Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

Oseana, Volume IX, Nomor 1 : 3-10,1984

PENGUKURAN SALINITAS AIR LAUT DAN PERANANNYA


DALAM ILMU KELAUTAN
Oleh
Dharma Arief
ABSTRACT
SALINITY MEASUREMENT OF SEA WATER AND ITS ROLE IN MARINE
SCIENCE.
One f !he "a#i$ %arame!er# in marine
#$ien$e# i# #alini!&. The $n$e%! f
#alini!& an' i!# mea#(remen! !e$hni)(e ha*e 'e*el%e' '(e ! %r+re## in !e$hnl+&.
Sme 'efini!in# an' me!h'# f
mea#(remen! f #alini!& ar
e re*ie,e' ,i!h !he f$(#
f 'i#$(##in n mea#(remen! f #alini!& "&
(#in+ #alinme!er. Sme rle# f #alini!&
in marine #$ien$e# are men!ine' "riefl&.
PENDA-ULUAN
Salah #a!( "e#aran 'a#ar 'alam "i'an+
ilm( .ela(!an a'alah #alini!a# air la(!.
Salini!a# #erin+.ali 'iar!i.an #e"a+ai .a'ar
+aram 'ari air la(!/ ,ala(%(n hal !er#e"(!
!i'a. !e%a! .arena #e"enarn&a a'a %er"e'a0
an an!ara .e'(an&a. Defini#i !en!an+ #alini0
!a# %er!ama .ali 'i.em(.a.an leh C.
FORC-1 M. KNUDSEN 'an S.P2. SOREN0
SEN !ah(n 3456. Salini!a# 'i'efini#i.an
#e"a+ai "era! 'alam +ram 'ari #em(a 7a!
%a'a! &an+ !erlar(! 'alam 3 .il +ram air
la(! 8i.ala( #em(a "rm 'an &'i(m 'i+an0
!i.an 'en+an .hlr 'alam 8(mlah &an+
#e!ara1 #em(a .ar"na! 'i("ah men8a'i
.#i'an&a 'an #em(a 7a! r+ani. 'i.#i'a0
#i.an. Nilai #alini!a# 'in&a!a.an 'alam +9.+
&an+ (m(mn&a 'i!(li#.an 'alam : a!a( %%!
&ai!( #in+.a!an 'ari %ar!0%er0!h(#an'.
DEFANT %a'a !ah(n 34;3 <MAMAYE=
34>?@/ men(n8(..an "ah,a #alini!a# air
la(! .ira0.ira 5/3A : le"ih .e$il 'i0
"an'in+.an 'en+an .a
'ar +aram #e#(n++(h0
n&a &an+ a'a 'i
air la(!. Yan+ 'ima.#('
'en+an +aram 'i #ini ialah i#!ilah +aram 'a0
lam %en+er!ian .imia/ &ai!( #em(a #en&a,a0
an &an+ !er"en!(. a.i"a! rea.#i a#am 'an
"a#a. Ba'i "(.ann&a +aram 'alam ar!i +aram
'a%(r #a8a.
Ber'a#ar.an ha#il %eneli!ian !erha'a%
.m%#i#i +aram 'i air la(! #e8a. !ah(n
3C?4 leh FORC--AMME
R/ #am%ai #aa!
.ini ma#ih "erla.( "ah,a air la(! mem%(0
n&ai %er"an'in+an .m%#i#i +aram &an+
#ama (n!(. ham%ir #em(a %erairan 'i '(nia.
Memanfaa!.an hal !er#e"(!/ ma.a %enen!(an
#alini!a# air la(! 'a%a! 'ila.(.an melal(i
%en+(.(ran .a'ar .hlr 'alam air la(!
&an+ 'i#e"(! .hlrini!a# air la(!. Defini#i
!en!an+ .hlrini!a# 'i(#(l.an leh B.P.
BACOBSEN 'an M. KNUDSEN !ah(n 34A5
&ai!( #e"a+ai 8(mlah +ram 'ari a!m %era.
&an+ 'i%erl(.an (n!(. men+en'a%.an #e0
m(a hal+en 'alam 5/D6?6DA .+ air la(!.
Khlrin!i!a# 'in&a!a.an 'alam +9.+ &an+
(m(mn&a 'i!(li#.an 'en+an lam"an+ :
a!a( %%!.
-("(n+an an!ara #alini!a# 'en+an .hlri0
ni!a# air la(! 'i(#(l.an leh M. KNUDSEN
%a'a !ah(n 3453/ 'an .em('ian 'i!erima
#e$ara l(a# hin++a #aa! ini. R(m(# !er#e"(!
#elan8(!n&a 'i.enal #e"a+ai Er(m(# Kn('0
#enEF
Salini!a# <:@ G 5/D5 H 3/C5? I .hl0
rini!a# <:@
R(m(# Kn('#en ini "erla.( (n!(. #alini!a#
an!ara 6/;4 : hin++a A5/3C : Dalam !ah(n
34;6/ The UNESCO Bin! Panel n
E)(ia!in f Sea Wa!er men+(#(l.an
h("(n+an "ar( &an+ mer(%a.an m'ifi.a#i
'ari r(m(# Kn('#en &ai!( F
3@ P(#a! Peneli!ian O#ean+rafi/ Lem"a+a O#eanl+i Na#inal 0 LIPI/ Ba.ar!a.
3
sumber:www.oseanografi.lipi.go.i
Oseana, Volume IX No. 1, 1984
Salini!a# <:@ G 3/C5;?? I .hlrini!a#
<
:
@
Per"e'aan an!ara .e'(a r(m(# !er#e"(! a'a0
lah #e.i!ar 5/556; : (n!(. #alini!a# an!ara
D6 : DC :. Per"e'aan ini 'a%a! 'ia"ai.an
!erha'a% .e!eli!ian 'alam %en+(.(ran
#alini!a#.
-("(n+an (m(m an!ara #alini!a# 'en+an
.hlrini!a# !er#e"(! !i'a. "erla.( %a'a
"e"era%a %erairan !er!en!( &an+ .n'i#i
lin+.(n+ann&a men&e"a".an .m%#i#i +a0
ramn&a "er"e'a 'en+an air la(! %a'a (m(m0
n&a/ a!a( %erairan &an+ mem%(n&ai nilai
#alini!a# &an+ !in++i/ &ai!( 'i a!a# A5 :.
Cn!h %erairan !er#e"(! a'alah La(! Ka#0
%ia &an+ mer(%a.an la(! !eri#la#i leh
'ara!an #e.i!arn&a. Un!(. %erairan !er#e"(!
"erla.( h("(n+an #alini!a# 'an .hlrini!a#
&an+ .h(#(#. Se8alan
'en+an %er.em"an+an
!e.nl+i/ #e8a. !ah(n 34?> 'a&a han!ar
li#!ri. air la(! m(lai 'i+(na.an 'alam %e0
nen!(an nilai #alini!a# air la(! 'i '(nia.
Oleh .arena i!( 'efini#i men+enai #alini!a#
&an+ a'a #e"el(mn&a %erl( 'ilen+.a%i
la+i men+in+a! 'efini#i !er#e"(! "er'a#ar.an
.e%a'a me!'e !i!ra#i .imia. Salah #a!( (#(l0
an !en!an+ hal !er#e"(! 'ila.(.an leh T.M.
DAUP-INE/ F. CULKIN 'an A POISON
<UNESCO 34>4@ &ai!( 'a&a han!ar li#!ri.
%a'a 3?JC 'ari .+ lar(!an .ali(m .hlri'a
&an+ men+an'(n+ D6.AD?> + KC3
METODE PENGUKURAN SALINITAS
AIR LAUT
Penen!i(an nilai #alini!a# air la(! 'a%a!
'ila.(.an melal(i "er"a+ai $ara/ "ai. &an+
"er'a#ar.an me!'e .imia ma(%(n me!'e
fi#i.a. Dian!aran&a &an+ (m(m 'ila.(.an
a'alah F
a. Me!'e !i!ra#i .hlr.
Me!'e !i!ra#i .hlr mer(%a.an me!'e
.la#i. 'alam %en+(.(ran #alini!a# air la(!.
Me!'e ini %er!ama .ali 'i%er.enal.an leh
OTTO PATTERSON &an+ .em('ian me!'e
!er#e"(! 'i#em%(rna.an leh M. KNUDSEN.
Me!'e ini hin++a #e.a
ran+ 'i.enal #e"a+ai
EMe!'e Kn('#enE <U.S. -YDROGRAP-IC
OFFICE 34?4@. Dalam me!'e ini in .hlr
'ii.a! leh in %era. #ehin++a !er"en!(. +a0
ram %era. &ai!( %era. .hlri'a <A+Cl
6
@
&an+ a.an men+en'a%. Se"a+ai in'i.a!r
rea.#i !er#e"(! 'i+(na.an +aram .hrma!
<K
6
CrO
A
@. B(mlah in %era. &an+ 'in&a!a0
.an 'alam 8(mlah +ram %era. ni!ra! &an+
'i%erl(.an 'alam rea.#i !er#e"(! men(n0
8(..an "e#arn&a nilai #alini!a# #e!elah 'ihi0
!(n+ melal(i r(m(# .n*er#i. Perin$ian #e0
len+.a%n&a men+enai %er#ia%an %erea.#i
'an %ela.#anaan %en+(.(ran 'a%a! 'i"a$a
'alam U.S. -YDROGRAP-IC OFFICE A
<34?4@ P("li$a!in ;5>.
Ke!eli!ian %en+(.(ran "er'a#ar.an me!0
'e Kn('#en a'alah 5/56 : <MAMAYE=
34>?@/ 'an me!'e ini #('ah 8aran+ 'i+(na0
.an leh .arena .(ran+ %ra.!i# (n!(. 'ila.(0
.an 'i la%an+an 'an "e#ar "ia&an&a.
".
Me!'e "era! 8eni#
Bera! 8eni# air la(! !er+an!(n+ %a'a nilai
#(h( 'an #alini!a#n&a . Den+an menen!(.an
"era! 8eni# 'an #(h( #(a!( air la(!/ ma.a
nilai #alini!a# air la(! !er#e"(! 'a%a! 'i!en!(0
.an. Ala! (.(r &an+ men++(na.an me!'e
ini 'i#e"(! -&'rme!er. A'a '(a 8eni#
h&'rme!er &ai!( E'en#i!& h&'rme!erE
&an+ men+(.(r "era! 8eni# air la(! 'an nilai
#alini!a# 'ihi!(n+ 'ari !a"el ala! !er#e"(!/ 'an
E#alini!& h&'rme!erE &an+ lan+#(n+ men(n0
8(..an nilai #lini!a# ai
r la(! &an+ "er#an+.(!0
an. Ke!eli!ian h&'rme!er hin++a 5/35 :.
Ala! ini "ia#an&a 'i+(na.an #e"a+ai ala! (.(r
%en+(8i #emen!ara 'an (n!(. %en+(.(ran #a0
lini!a# #e$ara .a#ar.
$.
Me!'e %em"ia#an $aha&a
Caha&a &an+ menem"(# %erm(.aan an0
!ara '(a 7a! &an+ "er"e'a "era! 8eni#n&a
a.an men+alami %em"el.an arah %en8ala0
rann&a. Peri#!i,a ini 'i.enal 'en+an nama
%em"ia#an $aha&a. Per"an'in+an an!ara #i0
n(# #('(! 'a!an+ 'an #in(# #('(! "ia# $a0
ha&a 'i#e"(! in'e.# "ia#. In'e.# "ia# air
4
sumber:www.oseanografi.lipi.go.i
Oseana, Volume IX No. 1, 1984
la(! mer(%a.an f(n+#i 'ari #(h( 'an #alini!a#
#er!a %an8an+ +elm"an+ $aha&a. Den+an
men+(.(r #(h( 'an in'e.# "ia# air la(! (n!(.
#(a!( %an8an+ +elm"an+ $aha&a !er!en!(/
nilai #alini!a# air la(! 'a%a! 'i!en!(.an.
Ala! (.(r &an+ "er'a#ar.an me!'e ini
'inama.an Erefra.!me!erE. Refra.!me!er
memerl(.an $n!h air la(! an!ara "e"era%a
!e!e# hin++a #e.i!ar 3? ml/ !er+an!(n+ %a'a
8eni# ala!n&a. Ke!eli!ian ala! (.(r ini "er.i#ar
an!ara 5/? : hin++a 5/5? : Ala! (.(r
ini rin+.a# 'an #an+a! %ra.!i# (n!(.
'i+(na.an 'i la%an+an.
'. Me!'e 'a&a han!ar li#!ri.
Air la(! mer(%a.an #(a!( lar(!an ele.0
!rli! &an+ ar!in&a 'a%a! men+han!ar.an
aliran li#!ri.. Sifa! 'a&a han!ar li#!ri. ini
"er+an!(n+ %a'a nilai #alini!a# 'an #(h( air
la(!. -("(n+an an!ara #alini!a# 'en+an 'a&a
han!ar li#!ri. air la(! %a'a 3?J C a'alah F
Saiini!a# : G
0 5/5C44;H 6C/>4>65R
3?
0 36/C55CD6R
6
3?
035/;>C;4R
D
3?
H ?/4C;6AR
A
3?
0 l/D6D33R
?
3?
'imana R
3?
a'alah %er"an'in+an an!ara
'a&a han!ar li#!ri. air la(! &an+ 'i(.(r
!erha'a% han!ar air la(! "er#alini!a# D? :
%a'a #(h( %en+(.(ran 3?J C.
-am%ir #em(a %en+(.(ran #aiini!a# 'e,a0
#a ini men++(na.an me!'e 'a&a han!ar
li#!ri.. Me!'e ini mem"eri.an "e"era%a
.e(n!(n+an 'i"an'in+.an 'en+an me!'e
lain/ an!ara lain %en+(.(ran men8a'i #an+a!
%ra.!i# 'en+an .e!eli!ian &an+ !in++i. Ke!e0
li!ian ala! (.(r ini #an+a! "er*aria#i &ai!(
an!ara 5/3 : hin++a 5/55D : !er+an!
(n+
%a'a !(8(an %en+(.(ran &an+ 'ila.(.an.
Un!(. #!('i "il+i .ela(!an .e!eli!ian
#e"e#ar 5/3 : (m(mn&a #('ah 'ian++a%
#('ah men$(.(%i/ !e!a%i (n!(. #!('i
'inami.a ma##a air 'i%erl(.an .e!eli!ian
minimal 5/53 :
Un!(. men$a%ai .e!eli!ian &an+ !in++i 'i0
%erl(.an #i#!em ala! (.(r &an+ #an+a! %e.a
'an hal ini "er.ai!an era! 'en+an har+a
ala! (.(r !er#e"(!.
Ala! (.(r ini 'a%a! 'i"e'a.an men8a'i
'(a .elm%./ &ai!(F
3.
Ala! (.(r &an+ lan+#(n+ men+(.(r nilai
#aiini!a# .e!i.a ala! !er#e"(! 'i$el(%.an
.e 'alam air. Um(mn&a 'i #am%in+
men+(.(r #aiini!a#/ ala! ini men+(.(r
%(la #(h( air la(! 'an .e'alaman %e
n+(.(ran a!a( #e8(mlah "e#aran lainn&a
#e%er!i %-/ .a'ar .#i+en !erlar(!/ .e8er0
nihan air 'an .e$e%a!an #(ara 'i air
!er+an!(n+ 'ari !i%e ala! (.(rn&a. Ala!
(.(r &an+ !erma#(. 'alam .elm%.
ini mi#aln&a STD me!er <Salini!&/ Tem
%era!(re/ De%!h me!er@/ #ali!herm+ra%h
<han&a men+(.(r #aiini!a# 'an #(h( air@
'an 8eni# E,a!er )(ali!& $he$.erE #e0
%er!i -ri"a.
6.
Ala! (.(r &an+ memerl(.an $n!h air
la(!. Ala! (.(r ini 'i#e"(! E#alinme!erE/
'an %a'a (m(mn&a #alinme!er mem0
%(n&ai .e!eli!ian &an+ le"ih "ai. 'i"an
'in+.an 'en+an ala! (.(r .elm%.
%er!ama. Gam"ar 3 a'alah $n!h 'ari
#alinme!er.
PEMAKAIAN SALINOMETER UNTUK
MENGUKUR SALINITAS
Pema.aian #alinme!er 'alam %en+(.(ran
#aiini!a# memerl(.an a'an&a $n!h air
la(!/ (m(mn&a "er.i#ar an!ara ?5 ml hin++a
355 ml. Um(mn&a $n!h air la(! &an+
'i.(m%(l.an #elama #(a!( .e+ia!an la%an+0
an meli%(!i $n!h air la(! 'i "a+ian %er0
m(.aan air 'an %a'a "e"era%a .e'alaman
!er!en!(. Pen+am"ilan air la(! !er#e"(!
'ila.(.an 'en+an men++(na.an ala! .h(#(#
!er(!ama (n!(. $n!h air "(.an %a'a %er0
m(.aan air. Cn!h ala! .h(#(# !er#e"(!
'ian!aran&a "!l Nan#en <Gam"ar 6@.
Serin+.ali 'i#e"a".an leh a'an&a "er0
"a+ai .e!er"a!a#an .er8a 'i la%an+an/ $n!h
air la(! &an+ 'iam"il !i'a. lan+#(n+ 'i(.(r
#alini!a#n&a melain.an 'i(.(r #e!elah "e"e0
!
sumber:www.oseanografi.lipi.go.i
Oseana, Volume IX No. 1, 1984
Gam"ar 3. Salinme!er
ra%a hari #e8a. %en+am"
ilann&a. Oleh .arena
i!( $n!h air la( "ia#an&a 'i#im%an 'alam
"!l +ela# &an+ !er!(!(% ra%a! (n!(. men+0
hin'ar.an !er8a'in&a %en+(a%an. Per("ahan
nilai #alini!a# a.i"a! %en&im%anan air la(!
!er#e"(! "ia#an&a ma#ih 'alam "a!a# .e!eli!i0
an &an+ 'i.ehen'a.i leh ma.#(' %en+0
(.(ran #alini!a# !er#e"(!. Un!(. air la(!
&an+ !elah 'i#arin+ 'an 'i#im%an 'en+an
"ai./ %er("ahan nilai #alini!a#n&a 'i.e!ah(i
.(ran+ 'ari 5/53 : %er "(lan.
Dalam mela.(.an %en+(.(ran #alini!a#
'en+an #alinme!er 'i%erl(.an a'an&a air
la(! &an+ !elah 'i.e!ah(i nilai #alini!a#n&a
'en+an #an+a! !eli!i 'a
n men'e.a!i nilai
D? : Air la(! &an+ 'emi.ian i!( 'i.enal
'en+an nama air la(! "a.( <E#!an'ar' #ea
,a!erE@ 'an 'iha#il.an leh "e"era%a
in#!an#i !er!en!( &an+ 'ia.(i #e$ara in!er0
na#inal. De,a#a ini air la(! "a.( &an+
'i+(na.an leh Lem"a+a O#eanl+i Na0
#inal 0 LIPI 'i.el(ar.an leh In#!i!(!e f
O$ean+ra%hi$ S$ien$e#/ Wrmle&/ G0
'almin+/ S(rre& 0 In++ri#. Air la(! "a.(
!er#e"(! 'i.ema# 'alam am%(l +ela# "er0
*l(me D55 ml. Air la(! "a.( har+an&a
$(.(% mahal 'an "ia#an&a !er#e'ia 'alam
8(mlah !er"a!a#/ leh .arena i!( %ema.aian
air la(! "a.( ini #erin+.ali 'i"an!( 'en+an
air la(! &an+ 'i#e"(! air la(! ana. "a.(
E<#(" #!an'ar' #ea ,a!e
rE@. Air la(! ana.
ana. "a.( a'alah air la(! &an+ 'iam"il %a'a
8ara. &an+ $(.(% 8a(h 'ari 'ara!an/ mem%(0
n&ai *aria#i #alini!a# &an+ .e$il 'an nilain&a
D? :/ 8ernih 'an men+an'(n+ #e'i.i!
m(n+.in r+ani#me #e%er!i %lan.!n. Air
la(! &an+ memen(hi #&ara! !er#e"(! "ia#an&a
'a%a! 'i%erleh %a'a .e'alaman le"ih 655
me!er. Air la(! ana. "a.( !er#e"(! #e!elah
'i#arin+ !erle"ih 'ah(l( 'a%a! 'i+(na.an
(n!(. %en+(.(ran #alini!a# le"ih 'ari 6
"(lan .em('ian.
Se!ia% .ali a.an 'i%a.ai/ #alinme!er ha0
m# 'i(8i !erle"ih 'ah(l( .n'i#in&a #e#(ai
'en+an %r#e'(r &an+ 'ian8(r.an 'alam
"(.(
%e!(n8(. ala!. Taha% #elan8(!n&a a'a
"
sumber:www.oseanografi.lipi.go.i
Oseana, Volume IX No. 1, 1984
Gam"ar 6. B!l Nan#en 'en+an $ara .er8an&a.
Ke!eran+anF A B!l !er"(.a
B B!l !elah !er!(!(%
C B!l &an+ !er!(!(% 'an %em(.(l men(8( "!l Nan#en
"eri.(!n&a
lah mela.(.an %em"a.(an #elinme!er !er#e0
"(! !erha'a% air la(! "a.(. Air la(! ana. "a0
.( har(# 'i!en!(.an #alini!a#n&a 'en+an !eli0
!i #e!elah #e"el(mn&a #el #alinme!er (n!(.
$n!h air la(! 'i"ila# "e"era%a .ali 'en+an
men++(na.an air la(! ana. "a.( !er#e"(!.
Pa'a (m(mn&a nilai &an+ 'i%erleh 'ari
#alinme!er a'alah nilai &an+ men&a!a.an
%er"an'in+an 'a&a han!ar li#!ri. an!ara
$n!h air la(! &an+ 'i(.(r !erha'a% air
la(! "er#alini!a# D?:/ %a'a #(h( %en+0
(.(ran. Nilai ini 'i#e"(! #e"a+ai 'a&a han0
!ar ra!i 'ari $n!h air !er#e"(!. Bi.ala(
#(h( air la(! %a'a ,a.!( %en+(.(ran 'ila.(0
.an !i'a. #ama 'en+an 3?JC/ mi#aln&a
!JC/ ma.a 'a&a han!ar ra!i &an+ 'i%erleh
&ai!( R
!
har(# 'i.n*er#i.an 'ah(l( men8a'i
'a&a han!ar ra!i %a'a #(h( 3?JC &ai!(
R
3?
/ 'en+an fa.!r .re.#i 'R #e"e#ar 1
#
'R G R
3?
0 R
!
G 35
0?
R
!
<R
!
0 3@ <! 0 3?@
<4;/>0>6/5 R
!
HD>.D R
!
6@ 0
<5/;DH5/63 R
!
6@<!03?@ #ehin++a
'i%erleh R
3?
G R
!
H 'R
Den+an men++(na.an r(m(# h("(n+an
an!ara #alini!a# 'en+an R
3?
'ari UNESCO/
ma.a nilai #alini!a# air la(! 'a%a! 'ihi!(n+.
Un!(. men'a%a!.an .e!eli!ian %en+(.(ran
&an+ !in++i/ %en+(.(ran #(h( $n!h air
la(! %erl( 'ila.(.an 'an 'i$a!a!. Un!(.
%en+(.(ran $n!h air la(!/ nilai #elin!a#
&an+ !elah 'i%erleh !er#e"(! ma#ih har(#
'i!am"ah.an 'en+an '(a ma$am .re.#i
<BECKMAN INC@ &ai!( F
sumber:www.oseanografi.lipi.go.i
Oseana, Volume IX No. 1, 1984
3. Kre.#i 'rif! #alinme!er <S
'
@
Yan+ 'ima.#(' 'en+an E'rif! #alinme0
!erE a'alah %er"e'aan ha#il %en+(.(ran (n0
!(. air la(! &an+ #ama a.i"a! a'an&a %er"e0
'aan ,a.!( %en+(.(ran &an+ 'i#e"a".an
leh .n'i#i #alinme!er !er#e"(!. Un!(.
men+.re.#i 'rif! #aiinme!er !er#e"(! %erl(
'iia.(.an %en+(.(ran (lan+ 'ari air la(!
ana. "a.( #e$ara "er.ala 'en+an !eli!i/
mi#aln&a !ia% 35 a!a( 65 .ali %en+(.(ran
$n!h air la(!. Se"el(m 'iia.(.an
%en+(.(ran !er#e"(!/ #el #alinme!er har(#
'i"ila# '(l( "e"era%a .ali 'en+an air la(!
ana. "a.( !er#e"(!. Bi.ala( !er'a%a! %er"e0
'aan nilai #alini!a# an!ara 6 %en+(.(ran
air la(! ana. "a.( &an+ !er!(r(!an 'an 'e0
n+an men+an++a% "ah,a 'rif! #alinme!er
!er#e"(! !er8a'i #e$ara linier !erha'a% ,a.!(/
ma.a nilai .re.#i &an+ har(# 'i!am"ah.an
.e%a'a nilai #alini!a# $n!h air la(! a'alah F
S
'
G i9<n
H
l@<S
#("3
0S
#("6
@
'imanaF i a'alah %en+(.(ran $n!h air
la(! .e i
n a'alah 8(mlah %en+(.(ran $n0
!h air la(! an!ara 6 %en+(.(ran
air la(! ana. "a.( &an+
"er!(m!an.
S
#("
3 'an S
#("
6 a'alah #alini!a#
air la(! ana. "a.( ha#il %en+(0
.(ran .e 3 'an 6
Dalam mela.(.an .re.#i ini lama ,a.!(
&an+ #ama (n!(. !ia% .ali %en+(.(ran a.an
mem"eri.an nilai .re.#i &an+ le"ih "ai..
Ke"(!(han a.an air ana. "a.( #e"a+ai %en+0
(.(ran a'a !i'a.n&a 'rif! #alinme!er me0
meri(.an .n'i#i air la(! ana. "a.( !er#e"(!
&an+ #ama 'alam !ia% .ali %en+(.(ran. Oleh
.arena i!( %en&ia%an air la(! ana. "a.(
&an+ $(.(% 'an men+hin'ar.ann&a 'ari
%en+(a%an mer(%a.an #&ara! m(!la. &an+
har(# 'i%en(hi. Pema.aian air la(! "a.( 'a0
lam hal ini a.an le"ih "ai./ !e!a%i a.an me0
meri(.an air la(! "a.( 'alam 8(mlah "an&a.
6. Kre.#i .n!amina#i <S. @
Yan+ 'ima.#(' 'en+an .n!amina#i 'i#ini
a'alah %en$am%(ran an!ara #i#a air la(!
'alam #el #alinme!er 'ari %en+(.(ran #e"e0
l(mn&a 'en+an air la(! &an+ a.an 'i(.(r
.em('ian. Wala(%(n #i#a air la(! !er#e"(!
#e'i.i!. #e'an+.an %er"e'aan #alini!a# an!ara
.e'(a air la(! !er#e"(!
$(.(% "e#ar/ ma.a
efe. .n!amina#i !er#e"(! a.an le"ih "e#ar
'ari%a'a .e!eli!ian #alinme!er. Ba'i hal
!er#e"(! !i'a. 'a%a! 'ia"ai.an. Kre.#i
ini han&a %erl( 'iia.(.an !an%a meia.(.an
%em"ila#an #el #alinme!er !erle"ih 'ah(l(
'en+an air la(! &an+ a.an 'i(.(r. Un!(.
men+hi!(n+ .n!amina#i ini <BECKMAN
INC@ %erl( 'i!en!(.an '(l( .efi#ien .n!a0
mina#i C &ai!( F
C G <S
#("
0S
#("
K@9S
#("
'imana S
#("
a'alah #alini!a# air la(! ana.
"a.( S
#("
K a'alah #alini!a# air la(!
ana. "a.( &an+ 'i(.(r !an%a
mem"illa# !erle"ih 'ah(l( #el
#alinme!er &an+ #e"el(mn&a !elah
'i"ila# "e"era%a .ali 'en+an
a)(a'e#! Salini!a# a)(a'e#! 'ian++a%
#ama 'en+an nl.
Kem('ian nilai .re.#i .n!amina#i S
.
'ihi0
!(n+ &ai!( F
S
.
GC<S
i
K0S
i
03@
'imana S
i
03 a'alah nilai #alini!a# &an+
!elah 'i.re.#i !erha'a% #(h(/
'rif! #alinme!er 'an .n!a0
mina#i.
S
i
K a'alah nilai #alini!a# &an+
!elah 'i.re.#i !erha'a% #(0
h( 'an 'rif! #alinme!er
(n!(. %en+(.(ran $n!h.
air la(! .e i.
PERANAN SALINITAS AIR LAUT
A%a &an+ !er8a'i 'i alam (m(mn&a mer(0
%a.an #(a!( %r#e# &an+ r(mi! 'an mer(%a0
.an ran+.aian "er"a+ai %eri#!i,a &an+
8
sumber:www.oseanografi.lipi.go.i
Oseana, Volume IX No. 1, 1984
#alin+ "er.ai!an. Peri#!i,a0%eri#!i,a !er#e"(!
'i%en+ar(hi. leh "er"a+ai fa.!r &an+
!i'a. "er'iri #en'iri/ !e!a%i "erin!era.#i.
-al &an+ #ama 8(+a !er8a'i 'i lin+.(n+an
La(!. Oleh .arena i!( ,ala(%(n #alini!a# me0
r(%a.an #(a!( "e#aran &an+ %en!in+ 'alam
ilm( .ela(!an/ "e#ar 0 "e#aran lainn&a #e%er!i
#(h(/ .an'(n+an .#i+en 'alam air la(!/
.an'(n+an 7a! hara 'i air la(! 'an #e"a+ai0
n&a !i'a. 'a%a! 'ia"ai.an. Wala(%(n
'emi.ian %a'a "e"era%a hal %eranan
#alini!a# !er#e"(! meman+ menn8l
'i"an'in+.an 'en+an
"e#aran0"e#aran
lainn&a. Pen+(.(ran #alini!a# 'a%a! 'i%a.ai
(n!(. "er"a+ai !(8(an #e%er!i "eri.(!.
3. S!('i ma##a air.
a.
Per$am%(ran air #(n+ai 'an air la(!
Se%er!i !elah .i!a .e!ah(i/ air !a,ar
mem%(n&ai nilai #alini!a# &an+ ren'ah
(m(mn&a .(ran+ 'ari D :/ #e'an+.an
air la(! mem%(n&ai nilai #alini!a# 'i a!a#
DD :. Aliran air #(n+ai .e la(! a.an
menim"(l.an %r#e# %er$am%(ran an!ara
air #(n+ai 'an air la(!. Dalam %r#e#
%er$am%(ran !er#e"(! nilai #alini!a# a.an
"er.i#ar an!ara nilai #alini!a# air !a,ar
'an #alini!a# air la(!. Bi.a .i!a mela.(0
.an #e8(mlah %en+(.(ran #alini!a# 'i
'aerah %er$am%(ran ma##a air !er#e"(!/
ma.a han&a 'ari 'a!a #alini!a# 'a%a!
'i%erleh +am"aran men+enai .ea'aan
'an #ifa! 'ari %r#e# %er$am%(ran !er#e0
"(!. Demi.ian %(la haln&a 'en+an %eri#0
!i,a ma#(.n&a air la(! .e 'alam #(n+ai
&an+ (m(mn&a !er8a'i 'i 'aerah m(ara
#(n+ai.
".
Per$am%(ran an!ar air la(!.
Bi.a !er8a'i %er$am%(ran 'ari '(a
a!a( le"ih air la(! &an+ "era#al 'ari %er0
airan &an+ "er"e'a/ ma.a %en+(.(ran
#alini!a# "ela.a !i'a. $(.(% (n!(. mem0
%ela8ari %r#e# %er$am%(ran !er#e"(!. -al
ini 'i#e"a".an nilai #alini!a# air la(!
(m(mn&a mem%(n&ai .i#aran #alini!a#
&an+ ham%ir #ama. Un!(. men+a!a#i
hal 'emi.ian/ .i!a %erl( mem%(n&ai
8(+a 'a!a #(h( air la(!. -al i!( 'i#e"a"0
.an .arena !ia% 8eni# ma##a air la(! &an+
"era#al 'ari #(a!( %erairan mem%(n&ai
"en!(. h("(n+an #(h(0#alini!a# &an+
!er!en!(. Se"a+ai $n!h 'ari h("(n+an
#(h( 'an #alini!a# 'i.e!ah(i "ah,a 'i
%erairan In'ne#ia menalir "e"era%a 8eni#
air la(! &an+ "era#al 'ari !em%a! &an+
"er"e'a 'i '(nia &an+ 'i.enal 'en+an
nama a#al ma##a air la(! !er#e"(!. Ma##a
air #("0!r%i. (!ara 'an ma##a air #("0
!r%i. #ela!an "era#al 'ari 'aerah #("0
!r%i./ men+alir .e %erairan In'ne#ia
!im(r %a'a .e'alaman #e.i!ar 355 0 655
me!er <BIROWO
e! al.
34>?@. Pa'a
%er$am%(ran an!ar ma##a air/ h("(n+an
an!ara #(h( 'en+an #alini!a# ma##a air
$am%(ran !er#e"(! a.an men(n8(..an
in!en#i!a# 'an 'aerah !er8a'in&a %er$am0
%(ran. Sehin++a 'en+an mem%ela8ari h(0
"(n+an #(h( 'an #alini!a# %r#e# $am0
%(ran &an+ !er8a'i 'a%a! 'i.e!ah(i.
$. Ali#an ma##a air
S!('i aliran ma##a air 'a%a! 'ila.(.an 'e0
n+an '(a $ara. Cara %er!ama #e$ara lan+#(n+
'en+an men+(.(r .e$e%a!an aliran air la(!/
$ara .e'(a &ai!( 'en+an $ara !i'a. lan+#(n+
&ai!( men+hi!(n+ .e$e%a!an aliran air la(!
'ari 'a!a %en+(.(ran #(h(/ #alini!a#/ .e'a0
laman 'an "e#aran0"e#aran lain. Cara .e'(a
ini #erin+ 'ila.(.an leh .arena (n!(. men+0
(.(r #(h(/ #alini!a# 'an "e#aran 'a#ar lain0
n&a 8a(h le"ih m('ah 'i"an'in+.an 'en+an
%en+(.(ran ar(# la(!. A7a# &an+ 'i+(na.an
'alam $ara .e'(a ini a'alah a7a# .e#e!im0
"an+an hi'r'inami.. Bi.a %a'a '(a !i!i.
&an+ men'a!ar 'ari .lm air !er'a%a! %er0
"e'aan !e.anan/ ma.a a.an !er8a'i aliran
%a'a .e'(a !i!i. !er#e"(!. Peranan #alini!a#
'an #(h( 'alam hal ini ialah mem"eri.an
nilai "era! 8eni# air la(! &an+ "erh("(n+an
'en+an !e.anan hi'r#!a!i. air la(! Wala(0
%(n 'emi.ian hal ini "(.anlah mer(%a.an
#(a!( ma#alah &an+ #e'erhana/ leh .arena
&an+ mem%en+ar(hi aliran air la(! #an+a!0
9
sumber:www.oseanografi.lipi.go.i
Oseana, Volume IX No. 1, 1984
"an&a./ mi#aln&a "en!(. 'an .ea'aan
'a#ar %eraliran/ r!a#i "(mi/ 'an
.e$e%a!an an+in.
6. Se"a+ai 'a!a 'a#ar men+hi!(n+ "e#aran
lainn&a.
Be"era%a "e#aran ilm( .ela(!an 'a%a!
'ihi!(n+ "er'a#ar.an nilai %en+(.(ran "e0
#aran lainn&a. -al ini 'ila.(.an leh #e"a"
#(li!n&a a!a( mahaln&a mela.(.an %en+(0
.(ran !er#e"(!/ #e'an+.an "a+i "e#aran lain0
n&a %en+(.(ran #('ah mer(%a.an hal &an+
r(!in. Selain i!(/ "er'a#ar.an #(a!( %eni0
li!ian 'i%erleh r(m(# h("(n+an an!ara
"e#aran0"e#aran !er#e"(! 'en+an .e!eli!ian
&an+ !in++i. Be#aran ilm( .ela(!an &an+
'a%a! 'ihi!(n+ "er'a#ar.an nilai #alini!a#
an!ara lain "era! 8eni# air la(!/ .e$e%a!an
ram"a! #(ara 'alam air la(!/ 'an .elar(!an
8en(h .#i+en 'alam air la(!.
D. S!('i e.l+i la(!.
Si#!em .ehi'(%an 'i la(! mer(%a.an #(a0
!( #i#!em &an+ #an+a! .m%le. 'an #alin+
"er+an!(n+an #a!( #ama lain "ai. an!ara r0
+ani#me 'en+an lin+.(n+ann&a. Salah #a!(
'i an!ara "e#aran &an+ "er%eran %en!in+
'alam #i#!em e.l+i la(! a'alah #alini!a#
air la(!. Be"era%a 8eni# r+ani#me a'a &an+
!ahan 'en+an %er("ahan nilai #alini!a# &an+
"e#ar 'an a'a %(la &an+ han&a men+hen'a.i
%er("ahan nilai #alini!a# .e$il #a8a. Per"e0
"e'aan #alini!a# an!ara '(a %erairan 'a%a!
men&e"a".an %er"e'aan &an+ "e#ar 'ari
#i#!em e.l+i .e'(a %erairan !er#e"(!/
Peranan #alini!a# ini a.an men8a'i %en!in+
mi#aln&a 'alam %em"ia.an 'an %emelihara0
an ('an+ &an+ #e.aran+ ini #('ah m(lai
"er.em"an+ 'i In'ne#ia. Pen+e!ah(an me0
n+enai #ifa! ('an+ !erha'a% #alini!a# 'an .e0
mam%(an men+a!(r nilai #alini!a# 'ari .lam
%emeliharaan ('an+ !er#e"(! 'a%a! menen0
!(.an "erha#il !i'a.n&a (#aha !er#e"(!.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
BECKMAN INC. INST
RUCTION MANUAL. M
'el
RS>L$
Pr!a"le In'($!in Salinme!er
Be$.man In#!(men In$. Ne, Ber#e&.
BIROWO/ S./ A.G. IL-UDE 'an A. NONTBI
34>?. S!a(# %en+e!ah(an 'alam ilm( la(!
'i In'ne#ia 'e,a#a ini.
DalamF
A!la# O#ean 0
l+i %erairan In'ne#ia 'an #e.i!arn&a <A.
SOEG-IARTO 'an S. BIROWO e'#.@ Lem"a+a
O#eanl+i Na#inal 0 LIPI F >4 hal.
MAMAYE= O.I. 34>?.
Tem%era!(re 0 Salini!&
Anal&#i# f Wrl' O$ean Wa!er#.
El#e*i*er
S$ien!ifi$ P("l. C.F D>A hal.
UNESCO 34;;.
In!erna!inal O$ean+ra%hi$ Ta"le#.
Na!inal In#!i!(!e f O$ean+ra%h& f Grea!
Bri!ain an' UNESCOF 33C hal.
UNESCO 34>4.
Nin!h Re%r! f !he Bin! Panel n
O$ean+ra%hi$ Ta"le#
an' S!an'ar'#.
Une#$
Te$hni$al %a%er# in Marine S$ien$e n D5.
UNESCOF D6 hal.
U.S. -YDROGRAP-IC OFFICE 34?4.
In#!r($!in
Man(al fr O$ean+ra%hi$ O"#er*a!in.
-.O.
PUB. N. ;5>. Wa#hin+!n D.C.
10
sumber:www.oseanografi.lipi.go.i
Oseana, Volume IX No. 1, 1984