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Submitted by Delsy Rose Thomas

Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 2

The research of this paper is to study how landscape elements such as landforms,
vegetation etc. play a major role in modifying the microclimate with respect to
temperature, precipitation, humidity, air corridors and wind in cities




Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 3

The presentation describes
the most important components and characteristics of microclimatic landscape
design,
with the overview of the concept of climate and its classification leading to the
understanding of the micro-climate and its basic factors namely solar-radiation, wind,
temperature, humidity & precipitation, and
its behavior with the three landscape elements namely land, water & vegetation as to
how they can be modified to induce the required micro-climatic condition, and
which is further strengthened by supportive case-studies later.
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 4

At the present day, the phenomenon of urban
heat island is increasing highly due to the
temperature rise in and around buildings. So it
is important to study the causes of
temperature rise, change in wind velocity,
wind speed and other urban effects on the
microclimate, so that various measures can be
taken to make the environment better and
improve human comfort outdoors through
the use of various landscape elements.

Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 5
WHAT IS CLIMATE?

Climate is a geographical concept representing a summation of the whole range of
meteorological phenomena specific to any given region.
The many factors making up a climate are subject to individual fluctuations, these accounts for the
complexity of their interrelations with living organisms .
CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION
Many classifications of climate have been suggested, depending on whether the subject is being
considered from the point of view of meteorology or of flora or fauna. Based on the criteria of plant
growth and distribution, Koppens system of climatic classification is simple and widely accepted.
He distinguishes eleven principal climatic types which can be combined in five climatic groups:-

A. Tropical rainy climate
B. Dry climate
C. Temperate rainy climate
D. Cold snow forest climate
E. Polar climate
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 6
The main levels at which design for climate occurs are the :-
MACROCLIMATE -the broad regional climate zones.

MICROCLIMATE-the small-scale, site-specific climate variations
in those larger zones.

MESO-CLIMATE, applies to an area, smaller than a region but
larger than a single site.


Delhi is of the HOT-ARID REGIONS: The regions are
characterized by clear sky, dry atmosphere, extended periods
of overheating, and large diurnal temperature range.



The three levels of climate
(source: Kim W. Todd- site, space & structure)

2. Kim W. Todd- site, space & structure ; 1985
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 7
MAJOR MICRO CLIMATE FACTORS

1. Wind
2. Solar radiation
3. Temperature
4. Precipitation and humidity

are the influencing factors of landscape, which can be modified by landscape elements to
affect thermal comfort.
MICRO CLIMATE
Microclimate is a condition of solar & terrestrial radiation, wind, air-
temperature, humidity and precipitation in small outdoor open spaces.


Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 8
Wind consists of the movement of air. It is characterized by three variables:-

Direction
Velocity or speed
Degree of uniformity and turbulence.










Velocity and directions combined together to create prevailing wind pattern for a given site.
Winds blow in different types of patterns,

Laminar flow
Turbulent flow

DIRECTION
In most climates and at most sites, the direction of
the prevailing winter-wind is nearly 180 degrees
opposite to the prevailing summer winds.
Prevailing winds are often opposite one
another in winter and

Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 9
Sun angles
(source: Kim W. Todd- Site, space &
structure)

The amount of solar radiation reaching a site depends on the sites
latitude and the earths point of rotation on its axis; together these
determine the angle of sun in the sky.
The angle is described in two different ways:-
Altitude- the angular distance of the sun above the horizon.
Azimuth- the angular distance of the sun from true north to true south.
Measured along the horizon in a clockwise direction in the northern
hemisphere and in the counterclockwise direction in the southern
hemisphere.
Sun angle changes during the year, altering the amount of radiation
reaching a particular site, and these radiations affect any site in 4
different ways, as listed:-
Reflectivity and Absorption
of different surfaces
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 10
a) REFLECTIVITY AND ABSORPTION
Different surface materials are able to
absorb and to reflect sunlight at different
rates. The reflectivity of a surface is
measured on a scale from 0.0 to 1.0 called
albedo.
An albedo of 0.0 absorbs all heat and
light, and radiates quickly. A material with
a black matte surface is likely to have an
albedo of 0.0. An albedo of 1.0 is
completely reflective, absorbing nothing.
A mirror has an albedo of 1 0.
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 11
b) CONDUCTIVITY
It is describes the speed with which heat passes through a material. The drier and more porous or the
lighter a material is, the lower Its conductivity will be.
c) CONVECTION
Convection also helps determine the relative comfort of a site. The most significant impact of
convection involves the action of the wind in producing convective cooling.

The convective exchange is based on a fluid-type movement of the air. The more turbulence is
associated with the movement, the more heat will be dispersed. As air warms during the day. it
becomes lighter and rises. This causes a flow of cooler air to fill the void left by the rising warm
air; and as the air moves, a slight cooling breeze is created.

Section of the coutyard showing convection
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 12
3. TEMPERATURE
Temperature is described in two forms in relation to the climate; as:-

ACTUAL TEMPERATURE- is the DRY BULB TEMPERATURE-uninfluenced by sun and shade.

EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE- is the temperature the body actually perceives as a result of the
combined effect of radiation, humidity or precipitation.

A site's temperature is determined in part by the topography of the region, since temperature changes
predictably as altitude changes. A decrease of 1deg F for each 330 feet of rise during the summer and
a change of 1deg for each 400 feet of rise during the winter will occur as the air becomes thinner and
less able to hold heat.
4. PRECIPITATION AND HUMIDITY
Precipitation and humidity refer to the amount of moisture in the air at a given time and to whether
that moisture is being held or released. The higher the vapor pressure becomes, the more
uncomfortable people will be.
As the water vapor builds and as the temperature changes because of wind and air movement, the air
reaches a saturation point, and the vapor begins to fall to the ground in the form of. rain, fog, snow,
or drizzle (depending on the temperature).

Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 13
schematic comfort zone
Source: Victor Olgay, Design with climate
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 14
WHAT ARE LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS?
Vegetation Water Land

RELATIONSHIP OF LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS WITH MICRO-CLIMATIC FACTORS
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 15
Hence a design matrix can be worked out for microclimatic energy efficient design, two basic
components of micro climate are climatic parameters and landscape elements.
5 : unpublished thesis; Umrani I: energy efficient landscapes; SPA , batch-2006
LANDFORM with affect to WIND-PATTERN
1. LANDFORMS TOPOGRAHY
As mentioned before, the general pattern of wind prevailing for an area depends on the
topography or the landform profile of the site. e.g: Wind blowing across flat sites remain
laminar wind and at full force.
. However, the profiles of hills and valleys creates variation based on steepness and on the
orientation of the slopes with respect to the prevailing pattern.
Because cold air is heavier than warm air, the airflow tends to be downhill during the night
and uphill during the day.
3

The direction & intensity of valley winds vary during the course of the 24 hour day.
(source: Gary O. Robinette- Energy conservation)

3:Gary O Robinette; Landscape planning for Energy conservation; 1977

If the windward side of the hill is steeper than the leeward side, the change in the wind pattern is
more abrupt than if the leeward side is steeper.




For example: Rolling hills break the wind slightly at
each peak, and the wind speed in the valley is
reduced somewhat.

Air flow over rolling hills ( Source: 3:Gary O Robinette; Landscape
planning for Energy conservation
2. LANDFORM SURFACES
The surfaces across which the wind blows affects
the winds force, path, and composition.

A smooth surface offers nothing in the way of
resistance ; wind blowing across a smooth surface
with an even topography will reach peak speeds in a
predictable direction.

A very rough surface on the other hand, will break
the wind at ground level, introducing separation or
turbulence.
3

3:Gary O Robinette; Landscape planning for Energy conservation; 1977

1b) LANDFORM with affect to SOLAR-RADIATION & TEMPERATURE
The most important interaction between the wind and the other major climatic factors is its influence
in reducing the effective temperature of the site through both convective and evaporative cooling
will result from convention.
The more turbulent the wind is the more cooling will result from convection.


In the process of evaporation, heat is removed along with moisture from objects and from
the air. When no moisture is present, however, the wind makes dry air seems even drier.
Consequently , the more surfaces available from which the wind can draw more moisture, the
greater the natural potential for cooling the site will be.


Solar radiation ( source: author)
LANDFORM WITH EFFECT TO SOLAR
RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE
1. LANDFORM TOPOGRAPHY
Wind can make the difference between comfort and discomfort when the air is heavy and humid,
since it is able to remove humidity through evaporative and convective cooling.
Reduced speed as wind fills space causes air to drop its moisture
Because topography affects the pattern of the winds that carry moisture.
Small landforms receive relatively heavy precipitation on the leeward side of the hill (the side
away from the direction of the prevailing wind)
As the moving air begins to climb the windward side of the hill, the bottom layer of the air speeds
up and the top layer begins to cool. A sudden void develops beneath the moving layers of air as
the topography drops, away beyond the crest of the hill.
This change in air pressure causes the air to drop its moisture . with more available space to
occupy, the air moves less swift, and the moisture load carried by the air can no longer be sustained.


LANDFORM WITH EFFECT TO HUMIDITY AND
PRECIPITATION
For large landmasses the size of the mountain ranges and the landforms whose windward
sides are much steeper than their leeward sides, the opposite effect occurs , as the warm,
moisture-laden air begins to climb the steep windward face of the landform, it cools and finally
reaches a point at which it cannot hold the water any longer. This accounts for the huge amount
of rains received on the windward side.


effect of landform on wind & precipitation
2. Kim W. Todd- site, space & structure ; 1985

Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 21
Vegetation absorb 90% of light falling on it

Large and small trees check undesirable winds
Coniferous plants are used to control wind speed

Trees channelize wind so increase ventilation in some areas

Vegetation , esp. needle leaves, to capture fog thus
increasing sunlight reaching the ground

Deciduous and well as evergreen trees to screen sunlight
during the summer to reduce the required heating load

Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 22
Source : The role of plants in Climate responsive design by rana saqa

Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 23
The most noticeable effect of forest is on the
movement of wind

Wind may be reduced within the forest by 50-70- %
or more , as compared to open spaces

The reduction is greatest near the ground and
noticeable in all velocities

In case of velocities below 8 km/hr in open , the
condition in the forest may be almost calm
Obstruction Filtration
Obstruction,
Filtration,
Guidance and
Deflection
Guidance
Deflection
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 24
A solid barrier creates a relatively great difference in air-
pressure between the windward and the leeward sides, which in
turn reduces the size of the protected zone on the leeward side.
AS WIND BREAKERS/shelterbelts
The ability of plant material's to block or channel the wind effectively is well known. The protected
zone is a function of the height, penetrability, profile, and density of the materials used to create
the windbreak.
A windbreak of completely uniform height is not highly efficient in reducing wind velocities;
additional speed reduction can be accomplished through increased friction and small air pockets
if the height along the top of the windbreaks vary slightly.
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 25
The actual reduction in velocity is determined by the profile of the wind break and by its density.
The more penetrable the wind break is ,the longer distance of the protection zone will extent on
to the leeward side, and the lower the actual reduction in velocity will be.
The structure should not be placed too close to the windbreak because there is dead air pocket
where little air-movement may occur, just to the leeward side of the break; neither they should be
situated too far distant, where the velocity reduction is no longer significant.


Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 26
Reduction of wind velocity by windbreak
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 27
Large and small trees and shrubs may be
used to screen out undesirable winds;
Conifers should be used to control winter
winds.
Trees may be used to channel winds, to
increase ventilation in specific areas.

Delhi wind
(summer/winter)
direction
Source :www. envis.org
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 28
Trees and forests are best devices which control
the solar radiation

The provide control mainly in 4 ways :

Absorption
Reflection
Radiation
Transmission

Trees absorb all solar radition throughout the day.
In the absence of wind and with restricted
convection, leaf temperature may be much as
13deg higher than air temp.
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 29
Vegetation controls the suns effect by
filtration of the direct solar radiation, by
control of the ground surface and
hence the amount of heat radiated
from these various surfaces, either daily
or seasonally through the

alteration of the ground temperature,
through the control of reflected
radiation, and
through total or major obstruction of
the solar radiation itself.

Trees and forests play an important role in controlling excess or unwanted solar radiation.
Deciduous trees will screen out direct sunlight
during the summer, to reduce required cooling
loads, but allow it to pass through in the
winters, reducing required heating loads.


TREE SHADOWS- SHADOW
The density of the plant determines the shadow pattern it throws.
The light when falls on the leaves the leaf shadow pattern falls on to the ground
which is called as dapple shadow.
A very fine textured tree will throw a shadow that barely reduces the amount of light
reaching the ground or building surface.
On the other hand, some plant materials are so dense that almost no light
penetrates them; these very effectively limit the radiant energy reaching the space
or structure, but often allow nothing to be grown under their canopy.
Different shadow patterns formed by different trees ( source: www.google.com)
Depending on the
density of the cover,
the darkness of the leaves, and
the distance between plants,
forested regions can absorb nearly all of the solar radiations falling on them.
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 31

Tree shapes are very diverse .The density of a trees leaves or needles is important to consider.
Dense ever-green, like cupressus, make great wind-breaks for winter winds.
to impede summer winds, a tree or shrub with more open branches &leaves would be better. Such
trees are also good for morning sun from the east, while denser trees are better for blocking harsh
afternoon summer.

Plants selection considerations:
1. Tropical rainforest :tall trees, flat crowns ,broad leaves
2. Temperate forest :medium height, round crown ,broad leaves
3. Cold areas: very tall, cone, shaped crown, Needle like leaves.
2 C) VEGETATION with affect to TEMPERATURE
Trees and forests are among the best exterior solar radiation control devices.
As plant materials grow, they also control temperature variations, both during the day and at
night.
A forest canopy may reduce the solar radiation to less than 1 percent to 4 percent of that in the
open leads logically to the expectation that, because the sun is the source of the heat, the day
time temperature where part of the suns radiant energy is intercepted by the trees will be
lower than those in the open.
SHADE and ABSORPTION of the radiant that strikes a plant, very little will penetrate it,
whether the radiation is direct or reflected. The shaded side has cooler temperature than the
radiated side.
3

3:Gary O Robinette; Landscape planning for Energy conservation; 1977

: sketch showing diurnal temperature variations ( source: landscape planning for energy conservation)
The temperature of an area may be reduced by plants, even if they are not tall enough to give
shade. Plants and grassy cover reduces temperatures by scattering of light and radiation and the
absorption of solar-radiation, and also by evapotranspiration process.
It is found that temperature over grassy surfaces on sunny summer days are about 10 to 14
degrees cooler those of exposed soil.
The influence of the forest in reducing maximum soil temperature results partly from the shade
of the crowns and partly from the insulation of the forest floor.
3

3:Gary O Robinette; Landscape planning for Energy conservation; 1977

sketch showing temperature variations due to tree canopy( source: landscape planning for energy conservation)
PRECIPITATION in different forms is controlled to various degrees by vegetation. Plant materials
control the impact of rain, of sleet and hail, the position and amount of snow deposition etc.
Planting will reduce accumulation of snow
on the ground.
Vegetation, especially needle-leaved trees
may be used to capture fog, and thus
increase sunlight reaching the ground or the
collector unit.
Evergreens capture and hold more
moisture (particularly in the form of frost or
fog) than deciduous trees because of their
pointed needles and because of the sharp
angles at which the needles join the twigs.
6


The high humidity and low evaporation
rate of areas situated under trees help to
stabilize the overall temperature and
microclimate of the site.
3

sketch of trees in affect to precipitation & humidity (source: landscape planning for energy conservation)
Vegetation helps to modify the microclimate by
increasing the humidity; it offers the winds a
multitude of surfaces from which , water can be
pulled by evaporation, and it provides moisture
directly through the natural process of
transpiration. Plants can intercept a considerable
amount of the solar radiation available to a site,
thereby reducing the heat at ground level.

PLANTS as GROUNDCOVERS
When laid out correctly, plants can reduce wind
speeds by as much as 90%, compared to the same
winds blowing in the open.
6

: sketch of trees in affect to precipitation & humidity (source: landscape planning for energy conservation)
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 36
TEMPORATE REGIONS
Maximize warming effects of the sun in the winter.
Maximize shade during the summer by using canopy trees
Deflect winter winds away from buildings
Funnel summer breezes toward the building
COOL REGIONS.
Use dense trees to protect the building from cold winter winds
Allow the winter sun to reach south facing windows
Shade south &west windows and walls from the direct summer sun
if summer overheating are the problem.
HOT-HUMID.
Channel summer breezes toward the building.
Maximize summer shade with trees that still allow penetration of low angle winter sun.
Avoid locating planting beds close to the building if they require frequentwatering.
HOT-ARID
Provide shade to cool roofs walls and windows.
Cool the air around the building by plant evapotranspiration.
Allow summer winds to access naturally cooled buildings
WATER effecting WIND
The wind moving across the surface of a major body of water inland during the day and in the opposite
direction at night.
When the air temperature is very high, even the slightest breeze across water will produce
evaporative cooling and make the weather more bearable.
3

Wind blowing on the water surface (source: landscape planning for energy conservation)
3:Gary O Robinette; Landscape planning for Energy conservation; 1977

WATER EFFECTING MICROCLIMATE
The leeward side of the water body will always be cooler since the wind is cooled as it moves
across the surface of the water body. Therefore areas or activities which need to be naturally cooler
should be located on the leeward side of water bodies.
Functions or areas which need extra heat or warmth should be located on the windward side of
water bodies where possible because of this.
Therefore water, ranging in form from an ocean to the water particle in a cloud, is able to moderate or
effect extremes of climate and to assist in energy conservation.
3

3:Gary O Robinette; Landscape planning for Energy conservation; 1977

POSITION OF THE SITE WITH RESPECT TO THE WATER BODY
WATER affecting SOLAR-RADIATION
The mass of water acts as a heat reservoir, warming up gradually during the spring and remaining at
a reasonably constant temperature throughout the warm seasons.
Except when the sun is low in the sky, the albedo of water is very low, causing little reflection to
surrounding surfaces.
3


sketch of trees in affect to precipitation & humidity (source: landscape planning for energy conservation)
The surface temperature of an ocean may vary no more than 18 degrees during the year .
3:Gary O Robinette; Landscape planning for Energy conservation; 1977

Breezes flow from the water body onto the shore during
the day and off the land area onto the water body at
night.
Water in the form of clouds has an impact on climate as
does liquid moisture.

Radiation which has been absorbed by the earth quickly
and readily escapes back into the atmosphere on a clear
night. On an overcast night the cloud cover inhibits this
radiation loss and thus the temperatures are generally
higher on an overcast night than they are on a clear
night.

Therefore water, ranging in form from an ocean to the
water particle in a cloud, is able to moderate or effect
extremes of climate and to assist in energy
conservation. The ocean can seldom, if ever, be
modified, but its effects on microclimate can be accepted
and utilized in landscape planning.
3


: breezes flow from the water body onto the shore during the day and off the land area onto the water body at night.(source:
landscape planning for energy conservation)
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 41
To decrease the solar gains
the ideal coatings should be:
high reflective
high coefficient of emittance
in long wave radiation
the increased use of green areas,
the use of appropriate materials, in
particular of white
and colored high reflective coatings,
use of cool sinks for heat dissipation,
appropriate layout of urban canopies
involving the use of
solar control, techniques to enhance air flow,
etc
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 42
One simple and effective way to mitigate
urban heat islands, i.e., the higher temperatures
in cities compared to those of the surrounds,
and their negative impacts on cooling energy
consumption is to use high-albedo materials
on major urban surfaces such as rooftops,
streets, sidewalks, school yards, and the
exposed surfaces of parking lots.
There should be outdoor urban
spaces in order to contribute to
lower ambient temperatures
and fight heat island effect.
The study involved in total 93
commonly used pavement
materials outdoors and was
performed during the whole
summer period of 2001. The
thermal performance of the
materials was measured in
detail using mainly infrared
thermography procedures.

Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 43
Generally, lighter coloured surfaces have a
greater albedo effect. Hence changing from dark
asphalt to light coloured concrete can greatly
increase the reflection of incoming radiation and
result in a reduction in global warming.
The selection of materials that comprise a
concrete mixture can greatly affect the
reflectance of the finished concrete surface.
Although concrete surfaces are already more
reflective than asphalt surfaces,
they can be made even more reflective with the
use of white cement and lighter coarse and fine
aggregates.
Higher albedo saves cooling energy use by
directly reducing the heat gain through a
building's envelope (direct effect) and also by
lowering the urban air temperature in the
neighborhood of the building (indirect effect).
Albedos of different materials
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 44
Heat is calculated by-U value which is a measure of heat loss in a building element such as a wall,
floor or roof. It can also be referred to as an overall heat transfer co-efficient and measures how
well parts of a building transfer heat. This means that the higher the U value the worse the thermal
performance of the building envelope.

The U value is defined as being reciprocal of all the resistances of the materials found in the building
element.
The resistance of a building material is derived by the following formula:
R = (1/k) x d
where k is the conductivity of the building material and d is the material thickness.
The formula for the calculation of a U value is
U(element) = 1 / (Rso + Rsi + R1 + R2 ...)
where Rso is the fixed external resistance
where Rsi is the fixed internal resistance
and R1 is the sum of all the resistances of the building materials in the constructional element.

Also by the formula of the trasfer of heat ,Q = mCT

where Q is the quantity of heat transferred to or from the object, m is the mass of the object, C is the specific heat capacity of the
material the object is composed of, and T is the resulting temperature change of the object.

Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 45
Def. -Any urban area which has a tendency to be
warmer than the rural or lesser developed area


Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 46
Source :Mohan et. al.JEP. 2011

There is a decrease in agricultural area of 146.75
sq km. By combining the decrease in crop and
fallow land

The area covered by water bodies has reduced
about 52.9% in 10 yr period
An overall net increase
of 251. 18 sq km.
(16.87%) in built-up
area has been observed
in the last decade.
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 47
Temperature and
humidity measuring
instruments were
installed at 27
micrometerological
stations and 3 weather
stations installed at
rooftop and were
equipped with
instruments used for
recording wind speed
and direction, dry bulb
temperature, RH,
atmospheric pressure
and direct solar
radiation
Source :Mohan et. al.JEP. 2011
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 48
Built up area Green cover Open area Riverside
Dense Urban canopy Medium dense
forest
Medium Dense
Canopy 1 MDUC-I
Parks and
gardens
Medium dense canopy
2;MDUC-II
Less dense canopy
Field experiments carried out in 25-28 may 2008(typical
summer month)

Instruments @ ht of 1.5m from ground facing the south
direction to receive solar rays for max. duration of day
Source :Mohan et. al.JEP. 2011
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 49
Buddha jayanti park-
medium dense forest
Hauz khas distt park-
natural + designed green area
Sitaram bazaar-dense urban canopy
area
Loni- open area
Sailing club
Majnu ka Tila
Green areas
Riverside
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 50
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 51
Source :Mohan et. al.JEP. 2011
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 52
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 53
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 54
Source :Mohan et. al.JEP. 2011
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 55
Source :Mohan et. al.JEP. 2011
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 56
The urban heat island effect is prevalent in Delhi and its magnitude has been
observed to be of the order of about 8C.

Maximum UHI was observed at dense residential and commercial area of Sitaram
Bazar during nighttime. Other stations with highest UHI were Bhikaji Cama,
Connaught Place, and Noida.

Comparison with maximum and average UHI of other cities of the world revealed
that UHI in Delhi is comparable to other major cities of the world such as London,
Tokyo and Beijing.

More field campaigns at higher spatial resolution and longer duration along with
satellite data would provide greater insight .
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 57
The dense commercial zone of Connaught Place-Sitaram Bazar observes higher
temperatures on all experimental days.

The heat island effect develops in the order of Cannaught Place- Sitaram Bazar
zone > Bhikaji Cama zone> Janakpuri Zone.

The maximum UHI intensity of 8.3 C was observed at Sitaram Bazar.

All green areas (IIT-Hauz Khas-Sanjay Van and Buddha Jayanti Park) fall under
cooler pockets on all the days.

Overall heat island intensity has been found to increase from 25th May to 28th
May.

The riverside areas experience higher temperatures than green areas but lower
than those of urban canopies in vicinity
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 58
Source :Indian express , Express Newsline, 25 sept 2009
Source :Hindustan times ,Metro,26 sept 2009
Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 59
Increased energy consumption:
Higher temperatures in summer increase energy demand for cooling and add
pressure to the electricity grid during peak periods of demand.

Compromised human health and comfort
Warmer days and nights, along with higher air pollution levels, can contribute
to general discomfort, respiratory difficulties, heat cramps and exhaustion,
non-fatal heat stroke, and heat-related mortality.

Elevated emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases
Increasing energy demand generally results in greater emissions of air
pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from power plants. Higher air
temperatures also promote the formation of ground- level ozone.
INDIA INTERNATIONAL CENTRE
Architects: Joseph Allen Stein
Year Of Completion: 1960
Typology: Institutional
Area:4.9 acers
Located in the Lodhi institutional area, the India
International Centre (IIC) is a successful example of
the architect having taken maximum advantage of
the desirable micro-climatic conditions prevailing in
that part of the city,
IIC is a cultural centre built for social cultural
interaction. The centre consists of guest rooms,
lounge, dining hall, library, offices and an
auditorium.

The most striking character of the site planning is the use
of a water-body as a micro-climatic modifier .
A huge spray pond along the north-west side of the site is
part of a linear water body. The location of the water-body
is intentional, as the wind flows into the site from the
northwest direction.
Thus, summer winds flow through the spray pond, get
humidified and cool. This cool breeze then flows through
the stilted area at the ground floor level and is trapped in
the central court, thus eliminating any stagnant air under
the stilts.
View of the water body above & stilted
portion below
LAYOUT PLAN, INDIA INTERNATIONAL CENTRE (IIC), NEW DELHI
Drwaing from Building in the Garden by Stephen White. Reprinted with kind permission of Oxford UniversityPress,
New Delhi.
The open spaces created on the site are well related to the scale of the building and partly under
shade of the built-form or the large number of trees planted on the periphery of the site. Thus,
visitors coming to the centre can use these open outdoor spaces during the day in summer.

The area under the stilts corresponds well to the human scale. This semi-open area is always
shaded in summer, while in winter, when the sun angle is shallow, solar radiation penetrates into
these areas.

Area distribution
The site area =24 per cent built- up area with grit, concrete and stone finish,
Pedestrian area in kotah stone= 24%
Soft green area= 54 % and
Water-body= 7%


Taking a look at the shadow patterns generated for summer and winter, the central court is not
shaded by the built-form completely in the morning and the afternoon.
54 per cent of the site is left out as green area which humidifies the summer wind and lowers
the ambient air temperature at the site.
Deciduous trees planted in the central court filter the solar radiation in winter and provide
shade in summer.
Creepers along the external wall of the building also reduce the thermal load on the buildings

METRO STATION NEAR
JAWAHARLAL
NEHRU STADIUM
E

N
S
W















PLANTING
Evergreen trees like Ashoka also contribute in filtration of hot summer winds.
LANDSCAPE FEATURE
Southern facade of the building is screened from the harsh summer sun by extensive use of
metal pipe louvers, concrete and baked clay-tile jaali.
This allows penetration of diffused light into the building, while cutting off the direct solar
radiation to a large extent.
This subsequently helps in lowering the thermal load on the building.
E

N
S
W

The guest house is oriented
towards the northeast and allows
the south sun into the court which
is specially desirable in the
winter." The combination of linear
and curvilinear forms of the
buildings helps in trapping the
monsoon winds coming from the
south-east.

HOT-ARID REGIONS
Objectives
Maximize shade for late morning and afternoon solar radiation.

Orient active living areas to the south east to collect early morning sun.
Glass areas should face south with properly designed overhangs.
East and west windows should be avoided to minimize radiation with low sun angles.
Cluster buildings and utilize solar panels for shade.


Maximize desirable air movements

Maximize the humidity and cooling effects
of evaporation across water bodies.


Bodies of water offer the oppurtunity to plan for the
cooling effects of evaporation
(source: energy conservation)
DESIGN CONCLUSIONS



Locate activities on the leeward side of water bodies.
Orient all activities to the north and east of structures.
Use extensive coarse textured deciduous, coniferous shade trees and vines.
Provide shade on the south side of all activities and areas.
Do not block or curtail down-hill airflow.
Use moveable overhangs, awnings and canopies during the day which may be moved
aside at night to allow for release of the trapped warm air.
extensive turf and ground covers throughout the kite.
Use a minimum of hard, paved surfaces. Shade all paved surfaces with structural or
vegetational canopies.
use raised decks for paving where possible, in the direction of prevailing wind.
Use vines, shade trees or canopies over all exposed wall surfaces.
Prune lower growth on all trees to all increased air circulation.
Use extensive overhead planting to slow evaporation.
Use heavy coniferous screens or windbreaks in multiple rows for optimum vegetational
Windbreak


Delsy Rose Thomas Landscape resources, Semester III SPA, New Delhi 68
Microclimate and vegetation :role of shelterbelts and their design considerations
By Dr. Surinder Suneja
Climatological constraints for site planning by Kavas Kapadia
The role of plants in Climate responsive design Prepared by rana saqa
Design with climate by Victor Olgay
Energy conservation by : Gary O. Robinette-
Unpublished Landscape dissertation Role of landscape elements to induce
microclimate by
Stuti Jasoria (2012)