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07/07/14 TC - Turkish Language Lessons

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Introduction
Grammar
Turkish grammar is simplistic once you get used to the style. However, it can seem to be very difficult since the grammatical
structure is totally different from the Indo-European languages. This is because Turkish is from a different language family called
Ural-Altaic languages. Some languages similar to Turkish are Finnish, Hungarian, Estonian, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Kazak,
Uzbek, Tatar, Manchu. Compared to English, the most fundamental differences in Turkish grammar can be listed as:
Ordering of sentence parts
A typical Turkish sentence is ordered as (subject + object + verb)
Arkadam [My friend --> subject] araba [car -->object] ald [bought-->verb].
No gender
There are no articles in Turkish, and no gender associated with words
No gender in personal pronouns (the Turkish word for he, she and it is o)
Vowel harmony
Harmony of vowels is a very fundamental property of Turkish. The rules concerning vowel harmony need to be
learned as one of the first steps because they affect the way almost all the other rules are applied.
Use of suffixes
Suffixes are very widely used in Turkish. The meaning of prepositions, personal pronouns and tenses are all countered
by adding suffixes to word roots.
Kalbimdesin [You are in my heart]
Once you get to these differences and learn the basic harmony rules, the rest of the grammar is quite simple. Almost everything
follows well defined, simple rules.
Sounds
Another important point is the way you read a written text. There is exactly one sound for each character in Turkish. A character
always represents the same sound, regardless of its position in a word or the characters next to it. Therefore, it is straightforward to
pronounce a word that you see for the first time once you are familiar with the characters in the Turkish alphabet.
Vocabulary
Once you are comfortable or at least familiar with the harmony rules, the main challenge will be the vocabulary. Turkish vocabulary
can be very challenging since the words have no resemblance to the European languages except the few words adapted directly
from these languages.
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