link the page “rooms of hotel” will open.
Discipline
Clicking on this link the page “tariff and policies” will open.

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Chapter 11 Linking Documents

Destination
Clicking on this link the page” Travel Guide” will open.

Confidence

Clicking on this page ”services” will open.

Packages
Clicking on this page ”packages” will open.

10.2 Some validation checks.


 To validate empty field.

To validate email address:

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Chapter 11 Linking Documents

 To validate data type.

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Interface Design
CHAPTER # 12

In This Chapter

 Introduction

 Objectives of front end

design

 Some Website pages


Chapter 12 User Interface Design

CHAPTER 12

11.1 Introduction:
It is particularly important first to design how the system will look and respond to
user before designing the software structure. The most critical and creative aspect of
development is to design the user interface. User interface design determines how the
system will look for the user from outside.
The basic design principles, considered during the user interface design, are the
following.
 Consistency
 Makes sense robustness
 User friendly
 Flexibility and simplicity
 Efficiency
Consistency
“Consistency is the ability of user to predict that the software is going to do in a
given situation based on the past experience with the product.” It means to provide the
sets of behavior in the response to user actions and generalize knowledge about one
aspect of the system to other aspects.
Guiding user along the right path
Good user interface gives user clues about what to do next in a given situation. It
is meant to provide clear and obvious ways for the user too get something done.
User friendly
To make the system user friendly, right level and right kind of response should be
given to user against each user action with and input device. Lack of proper feedback can
be a big problem when nothing appears to have happened.
In design of my project proper and immediate feedback is provided at different stages to
make the system user friendly.

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Chapter 12 User Interface Design

Flexibility and simplicity


It means that system should be so simple and flexible that user is able to
concentrate on getting the task at hand done with a minimum of distraction.

My project is made simple by using consistent labeling. The system is also made simple
by reducing redundancy.
Efficiency
Efficiency is an important feature in designing user interface in efficient
application minimizes the number of steps required to perform in operation and provides
users with shortcuts. My system requires minimum options and choices to improve
efficiency.
User interface design.
In application used by the client to access any database engine or to present
information to the user is called from end. Many front end tools are available in marked. I
have selected macromedia dreamweawer as front end tools to access database, because
Dreamweaver is the fastest and easiest way to develop web application for windows.
Forms
Forms serves as a window used to customize the interface of application.
Controls, graphics, and pictures are added to a form to create a desired look. Forms are
the foundation for creating interface of an application. Forms can be used to add windows
and dialog boxes to application. Form is actually container for other controls and objects.
11.2 Objectives of Front end design
Following objective guides toward a smart font end design.
Avoiding errors in the data
Errors rate in system should be very low and also minimum data entry has to be
performed.
Keeping the process simple
The entry of the data should be simple and each label should be meaningful.
Input validation
Input validation is a proactive process it happens while data is being entered. It is
the process of checking the data entered by the user before that data is saved to the

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Chapter 12 User Interface Design

database. If an error occurs from the user then should simple display a meaningful error
message.
11.3 Some Website Pages:

Home Page of White


Palace

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About Page

Packages Page

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Reservation Page

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Chapter 12 User Interface Design

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Bibliography
CHAPTER # 13

In This Chapter

 Bibliography
Chapter 13 Bibliography

CHAPTER 12

Bibliography

1) Web Enable Commercial Application Development Using


HTML, DHTML, JAVASCRIPT,

By Ivan Bayross

2) Internet & World Wide Web , How To Program

By Deitel, Deitel & Nieto


3) HTML + ASP
By Yasir Ali Rasheed
4) PHP + MySQL + CSS
By www.W3school.com

5) Macromedia Dream weaver 8

By Khristine Annwn

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