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IB Visual Arts

Student
Handbook
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IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
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Welcome to the 2014-2015 Art year at Al Bateen. ou !ill
"ro! in many !ays this year# and your Art and $orms o$ %isual
e&'ression !ill increase in s(ill and meanin". )lease (ee'
your Visual Arts *ournal !ith you at home and at school so
that you may ma(e notes in it re"ularly !hen you are
ins'ired +y other artists# styles# and,or e&'eriences.
-emem+er to read throu"h your entire Visual Art .and+oo(
and do not hesitate to as( us i$ you ha%e any /uestions0 1his
is the (ey to your success in this class so ma(e yoursel$
$amiliar !ith the e&'ectations0 We are loo(in" $or!ard to
!or(in" !ith each o$ you and hel'in" to ma(e this year 'i%otal in your artistic and
'ersonal de%elo'ment. 2n3oy the ad%enture0
"# The Basics
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
During the IB course you will explore three diferent sections-
Part 1: Comparative Study (20%)
An independent critical and contextual investigation that explores artworks, objects and artefacts from
differing cultural contexts
The CS is not an extended essay: it is an investigative comparison that should strike a balance between
visual and written content. There are many forms this could take.
The requirements for the CS
The pages submitted examine and compare at least three artworks at least two of which need to be by
different artists.
The work selected for comparison should come from contrasting contexts (local, national, international
andor intercultural!. "deally students should see one of the works first hand.
#cknowledge sources$
This is assessed on screen and should be presented accordingly.
SL 10-15 pages, HL 10-15 Pages + 3-5 Pages which analy%e the extent to which their work has been
influenced by the art and artists examined.
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
Part 2: The Process Portfolio
A documentation of the students artistic experience during the course, both visual and written.
Students submit carefully selected materials which show their experimentation, exploration, manipulation
and refinement of a variety of visual arts activities during the two&year course. 'ages from the (isual
)ournal can be included here, as can unresolved pieces, documenting the development of ideas and
artwork. *y take on the '' is a bit like a selection of "+, pages and some related studio work that shows
the development of ideas, both visual and written.
SL students submit 918 pages
HL students submit 1325 pages
Part : The !"hi#ition
Students present a body of work accompanied by reflection showing critical understanding and awareness
of context.
Students submit for assessment a selection of resolved artworks from their final exhibition. The selected
pieces should show evidence of their technical accomplishment during the visual arts course and an
understanding of the use of materials, ideas and practices appropriate to visual communication.
The assessed re-uirements are a written .curatorial rational. (a sort of artists statement, a bit like the old
candidate statement!, a series of artworks appropriately documented, and an exhibition text.
The $isual %rts &ournal
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
1hrou"hout the course students at +oth S4 and .4 are re/uired to maintain a %isual arts
3ournal. 1his is their o!n record o$ the t!o years o$ study and should +e used to
document:
5 the de%elo'ment o$ art-ma(in" s(ills and techni/ues
5 e&'eriments !ith media and technolo"ies
5 'ersonal re6ections
5 their res'onses to 7rst-hand o+ser%ations
5 creati%e ideas $or e&'loration and de%elo'ment
5 their e%aluations o$ art 'ractices and art-ma(in" e&'eriences
5 their res'onses to di%erse stimuli and to artists and their !or(s
5 detailed e%aluations and critical analysis
5 records o$ %alued $eed+ac( recei%ed
5 challen"es they ha%e $aced and their achie%ements.
Students should +e encoura"ed to 7nd the most a''ro'riate !ays o$ recordin" their
de%elo'ment and ha%e $ree choice in decidin" !hat $orm the %isual arts 3ournal should
ta(e. 1he aim o$ the %isual arts 3ournal is to su''ort and nurture the ac/uisition o$ s(ills
and ideas# to record de%elo'ments# and to criti/ue challen"es and successes. It is
e&'ected that much o$ the !ritten !or( su+mitted $or the assessment tas(s at the end o$
the course !ill ha%e e%ol%ed and +een dra!n $rom the contents o$ the %isual arts 3ournal.
ou !ill need to com'lete 5 or more IWB 'a"es each !ee(. 8ost o$ this !ill +e done in
your study 'eriods or at home. By the end o$ 9ecem+er you !ill ha%e o%er 50 'a"es
com'leted0 Some !ee(s you !ill 7nd you are a+le to do more than 5 'a"es +ecause o$
your !onder$ul ideas. 2&cellent +ut that does not mean the ne&t !ee( you do not ha%e
to do any0 -emem+er# holidays are a "reat o''ortunity to collect in$ormation# s(etch#
record and de%elo' ideas# es'ecially i$ you are in another country.
By the end o$ the course# you should aim to ha%e t!o thic( Visual Art *ournals com'leted.
Self$Assess!ent
ou !ill +e %ery much in%ol%ed in assessin" your o!n !or( e%ery month# re$errin" to the
IB assessment criteria in detail. ou !ill also recei%e comments $rom me that are use$ul in
sho!in" +oth your stron" 'oints and remindin" you o$ areas !here im'ro%ements are
needed.
1here !ill +e re"ular o''ortunities $or you to discuss and e&'lain your !or( and ideas in
"rou' discussions. ou !ill also +e as(ed to comment u'on other IB students: !or(.
Su!!ar%#
Visual Art &ournal at least ' pa(es e)er% *eek+ i.e. independent stud%!
Studio *ork at least one piece per !onth!
Self$Assess!ent e)er% !onth!
,# -ettin( Started
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
Art ./uip!ent
9urin" the school day# you !ill +e a+le to use the Art Studio $acilities and e/ui'ment at
any time. .o!e%er# much o$ your !or( !ill also +e done outside school# durin" the
e%enin"s# !ee(ends# and holidays. ;or this reason# you must collect as !ide a ran"e o$
art media as 'ossi+le# to hel' you de%elo' and 'ractice your s(ills in your o!n time. A
su""ested starter:s list !ould +e:
2SS2<1IA4:
A4 s'iral- or hard+ound s(etch+oo( !ith "ood /uality 'a'er
2B# 4B# =B# >B s(etchin" 'encils
?ood /uality eraser
?lue Stic(
-2@A882<929:
)ac( 12 & colour 'encils
Blac(# +lue and red B"el: or +iro 'ens
)ac( C= & oil 'astels
)ac( 1> & acrylic 'aints
<o.5 and <o.D siEe 'aint+rushes
<o.20 siEe 'aint+rush
I$ you e&'ect to +e doin" lots o$ 'aintin" at home# in%est in lar"er tu+es o$ acrylic 'aint
that can +e +ou"ht indi%idually. 100ml tu+es o$ )e+eo and 8aster Art +rand acrylic are
"ood %alue. Chromacryl# Daler Rowney and System +rands are +etter /uality 'aints# +ut
a little more e&'ensi%e.
1ry to "et as many o$ these items as you can# and add to your su''ly o$ art materials
!hen you are a+le to. 1he 7rst $our items on the list are ur"ent 'urchases 'lease +uy
these as /uic(ly as 'ossi+le0
Settin( up a *ork space 0not essential+ but useful!1
It !ould +e a real ad%anta"e i$ you ha%e enou"h s'ace to create a Bmini-studio: at home.
1his !ill mean that it is much easier $or you to !or(# as your art e/ui'ment !ill al!ays +e
out and ready $or you !hen ins'iration stri(es and any !et !or( can +e le$t to dry
o%erni"ht etc. In addition to all your art e/ui'ment# it should include:
1. A lar"e 6at ta+le sur$ace and com$orta+le chair.
2. A "ood source o$ natural li"ht and,or a +ri"ht des( lam' Fo%erhead li"hts tend to
cast annoyin" shado!s onto your !or( at ni"htG. ou can e%en +uy Bdayli"ht: +ul+s
$or des( lam's0
C. A 12H mirror# i$ you:re interested in 'roducin" sel$ 'ortraits.
Visual Art &ournal
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
These are working journals o your lie as an artist o!er the next two years"
hat is the si2e of an ideal &ournal3
ou !ill !or( in an A4 s(etch+oo( !ith reasona+ly thic( !hite cartrid"e 'a'er. ou !ill +e
!or(in" on +oth sides o$ the 'a'er# so there !ill +e a+out 40 'a"es in it.
Ho* do I start3
)ut your name and address For school addressG inside the $ront co%er. A 'hone num+er or
email address is essential you don:t !ant to lose it0 Ah yes# also 'ut the date. 1hen
lea%e the 7rst 'a"e +lan(# this can +e used as a ta+le o$ contents later. <o! num+er
each 'a"e on the +ottom ri"ht. ou !ill +e usin" +oth sides o$ A44 the 'a"es.
-ood *orkin( habits
o #ork in your $ournal every day "et into the ha+it# startin" today. Se%eral "ood IWB
sessions s'read throu"hout the !ee( are al!ays +etter than hours o$ rushed !or(
late at ni"ht0 -emem+er that dra!in" and desi"nin" your 'a"es !ill +e an e&cellent
creati%e +rea( $rom other ty'es o$ academic study you should en3oy it: it:s !hy
you:%e chosen this course# ri"htI0
o #hen you %nish working in your *ournal $or the day al!ays 'ut the date# includin" the
year. 1his is so that your 'ro"ress throu"hout the course can +e clearly seen.
o #hen you write in your $ournal al!ays use a +lac( 'en# and !rite clearly. 1his is
+ecause I !ill need to +e a+le to read it# and you !ill ha%e to 'hotoco'y 'a"es to
send to the IB art e&aminers. ou should try to ma(e your *ournal a 'leasure to loo( at
and read0 Don&t use coloured 'ens to !rite !ith# unless it:s really a''ro'riate to your
!or( Fi.e. your main theme is Bstron" colours:0
o 'e!er e!er cut or tear pages out $rom your *ournal0 9on:t stic( 'a"es to"ether e%en i$
you ha%e made !hat you thin( is a mista(e or a terri+le dra!in". 1he *ournal has to
sho! mista(es# "ood !or( and %ery im'ortantly your de%elo'ment as an artist o%er a
'eriod o$ time i$ you hide your !ea(er !or(# ho! can the e&aminer see ho! much
you ha%e im'ro%edI
o (ou remem)er you num)ered the pages* 1his ma(es it easy to re$er +ac( to an idea
or thou"ht. ;or instance# on '.=0 you mi"ht s(etch an idea and remem+er that you
did somethin" similar +e$ore. ou could then !rite: J1he dra!in" on '.2K could
+ecome a lino'rint# see my notes on 'rintin" '.4=.H Also remem+er to cross-re$erence
it on 'a"es 2K and 4=0
o #hen drawing something rom o)ser!ation !rite do!n !here you are and !hy you
ha%e chosen to dra! it. 8a(e notes on the !eather or li"ht i$ a''ro'riate. A
'hoto"ra'h o$ the su+3ect can +e %ery use$ul i$ you are "oin" to de%elo' the s(etch
into a 'aintin" or scul'ture. Al!ays ta(e your camera0
o I you ha!e used a )ook or the Internet to 7nd an ima"e or in$o al!ays !rite do!n the
$ull re$erence in your *ournal you may need to 7nd the in$ormation a"ain at a later
date. 1he same idea "oes $or ma"aEine articles# tele%ision 'ro"rammes and 7lms.
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
Sources o$ in$ormation must al!ays +e ac(no!led"ed e%en 'ostcards $rom
e&hi+itions that you stic( in your *ournal.
4e!e!ber# hard *ork (enerates e5cite!ent and ener(%# ha)e fun and (o for
it!
Visual *ournal @ont.
Help! *hat should I *rite about in !% Visual Arts &ournal3
o 1here should +e !ritten comments on e%ery 'a"e o$ your *ournal# e%en i$ you 3ust
!rite the date0
o ou should ma(e comments on your $eelin"s# ho! your !or( is 'ro"ressin" and !hat
successes you ha%e had. ou should also !rite a+out any research or technical
'ro+lems you ha%e encountered Fe.". ho! to create a realistic C9 Bs'ace: in a dra!in"G
and ho! you ha%e sol%ed these.
o ou should ma(e comments on your attitudes a+out li$e# social# cultural and 'olitical
concerns. 1hin( a+out the +i" !orld outside school and IB0 1he Visual Arts *ournal is
yours# so it should re6ect your +elie$s0 1hese comments can +e related to Art you are
researchin" or art!or( that you are 'roducin".
o ou should !rite a+out any connections you mi"ht see +et!een Art and your other IB
su+3ects: 4iterature# Science# 1AL etc. 8a(e lin(s across the curriculum and $ollo! u'
your ideas0 ;or instance# the study o$ +lood cells in Biolo"y mi"ht ins'ire some 'rints o$
tiny natural o+3ects# the contour lines or "rids in ma's $rom ?eo"ra'hy mi"ht +e
com+ined into landsca'e dra!in"s# the descri'tion o$ characters in a no%el mi"ht
ins'ire a series o$ ima"inati%e 'ortraits etcM.
o ou should ma(e notes on !hich materials you ha%e used in your studio !or(
e&'eriments. 1he ty'e o$ 'a'er# the ty'e o$ medium# !hat ty'e o$ "lue "i%es the +est
results# !hich clay you used and ho! !et it !as etc. 1his !ill sa%e you a lot o$ time
!hen later you need a s'eci7c result0
o When tryin" out any ne! mediumN in(s# "ra'hite# chal( 'astel# oil +ars etc.
e&'eriment !ith it# 7nd out !hat you can do !ith it F+y dra!in" in your -WBG and ma(e
notes a+out !hat you disco%er. Ima"ine that you are carryin" out a scienti7c
e&'eriment and recordin" your results.
Ho*e)er6.
When you are !ritin" in your Visual Arts *ournal# don:t $or"et that the IB is an academic
course and that your !ritten notes should re6ect that. 9escri+e your $eelin"s# successes
and $ailures# comment u'on your o!n 'ro"ress and your ideas a+out li$e +ut 9A<:1 use
slan" or in$ormal 2n"lish0 -emem+er that this is your IWB# +ut it:s not +ein" !ritten $or
your $riends an IB e&aminer !ill +e readin" it0
Al!ays try to use the correct Art %oca+ulary in your Visual Arts *ournal. 4oo( at
!!!.artle&.com $or a "reat e&am'le o$ an Art-s'eci7c dictionary online. 1here are some
'a"es e&'lainin" art %oca+ulary later in this +oo(let.
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
Studio ork#
This is all the larger scale +%nished& artwork that you will produce outside your ,isual -rts
$ournal.
8ore to come a+out this as the course 'ro"resses0
7# ritin( About Art
Writin" a+out Art!or(s 9o:s and 9on:ts
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
Dont Do
rite essa%s on the artist8s life
histor%6
F9ate o$ +irth# $a%ourite $oot+all team
etc..G Anyone !ith 2ncarta could do
this. A $e! +io"ra'hical details are
use$ul# +ut are not essential.
9ake notes on *h% %ou8re lookin( at this
artist6
What you admire# !hat you don:t ho! this
artist:s !or( relates to your Studio Wor(. 8a(e
your research 'ersonal to your 'articular
'ro3ect.
:hotocop% loads of art*orks 6
M And stic( them into your IWB !ith
no !ritten analysis or other
in$ormation.
;hoose one or t*o good art*orks 6
M Annotate them and ma(e co'ies o$ them Fto
'ractice +rush techni/ue# colour mi&in" or
somethin" similarG.
M And $or"et to !rite the titles do!n0 M Include the artist:s name# title o$ the
art!or(# year# medium and !here you $ound it
F!e+ address or +oo( title and 'a"eG.
Treat %our IB like an e5ercise
book 6
9on:t 'roduce +loc(s o$ !ritin"#
underlined# !ith no %isual
consideration or interest.
Think about %our research in a )isual
*a%6
Ose colour# headin"s and ima"es to
com'lement your notes. @om'ose the 'a"es
so that they loo( interestin" and %aried.
rite *ithout checkin( the facts!
6
8a(e sure that you are accurate a+out
dates# media used and
es'ecially the "ender o$ your
chosen artist0
<se the correct )ocabular%6
i.e. Btone& is more accurate that Bli"ht and
shado!:. -emem+er that at IB le%el# you !ill
+e assessed on the /uality o$ your !ritten
!or(0 9on:t +e a$raid to use ad3ecti%es#
es'ecially !hen e%aluatin" an art!or( F"i%in"
your o'inionG.
:la(iarise6
FInclude /uotations $rom other !riters
as i$ they are your o!n !ordsG.
1his is al!ays o+%ious to the
reader.
Include one or t*o relevant /uotations6
F2.". the artist !ritin" a+out his , her ideas A-
a !ell-(no!n criticG and al*a%s use /uotation
mar(s. Include the name o$ the 'erson !ho you
are /uotin" and !rite do!n !here you $ound it.
ritin( ter!s and techni/ues6 tasks %ou *ill be asked to co!plete#
To
annotate
1o ma(e short notes e&'lainin" or clari$yin" a 'oint or dra!in" the
%ie!er:s attention to somethin" o$ rele%ance Fe.". Bthe !ide ran"e o$
tones here adds drama and interest:G.
To anal%se
0see ne5t
pa(e1
1o loo( closely and in detail at an art!or(# notin" do!n as many points as
you can a+out the 'iece. 1hese 'oints mi"ht co%er thin"s li(e:
o @om'osition Fthe or"anisation o$ sha'es !ithin the !or(G
o Ose o$ colour , tone
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
o 8edium used Foil 'aint# 'hoto"ra'hy# 'astelG
o 8ood or emotion created
o @ontent , narrati%e F!hat:s ha''enin" in this art!or(I Is there a
storyIG
o Issues co%ered Fi.e. 'olitical# social# reli"ious issuesIG
To
co!pare
and
contrast
1o analyse t!o or more art!or(s at once# $ocusin" on the similarities and
diPerences +et!een them. 1his is o$ten easier than analysin" a sin"le
art!or(.
To
e)aluate
1o ma(e 'ersonal 3ud"ements a+out the art!or( and to gi!e your reasons
i.e. 9o you li(e the art!or(I WhyI What is "ood a+out itI What is not so
"oodI 1he reasons $or this !ill# o$ course# come $rom your analysis.
Anal%sin( Art*orks# A Step$b%$Step -uide
;ollo! these ste'sN ans!er all the /uestions and you can:t "o !ron"0
-emem+er that your o!n dra!in"s,co'ies o$ the art!or( should accom'any A44
!ritten analysis.
"# =irst 4eaction
Write do!n your 7rst res'onse to the
art!or(.
o 9o you li(e itI
o .o! does it ma(e you $eelI
o 9oes it remind you o$ anythin" you
ha%e seen +e$oreI
,# Description
4ist !hat you can see in this art!or(.
o ;i"ures# colours# sha'es# o+3ects#
+ac("round etc.
o Ima"ine you are descri+in" it to a +lind
'erson. 9o this in as much detail as
'ossi+le.
7# =or!al Anal%sis
Write do!n your o+ser%ations in more
detail# loo(in" at these s'eci7c as'ects o$
the art!or(:
;olours#
o Which ty'e o$ palette has the artist
used: is it +ri"ht or dull# stron" or
!ea(I
o Are the colours mostly com'lementary#
'rimary# secondary or tertiaryI
o Which colourFsG are used most in this
art!or(I
o Which colourFsG are used least in this
art!or(I
o Are the colours used diPerent !ays in
diPerent 'arts o$ the art!or(I
o .a%e the colours +een a''lied 6at#
Bstrai"ht $rom the tu+e:# or ha%e
diPerent colours +een mi&edI
Tones#
o Is there a use o$ li"ht , shado! in this
art!or(I
o Where is the li"ht comin" $romI Where
are the shado!sI
o Are the $orms in the art!or(
realistically modelled Fdoes it loo( C9GI
o is there a !ide ran"e o$ tonal contrast
F%ery li"ht hi"hli"hts and %ery dar(
shado!sG or is the tonal ran"e /uite
narro! Fie mostly similar tonesGI
<se of !edia#
o What medium has +een used Foil 'aint#
acrylic# charcoal# clay etcGI
o .o! has the artist used the medium
ie is the 'aint a''lied thic( or thinI
.o! can you tellI
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
o @an you see +rushstro(es# mar(ma(in"
or te&tureI 9escri+e the sha'e and
direction o$ the +rushstro(es , mar(s.
What siEe o$ +rush , 'encil !as usedI
o Was it 'ainted# dra!n# scul'ted
/uic(ly# or slo!ly and 'ainsta(in"lyI
What ma(es you thin( thisI
;o!position 0or(anisation of shapes1#
o What ty'e o$ sha'es is used in this
art!or( Fie rounded# cur%ed# strai"ht-
ed"ed or "eometric sha'esGI
o Is there a mi&ture o$ diPerent ty'es o$
sha'es or are all the sha'es similarI
o Are some 'arts o$ the com'osition $ull
o$ sha'es and some 'arts em'ty# or
are the sha'es s'read e%enly across
the art!or(I
o Are some sha'es re'eated or echoed
in other 'arts o$ the art!or(I
o 9oes the !hole com'osition loo( $ull o$
ener"y and mo%ement# or does it loo(
still and 'eace$ulI .o! did the artist
create this mo%ement,stillnessI
o What is the centre o$ interest in the
com'ositionI
o .o! does the artist dra! your
attention to itI
9ood > .!otion#
o What do you thin( the artist !anted
you to $eel !hen you loo( at this
art!or(I
o What has he,she used to create a
moodI F1hin( a+out colour# sha'e#
tone etc.G
o .o! has he,she succeeded in creatin"
this moodI F;or e&am'le# stron" %i%id
colours mi"ht +e used to create a 3oy$ul
or an"ry mood in an art!or(#
de'endin" u'on ho! the artist has
used themG.
o @ould the same mood ha%e +een
created in a diPerent !ayI .o! could
you chan"e thisI
?# Interpretation
<o! !rite do!n your personal thou"hts
a+out the !or(: there are no Bri"ht: or
B!ron": ans!ers here0
o What do you thin( the artist is tryin" to
say in this art!or(I What does it
meanI
o What is the main theme or idea +ehind
this 'ieceI
o I$ you !ere inside this art!or(# !hat
!ould you +e $eelin" , thin(in"I
o 9oes the art!or( ha%e a narrati%e Ftell
a storyGI Is it a reli"ious art!or(I
o Is it a+stractI Is it realisticI WhyI
o .o! !ould you e&'lain this art!or( to
someone elseI
'# .)aluation
Based u'on !hat you ha%e o+ser%ed
already# "i%e your o'inion o$ the art!or(.
ou 8OS1 "i%e reasons. /g0
o J;ranE 8arc has created an ePecti%e
e&'ressi%e 'aintin"# +ecause the hot
colours and li%ely +rushmar(s he has
used add to the o%erall $eelin" o$
ener"y and e&citement he is tryin" to
create.H
o J1he o%erall mood o$ this dra!in"
!ould +e im'ro%ed i$ Lathe Lollo!itE
had used stron"# dramatic shado!s#
instead o$ 3ust 'ale tones. 9ar( tones
!ould de%elo' the $eelin" o$ $ear and
loneliness in this ima"e.H
o J)icasso has used shar'# sta++in"#
"eometric sha'es in some areas o$ his
com'osition to create a sense o$
%iolence and distress !ithin B?uernica:.
1hese ma(e the 7"ures and animals
seem more %ulnera+le# as i$ in 'ain
and suPerin" !hile under attac(.H
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
ritin( about :aintin( @ A (lossar% of useful ter!s#
o Alla :ri!a the 'aint is a''lied in one layer onlyN there are no under-layers or o%er-
!or(in". 1he !or( o$ the ;au%es !as o$ten alla-'rimaN their ener"etic# s'ontaneous
style suited this method o$ !or(in".
o -estural A loose# ener"etic a''lication o$ 'aint !hich relies on the artist:s
mo%ements to ma(e e&'ressi%e mar(s on the can%as. 1his is su''osed to +e a %ery
'ersonal and uni/ue !ay o$ !or(in" - almost li(e hand!ritin". 4oo( at artists li(e @y
1!om+ly or Antoni 1a'ies $or e&am'les.
o -la2e 0or ash1 a semi-trans'arent layer o$ thinned 'aint. 8any traditional 'ainters
li(e 8ichaelan"elo made use o$ this techni/ue to create the su+tle tones o$ s(in or
$a+ric. ;or a more modern use o$ the "laEin" techni/ue# loo( at the a+stract# "estural
'aintin"s o$ .elen ;ran(enthaler.
o I!pasto a thic( layer o$ 'aint# o$ten a''lied in se%eral layers !ith a +rush or 'alette
(ni$e. 4oo( at the dense# te&tural +rush!or( o$ 'aintin"s +y artists li(e ?illian Ayres
or ;ran( Auer+ach.
o :lein$aire a 'aintin" !hich has +een made outside# o$ten /uite /uic(ly# to co'e !ith
chan"in" !eather# li"ht ePects etc. 1he Im'ressionists !ere the 7rst artists to 'aint
outdoors# rather than in their studios. Be$ore this# ho!e%er# many artists had
s(etched outdoors in 're'aration $or 'aintin"N the oil s(etches o$ @onsta+le are an
e&cellent e&am'le.
o :ointillist the use o$ many tiny dots o$ 'ure colour !hich seem to B+lend: !hen seen
at a distance. ?eor"es Seurat:s !or( is the most $amous e&am'le o$ this almost-
scienti7c techni/ue. 4oo( also at the 'aintin"s o$ his 'u'il# )aul Si"nac.
o Scu!blin( a thin "laEe o$ 'aint dra""ed o%er a diPerent colour# so that +oth layers
o$ 'aint can +e seen# "i%in" a luminous# "lo!in" ePect. A+stract 'ainters li(e 8ar(
-oth(o made use o$ this techni/ue.
o Sfu!ato literally means Bsmo(ed: in ItalianN the use o$ hea%y# dar( tones to su""est
mystery and atmos'here. -em+randt:s late sel$-'ortraits are a su'er+ e&am'le o$
this techni/ue in 'ractice.
o Sketch A /uic( 'aintin"# o$ten made in 're'aration $or the B7nal %ersion:. See also
B'lein-aire:.
ABrush*ork8
1he !ay in !hich the artist uses the +rush to a''ly 'aint. Brush!or( can +e loose1
energetic1 controlled1 tight1 o)sessi!e1 repetiti!e1 random etc.
A:alette8
1. A !ooden or 'lastic tray# used $or mi&in" colours !hen ma(in" a 'aintin".
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
2. 1he choice o$ colours in a 'aintin" ie B%an ?o"h uses a 'ure and %i%id palette in his
Arles landsca'es:.
ATone8 or Atonal8
1. 1he elements o$ li"ht and shado! in an art!or( ie BLathe Lollo!itE:s etchin"s use
stron"# dense tones to create an intense# sorro!$ul mood.
2. 1he ran"e o$ tones !ithin an art!or( ie B-em+randt:s later 'ortraits use a %ery dar(
tonal range&.
ASupport8 1he sur$ace that a 'aintin" or dra!in" is 'roduced on. Su''orts can +e
'a'er# card# !ood# can%as# metal etc. ie BAntoni 1a'ies:s 'aintin"s sometimes loo( as i$
they ha%e +een attac(ed. 1he support is o$ten %iolently torn# ri''ed and sta++ed into.:
ritin( about ;olour @ A (lossar% of useful ter!s#
o :ri!ar% colours# red# yello! and +lue. )rimary colours can +e used to mi& a !ide
ran"e o$ colours. 1here are cool and warm 'rimary colours. Fie !arm cadmium red
and cool %ermilion red A- !arm 'rimary yello! and cool lemon yello!.
o Secondar% colours# oran"e# "reen and 'ur'le. Secondary colours are mi&ed +y
com+inin" t!o 'rimary colours.
o ;o!ple!entar% colours# 'airs o$ o''osite colours on the colour !heel: "reen-red#
+lue-oran"e and yello!-'ur'le. @om'lementary colours are as contrastin" as 'ossi+le
Fie there is no yello! at all in the colour 'ur'leG. )ainters li(e Andre 9erain and %an
?o"h o$ten made use o$ the contrasts o$ com'lementary colours in their 'aintin"s.
o Tertiar% colours# A !ide ran"e o$ natural or neutral colours. 1ertiary colours are
created +y mi&in" t!o com'lementary colours to"ether. 1ertiary colours are the
colours o$ nature: s(in# 'lants# !ood# stone etc.
o Tones# are created +y addin" +lac( to any colour. Fie maroon is a tone o$ redG.
o Tints# are created +y addin" !hite to any colour. Fie 'in( is a tint o$ redG.
o :alette# the choice o$ colours an artist ma(esN ie BVan ?o"h uses a %i%id palette to
'aint his Arles landsca'es:.
o Li!ited palette# the selection o$ only a $e! colours !ithin an art!or(N ie BIn this
dra!in"# 8atisse has used a limited 'alette o$ ultramarine +lues and 'ur'les to create
a moody# su+dued atmos'here.:
o Broad palette# the use o$ a !ide ran"e o$ diPerent colours !ithin an art!or(N ie
BLandins(y:s 'aintin"s are instantly reco"nisa+le $or their use o$ "eometric sha'es# +ut
also $or the +road 'alette o$ colours he em'loys.:
o Tonal ran(e# the ran"e o$ tones in an art!or( $rom li"ht to dar(. A !ide tonal ran"e
!ould include all tones $rom !hite to +lac(. A narro! tonal ran"e !ould include only
'ale tones# only mid tones or only dar( tonesN ie BLathe Lollo!itE:s etchin"s ma(e
'o!er$ul use o$ a narro! tonal ran"e to create o''ressi%e# dar( ima"es.:
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
o Opacit%# the density or thic(ness o$ the colour usedN i$ the colour is stron" and
nothin" can +e seen +eneath it# the colour is said to +e o'a/ue. Acrylic and oil colours
are o$ten o'a/ue.
o Transparenc%# thin# trans'arent colour# !ith 'erha's other colours# sha'es and lines
%isi+le +eneath it. Watercolour 'aintin"s ty'ically use trans'arent colour.
o <seful adBecti)es %ou !i(ht use *hen describin( ;OLO<4#
Saturated# +ri"ht# 'ure# %i%id# stron"# harsh# dramatic# %i+rant# +rilliant# intense# and
'o!er$ul.
8uted# su+tle# "entle# dull# so$t# !atery# su+dued# delicate# "loomy# tertiary# $aded# and
limited.
ritin( About ;ultural Values Attached To The Arts
<seful ter!s to consider#
When the arts o$ the 'ast are seen in museums# they are ePecti%ely detached $rom the
li$e o$ the culture !ithin !hich they ori"inated. I$ you only see these art o+3ects in +oo(s
or 'hoto"ra'hs# it is %ery diQcult to see them as a Breal: 'art o$ a li%in" culture. 1o +e"in
to understand the meanin"s %arious arts had $or the societies they came $rom# consider
the $ollo!in" %alues:
4.LI-IO<S VAL<.S# Arts !ere o$ten essential to the +elie$ systems o$ many culturesN
$or e&am'le: statues o$ "ods,deities# tem'les# icons# altar'ieces# mas(s# music# dances
etc.
SO;IAL VAL<.S# Arts o$ten sym+olised "rou' identity and 'rideN $or e&am'le: +anners#
headdresses# tattooin"# 6a"s# chants# anthems etc.
:SC;HO$.9OTIODAL# Arts sometimes 'ro%ided assurance o$ the continuity o$ li$eN $or
e&am'le: 'ortraits# e'ic 'oetry# mytholo"ical tales# hymns etc.
<S.=<L or :4A;TI;AL VAL<.S# Art !as o$ten an inte"ral as'ect o$ $unctional o+3ects#
+oth in sha'e and decorationN $or e&am'le: (ni%es# 'ottery# lam's# +uildin"s etc.
S.DS<AL VAL<.S# Arts 'ro%ided a direct source o$ sensual 'leasure and 'erha's an
intrinsically aesthetic res'onseN $or e&am'le: te&tiles# clothin"# scul'ture# music etc.
.D<;ATIODAL VAL<.S# Arts !ere $re/uently a means o$ transmittin" the %alues#
attitudes and history o$ a cultureN $or e&am'le: ca%e 'aintin"# $rescoes# illuminated
manuscri'ts# e'ic 'oetry# historic drama# tri+al dance etc.
D.;O4ATIV. VAL<.S# Arts !ere used to enhance 'eo'le:s a''earance or to +eauti$y
the en%ironmentN $or e&am'le: 3e!ellery# !all-han"in"s# ta'estries# clothin" etc.
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
;O99<DI;ATIOD VAL<.S# Arts reached the illiterate $or !hom the !ritten !ord !as
meanin"lessN $or e&am'le: $rieEes# stained "lass !indo!s# mosaics etc.
AD .EA9:L.#
8edie%al cathedrals inte"rated most o$ the %alues a+o%e.
The cathedrals were the ocus o the religious lie o the community e!en as they were
)eing )uilt )y hundreds o ordinary people and skilled cratsmen o!er long periods o
time. The towers sym)olically rose high a)o!e the town and1 within the walls1 the
sculpture and stained glass windows stirred the emotions o the aithul. 2rocessions
with )anners1 chants and the 3ass1 with its music1 poetry and drama1 integrated the arts
and !alues o the culture. -ll o this ga!e meaning and continuity to the otherwise
impo!erished li!es o the common people.
?# Assess!ent
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
IB Visual Arts : 2014-2015 Al Bateen Secondary School
In 8arch , A'ril o$ ear 12# you !ill or"anise an e&hi+ition o$ your !or( !hich co%ers
e%erythin" you ha%e 'roduced durin" the !hole IB course.
We !ill "o throu"h the assessment criteria in detail durin" the duration o$ the course.
* -emem+er these t!o years are a chance to "et to (no! yoursel$ on a much
dee'er le%el. Also remem+er to ha%e $un