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Chapter 2 Problem 8

The problem is to express the series in closed form


f =sin
1
3
sin2
1
5
sin3
Using the identity
e
i
=cos i sin
We can rewrite this in terms of exponentials
f =
[
e
i

1
3
e
2i

1
5
e
3i

]
Let
g=e
i

1
3
e
2i

1
5
e
3i

Let
z=e
i
g z=z
1
3
z
2

1
5
z
3

Let
p= z
And finally we have or series in a form that we can wor!
with
g p=p
2

1
3
p
"

1
5
p
#

g p=p
[
p
1
3
p
3

1
5
p
5

]
$ow lets ma!e one more fnction definition% let
h p=p
1
3
p
3

1
5
p
5

Ta!ing the derivative we have


d h p
dp
=1p
2
p
"
=
1
1p
2
&ntegrating both sides
h p=

1
1p
2
dp=tanh
1
pC
1
We can evalate the constant of integration by sing the fact
that
h'='=C
1
(o we have
h p=tanh
1
p
(bstitting this bac! in to try to wor! bac! p to or original
problem we have
g p=p tanh
1
p
g=e
i

2
tanh
1

e
i

cos

i sin

tanh
1

cos

i sin

)st for the sa!e of my sanity let


x=cos

y=sin

And we have the e*ation


g xi y= xi y tanh
1
xi y
Than!flly there is an e*ation that can simplify this if we
+st loo! to e*ation ,22-2 in or trsty copy of .wight/s and
we reali0e that the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a complex
variable has the simple relation
tanh
1
xiy=
1
"
ln
[
1x
2
y
2
1x
2
y
2
]

i
2
tan
1
[
2y
1x
2
y
2
]
After a little bit of algebra we end p at the reslt
g xiy=
x
"
ln
[
1x
2
y
2
1x
2
y
2
]

y
2
tan
1
[
2 y
1x
2
y
2
]
i
[
y
"
ln
[
1x
2
y
2
1x
2
y
2
]

x
2
tan
1
[
2 y
1x
2
y
2
]
]
$ow if we +st ta!e the imaginary part of this we are left with
f =
sin

"
ln
[

1cos

2
sin
2

1cos

2
sin
2

cos

2
tan
1
[
2sin

1cos
2

sin
2

]
This can simplify down a bit
f =
sin

"
ln
[
22cos

22cos

cos

2
tan
1

And +st a bit frther


f =
1
"
sin

ln
[
22cos

22cos

"
cos

And we finally have a reasonably nice loo!ing closed form


soltion for the original problem