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abril, 97

LA TRANSFORMACIN
DE LA
NATURALEZA EN ARTE
ANANDA K. COOMARASWAMY
__________________
CAPTULO I
LA TEORA DEL ARTE EN ASIA
Tadbhavatu krtrthat vaidagdhyasya ,
Mlat,mdhava, I, 32 f.
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
En las sigi!nt!s "#ginas s! "$!s!nta na
!%"&si'i(n d! la t!&$)a !st*ti'a &$i!ntal +asada
"$in'i"alm!nt! !n f!nt!s indias , !n "a$t! 'hinas-
al mism& ti!m"&, "&$ m!di& d! n&tas ,
&+s!$va'i&n!s &'asi&nal!s, s! &f$!'! na +as!
"a$a na t!&$)a g!n!$al d!l a$t! '&&$dinand& l&s
"nt&s d! vista &$i!ntal , &''id!ntal. Si!m"$! .!
s! haga $!f!$!n'ia al a$t! !$&"!& a m&d& d!
'&nt$ast! & !l'ida'i(n, d!+! $!'&$da$s! .! !l
/a$t! !$&"!&0 !s d! d&s ti"&s m, dif!$!nt!s,
n& '$istian& , !s'&l#sti'&, !l &t$& "&st1
$!na'!ntista , "!$s&nal. R!slta$# s2'i!nt!m!nt!
!vid!nt! d! n!st$& !nsa,& s&+$! E'3ha$t, , "&d$)a
ha+!$ .!dad& igalm!nt! 'la$& "&$ n !stdi& d!
St&. 4&m#s , ss f!nt!s, .! h+& n ti!m"& !n
.! E$&"a , Asia "&d)an , d! h!'h& s! !nt!nd)an
"!$f!'tam!nt!. Asia ha "!$man!'id& la misma-
"!$& s+s!'!nt!m!nt! a la !%t$&v!$si(n d! la
'&ns'i!n'ia !$&"!a , a s "$!&'"a'i(n d! las
s"!$2'i!s, ha ll!gad& a s!$ 'ada v!5 m#s dif)'il
"a$a las m!nt!s !$&"!as "!nsa$ !n l&s t*$min&s
d! nidad, , "&$ tant& m#s dif)'il '&m"$!nd!$ !l
"nt& d! vista asi#ti'&. Es "&si+l! .! !l d!sa$$&ll&
mat!m#ti'& d! la 'i!n'ia m&d!$na, , 'i!$tas
t!nd!n'ias '&$$!s"&ndi!nt!s !n !l a$t! m&d!$n&
!$&"!& "&$ na "a$t!, , la "!n!t$a'i(n d!l
"!nsami!nt& , a$t! asi#ti'& !n !l m!di& &''id!ntal
"&$ &t$a, "!dan $!"$!s!nta$ la "&si+ilidad d! n
rapprochement $!n&vad&. 6a "a5 , f!li'idad d!l
mnd& d!"!nd!n d! !sta "&si+ilidad. 7!$& "&$ !l
m&m!nt&, !l "!nsami!nt& asi#ti'& a"!nas ha sid&,
, a"!nas "!d! s!$, "$!s!ntad& !n la f$as!&l&g)a
!$&"!a sin dist&$si(n, , l& .! s! llama la
a"$!'ia'i(n d!l a$t! asi#ti'& s! +asa
"$in'i"alm!nt! !n int!$"$!ta'i&n!s 'at!g($i'as
falsas. N!st$& "$&"(sit& !n !l "$!s!nt! v&lm!n
!s '&t!8a$ n&s '&n &t$&s l&s "nt&s d! vista
abril, 97
2
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
asi#ti'&s , !$&"!&s v#lid&s, n& '&m&
'$i&sidad!s, sin& '&m& $!"$!s!ntant!s d! na
9ni'a v!$dad d! h!'h& ! indis"!nsa+l!- n&
int!ntand& "$&+a$ '&n ningna a$gm!nta'i(n l&
.! d!+!$)a s!$ mani2!st& "a$a la '&ns'i!n'ia d!
l&s int!lig!nt!s :sacetas m anubhavah
pram nam tatra kevalam! .
El al'an'! d! !st! !%am!n s(l& "!$mit! na
+$!v! $!f!$!n'ia al a$t! m&hamm!dian&; la
!st*ti'a isl#mi'a s(l& "&d$)a "$!s!nta$s! "&$ n
at&$ !m+!+id& !n la 2l&s&f)a a$#+iga ,
familia$i5ad& '&n la lit!$at$a s&+$! la 'alig$af)a, la
"&*ti'a , la l!gitimidad d! la m9si'a. 7!$& ha d!
s!<ala$s! d! "asada .! !st! a$t! isl#mi'&, .! d!
tant&s m&d&s !nla5a al &$i!nt! '&n &''id!nt!, ,
.!, sin !m+a$g&, "&$ s 'a$#'t!$ ani'(ni'& "a$!'!
!n'&nt$a$s! !n &"&si'i(n a am+&s, !n $!alidad
div!$g! d! *st&s n& tant& !n l&s "$in'i"i&s
fndam!ntal!s '&m& !n la int!$"$!ta'i(n lit!$al.
7!s !l nat$alism& !s &"!st& al a$t! $!ligi&s& d!
t&d&s l&s ti"&s, al a$t! d! t&d& ti"&, , !l !s")$it d!
la "$&hi+i'i(n isl#mi'a t$adi'i&nal '&n'!$ni!nt! a la
$!"$!s!nta'i(n d! las f&$mas vivas n& s! inf$ing!
$!alm!nt! '&n tal!s $!"$!s!nta'i&n!s id!al!s '&m&
s! !n'!nt$an !n la i'&n&g$af)a india & '$istiana, &
!n la "int$a d! animal!s 'hina. 6a "$&hi+i'i(n
mhamm!diana s! $!2!$! a tal!s $!"$!s!nta'i&n!s
nat$alistas .!, t!($i'am!nt!, !n !l D)a d!l =i'i&,
"&d$)a $!.!$i$s! .! fn'i&nas!n +i&l(gi'am!nt!-
"!$& !l i'&n& indi& n& !st# '&nst$id& '&m& "a$a
fn'i&na$ +i&l(gi'am!nt!, , !l i'&n& '$istian& n&
"!d! '&n'!+i$s! '&m& m&vid& "&$ ningna &t$a
'&sa .! s f&$ma- , ha+land& !st$i'tam!nt! 'ada
n& d!+!$)a, s!$ '&nsid!$ad& '&m& n ti"& d!
diag$ama .! !%"$!sa 'i!$tas id!as, , n& '&m& la
s!m!8an5a d! nada s&+$! la ti!$$a.
abril, 97
3
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
E%amin!m&s ah&$a l& .! !s a$t! , l& .! s&n
l&s val&$!s d!l a$t! d!sd! n "nt& d! vista
asi#ti'&, !s d!'i$ "$in'i"alm!nt! indi& , !%t$!m&
&$i!ntal. S!$# nat$al "&n!$ !l ma,&$ *nfasis !n la
India, "&$.! la dis'si(n sist!m#ti'a d! l&s
"$&+l!mas !st*ti'&s s! ha d!sa$$&llad& m'h& m#s
all) .! !n China, d&nd! t!n!m&s .! d!d'i$ la
t!&$)a d! l& .! ha sid& di'h& & h!'h& "&$ l&s
"int&$!s, m#s +i!n .! d! na d&'t$ina "$&"!sta
"&$ l&s 2l(s&f&s & l&s $!t($i'&s.
En "$im!$ lga$, !nt&n'!s, !n'&nt$am&s
'la$am!nt! $!'&n&'id& .! !l !l!m!nt& f&$mal !n
!l a$t! $!"$!s!nta na a'tividad "$am!nt!
m!ntal, citta-sa
>
. D!sd! !st! "nt& d! vista,
a"a$!'!$# '&m& +astant! nat$al .! la India ha,a
d!sa$$&llad& na t*'ni'a d! la visi(n altam!nt!
!s"!'iali5ada. El at&$ d! n i'&n&, ha+i!nd&
!liminad& "&$ l&s dif!$!nt!s m!di&s "$&"i&s d! la
"$#'ti'a d!l Y&ga las "!$t$+ad&$as in?!n'ias d!
las !m&'i&n!s fgitivas , d! las im#g!n!s d! las
'$iat$as, v&lnta$ia , !%"$!sam!nt!, "$&'!d! a
visali5a$ la f&$ma d!l devata, #ng!l & as"!'t& d!
Di&s, d!s'$it& !n na "$!s'$i"'i(n 'an(ni'a dada,
s dhana , mantram, dhy na . 6a m!nt! /"$&1
d'!0 & /at$a!0 @ karsati A
2
!sta f&$ma ha'ia s)
misma, '&m& si f!s! d!sd! na g$an distan'ia. Es
d!'i$, 9ltimam!nt! d!sd! !l Ci!l&, d&nd! l&s ti"&s
d!l a$t! !%ist!n !n &"!$a'i(n f&$mal-
inm!diatam!nt!, d!sd! !l /!s"a'i& inman!nt! !n
!l '&$a5(n0 @antar-hrdaya- k a A
3
, !l f&'&
'&m9n @samst va , /'&n'&$dia0A
B
d!l v!!d&$ , l&
vist&, d&nd! ti!n! lga$ la 9ni'a !%"!$i!n'ia
"&si+l! d! la $!alidad
C
. El as"!'t&1d!1"$!5a1d!l1
v!$dad!$&1'&n&'imi!nt& @j na-sattva-r pa _ A as)
'&n'!+id& , '&n&'id& int!$i&$m!nt! @antar-jeyaA
s! $!v!la a s) mism& '&nt$a !l !s"a'i& @ k a A
id!al '&m& n $!?!8& @pratibimbavatA, & '&m& si
abril, 97
4
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
f!$a vist& !n n s!<& @svapnavatA. El imagin!$&
d!+! $!ali5a$ na '&m"l!ta at&1id!nti2'a'i(n '&n
*l @ tm nam dhy y t , & bh vayet A,
'al!s.i!$a .! s!an ss "!'lia$idad!s
@n n laksanlamkrtam A, a9n !n !l 'as& d! s!%&
&"!st& & 'and& la divinidad !st# "$&vista d!
'a$a't!$)sti'as s&+$!nat$al!s t!$$i+l!s- la f&$ma
as) '&n&'ida !n n a't& d! n&1dif!$!n'ia'i(n,
mant!nida !n vista tant& ti!m"& '&m& s!a
n!'!sa$i& @evam r pam y vad icchati t vad _
vibh vayet A, !s !l m&d!l& d!sd! !l 'al *l "$&'!d!
a la !8!''i(n !n "i!d$a, "igm!nt&, &t$&
mat!$ial
D
.
El "$&'!s& !nt!$&, hasta !l m&m!nt& d! la
manfa't$a, "!$t!n!'! al &$d!n !sta+l!'id& d! las
d!v&'i&n!s "!$s&nal!s, !n !l .! s! $ind! 'lt& a
na imag!n '&n'!+ida m!ntalm!nt! @dhy tv
yajetA- !n 'al.i!$ 'as&, !l "$in'i"i& im"l)'it& !s
.! !l v!$dad!$& '&n&'imi!nt& d! n &+8!t& n& s!
&+ti!n! m!$am!nt! "&$ la &+s!$va'i(n !m")$i'a &
!l $!gist$& $!?!8& @pratyaksaA, sin& s(l& 'and& !l
'&n&'!d&$ , l& '&n&'id&, !l v!!d&$ , l& vist&, s!
!n'!nt$an !n n a't& .! t$as'i!nd! la distin'i(n
@anayor advaitaA. 7a$a $!ndi$ 'lt& d! v!$dad a n
Eng!l n& d!+! d!v!ni$ !l Eng!l; /.i!n ad&$a a
na divinidad '&m& a &t$& .! a s) mism&,
"!nsand& FGl !s n&, , ,& &t$&H, n& sa+!0,
Brhad ranyaka Upanisad , I.B.>I.
El "$&'!dimi!nt& "&$ "a$t! d!l imagin!$&,
!s+&5ad& a$$i+a, im"li'a na '&m"$!nsi(n $!al d!
la "si'&l&g)a d! la inti'i(n !st*ti'a.
J!n!$ali5and&, 'al.i!$ &+8!t& .! "!da s!$ !l
t!ma !l!gid& & asignad& al a$tista d!vi!n! ah&$a !l
9ni'& &+8!t& d! s at!n'i(n , d!v&'i(n- , s(l&
'and& !l t!ma ha d!v!nid& as) "a$a *l na
!%"!$i!n'ia inm!diata "!d! s!$ !%"!st&
at&$i5adam!nt! d!sd! !l '&n&'imi!nt&. En
abril, 97
5
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&nf&$midad '&n !st&, !l l!nga8! d!l Y&ga "!d!
!m"l!a$s! a9n !n !l 'as& d! n $!t$at&, "&$
!8!m"l& M lavikgnimitra , II.2, d&nd!, n&
ha+i!nd& '&ns!gid& !l "int&$ alg& d! la +!ll!5a
d!l m&d!l&, !st& s! at$i+,! a na $!la8a'i(n d! la
'&n'!nt$a'i(n, a na a+s&$'i(n im"!$f!'ta,
ithila-sam dhi , n& a na falta d! &+s!$va'i(n.
In'ls& 'and& s! ha d! m&d!la$ n 'a+all& d! l&
viv& a9n !n'&nt$am&s !m"l!ad& !l l!nga8! d!l
Y&ga; /ha+i*nd&s! '&n'!nt$ad&, d!+! "&n!$s! a
t$a+a8a$0 @dhy tv kury t A, ukran tis ra , ,
IK.L.L3.
A.), 'i!$tam!nt!, !l a$t! !$&"!& , asi#ti'& s!
!n'!nt$an !n n t!$$!n& a+s&ltam!nt! '&m9n-
s!g9n E'3ha$t, !l "int&$ di!st$& m!st$a s a$t!,
"!$& n& !s a s) mism& a .i!n n&s $!v!la, , !n las
"ala+$as d! Dant!, /Mi!n "inta na 2g$a, si *l
n& "!d! s!$la, n& "!d! "inta$la0, hi pinge
!gura" si non pu# esser lei" non la pu# porre
L
.
Na+$)a .! a<adi$ .! la id!a d!l Y&ga n& a+a$'a
sim"l!m!nt! !l m&m!nt& d! la inti'i(n, sin&
tam+i*n d! la !8!''i(n; !l Y&ga !s d!st$!5a !n la
a''i(n, karmasu kau ala , Bhagavad $ t , , II.CI.
As), "&$ !8!m"l&, !n la m!t#f&$a d! an3a$O' $,a
d!l ha'!d&$ d! ?!'has /.! n& "!$'i+! nada m#s
all# d! s t$a+a8& 'and& !st# !nt!$$ad& !n *l0, ,
!l di'h&, /h! a"$!ndid& la '&n'!nt$a'i(n d!l
ha'!d&$ d! ?!'has0. 6as "ala+$as yoga, a"li'a'i(n,
!stdi&, "$#'ti'a, , yukti, !8!''i(n, "!$i'ia,
vi$t&sidad, s! san a m!nd& !n $!la'i(n '&n las
a$t!s.
Pna d!$iva'i(n id!al d! l&s ti"&s .! han d! s!$
$!"$!s!ntad&s & h!'h&s "&$ !l a$tista hman& s!
a2$ma a v!'!s d! &t$& m&d&, "!s t&das las a$t!s
s! '&n'i+!n '&m& d! &$ig!n divin&, , '&m&
ha+i!nd& sid& $!v!ladas & t$a)das d! &t$& m&d& d!l
Ci!l& a la 4i!$$a; /n!st$&s aiva gamas `
abril, 97
6
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!ns!<an .! la a$.it!'t$a d! n!st$&s t!m"l&s
!s t&da Kail sa+h van , !s d!'i$ d! f&$mas
"$!d&minant!s !n Kail sa0. Pna d!'la$a'i(n m,
n&ta+l! d! !st! "$in'i"i& s! !n'&nt$a$# !n %itareya
Br hmana , KI.2L; /Es !n imita'i(n @anukritiA d! las
&+$as d! a$t! @ ilp ni A ang*li'as @devaA '&m&
t&da &+$a d! a$t! @ ilpa A s! !8!'ta @adhigamyateA
a.)- "&$ !8!m"l&, n !l!fant! d! a$'illa, n &+8!t&
d! +$&n'!, na "$!nda d! v!sti$, n &+8!t& d! &$&,
, n 'a$$& d! mlas s&n obras de arte. Pna &+$a d!
a$t! @ ilpa A, 'i!$tam!nt! @haA, s! !f!'t9a !n a.*l
.! '&m"$!nd! !st&. 7!s !stas &+$as d! a$t!
@ang*li'asA @ ilp ni , a sa+!$, l&s t!%t&s m*t$i'&s
il"aA s&n n int!g$a'i(n d!l S) mism& @ tma-
samskrtiA- , "&$ !ll&s, d! la misma man!$a, !l
sa'$i2'ad&$ s! int!g$a as) mism& @ tm nam
samskuruteA !n !l m&d& d!l $itm& @chandomayaA0.
C&$$!s"&ndi!nd& a !st& ha, m'h&s "asa8!s d!l
Rg K!da !n l&s .! !l a$t! d! la !n'anta'i(n
@mantraA s! '&m"a$a '&n !l d! n t!8!d&$ &
'a$"int!$&. A v!'!s s! '&nsid!$a al a$tista '&m&
visitand& alg9n 'i!l&, , vi!nd& all) la f&$ma d!l
#ng!l & la a$.it!'t$a .! ha, .! $!"$&d'i$ !n
la ti!$$a- a v!'!s s! ha+la d!l a$.it!'t& '&m&
'&nt$&lad& "&$ Ki va3a$ma, &$iginalm!nt! n
n&m+$! !s!n'ial d!l A$t)2'! S"$!m&, m#s ta$d!
sim"l!m!nt! d!l ma!st$& a$.it!'t& d! l&s
#ng!l!s, , !l "at$(n d! l&s a$t!san&s hman&s- &
"!d! '&nsid!$a$s! a Ki va3a$ma '&m&
asmi!nd& *l mism& la f&$ma d! n a$.it!'t&
hman& "a$a "$&d'i$ na &+$a "a$ti'la$- & la
f&$ma $!.!$ida "!d! s!$ $!v!lada !n n s!<&
Q
.
N& ha, .! ha'!$ tam"&'& ningna distin'i(n
d! ti"& '&m& !nt$! +!llas a$t!s , a$t!s d!'&$ativas,
li+$!s & s!$vil!s, !n $!la'i(n '&n !st&. 6a lit!$at$a
india n&s "$&"&$'i&na nm!$&sas listas d! las
di!'i&'h& & m#s a$t!s "$&f!si&nal!s @ ilpa A , d!
abril, 97
7
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
las s!s!nta , 'at$& a$t!s av&'a'i&nal!s @kalA- ,
*stas '&m"$!nd!n t&d& ti"& d! a'tividad di!st$a,
d!sd! la m9si'a, la "int$a , !l a$t! d! t!8!$ a la
!.ita'i(n, !l a$t! 'lina$i& , la "$#'ti'a d! la
magia, sin distin'i(n d! $ang&, "!s t&das s&n
igalm!nt! d! &$ig!n ang*li'&
R
.
Es "!s !vid!nt!, , a9n l& s!$# m#s, .! t&das
las f&$mas d!l a$t! indi& , ss d!$ivad&s !n !l
!%t$!m&1&$i!nt! !st#n d!t!$minadas id!alm!nt!.
D!+!m&s da$ ah&$a ma,&$ "$!'isi(n a !sta
a2$ma'i(n, !%aminand& l& .! s! im"li'a !n Asia
"&$ s!m!8an5a & imita'i(n, , '#l !s la nat$al!5a
d! l&s ti"&s asi#ti'&s. 7&$ 9ltim& !sta$!m&s !n
sita'i(n d! '&nsid!$a$ la t!&$)a f&$mal d! la
!%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a.
En "$im!$ lga$ '&n $!s"!'t& a la
$!"$!s!nta'i(n @ krti , s dr ya , 'hin& &sing-ss_,
BD>L, >I2QR, , 'u-hsing, >2LLL, BD>LA , a la
imita'i(n @anuk ra , anukarana anukrtiA,
!n'&nt$am&s a2$mad& .! /s dr ya !s !s!n'ial
a la misma s+stan'ia @pradh na A d! la "int$a0
(isnudharmottara, S6II.BQ- la "ala+$a s! ha
t$ad'id& n&$malm!nt! "&$ /s!m!8an5a0, , "!d!
ll!va$ !st! s!ntid&, "!$& s! m&st$a$# m#s a+a8&
.! !l signi2'ad& im"li'ad& "$&"iam!nt! !s alg&
m#s '&m& /'&$$!s"&nd!n'ia d! l&s !l!m!nt&s
f&$mal!s , $!"$!s!ntativ&s !n !l a$t!0. En !l d$ama
n&s !n'&nt$am&s '&n d!2ni'i&n!s tal!s '&m&
lokavrtta-anukarana, /sigi!nd& !l m&vimi!nt& @&
la &"!$a'i(nA d!l mnd&0, , yo )yam svabh vo
lokasya n tyam ity abhidhiyate
>I
, /.! d!signa
la nat$al!5a int$)ns!'a d!l mnd&0- & tam+i*n, l&
.! ha d! !%hi+i$s! !n la !s'!na !s avasth na ,
/'&ndi'i&n!s0, & /sita'i&n!s !m&'i&nal!s0, & !l
h*$&!, R ma, & !l s!m!8ant!, !s '&nsid!$ad&
'&m& !l m&d!l&, anuk rya
>>
. En China, !n !l t!$'!$
'an&n d! Nsi!h N&, t!n!m&s, /C&nf&$m! a la
abril, 97
8
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
nat$al!5a @'u, >2LLLA ha5 la f&$ma @hsing,
BD>LA0-
>2
, la f$as! '&m9n "&st!$i&$ hsing-ss_,
/f&$ma1s!m!8an5a0, "a$!'! d!2ni$ !l a$t! d!l
mism& m&d& '&m& na imita'i(n d! la Nat$al!5a.
En =a"(n, S!ami, !l g$an at&$ , '$)ti'& d!l NT,
a2$ma .! las a$t!s d! la m9si'a , la dan5a
'&nsist!n !nt!$am!nt! !n imita'i(n @monomaneA
>3
.
Sin !m+a$g&, si s"&n!m&s .! t&d& !st&
im"li'a na '&n'!"'i(n d!l a$t! '&m& alg& .!
+s'a s "!$f!''i(n !n las a"$&%ima'i&n!s m#s
'!$'anas "&si+l!s a la ilsi(n !sta$!m&s m,
!.iv&'ad&s. S! v!$# !n s!gida .! n&s
!.iv&'a$)am&s igalm!nt! al s"&n!$ .! !l a$t!
asi#ti'& $!"$!s!nta n mnd& /id!al0, n mnd&
/id!ali5ad&0 !n !l s!ntid& "&"la$ @s!ntim!ntal,
$!ligi&s&A d! las "ala+$as, !s d!'i$, "!$f!''i&nad& &
$!m&d!lad& l& m#s "$(%im& "&si+l! al d!s!& d!l
'&$a5(n- .! !ll& f!$a as) "&d$)a d!s'$i+i$s! '&m&
na +lasf!mia '&nt$a !l t!stim&ni& d! la 7!$f!'ta
E%"!$i!n'ia, , na ')ni'a d!"$!'ia'i(n d! la vida
misma. En'&nt$a$!m&s .! !l a$t! asi#ti'& !s id!al
!n !l s!ntid& mat!m#ti'&; '&m& la Nat$al!5a
@natura naturansA, n& !n la a"a$i!n'ia @a sa+!$ la
d! ens naturataA, sin& !n la &"!$a'i(n.
D!+! '&m"$!nd!$s! .! d!sd! l&s "nt&s d!
vista indi& @m!taf)si'&A , !s'&l#sti'&, l& s+8!tiv& ,
l& &+8!tiv& n& s&n 'at!g&$)as i$$!'&n'ilia+l!s-
ningn& d! am+&s d!+! '&nsid!$a$s! '&m& $!al
'&n !%'lsi(n d!l &t$&. 6a $!alidad @satyaA s+sist!
all) d&nd! l& int!ligi+l! , l& s!nsi+l! s! !n'!nt$an
!n la nidad '&m9n d!l s!$, , n& "!d! "!nsa$s!
'&m& !%isti!nd& !n s) misma f!$a , a"a$t! d!,
sin& m#s +i!n como, '&n&'imi!nt& & visi(n, !s
d!'i$, s(l& !n a't&. 4&d& !st& !st# tam+i*n
im"l)'it& !n la d!2ni'i(n !s'&l#sti'a d! la v!$dad
'&m& adae*uatio rei et intellectus, la id!ntidad
s!g9n A$ist(t!l!s d!l alma '&n l& .! '&n&'!, &
abril, 97
9
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
s!g9n St&. 4&m#s, /!l '&n&'imi!nt& ti!n! lga$ !n
la m!dida .! !l &+8!t& '&n&'id& !st# d!nt$& d!l
'&n&'!d&$0 @+um, Theol. I ..CR a.2A, !n
'&nt$adi''i(n $adi'al '&n la '&n'!"'i(n d!l
'&n&'imi!nt& , !l s!$ '&m& a't&s ind!"!ndi!nt!s,
"nt& d! vista .! !s v#lid& s(l& l(gi'am!nt!,
"!$& n& inm!diatam!nt!. 4$asladand& !st& d! l&s
t*$min&s "si'&l(gi'&s a l&s t*$min&s t!&l(gi'&s,
d!+!$)am&s d!'i$ n& .! Di&s ti!n! '&n&'imi!nt&,
sin& .! C&n&'imi!nt& @Int!l!'t& 7$&, prajA !s
n& d! l&s n&m+$!s d! Di&s @.! !s a't& "$&A- &
m!taf)si'am!nt!, "&$ na id!nti2'a'i(n d!l S!$
@satA '&n la Int!lig!n'ia @citA, '&m& !n la +i!n
'&n&'ida '&n'at!na'i(n sac-cit- nanda @d&nd!
!st# im"l)'it& simila$m!nt! .! !l am&$ s+sist!
s(l& !n !l a't& d! ama$, n& !n !l amant! & !l
amad& sin& !n la ni(nA.
Ah&$a !n 'ant& a s dr ya ; l&s signi2'ad&s
lit!$al!s s&n '&n1visi+ilidad, '&n1similitd-
signi2'ad&s s!'nda$i&s, '&n '&&$dina'i(n,
anal&g)a. M! !l s dr ya !st*ti'& n& im"li'a
nat$alism&, v!$&similitd, ilst$a'i(n & ilsi(n !n
ning9n s!ntid& s"!$2'ial s! m!st$a
s2'i!nt!m!nt! "&$ !l h!'h& d! .! !n las listas
indias d! l&s fa't&$!s !s!n'ial!s "a$a la "int$a
'asi si!m"$! s! m!n'i&na '&n pram na , /'$it!$i&
d! v!$dad0, a.) /"$&"&$'i(n id!al0- !n las t!&$)as
indias d!l '&n&'imi!nt&, la &+s!$va'i(n !m")$i'a
@pratyaksaA, !n 'ant& "$&"&$'i&na s(l& na
"$!+a, , n& !l mat!$ial d! la t!&$)a, s! '&nsid!$a
'&m& !l m!n&s v#lid& !nt$! l&s dif!$!nt!s
pram nas . M#s ad!lant! !%amina$!m&s pram na
m#s am"liam!nt!- +asta$# a.) s!<ala$ .! la
'&nstant! as&'ia'i(n d! s dr ya , pram na !n
las listas d! l&s !l!m!nt&s !s!n'ial!s d! la "int$a,
"&$ !8!m"l& l&s S!is Mi!m+$&s
>B
, !%'l,! !l .!
d!m&s a n& &t$& t*$min& n s!ntid& .!
abril, 97
10
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&nt$adiga llanam!nt! al d!l &t$&. 6a f&$ma id!al ,
la 2g$a nat$al, an.! distintas !n "$in'i"i&, n&
s! '&n'!+)an '&m& in'&nm!ns$a+l!s, sin& m#s
+i!n '&m& '&in'id!nt!s !n la nidad '&m9n d!l
s)m+&l&.
En la R!t($i'a, s dr ya s! ilst$a '&n !l
!8!m"l& /El 8&v!n !s n l!(n0 @Uha$t$mit$a,
%bhidh -vrtti-m trik , ". >L, , '&m9nm!nt!
'itad& !n &t$as "a$t!sA- , !sta anal&g)a d!m!st$a
m, +i!n l& .! s! !nti!nd! $!alm!nt! "&$
/imita'i(n0 !st*ti'a. Kas+andh,
%bhidharmako a , IS, 7&ssin, "". 2QI, 2Q>,
!%"li'a la $!la'i(n d!l '&n&'imi!nt& @vij na A '&n
s &+8!t& di'i!nd& .! !l '&n&'imi!nt& s$g! s(l&
!n !l a't& d! '&n&'!$, "&$ na asimila'i(n
inm!diata @tad k rat A d! s &+8!t&, n&
!%isti!nd& ni !l '&n&'!d&$ ni l& '&n&'id& a"a$t! d!l
a't& d!l '&n&'imi!nt&. 6a nat$al!5a d! la
asimila'i(n @tad k rat A s! ilst$a "&$ !l
s dr ya d! la s!milla , !l f$t&, .! !s d!
'asalidad $!')"$&'a. 6a d!2ni'i(n d! s dr ya d!l
N, ,a1Kai !si3a @'itad& "&$ Das J"ta, &istory
o- .ndian /hilosophy, I.3>QA a sa+!$, tadbhinnatve
sati tadgata-bh yodharmavattvam _ , !s
lit!$alm!nt! /la '&ndi'i(n d! a+$a5a$ !n s) mism&
'&sas d! na nat$al!5a m9lti"l! .! s&n distintas
d! s) mism&0, & m#s +$!v!m!nt! la '&ndi'i(n d! la
/id!ntidad !n la dif!$!n'ia0.
+ dr ya !s "!s /similitd0, "!$& m#s +i!n
tal '&m& s! im"li'a !n /s)mil0 .! !n /simla'$&0.
D! h!'h& !s &+vi& .! la s!m!8an5a !nt$! na
'&sa , na $!"$!s!nta'i(n d! !lla n& "!d! s!$
na s!m!8an5a d! nat$al!5a, sin& .! d!+! s!$
anal(gi'a & !8!m"la$ia, & am+as '&sas. 6& .!
imita la $!"$!s!nta'i(n !s la id!a & la !s"!'i! d! la
'&sa, "&$ la 'al !lla !s '&n&'ida int!l!'talm!nt!,
abril, 97
11
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
m#s .! la s+stan'ia d! la '&sa '&m& !lla !s
"!$'i+ida "&$ l&s s!ntid&s.
Sin !m+a$g& s dr ya , /'&$$!s"&nd!n'ia
visal0, ha sid& mal int!$"$!tada '&m9nm!nt!
'&m& t!ni!nd& .! v!$ '&n d&s a"a$i!n'ias, la d!
la &+$a d! a$t! , la d!l m&d!l&. En $!alidad, s!
$!2!$! a na 'alidad at&1'&nt!nida d!nt$& d! la
&+$a d! a$t! misma, a na '&$$!s"&nd!n'ia d! l&s
fa't&$!s m!ntal!s , s!ns&$ial!s !n la &+$a. Esta
'&$$!s"&nd!n'ia !s 'i!$tam!nt! an#l&ga a la
'&$$!s"&nd!n'ia d! la "!$s&na , la s+stan'ia !n
la '&sa .! ha d! s!$ /imitada0- "!$& !l &+8!t& , la
&+$a d! a$t! !st#n d!t!$minad&s
ind!"!ndi!nt!m!nt!, 'ada n& "a$a s "$&"i&
+i!n, , s&n f)si'am!nt! in'&nm!ns$a+l!s, si!nd&
l& mism& s(l& !n 'ant& al ti"&. + dr ya '&m& !l
t!$$!n& @pradh na A d! la "int$a "!d!
'&m"a$a$s! a s hitya '&m& !l '!$"& @ ar ra , A
d! la "&!s)a, d!2nid& '&ns!'!nt!m!nt! '&m& !l
/'&ns!ns& d!l s&nid& , !l signi2'ad&0
@ abdrtha A, , a s r pya _ , .! d!n&ta la
'&&$dina'i(n as"!'tal d!l '&n'!"t& , !l "!$'!"t&
!s!n'ial "a$a !l '&n&'imi!nt&
>C
. 7&$ '&nsigi!nt!,
!l $!.!$imi!nt& d! s dr ya n& s&lam!nt! n&
!%'l,! !l !l!m!nt& f&$mal !n !l a$t!, sin& .!
a2$ma "&sitivam!nt! la n!'!sidad d! n a'!$d&
d! l&s !l!m!nt&s "i't($i'&s , f&$mal!s. 4&d& !l
"nt& d! vista !s+&5ad& a$$i+a !st# ,a im"l)'it& !n
la 0aus taki Upanisad , , III.Q, d&nd! l&s !l!m!nt&s
s!ns&$ial!s ! int!ligi+l!s @f&$mal!sA d! la
a"a$i!n'ia s! disting!n '&m& bh ta-m tr _ ,
praj -m tr , , s! a2$ma .! /v!$dad!$am!nt!,
d! n& &t$& d! l&s d&s s(l&, ning9n as"!'t&
@r pa _ A s! "$&d'i$)a0.
En 'ant& al d$ama indi&, !l t!ma s! !%hi+! "&$
m!di& d! g!st&s, dis'$s&, indm!nta$ia, , la
ada"ta'i(n nat$al d!l a't&$ al "a"!l- , d! !st&s
abril, 97
12
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'at$&, l&s t$!s "$im!$&s s&n altam!nt!
'&nv!n'i&nal!s, mi!nt$as .! '&n $!s"!'t& al
'a$t& n& s(l& s! m&di2'a f&$malm!nt! la
a"a$i!n'ia d!l a't&$ '&n ma.illa8! ! in'ls& '&n
na m#s'a$a, sin& .! l&s t$atad&s indi&s ha'!n n
*nfasis '&nstant! !n .! !l a't&$ n& d!+! d!8a$s!
a$$ast$a$ "&$ las !m&'i&n!s .! $!"$!s!nta, sin&
.! m#s +i!n d!+! s!$ !l d!<& si!m"$!1
'&ns'i!nt! d!l !s"!'t#'l& d! ma$i&n!tas
$!"$!s!ntad& "&$ s "$&"i& '!$"& !n !l !s'!na$i&.
6a !%hi+i'i(n d! ss "$&"ias !m&'i&n!s n& s!$)a
a$t!
>D
.
En 'ant& al 'u-hsing , hsing-ss_ 'hin&s,
"&d$)an ad'i$s! na mltitd d! "asa8!s "a$a
m&st$a$ .! n& !s la a"a$i!n'ia @hsingA !%t!$i&$
'&m& tal, sin& m#s +i!n la id!a @i, C3DLA !n la
m!nt! d!l a$tista, & !l !s")$it divin& inman!nt!
@sh1n, RQ>RA, & !l s&"l& d! la vida @ch)i, >IDBA, !l
.! ha d! s!$ $!v!lad& "&$ n s& '&$$!'t& d! las
f&$mas nat$al!s. N& s(l& t!n!m&s !l "$im!$ 'an&n
d! Nsi!h N&, .! a2$ma .! la &+$a d! a$t! d!+!
$!v!la$ /la &"!$a'i(n @y2n, >3Q>LA d!l !s")$it
@ch)iA !n !l m&vimi!nt& d! la vida0, sin& tam+i*n
di'h&s tal!s '&m& /7&$ m!di& d! 2g$a @hsingA
nat$al $!"$!s!nta !l !s")$it divin& @sh1nA0, /6&s
"int&$!s d! anta<& "inta+an la id!a @iA , n&
sim"l!m!nt! la 2g$a @hsingA0, /Cand& Cha& 45!
YVn "inta, an.! da "&'as "in'!ladas, !%"$!sa la
id!a @i, C3DLA ,a '&n'!+ida- la sim"l! ha+ilidad
@kung, DCC3A n& "!d! $!ali5a$ @n1ngA !st&0
@3stasiatische 4eitschri-r, NW.Q, ". >IC, t!%t& BA, &
'&n $!f!$!n'ia a n "!$)&d& d!g!n!$ad&, /Es&s
"int&$!s .! d!s'idan la 2g$a @hsingA nat$al ,
as!g$an la id!a f&$mativa @i chih, C3DL, >LQ3A s&n
"&'&s0, /6& .! la *"&'a !nti!nd! "&$ "int$as !s
!l "a$!'id& @ss_A0, , /6a f&$ma !$a s!m!8ant!
@hsing-ss_A, "!$& la !%"$!si(n @y2n, >3QB3A d*+il0.
abril, 97
13
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
El NT 8a"&n*s, .! /"!d! m&v!$ !l '&$a5(n
'and& n& s(l& la $!"$!s!nta'i(n sin& !l 'ant&, la
dan5a, la m)mi'a , la a''i(n $#"ida s&n t&d&s
!liminad&s, '&m& si la !m&'i(n +$&tas! d! la
.i!s'!n'ia0, !s d! h!'h& !l m#s f&$mal , m!n&s
nat$alista d! t&d&s l&s ti"&s d! d$ama !n !l
mnd&.
Ningn& d! l&s t*$min&s 'itad&s, "!s, im"li'a
!n m&d& algn& na visi(n d!l a$t! .! !n'!nt$a
s "!$f!''i(n !n la ilsi(n- "a$a !l &$i!nt!, '&m&
"a$a St&. 4&m#s, ars imitatur naturam in sua
operatione.
El "$in'i"i& m#s d!sta'ad& !n l&s t$atad&s
indi&s '&m& !s!n'ial al a$t! !s pram na
>L
. 6as
t!&$)as indias d!l '&n&'imi!nt& '&nsid!$an '&m& la
f!nt! d! la v!$dad n& la "!$'!"'i(n !m")$i'a
@pratyaksaA sin& n m&d!l& '&n&'id& int!$i&$m!nt!
@antarjeya-r pa _ A /.! al mism& ti!m"& da f&$ma
al '&n&'imi!nt& , !s la 'asa d!l '&n&'imi!nt&0
@Dign ga, k rik DA, $!.i$i*nd&s! s(l& .! tal
'&n&'imi!nt& n& '&nt$adiga a la !%"!$i!n'ia. S!
a"$!'ia$# .! *st! !s tam+i*n !l m*t&d& d! la
'i!n'ia, .! d! m&d& s!m!8ant! sa !l
!%"!$im!nt& m#s '&m& la "$!+a .! '&m& la
f!nt! d! la t!&$)a. /ram na '&m& "$in'i"i& !s la
"!$'!"'i(n at&1!vid!nt! ! inm!diata @svatahA d!
l& .! !s '&$$!'t& +a8& nas '&ndi'i&n!s dadas.
C&m& ind!"!ndi!nt! d! la m!m&$ia, pram na n&
"!d! id!nti2'a$s! '&n la at&$idad, "!$& "!d!
in'&$"&$a$ !l!m!nt&s d!$ivad&s d! la at&$idad,
'and& s! '&nsid!$a n& '&m& "$in'i"i& sin& '&m&
'an&n. C&m& n& '&nt$a$i& a la !%"!$i!n'ia,
pram na signi2'a l& .! !s /v!$dad!$&0 a.) ,
ah&$a, "!$& "&d$)a n& s!$ '&$$!'t& a la l5 d! na
!%"!$i!n'ia m#s am"lia & +a8& '&ndi'i&n!s
m&di2'adas- !n &t$as "ala+$as, n& s! !%'l,! !l
d!sa$$&ll& d! na t!&$)a, ni !l d!sa$$&ll& d! n
abril, 97
14
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
di+8& !n !l '$s& d! la !8!''i(n. 6a d&'t$ina
"!d! ha'!$s! tam+i*n m#s 'la$a "&$ la anal&g)a
d! la '&ns'i!n'ia, !l /inXit0 angl&sa8(n, !nt!ndid&
a9n '&m& n '$it!$i& int!$n& .! al mism& ti!m"&
da f&$ma a la '&nd'ta , !s la 'asa d! la
'&nd'ta. 7!$& mi!nt$as la '&ns'i!n'ia &''id!ntal
&"!$a s(l& !n !l t!$$!n& d! la *ti'a, , !n 'ant& al
a$t! n h&m+$! n& s! av!$gV!n5a d! d!'i$ /,& s&l&
s* l& .! m! gsta0, la '&ns'i!n'ia &$i!ntal,
pram na , 'f. !l chih, >LC3, liang, LI>C, ch1ng,
L2I @sad& "&$ NsVan 4sangA, i, C3DL, !t'. 'hin&s,
g&+i!$na t&das las f&$mas d! a'tividad, m!ntal,
!st*ti'a , *ti'a @speculabilium" -actibilium"
agibiliumA. 6a K!$dad, la U!ll!5a , !l Am&$ '&m&
a'tividad!s , "&$ tant& $!lativas, !st#n "!s
'&n!'tadas "&$ anal&g)a , n& "&$ s!m!8an5a, , n&
d!$ivan s san'i(n nas d! &t$as, sin& 'ada na d!
n "$in'i"i& d! &$d!n '&m9n inh!$!nt! !n la
nat$al!5a d! Di&s, & !n t*$min&s 'hin&s d!l Ci!l&
, la 4i!$$a. R!smi!nd&, pram na , signi2'a !n
2l&s&f)a la n&$ma d!l "!nsami!nt& di$igid&
'&$$!'tam!nt!, !n la *ti'a la n&$ma d! la a''i(n
di$igida '&$$!'tam!nt!, !n !l a$t! la n&$ma d!l
di+8& '&n'!+id& '&$$!'tam!nt!, , !n la "$#'ti'a la
recta ratio -actibilium d! St&. 4&m#s.
6a id!a d! pram na im"li'a as) la !%ist!n'ia d!
ti"&s & a$.!ti"&s, .! !n na "$im!$a
'&nsid!$a'i(n "&d$)an '&m"a$a$s! '&n l&s d!
7lat(n , la t$adi'i(n !$&"!a d!$ivada. 7!$&
mi!nt$as l&s ti"&s "lat(ni'&s s&n ti"&s d! s!$,
!%t!$n&s al niv!$s& '&ndi'i&nad& , '&nsid!$ad&s
'&m& a+s&lt&s $!?!8ad&s !n l&s f!n(m!n&s, l&s
ti"&s indi&s s&n l&s d! la a'tividad s!n'i!nt! &
tilidad fn'i&nal '&n'!+i+l!s s(l& !n n mnd&
'&nting!nt!. 6&s ti"&s &$i!ntal!s, !l iva1 a3ti
indi&, !l Yang , Yin, & !l Ci!l& , la 4i!$$a 'hin&s, n&
s! '&nsid!$an '&m& $!?!8ad&s m!'#ni'am!nt! !n
abril, 97
15
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
l&s f!n(m!n&s, sin& '&m& $!"$!s!ntand& "a$a
n!st$a m!ntalidad l&s "$in'i"i&s &"!$ativ&s "&$
l&s .! /!%"li'am&s0 l&s f!n(m!n&s :al igal
.!, "&$ !8!m"l&, !l '&n'!"t& d! la distan'ia m#s
'&$ta !nt$! d&s "nt&s "!d! d!'i$s! .!
/!%"li'a0 la !%ist!n'ia d! na l)n!a $!'ta
"!$'!"ti+l!. As) l&s ti"&s indi&s .! $!"$!s!ntan
s!n'i!n'ias & "&t!n'ias s&n an#l&g&s a l&s d! la
t!&l&g)a !s'&l#sti'a , a las !n!$g)as d! la 'i!n'ia,
"!$& n& '&m"a$a+l!s '&n l&s ti"&s d! 7lat(n.
Al igal .! la '&ns'i!n'ia s! !%t!$nali5a !n las
$!glas d! '&nd'ta, & l&s "$in'i"i&s d!l
"!nsami!nt& !n la l(gi'a, as) !l pram na !st*ti'&
!n'!nt$a !%"$!si&n!s !n $!glas @vidhi" niyamaA, &
'#n&n!s d! "$&"&$'i(n @t la" t lam na ,
pram n ni A, a"$&"iad&s a l&s dif!$!nt!s ti"&s, ,
!n l&s laksanas d! la i'&n&g$af)a , !l gst&
'ltivad&, "$!s'$it&s "&$ la at&$idad , la t$adi'i(n-
, s(l& !s! a$t! /.! s! a8sta a l&s "at$&n!s
'an(ni'&s @ stram na A !s v!$dad!$am!nt!
+!ll&, ning9n &t$&, Y'i!$tam!nt!Z0
@ ukran tis ra , , IK.B.>IC1>IDA. En 'ant& a la
n!'!sidad d! tal!s $!glas, .! s&n '&nting!nt!s
"&$ s nat$al!5a, , sin !m+a$g& &+ligadas !n n
m!di& dad&, !st& $!slta d! la im"!$f!''i(n d! la
nat$al!5a hmana '&m& !s !n s) misma. El
h&m+$! !s 'i!$tam!nt! m#s .! n animal
m!$am!nt! instintiv& , '&nd'tista, "!$& t&dav)a
n& ha al'an5ad& na id!nti2'a'i(n tal d! la vida
int!$i&$ , !%t!$i&$, '&nt!m"lativa , a'tiva, .! l!
"&si+ilita$)a a'ta$ al mism& ti!m"& sin dis'i"lina ,
"&$ '&m"l!t& '&nv!ni!nt!m!nt!. 7&$ na "a$t!, l&s
$!t&5&s d! l&s '&$d!$&s, "&$ !n'antad&$!s .!
s!an, '&n t&d& n& s&n na dan5a- "&$ &t$a, !l
a$tista hman&, a9n !l ma!st$& a .i!n Ching Na&
llama /7$&fnd&0 & /Mist!$i&s&0 @miao, LQCLA ,
.! /t$a+a8a !n n !stil& a"$&"iad& a s t!ma0,
abril, 97
16
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
dif)'ilm!nt! "!d! "$!t!nd!$ la !s"&ntan!idad d!l
"int&$ /Divin&0 @sh1n, RQ>RA /.! n& ha'! ning9n
!sf!$5& "$&"i&, s man& s! m!v!
!s"&nt#n!am!nt!0
>Q
.
E%ist!, d! h!'h&, datand& d!l "!$)&d& 4[ang,
na t$i"l! 'lasi2'a'i(n 'hina @+an p)ing, RCC2,
R2L3A d! la "int$a '&m& Divina @sh1n, RQ>RA,
7$&fnda & Mist!$i&sa @miao, LQCLA, , C&nsmada
@n1ng, Q>QBA. 6a "$im!$a d! *stas im"li'a na
"!$f!''i(n a+s&lta, .! $!"$!s!nta m#s +i!n la
m!ta .! l& .! "!d! s!$ al'an5ad& !n !l a$t!
hman&- la s!gnda !s na ma!st$)a tal .! s!
a"$&%ima a la "!$f!''i(n, la t!$'!$a !s m!$a
ha+ilidad. Pna 'a$ta 'las!, la Ma$avill&sa &
E%t$a&$dina$ia @i, CC3DA, s! a<adi( d!s"*s, '&n
im"li'a'i&n!s ta&)stas, "a$a d!n&ta$ n ti"& m#s
"!$s&nal d! "int$a /2l&s(2'a0 & /lit!$a$ia0,
g$and! !n la !8!''i(n, an.! n& la &+$a d!
a$tistas "$&f!si&nal!s, , n& g&+!$nada "&$ $!glas
t$adi'i&nal!s- i '&$$!s"&nd! as) m,
a"$&%imadam!nt! a l& .! s! da a !nt!nd!$ "&$
/g!ni&0, '&n t&das ss vi$td!s , limita'i&n!s
>R
.
Pn s&$"$!nd!nt! "a$al!l& indi& al +an p)ing
a"a$!'! !n !l 0 vya-m m ns , d!
R 8a !3ha$a, Ca". II, d&nd! la fa'ltad '$!ativa
@k rayitr pratibh , A s! '&nsid!$a '&m& d! t$!s
ti"&s, a sa+!$ Innata @sahajA, Ad.i$ida
@ h ry A, , A"$!ndida @aupade ik A, si!nd&
'lasi2'ad&s l&s "&!tas '&$$!s"&ndi!nt!m!nt!
'&m& s rasvata @d! Sa$asvat , a3ti d! ,
U$ahm m, , mad$! d! la !$di'i(n , la sa+id$)aA
bhy sika @!8!$'itad&s, ad!"t&s, v&'a'i&nal!sA, ,
aupade ika @!ns!<ad&s, d!"!ndi!nt!s d! $!glas &
inst$''i&n!sA. A.), s rasvata , sahaja
'&$$!s"&nd!n 'la$am!nt! a sh1n- h rya ,
bhy sika a miao, .! im"li'a la id!a d!
ma!st$)a- , aupade ik a n1ng, t!n!$ na t$!ta
abril, 97
17
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
m#s .! n h#+it&. 6a 9ni'a '&sa smam!nt!
n!'!sa$ia "a$a !l a$t!san& hman& !s abhy sa ,
/"$#'ti'a0, '&nsid!$ada d! &t$& m&d& '&m&
anu ila , /a"li'a'i(n d!di'ada0 /&+!di!n'ia0,
',& f$t& !s listatva , /h#+it&0, & s!gnda
nat$al!5a, ha+ilidad, lit!$alm!nt! /adh!si(n0,
/adh!$!n'ia0- , !st& !n'!nt$a !%"$!si(n !n la
!8!''i(n '&m& m dhurya , /g$a'ia0 & /fa'ilidad0
@5 tya stra , !d. U!na$!s, SSKI.3B-
0 vyam la , SSII.3BA.
6&s S!is C#n&n!s d! Nsi!h N&, $!f!$!nt!s a la
"int$a, s! "+li'a$&n "&$ "$im!$a v!5 !n !l sigl&
.int&, , han "!$man!'id& '&m& at&$idad hasta
!l "$!s!nt!. S! han t$atad& '&n g$an am"litd "&$
at&$!s !%t$!m&1&$i!ntal!s , !$&"!&s,
'!nt$#nd&s! las "$in'i"al!s dif!$!n'ias d! &"ini(n
!n la int!$"$!ta'i(n ta&)sta & '&nf'i&nista d!l
"$im!$ 'an&n
2I
. 6a sigi!nt! t$ad''i(n s! +asa
di$!'tam!nt! !n !l t!%t&;
@>\A 6a &"!$a'i(n & $!v&l'i(n @y2n, >3Q>LA, &
'&n'&$dan'ia & $!v!$+!$a'i(n @y2n, >3QB3A, d!l
!s")$it @ch)i, >IDBA !n !l m&vimi!nt& d! la vida.
@2\A R!"$!s!nta$ l&s /h!s&s0 @la !st$'t$a
!s!n'ialA '&n !l "in'!l.
@3\A A'&$d!m!nt! '&n !l &+8!t& @la !s"!'i!
nat$al, 'u, >2LLLA ha'!$ la 2g$a @hsing, BD>LA.
@B\A A'&$d!m!nt! '&n !l ti"&, a"li'a$, &
dist$i+i$, !l '&l&$.
@C\A 6a '&m"&si'i(n '&$$!'ta, lit!$alm!nt!
/di+8a$ la '&l&'a'i(n d!+ida0.
@D\A El "$&'!dimi!nt& t$adi'i&nal @ch)uan, 2LBIA,
lit!$alm!nt! /t$asmitid& !l m&d!l&, & !l m*t&d&,
di+8a$ a'&$d!m!nt!0.
D! !st&s '#n&n!s, !l "$im!$& !s d! im"&$tan'ia
m!taf)si'a "$ima$ia, , "!d! d!'i$s! .! '&nt$&la a
t&d&s l&s &t$&s, 'ada n& d! l&s 'al!s t&mad& "&$
s) mism& ti!n! n signi2'ad& n)v&'&. El s!gnd&
abril, 97
18
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'an&n $!.i!$! na t$ad''i(n d!l 'a$#'t!$ m#s
.! d!l m!$& as"!'t& !%t!$i&$- !l t!$'!$& , 'a$t&
s! $!2!$!n a la masa , !l '&l&$ '&m& m!di&s d!
$!"$!s!nta'i(n- !l .int& s! $!2!$! a la '&l&'a'i(n
'&nv!ni!nt! , a"$&"iada d! las '&sas
$!"$!s!ntadas, d! a'!$d& '&n ss $!la'i&n!s
nat$al!s, , d!+! distingi$s! as) d! la
'&m"&si'i(n & !l di+8& !n !l s!ntid& !n .! !stas
"ala+$as s! san ah&$a- !l 9ltim& im"li'a la '&"ia
d! las antigas &+$as ma!st$as , la adh!$!n'ia a
l&s m*t&d&s a'&stm+$ad&s , a las $!glas
v!$i2'adas. Est&s s!is C#n&n!s ti!n!n anal&g)as
!st$!'has !n la t!&$)a india, "!$& n& ha, ningna
$a5(n "a$a s"&n!$ .! s&n d! &$ig!n indi&.
En $!la'i(n '&n !l 9ltim& 'an&n, "!d!
s!<ala$s! .! s! "!d! imagina$ na '&ndi'i(n d!
!s"&ntan!idad @sh1n, sahajaA al ma$g!n , "&$
!n'ima d! las $!glas !sta+l!'idas, an.! n&
'&nt$a !llas, '&m& !n la Bhagavad $ t , , II.BD,
d&nd! s! di'! .! "a$a !l '&n&'!d&$ d!l U$ahman
l&s K!das ,a n& s&n d! ningna tilidad, & 'and&
di'! S. Agst)n; /Ama a Di&s, , ha5 l& .!
.i!$as0. 7!$& si !l s!$ li+!$ad& @j vanmukta , A & !l
sant& !n n !stad& d! g$a'ia !s as) li+$! d! a'ta$
sin d!li+!$a'i(n !n 'ant& al d!+!$, !s "&$.! "a$a
*l ,a n& !%ist! na s!"a$a'i(n d! s) mism& , n& s)
mism&- si "a$a !l v!$dad!$& Y&gi pratyaksa d!+!
im"li'a$ na $!"$!s!nta'i(n indistingi+l! d! la d!
la f&$ma '&n&'ida int!$i&$m!nt! @j na-sattva-
r pa _ A, !st& s!$# !vid!n'ia n& d! g!ni&, sin& d! n
s) mism& "l!nam!nt! mad$ad& @krttmanA, d! n
h#+it& visal "!$f!''i&nad&, d! tal man!$a .! !l
v!!d&$ ah&$a n& v! s!nsa'i&n!s m!$am!nt!
"$&,!'tadas, sin& '&m& d!+! v!$, vi$talm!nt! sin
dalidad, amand& t&das las '&sas "&$ igal.
4&d& a$t! ti!nd! as) ha'ia na "!$f!''i(n !n la
.! l&s !l!m!nt&s "i't($i'&s , f&$mal!s n& !st#n
abril, 97
19
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
m!$am!nt! $!'&n'iliad&s, sin& '&m"l!tam!nt!
id!nti2'ad&s. En !st! "nt& distant! "!$& si!m"$!
vi$talm!nt! "$!s!nt!, t&da n!'!sidad d! a$t!
d!sa"a$!'!, , l&s d&'t&$!s isl#mi'&s !st#n
8sti2'ad&s !n s a2$ma'i(n d! .! !l 9ni'& a$tista
v!$dad!$& @musavvirA !s Di&s. En t*$min&s indi&s
nirm na-k raka .
6a m!t#f&$a d! Di&s '&m& !l a$tista s"$!m&
a"a$!'! tam+i*n !n la t$adi'i(n !s'&l#sti'a
'$istiana, "&$ !8!m"l& St&. 4&m#s, +um, Theol. ..LB
a.3, /d! la misma man!$a !l da$ f&$ma a na &+$a
d! a$t! !s "&$ m!di& d! la f&$ma d!l a$t! !n la
m!nt! d!l a$tista, .! "!d! llama$s! s "ala+$a
int!ligi+l!, as) !l da$ f&$ma a 'ada '$iat$a !s "&$ la
"ala+$a d! Di&s- , "&$ !sta $a5(n !n las &+$as d!
distin'i(n , ad&$n& s! m!n'i&na la 7ala+$a] las
"ala+$as, 6ios vio *ue era bueno] !%"$!san na
'i!$ta satisfa''i(n t!nida "&$ Di&s !n ss &+$as,
'&m& la d! n a$tista !n s a$t!0. E'3ha$t ha'! s&
'&nstant! d! la misma id!a. Cf. n&tas 2>, , 3 d!l
'a")tl& II. N& !s n!'!sa$i& s!<ala$ .! !l '&n'!"t&
d! /'$!a'i(n0 @nirm na , karmaA !s na v!$si(n
$!ligi&sa @bhaktiv da A d! l& .! !n m!taf)si'a s!
llama manif!sta'i(n, "$&'!si(n, & !%"$!si(n @srstiA-
& "si'&l(gi'am!nt! sim"l!m!nt! '&m& n /v!ni$ a
s!$0 @utp da , bhava, yath -bh ta _ , !t'.A,
d!"!ndi!nt! d! 'asas s!gndas & m!diatas.
C&m& l& !%"$!sa !l at&$ d!l hieh T7 82an _ ,
/Cand& la "int$a ha al'an5ad& la divinidad
@sh1nA ha, n 2nal d!l asnt&0. Pna '&n'!"'i(n d!
!st! ti"& "!d! $!'&n&'!$s! !n la hist&$ia 'hina
d!l "int&$ W 4a&1t5 , .! "int( !n na "a$!d d!l _
"ala'i& n gl&$i&s& "aisa8!, '&n m&nta<as,
+&s.!s, n+!s, "#8a$&s, h&m+$!s, , t&das las
'&sas '&m& !n la Nat$al!5a, na "int$a d!l
mnd& v!$dad!$a- mi!nt$as s "at$(n !l
Em"!$ad&$ !sta+a admi$and& !sta "int$a, W
abril, 97
20
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
4a&1t5 s!<al( na "!$ta !n la lad!$a d! na _
m&nta<a, invitand& al Em"!$ad&$ a !nt$a$ ,
'&nt!m"la$ las ma$avillas d!nt$&. El mism& W
4a&1t5 !nt$( "$im!$&, ha'i!nd& s!<as al _
Em"!$ad&$ d! .! l! sigi!$a- "!$& s! '!$$( la
"!$ta, , !l "int&$ nn'a m#s f! vist&. Pna
d!sa"a$i'i(n '&$$!s"&ndi!nt! d! la &+$a d! a$t!,
'and& s! ha al'an5ad& la "!$f!''i(n, s! !%"$!sa
m)ti'am!nt! !n &t$as l!,!ndas, '&m& la d! l&s
d$ag&n!s "intad&s .! v&la$&n d! l&s m$&s !n l&s
.! !sta+an "intad&s, '&ntada "&$ "$im!$a v!5 d!l
a$tista Chang S^ng Y !n la Dinast)a 6iang
2>
.
4al !s la "!$f!''i(n ha'ia la .! !l a$t! , !l
a$tista ti!nd!n, .! !l a$t! d!vi!n! vida
manif!stada, , !l a$tista "asa m#s all# d!l al'an'!
d! n!st$a visi(n. 7!$& "$!t!nd!$ "&$ !ll& n
!stad& d! li+!$tad , d! s"!$i&$idad a la dis'i"lina
@an c ra A !n fav&$ d!l a$tista hman&, ha'!$ n
)d&l& d! .i!n !s t&dav)a n h&m+$! '&m& si f!$a
alg& m#s .! n h&m+$!, gl&$i2'a$ la $!+!li(n , la
ind!"!nd!n'ia, '&m& !n la m&d!$na d!i2'a'i(n
d!l g!ni& , !n la t&l!$an'ia d! las !%t$avagan'ias
d!l g!ni&, !s s!n'illam!nt! a+s$d&, & '&m& l&s
mslman!s di$)an +lasf!m&, "!s _.i*n s!
at$!v!$# a d!'i$ .! *l '&n&'! v!$dad!$am!nt! al
U$ahman, & .! ama a Di&s v!$dad!$a ,
'&m"l!tam!nt!` 6a li+!$tad 9ltima d! la
!s"&ntan!idad !s '&n'!+i+l! s(l& '&m& na
manif!sta'i(n va'ant! !n la .! a$t! , a$tista s&n
"!$f!'t&s- "!$& l& .! !st# as) m#s all# d! la
'&nting!n'ia ,a n& !s /a$t!0, ,, !nt$! tant&, !l
'amin& a la li+!$tad n& ti!n! nada !n '&m9n '&n
na $!+!li(n v&lnta$ia &$iginalidad 'al'lada- ,
ti!n! .! v!$ a9n m!n&s '&n na at&1!%"$!si(n
fn'i&nal. 6as $!glas v!$i2'adas d!+!n
'&nsid!$a$s! '&m& !l v!h)'l& asmid& "&$ la
!s"&ntan!idad, !n la m!dida !n .! la
abril, 97
21
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!s"&ntan!idad !s "&si+l! "a$a n&s&t$&s, m#s +i!n
.! '&m& n ti"& d! !s'lavitd. 4al!s $!glas s&n
n!'!sa$ias "a$a t&d& s!$ ',a a'tividad d!"!nd!
d! la v&lntad, '&m& s! !%"$!sa !n la India '&n
$!la'i(n al d$ama; /4&das las a'tividad!s d! l&s
#ng!l!s, ,a s!a !n 'asa !n ss lga$!s "$&"i&s, &
f!$a !n l&s s&"l&s d! vida, s&n !manadas
int!l!'talm!nt!- las d! l&s h&m+$!s s! "$&d'!n
"&$ !sf!$5& '&ns'i!nt!- "&$ !ll& !s "&$ l& .! las
&+$as .! han d! s!$ h!'has "&$ l&s h&m+$!s s!
d!2n!n !n d!tall!0, 5 tya stra , II.C. C&m& l&
!%"$!sa St&. 4&m#s @+um, Theol. I ..CR, a.2A, /la
!s!n'ia , la v&lntad s! id!nti2'an s(l& all) d&nd!
t&d& !l +i!n !st# '&nt!nid& d!nt$& d! la !s!n'ia d!
!l .! .i!$!] !st& n& "!d! d!'i$s! d! ningna
'$iat$a0. Al t!nd!$ ha'ia na '&in'id!n'ia 9ltima
d! la dis'i"lina , la v&lntad !l a$tista d!vi!n!
'i!$tam!nt! 'ada v!5 m!n&s '&ns'i!nt! d! las
$!glas, , "a$a !l vi$t&s& la inti'i(n , la !8!''i(n
s&n ,a a"a$!nt!m!nt! simlt#n!as- "!$& !n 'ada
!ta"a !l a$tista s! d!l!ita$# !n las $!glas, '&m& !l
ma!st$& d! la l!nga s! d!l!ita !n la g$am#ti'a,
an.! "!d! ha+la$ sin $!f!$!n'ia '&nstant! a l&s
t$atad&s d! sinta%is. 7!$t!n!'! a la !s!n'ia d!l
a$t! $!int$&d'i$ !l &$d!n !n la mlti"li'idad d! la
Nat$al!5a, , !s !n !st! s!ntid& '&m& /"$!"a$a a
t&das las '$iat$as "a$a v&lv!$ a Di&s0.
A"!nas d!+!$)a s!$ n!'!sa$i& s!<ala$ .! !l
a$t! !s "&$ d!2ni'i(n !s!n'ialm!nt! '&nv!n'i&nal
@samketitaA- "!s !s s(l& "&$ '&nv!n'i(n '&m& la
nat$al!5a "!d! ha'!$s! int!ligi+l!, , s(l& "&$
sign&s , s)m+&l&s, r pa _ , prat ka , , '&m& la
'&mni'a'i(n s! ha'! "&si+l!. Pn +!n !8!m"l& d!
la man!$a !n .! t&mam&s la '&nv!n'i&nalidad
d!l a$t! "&$ s"!sta l& "$&"&$'i&na la hist&$ia d!
n fam&s& ma!st$& a .i!n s! !n'a$g( "inta$ n
+&s.! d! +am+9. C&n magn)2'a "!$i'ia "int(
abril, 97
22
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!nt!$am!nt! !n $&8&. El "at$(n &+8!t( .! !st& n&
!$a nat$al. El "int&$ "$!gnt(; /_En .* '&l&$
t!nd$)a .! ha+!$s! "intad&`0 , !l "at$(n
'&nt!st(; /En n!g$&, "&$ s"!st&0. /_Y .i*n0,
di8& !l a$tista, /vi& algna v!5 n +am+9 d! h&8as
n!g$as`0
22.
4&d& !l "$&+l!ma d!l sim+&lism& @prat ka , ,
/s)m+&l&0A !st# t$atad& "&$ an3a$O' $,a,
C&m!nta$i& s&+$! l&s (ednta + tras _ , I.>.2I.
Rati2'and& la a2$ma'i(n d! .! /t&d& !l .! a.)
'anta al a$"a, l! 'anta a Gl0, s!<ala .! !st! Gl s!
$!2!$! s(l& al S!<&$ m#s alt&, .! !s !l t!ma
9ltim& in'ls& d! las 'an'i&n!s "$&fanas. Y !n
'ant& a las !%"$!si&n!s ant$&"&m($2'as !n la
!s'$it$a, /$!s"&nd!m&s .! !l S!<&$ m#s alt&
"!d!, 'and& l! "la'!, asmi$ na 2g$a '&$"&$al
f&$mada d! M , , "a$a g$atifi'a$ a ss d!v&t&s
ad&$ad&$!s0- "!$& t&d& !st& !s m!$am!nt!
anal(gi'&, '&m& 'and& d!'im&s .! !l U$ahman
m&$a a.) & all), 'and& !n $!alidad m&$a s(l& !n
s "$&"ia gl&$ia @'f. ibid., I.2.2RA. 6a $!"$!s!nta'i(n
d! l& invisi+l! "&$ l& visi+l! !st# t$atada tam+i*n
"&$ D!ss!n, /hilosophy o- the Upanishads, "". RR1
>I>. 7a$a n !%am!n d!l /sign&0 , !l /s)m+&l&0
v!$ "". >I31>IC.
El '&nv!n'i&nalism& n& ti!n! nada .! v!$ '&n
la sim"li2'a'i(n 'al'lada @'&m& !n !l di+8&
m&d!$n&A, & '&n la d!g!n!$a'i(n d! la
$!"$!s!nta'i(n @'&m& a m!nd& s"&n!n l&s
hist&$iad&$!s d!l a$t!A. Es v!$dad!$am!nt!
inf&$tnad& .! la "ala+$a '&nv!n'i&nal ha,a
ll!gad& a sa$s! !n n s!ntid& "!,&$ativ& '&n
$!f!$!n'ia al a$t! d!'ad!nt!. El a$t! d!'ad!nt! !s
sim"l!m!nt! n a$t! .! ,a n& s! si!nt! ni
vivi2'a, sin& .! m!$am!nt! d!n&ta, !n !l .! ,a
n& !%ist! ningna '&$$!s"&nd!n'ia $!al !nt$! l&s
!l!m!nt&s f&$mal!s , "i't($i'&s, '&m& si s
abril, 97
23
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
signi2'ad& f!$a n!gad& "&$ la d!+ilidad &
in'&ng$!n'ia d!l !l!m!nt& "i't($i'&- "!$& a
m!nd&, '&m& "&$ !8!m"l& !n !l a$t! h!l!n)sti'&
ta$d)&, !s d! h!'h& mucho menos '&nv!n'i&nal
.! las !ta"as "$imitiva & 'l#si'a d! la misma
s!'!n'ia. El v!$dad!$& a$t!, !l a$t! "$&, nn'a
!nt$a !n '&m"!ti'i(n '&n la "!$f!''i(n
inal'an5a+l! d!l mnd&, sin& .! s! +asa
!%'lsivam!nt! !n s "$&"ia l(gi'a , !n ss
"$&"i&s '$it!$i&s, .! n& "!d!n "$&+a$s! "&$ l&s
"at$&n!s d! v!$dad & d! +&ndad a"li'a+l!s !n
&t$&s 'am"&s d! la a'tividad. 7&$ !8!m"l&, si n
i'&n& !st# "$&vist& d! nm!$&sas 'a+!5as &
+$a5&s, & '&m+ina !l!m!nt&s ant$&"&m($2'&s ,
t!$i&m($2'&s, la a$itm*ti'a , la &+s!$va'i(n n&s
a,da$#n a d!t!$mina$ si la i'&n&g$af)a !s & n&
'&$$!'ta @ gamrthvisamv di , stram na A,
"!$& s(l& n!st$a "$&"ia $!s"!sta a ss
'alidad!s d! !n!$g)a , &$d!n 'a$a't!$)sti'& n&s
"&si+ilita$#n 85ga$l& '&m& na &+$a d! a$t!. Si
K$sna !s d!s'$it& '&m& !l s!d't&$ d! las l!'h!$as
d! U$a8a, s!$)a $id)'l& l!vanta$ &+8!'i&n!s "&$
$a5&n!s m&$al!s, '&m& si s! h+i!s! "$!s!ntad&
n m&d!l& !n !l "lan& d! la '&nd'ta- "!s a.) !l
a$t!, "&$ na '&nv!n'i(n +i!n !nt!ndida, t$ata d!
la $!la'i(n nat$al d!l alma '&n Di&s @/t&da la
'$!a'i(n !s f!m!nina $!s"!'t& a Di&s0A, , si
n&s&t$&s n& "&d!m&s !nt!nd!$ & n& .!$!m&s
a'!"ta$ la t$adi'i(n, !ll& !s sim"l!m!nt! na
d!'la$a'i(n d! n!st$a in'a"a'idad d! !miti$ n
8i'i& !st*ti'& !n !l 'as& dad&.
7!d!n "$!s!nta$s! algnas '&nsid!$a'i&n!s
m#s s&+$! la 'alidad d!sigal , la d!'ad!n'ia !n
!l a$t!, !nt!ndi*nd&s! "&$ d!'ad!n'ia la
/im"!$f!''i(n 'a$a't!$)sti'a0 m#s +i!n .! l&
&"!st& d! /"$&g$!s&0. Pna falta d! "!$f!''i(n
t!m"&$al !n na &+$a d! a$t! !s na !vid!n'ia d!
abril, 97
24
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
la im"!$f!''i(n d!l a$tista, "!st& .! la
"!$f!''i(n .! !s "&si+l! al t$a+a8& hman& !s n
"$&d't& d! la v&lntad. Es 'la$& .! la "$im!$a
'&nsid!$a'i(n d!l t$a+a8ad&$ d!+! ha+!$ sid& !l
+i!n d! la &+$a .! ha d! ha'!$s! "!s !s s(l& as)
'&m& "!d! ala+a$ s t!ma- , !n 'ant& a si la
&+$a !s !n !st! s!ntid& +!na, d!+!m&s gia$n&s
"&$ na fa'ltad '$)ti'a a"$&"iada ! im"la'a+l!.
7!$& n& ha, .! "asa$ "&$ alt& .! a9n !n &+$as
!%t!$i&$m!nt! im"!$f!'tas, ,a f!$an
&$iginalm!nt! as) & .! ha,an d!v!nid& as) "&$
alg9n da<&, la imag!n "!d! "!$man!'!$ inta'ta-
"!s !n !l "$im!$ 'as& la imag!n, .! n& !$a d! la
"$&"ia inv!n'i(n d!l a$tista sin& h!$!dada, "!d!
$!'&n&'!$s! t&dav)a !n s in'&$"&$a'i(n
im"!$f!'ta, , !n !l s!gnd& la f&$ma "&$ la .! f!
m&vid& !l a$t! d!+! ha+!$ !stad& inman!nt! !n
'ada "a$t! d! !lla, , !st# as) "$!s!nt! !n l& .!
s&+$!viv! d! !lla, , !s "&$ !st& "&$ l& .! tal!s
&+$as "!d!n s!$ ad!'adas "a$a !v&'a$ !n n
!s"!'tad&$ d! m!nt! vig&$&sa na !%"!$i!n'ia
!st*ti'a v!$dad!$a, s"li!nd& *st! '&n s "$&"ia
!n!$g)a imaginativa t&d& l& .! falta !n la
"$&d''i(n &$iginal. M#s a m!nd&, "&$ s"!st&,
l& .! "asa "&$ na a"$!'ia'i(n d! &+$as
d!'ad!nt!s & da<adas !s sim"l!m!nt! n "la'!$
s!ntim!ntal +asad& !n id!as as&'iadas, v s na
*ua n&stalgia.
Na, d&s m&d&s distingi+l!s d! d!'ad!n'ia !n
!l a$t!, n& .! '&$$!s"&nd! a na s!nsalidad
disminida, !l &t$& .! $!?!8a, n& n a"!g& animal
a la s!nsa'i(n, sin& n $!2nami!nt& s!n!s'!nt!.
Es !s!n'ial distingi$ !sta at!na'i(n & s&+$!1
$!2nami!nt& d! l& .! f! na v!5 n a$t! 'l#si'&,
d! la ast!$idad d! las f&$mas "$imitivas .!
"!d!n s!$ m!n&s s!d't&$as, "!$& .! !%"$!san
n alt& g$ad& d! int!l!'talidad. El s&+$!1
abril, 97
25
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
$!2nami!nt& , la !la+&$a'i(n d!l a"a$at& !n las
a$t!s s! ilst$an +i!n !n la m&d!$na "$&d''i(n
d$am#ti'a , d! '&n'i!$t&s, , !n la 'alidad d! las
v&'!s !nt$!nadas ! inst$m!nt&s tal!s '&m& !l
"ian&. 4&d&s !st&s m!di&s a dis"&si'i(n d!l a$tista
s&n l&s m!di&s d! s $ina, !%'!"t& !n l&s $a$&s
'as&s !n .!, "&$ na v!$dad!$a d!v&'i(n a s
t!ma, a9n "!d! ha'*$n&sl&s &lvida$. A.!ll&s .!
!st#n a'&stm+$ad&s a a$t!s '&nf&$ta+l!s tal!s
'&m& *stas !st#n !n "!lig$& $!al d! $!'ha5a$
"$&d't&s m!n&s altam!nt! t!$minad&s &
!la+&$ad&s, n& "&$ $a5&n!s !st*ti'as, sin& "&$ "$a
"!$!5a , am&$ a la '&m&didad. 7!nsam&s "&$
'&nt$ast! !n l&s 8 tr s +!ngOla!s .! /sin
!s'!na$i&, sin !l d!s"li!g! a$t)sti'& d! t$a8!s,
"&d)an ss'ita$ !m&'i&n!s .! h&, !n d)a a"!nas
!%"!$im!ntam&s0, &, "&$ &t$a "a$t!, !n a$t!s
!%t$!madam!nt! s&fisti'adas '&m& l&s d$amas N
d!l =a"(n, !n l&s .! l&s m!di&s s! han $!d'id& a
n m)nim&, , an.! s! l!s ha ll!vad& a !s!
!l!vad& "nt& d! "!$f!''i(n .! !l t!ma !%ig!,
!st#n sin !m+a$g& !nt!$am!nt! d!s"$&vist&s d!
t&d& !l!m!nt& d! l8&. Ra+ind$anath 4ag&$! ha
t$atad& !st&s "nt&s d! vista !n $!la'i(n '&n la
int!$"$!ta'i(n d! la m9si'a india. /N!st$&s
ma!st$&s 'ant&$!s0, di'!, /nn'a s! t&man la
m!n&$ m&l!stia "a$a ha'!$ s v&5 , ss man!$as
at$a'tivas] A.!ll&s d! la adi!n'ia] ',&s
s!ntid&s han d! satisfa'!$s! s! '&nsid!$a tam+i*n
.! !st#n "&$ d!+a8& d! la at!n'i(n d! 'al.i!$
a$tista .! s! $!s"!t!0, mi!nt$as .! /a.!ll&s d!
la adi!n'ia .! s&n 'a"a'!s d! a"$!'ia$ !st#n
'&nt!nt&s d! "!$f!''i&na$ !l 'ant& !n s "$&"ia
m!nt! "&$ la f!$5a d! s "$&"i& s!ntimi!nt&0. En
&t$as "ala+$as, mi!nt$as .! la +!ll!5a f&$mal !s l&
!s!n'ial !n !l a$t!, !l ag$ad& , la '&nv!ni!n'ia
s&n, n& f&$tit&s 'i!$tam!nt!, sin& !n !l s!ntid&
abril, 97
26
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"$&"i& d! la "ala+$a, a''id!nt!s d!l a$t!,
a''id!nt!s af&$tnad&s & d!saf&$tnad&s s!g9n !l
'as& "!da s!$.
Estam&s ah&$a !n sita'i(n d! d!s'$i+i$ las
"!'lia$idad!s d!l a$t! &$i!ntal '&n ma,&$
"$!'isi(n. El i'&n& indi& & !%t$!m& &$i!ntal, tallad&
& "intad&, n& !s na imag!n d! la m!m&$ia ni na
id!ali5a'i(n, sin& n sim+&lism& visal, id!al !n !l
s!ntid& mat!m#ti'&. El i'&n& /ant$&"&m($2'&0 !s
d!l mism& ti"& .! n yantra, !s d!'i$, na
$!"$!s!nta'i(n g!&m*t$i'a d! na d!idad, & .!
n mantra, !s d!'i$, na $!"$!s!nta'i(n aditiva
d! na d!idad. 6a "!'lia$idad d!l i'&n& d!"!nd!
inm!diatam!nt! d! !stas '&ndi'i&n!s, , n& "&d$)a
!%"li'a$s! d! &t$a man!$a, an.! n&s&t$&s n&
f*$am&s '&ns'i!nt!s d! .!, !n la "$#'ti'a d!
h!'h&, es !l mantra , n& la fa'ltad int$)ns!'a d!l
&8& la .! &$igina la imag!n. En !f!'t&, !l i'&n&
indi& ll!na la t&talidad d!l 'am"& d! visi(n a la
v!5, t&d& !s igalm!nt! 'la$& ! igalm!nt!
!s!n'ial- n& s! ll!va !l &8& a "asa$ d! n "nt& a
&t$&, '&m& !n la visi(n !m")$i'a, ni a +s'a$ na
'&n'!nt$a'i(n d! signi2'ad& !n na "a$t! m#s .!
!n &t$a, '&m& !n n a$t! m#s /t!at$al0. N& ha,
s!nsa'i(n d! t!%t$a & d! 'a$n!, sin& s(l& d!
"i!d$a, d! m!tal, & d! "igm!nt&, "!s !l &+8!t& !s
na imag!n !n n& &t$& d! !st&s mat!$ial!s, ,
n& na $*"li'a @savarnaA !nga<&sa d! na 'asa
&+8!tiva d! s!nsa'i(n. 6as "a$t!s d!l i'&n& n&
!st#n $!la'i&nadas &$g#ni'am!nt!, "!s n& s!
'&nt!m"la .! d!+an fn'i&na$ +i&l(gi'am!nt!,
sin& $!la'i&nadas id!alm!nt!, "!st& .! s&n las
"a$t!s '&m"&n!nt!s $!.!$idas d! n ti"& d!
a'tividad dad&, !%"$!sadas !n l&s t*$min&s d!l
m!di& visi+l! , tangi+l!. Est& n& signi2'a .! las
dif!$!nt!s "a$t!s n& !st*n $!la'i&nadas, & .! !l
'&n8nt& n& s!a na nidad, sin& .! la $!la'i(n !s
abril, 97
27
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
m!ntal m#s +i!n .! fn'i&nal. Est&s "$in'i"i&s s!
a"li'a$#n tant& al "aisa8! '&m& a la i'&n&g$af)a.
En !l a$t! &''id!ntal la "int$a s! '&n'i+!
g!n!$alm!nt! '&m& vista !n n ma$'& & a t$av*s
d! na v!ntana, , as) t$a)da ha'ia !l !s"!'tad&$-
"!$& la imag!n &$i!ntal !%ist! $!alm!nt! s(l& !n
n!st$a "$&"ia m!nt! , '&$a5(n , d!sd! all) !s
"$&,!'tada & $!?!8ada !n !l !s"a'i&. 6a
"$!s!nta'i(n &''id!ntal s! di+8a '&m& si s! vi!$a
d!sd! n "nt& d! vista 28&, , d!+! s!$
("ti'am!nt! "lasi+l!- !l "aisa8! 'hin& s!
$!"$!s!nta t)"i'am!nt! '&m& vist& d!sd! m#s d!
n "nt& d! vista, & !n 'al.i!$ 'as& d!sd! n
"nt& d! vista '&nv!n'i&nal, n& /$!al0, , a.) l&
!s!n'ial n& !s la "lasi+ilidad sin& la
int!ligi+ilidad. En la "int$a g!n!$alm!nt! ha,
$!li!v! @nat9nnata, nimn9nnataA, !s d!'i$,
m&d!lad& !n l5 a+st$a'ta, "!st& .! la "int$a
s! '&nsid!$a '&m& n modo '&m"$imid& d! la
!s'lt$a- "!$& nn'a ant!s d! la in?!n'ia
!$&"!a !n !l sigl& di!'isi!t! s! hi5& ning9n s&
d! s&m+$!ad&s, 'hia$&1s'$&, ch ytapa , /s&m+$a
, 'la$idad0. 6&s m*t&d&s d! $!"$!s!nta$ !l !s"a'i&
!n !l a$t! '&$$!s"&nd!$#n si!m"$! m#s & m!n&s a
l&s h#+it&s d! visi(n '&nt!m"&$#n!&s, , "a$a !l
a$t! n& s! $!.i!$! nada m#s .! !st&- la
"!$s"!'tiva n& !s nada sin& l&s m!di&s !m"l!ad&s
"a$a t$ansmiti$ al !s"!'tad&$ la id!a d!l !s"a'i&
t$i1dim!nsi&nal, , !nt$! l&s dif!$!nt!s ti"&s d!
"!$s"!'tiva .! s! han sad&, la llamada
/'i!nt)2'a0 n& ti!n! ningna v!nta8a "a$ti'la$
d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista !st*ti'&. S&+$! !st! "nt&,
Asanga, Mah y na + trlamk ra _ , SIII.>L, !s
$!v!lad&$; citre nat9nnatam nsti ca" dr yate
atha ca, /n& ha, ning9n $!li!v! $!al !n na
"int$a, , sin !m+a$g& n&s&t$&s l& v!m&s all)0, na
&+s!$va'i(n .! s! $!"it! d!sd! !l mism& "nt&
abril, 97
28
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d! vista !n !l :ankvat ra + tra _ , !d. Nan8i&, ".
R>
23
. Esta$)a "!s tan f!$a d! lga$ '&n'!+i$ n
"$&g$!s& !n !l a$t!, !n tant& .! $!v!lad& "&$ n
d!sa$$&ll& !n la ;aumdarstellung, '&m& +s'a$
!sta+l!'!$ na s'!si(n !stil)sti'a !n na
&+s!$va'i(n s"!stam!nt! m#s & m!n&s "$(%ima
d! la Nat$al!5a. N& &lvid!m&s .! la m!nt! !s
na "a$t!, , la m#s im"&$tant!, d! n!st$&
'&n&'imi!nt& d! la Nat$al!5a, , .! !st! "nt&
d! vista an.! "!d! ha+!$s! &lvidad& !n
E$&"a, ha !stad& '&ntinam!nt! vig!nt! !n Asia
d$ant! m#s d! d&s mil a<&s.
D&nd! !l a$t! !$&"!& $!"$!s!nta nat$alm!nt!
n m&m!nt& d!l ti!m"&, na a''i(n & n !f!'t& d!
l5 d!t!nid&s, !l a$t! &$i!ntal $!"$!s!nta na
'&ndi'i(n '&ntina. En t*$min&s !$&"!&s
t$adi'i&nal!s, !%"$!sa$)am&s !st& di'i!nd& .!
mi!nt$as .! !l a$t! !$&"!& m&d!$n& t$ata d!
$!"$!s!nta$ las '&sas '&m& s&n !n s) mismas, !l
a$t! asi#ti'& , '$istian& $!"$!s!nta las '&sas m#s
'!$'anam!nt! a '&m& s&n !n Di&s, & m#s '!$'a d!
s f!nt!. En 'ant& a l& .! s! !nti!nd! "&$
$!"$!s!nta$ na '&ndi'i(n '&ntina, "&$ !8!m"l&,
!l Uddha al'an5( la Ilmina'i(n ha'! in'&nta+l!s
!dad!s, sin !m+a$g& s manif!sta'i(n !s a''!si+l!
a9n, , as) "!$man!'!$#- la Dan5a d! iva ti!n!
lga$, n& m!$am!nt! !n !l +&s.! 4 $a3a, ni
si.i!$a !n Cidam+a$am, sin& !n !l '&$a5(n d!l
ad&$ad&$- la 6 l d! K$sna n& !s n s'!s& ,
hist($i'&, d!l 'al n&s ha+la N la3antha, sin&, ,
"a$a sa$ na f$as!&l&g)a '$istiana, n /8!g&
8gad& !t!$nam!nt! d!lant! d! t&das las
'$iat$as0. Est! "nt& d! vista, .! n& !$a !n
a+s&lt& d!s'&n&'id& "a$a l&s !$dit&s !$&"!&s ,
.! s! $!?!8a t&dav)a !n l& .! s! llama la
s"!sta falta d! t&d& s!ntid& hist($i'& d! la India,
, !n !st& !l Islam , la China !st#n m#s '!$'a d!l
abril, 97
29
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
mnd& .! la India, an.! n& tan !n$!dad&s !n
!l mnd& '&m& la E$&"a m&d!$na, '&nstit,! la
!%"li'a'i(n a priori d! la adh!si(n d! la India a l&s
ti"&s , d! s indif!$!n'ia a l&s !f!'t&s t$ansit&$i&s.
7&d$)am&s d!'i$, n& .! l&s !f!'t&s t$ansit&$i&s n&
t!ngan signi2'ad&, sin& .! s val&$ n& s!
!nti!nd! !%'!"t& !n !l g$ad& !n .! s! v!n sub
specie aeternitatis, !s d!'i$, -ormaliter. Y d&nd! n&
!s !l s'!s& sin& !l ti"& d! a'tividad l& .!
'&nstit,! !l t!ma, _'(m& "&d$)a ha+!$s!
int!$!sad& !l &$i!nt! "&$ l&s s&m+$!ad&s` _O '(m&
"&d$)a !l n,av din, .! "!d! n!ga$ .! _
ning9n Uddha ha,a !%istid& nn'a $!alm!nt!, &
.! d! h!'h& s! !ns!<a$a nn'a ningna d&'t$ina,
, .! "&$ tant& d!+! s!$ !nt!$am!nt! indif!$!nt!
!n 'ant& a la hist&$i'idad d! la vida d!l Uddha,
ha+!$ t!nid& '$i&sidad "&$ !l $!t$at& d!l Uddha`
Esta$)a 'i!$tam!nt! f!$a d! lga$ !%igi$ d! n a$t!
na s&l'i(n a "$&+l!mas d! $!"$!s!nta'i(n
!nt!$am!nt! a"a$tad&s d!l int!$*s
'&nt!m"&$#n!&.
7&$ "&'& .! "di!$a ha+!$s! "$!vist&, !l
'&n'!"t& d! l&s ti"&s "$!val!'! tam+i*n !n !l
$!t$at& d! individ&s, d&nd! !l m&d!l& !st#
"$!s!nt! @pratyaksaA "a$a !l &8& & la m!m&$ia. Es
'i!$t& .! l&s $!t$at&s 'l#si'&s indi&s d!+!n ha+!$
sid& s!m!8an5as $!'&n&'i+l!s, ! in'ls&
admi$a+l!s. Ya h!m&s vist& .! s dr ya , la
'&nf&$midad d!l s!ntid& , la s+stan'ia, !s
!s!n'ial !n la "int$a, , s! ha s!<alad& .! s!
!m"l!an t*$min&s dif!$!nt!s, an.! )ntimam!nt!
$!la'i&nad&s, a sa+!$ sadr, , susadr i , 'and&
s! ha d! !%"$!sa$ la id!a d! na s!m!8an5a !%a'ta
& viva
2B
. El $!t$at& "intad& @pratikrti, krti A t!n)a
'&m& fn'i(n "$ima$ia s+stiti$ la "$!s!n'ia d!l
&$iginal viv&. Pn& d! l&s t$atad&s m#s antig&s, !l
4an8$ itralaksana, $!2!$! !l &$ig!n d! la "int$a
abril, 97
30
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!n !l mnd& a !st! $!.!$imi!nt&, , sin !m+a$g&
d! h!'h& t$ata s(l& d! las "!'lia$idad!s
2s&n(mi'as @laksanaA d! l&s ti"&s. A9n m#s
inst$'tiv& !s n 'as& "&st!$i&$, .! &'$$! !n na
d! las hist&$ias d!l (ikramacaritra; a.) !l R!, !st#
tan a"!gad& a la R!ina .! la manti!n! a s lad&,
in'ls& !n !l '&ns!8&, "!$& !st! a"a$tami!nt& d! la
'&stm+$! , d! la '&nv!ni!n'ia !s d!sa"$&+ad&
"&$ l&s '&$t!san&s, , !l R!, '&nsi!nt! !n t!n!$ n
$!t$at& "intad&, '&m& s+stitt& d! la "$!s!n'ia d!
la R!ina. S! at&$i5a al "int&$ d! la '&$t! a v!$ a la
R!ina- *st! $!'&n&'! .! !s na padmin,, !s
d!'i$ na /S!<&$a d!l l&t&0, n& d! l&s 'at$& ti"&s
+a8& l&s 'al!s l&s $!t($i'&s hind9!s 'lasi2'an a las
m8!$!s s!g9n la 2si&n&m)a , !l 'a$#'t!$. 6a "inta
"&$ tant& '&m& padmin -laksana-yutam , , /'&n las
ma$'as 'a$a't!$)sti'as d! na S!<&$a d!l l&t&0, ,
sin !m+a$g& s! ald! al $!t$at& n& m!$am!nt!
'&m& r pam _ , na 2g$a, sin& '&m& svar pam _ ,
/s as"!'t& int$)ns!'&0. Sa+!m&s tam+i*n, tant&
!n China '&m& !n la India, d! $!t$at&s an'!st$al!s,
"!$& *st&s s! "$!"a$a+an n&$malm!nt! t$as la
m!$t!, , !n la m!dida !n .! s! '&ns!$van ti!n!n
!l 'a$#'t!$ d! !2gi!s @ying-tu 'hin&, /diag$ama d!
na s&m+$a0A m#s +i!n .! d! $!t$at&s viv&s. En !l
/ratim n taka , !l h*$&!, ma$avill#nd&s! d! la
!8!''i(n d! las !statas !n na 'a"illa an'!st$al,
n& las $!'&n&'! '&m& las d! ss "ad$!s, , s!
"$!gnta si s&n $!"$!s!nta'i&n!s d! d!idad!s.
En'&nt$am&s in'ls& na "&l*mi'a '&nt$a !l a$t!
d!l $!t$at&; /las im#g!n!s d! l&s #ng!l!s s&n
"$&d't&$as d! +i!n, , '&nd'tivas al 'i!l&, "!$&
las d! l&s h&m+$!s , &t$&s s!$!s m&$tal!s n&
'&nd'!n al 'i!l& ni &+$an "$&s"!$idad0,
ukran tis ra , , IK.B.LC , LD. 6&s $!t$at&s
an'!st$al!s 'hin&s n& !st#n !%!nt&s d!
'a$a't!$i5a'i(n individal, "!$& *sta $!"$!s!nta
abril, 97
31
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
s(l& na m&di2'a'i(n lig!$a, , n& !s!n'ial, d! las
f($mlas g!n!$al!s- l&s li+$&s s&+$! !l $!t$at& @-u
sh1n, /"inta$ !l alma0A s! $!2!$!n s(l& a l&s ti"&s
d! $asg&s, '#n&n!s d! "$&"&$'i(n, a''!s&$i&s
ad!'ad&s, , a las va$i!dad!s d! "in'!ladas
'&nv!ni!nt!s "a$a l&s li!n5&s- d!+! $!t$ata$s! la
!s!n'ia d!l s8!t&, "!$& n& s! di'! nada s&+$! la
!%a'titd anat(mi'a. El "int&$ K& Kng1'h[^n f!
ala+ad& "&$ la $!"$!s!nta'i(n d!l alma @ching
sh1n, 2>33, RQ>RA , la m!nt! mismas @i ch)u, C3DL,
3>2IA !n n $!t$at&- "!$& n& s! "!d! al!ga$ d!
t&da Asia na '&sa tal '&m& n t$atad& d!
anat&m)a id!ad& "a$a !l s& d! a$tistas.
El "$im!$ !f!'t& "$&d'id& !n n !s"!'tad&$
&''id!ntal m&d!$n& "&$ !stas 'alidad!s
!s'&l#sti'as d!l a$t! &$i!ntal !s d! m&n&t&n)a. En
la lit!$at$a , !l a$t! "l#sti'&, las "!$s&nas n& s!
disting!n tant& '&m& individ&s '&m& "&$ l& .!
ha'!n, !n $!la'i(n '&n l& 'al "!d! $!'&$da$s!
.! la &$t&d&%ia, "a$a &$i!nt!, s! d!t!$mina "&$ l&
.! n h&m+$! ha'!, , n& "&$ ss '$!!n'ias.
Ad!m#s, las "$&d''i&n!s d! 'al.i!$ "!$)&d& s!
'a$a't!$i5an m'h& m#s "&$ l& .! !s '&m9n a
t&das !llas .! "&$ las va$ia'i&n!s "!$s&nal!s. 7&$
s 'a$#'t!$ !%'lsivam!nt! "$&f!si&nal , '&nt$&l
f&$mal, , "&$ la as!n'ia t&tal d!l '&n'!"t& d! la
"$&"i!dad "$ivada !n las id!as, la am"litd d! la
'alidad , !l t!ma .! "!d! !n'&nt$a$s! !n las
&+$as &$i!ntal!s d! n& , !l mism& "!$)&d& &
!s'!la !s m!n&$ .! !l .! "!d! v!$s! !n !l
a$t! !$&"!& d!l ti!m"& a'tal, , ad!m#s d! !st&,
ha ha+id& na adh!si(n a t!mas , f($mlas
id*nti'&s d$ant! la$g&s "!$)&d&s. Cand& !l
!stdiant! m&d!$n&, a'&stm+$ad& a na va$i!dad
in2nita d! !l!''i(n !n l&s t!mas, , a na va$i!dad
, t&l!$an'ia in2nitas d! mani!$ism&s "!$s&nal!s,
n& s! ha a'&stm+$ad& ni a la id!a d! n !stil&
abril, 97
32
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
n#nim!, ni a la d! t!mas d!t!$minad&s "&$ las
n!'!sidad!s g!n!$al!s , la d!manda n#nim!, ni
ha a"$!ndid& a distingi$ l&a mati'!s !n las s!$i!s
!stil)sti'as "&'& familia$!s, n& !s d! !%t$a<a$ s
im"a'i!n'ia- "!$& !sta im"a'i!n'ia, .! n& !s na
vi$td, d!+! s"!$a$s!. A.) !st# im"li'ada t&da la
'!sti(n d! la distin'i(n !nt$! &$iginalidad &
n&v!dad ! int!nsidad & !n!$g)a- +asta$# d!'i$ .!
'and& ha, '&m"$!nsi(n, 'and& l&s t!mas s!
si!nt!n , !l a$t! vive, n& !s d! ningna
im"&$tan'ia !l .! l&s t!mas s!an n!v&s & vi!8&s.
6a vida misma :l&s dif!$!nt!s m&d&s !n .!
l&s dif)'il!s "$&+l!mas d! la as&'ia'i(n hmana s!
han $!s!lt&: $!"$!s!nta la 9ltima , "$in'i"al d!
las a$t!s d! Asia- , ha d! d!'la$a$s! d! na v!5
"&$ t&das .! las f&$mas asmidas "&$ !sta vida
n& !st#n d!t!$minadas !n m&d& algn&
!m")$i'am!nt!, sin& .! !st#n d!signadas !n la
m!dida d! l& "&si+l! d! a'!$d& '&n na t$adi'i(n
m!taf)si'a, "&$ na "a$t! '&nf&$m!m!nt! a n
&$d!n divin&, , "&$ &t$a '&n &+8!t& d! fa'ilita$ la
'&ns!''i(n "&$ 'ada individ& d! la "!$f!''i(n
a"$&%imada !n s g*n!$&, !s d!'i$, "!$miti*nd&l!,
"&$ n a8st! !%a't& d! &"&$tnidad a
"&t!n'ialidad, al'an5a$ tal $!ali5a'i(n d! s s!$
'&m"l!t& '&m& !s "&si+l! "a$a *l. In'ls& la
"lani2'a'i(n d! na 'idad d!"!nd! !n 9ltim&
an#lisis d! '&nsid!$a'i&n!s d! !st! ti"&. Ni la
s&'i!dad ni las a$t!s !s"!')2'as "!d!n g&5a$s!
$a'i&nalm!nt! sin n $!'&n&'imi!nt& d! l&s
"$in'i"i&s m!taf)si'&s '&n l&s .! !st#n as)
$!la'i&nadas, "!s las '&sas "!d!n g&5a$s! s(l&
!n "$&"&$'i(n a s int!ligi+ilidad, !s d!'i$,
ha+land& hmanam!nt! , n& s(l& fn'i&nalm!nt!.
6a vida &$i!ntal s! m&d!la s&+$! ti"&s d!
'&nd'ta san'i&nad&s "&$ la t$adi'i(n. 7a$a la
India, R ma , S t $!"$!s!ntan id!al!s t&dav)a ,
abril, 97
33
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
vig!nt!s, !l svadharma d! 'ada 'asta !s n modo
d! '&nd'ta, !stand& la +!na f&$ma < la mode- ,
hasta $!'i!nt!m!nt! t&d& 'hin& a'!"ta+a "&$
s"!st& !l '&n'!"t& d! '&stm+$!s !sta+l!'id&
"&$ C&nf'i&. 6a "ala+$a 8a"&n!sa "a$a $d!5a
signi2'a /a'ta$ d! m&d& in!s"!$ad&0. A.), "!s,
s! '&nsid!$a la vida '&m& n 8a$d)n, al .! n& s!
"!$mit! '$!'!$ salva8!m!nt!. 4&d& !st!
f&$malism&, "a$a n !s"!'tad&$ 'lt&, !s m'h&
m#s at$a'tiv& d! l& .! "!d! s!$ la va$i!dad d! la
im"!$f!''i(n tan li+$!m!nt! d!s"l!gada "&$ !l
!$&"!&, m'h& m#s sim"l! , m#s t&s'&, & s!g9n
*l "i!nsa, /m#s sin'!$&0. Esta '&nf&$midad
!%t!$i&$, "&$ la .! n h&m+$! !st# "!$did& !n la
m'h!dm+$! '&m& la v!$dad!$a a$.it!'t$a
"a$!'! s!$ na "a$t! d! s "aisa8! nativ&,
'&nstit,! "a$a !l &$i!ntal mism& na "$iva'idad
d!nt$& d! la 'al !l 'a$#'t!$ individal "!d!
?&$!'!$ sin &+st#'l&s. Est& !s 'i!$t& s&+$! t&d& !n
!l 'as& d! las m8!$!s, a las .! &$i!nt! ha
"$&t!gid& d$ant! tant& ti!m"& d! las n!'!sidad!s
d! la at&1a2$ma'i(n- "!d! d!'i$s! .! "a$a las
m8!$!s d! la 'las! a$ist&'$#ti'a !n la India & =a"(n
n& ha !%istid& ningna li+!$tad !n !l s!ntid&
m&d!$n&, , sin !m+a$g& !stas mismas m8!$!s,
m&ld!adas "&$ sigl&s d! vivi$ !stili5ad&, al'an5a$&n
na "!$f!''i(n a+s&lta !n s ti"&, , .i5#s !l a$t!
asi#ti'& n& "!da m&st$a$ na '&ns!''i(n m#s
alta .! *sta. En la India, d&nd! la /ti$an)a d!
'asta0 g&+i!$na !st$i'tam!nt! !l mat$im&ni&, la
di!ta, , 'ada d!tall! d! la '&nd'ta !%t!$na, !%ist!
, ha !%istid& si!m"$! na li+!$tad d! "!nsami!nt&
ilimitada !n 'ant& a m&d&s d! '$!!n'ia & d!
"!nsami!nt&- na $"t$a d! la !ti.!ta s&'ial
"!d! im"li'a$ la !%'&mni(n d! la s&'i!dad, "!$&
la int&l!$an'ia $!ligi&sa !s "$#'ti'am!nt!
d!s'&n&'ida, , !s na '&sa '&m"l!tam!nt! n&$mal
abril, 97
34
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"a$a l&s dif!$!nt!s mi!m+$&s d! na familia !l!gi$
"a$a s) mism&s la d!idad "a$ti'la$ d! s d!v&'i(n
"!$s&nal.
S! ha di'h& +i!n .! la 'ivili5a'i(n !s !l !stil&.
Pna 'lt$a inman!nt! !n !st! s!ntid& d&ta a 'ada
individ& '&n na g$a'ia !%t!$i&$, na "!$f!''i(n
ti"&l(gi'a, tal '&m& s(l& l&s s!$!s m!n&s '&mn!s
"!d!n al'an5a$ "&$ s "$&"i& !sf!$5&, n ti"& d!
"!$f!''i(n .! n& "!$t!n!'! al g!ni&- mi!nt$as
.! na d!m&'$a'ia, .! $!.i!$! .! 'ada
h&m+$! salv! s "$&"ia /'a$a0 , alma, !n $!alidad
'&nd!na a 'ada n& a na !%hi+i'i(n d! s "$&"ia
i$$!gla$idad ! im"!$f!''i(n, , !sta a'!"ta'i(n
im"l)'ita d! la im"!$f!''i(n f&$mal s! '&nvi!$t!
'&n m'ha fa'ilidad !n n !%hi+i'i&nism& .!
ha'! d! la vanidad na vi$td , s! d!s'$i+!
'&m"la'i!nt!m!nt! '&m& at&1!%"$!si(n.
Nasta ah&$a h!m&s !%aminad& !l a$t! d! Asia
!n s as"!'t& t!&l(gi'&, !s d!'i$ '&n $!f!$!n'ia a
la &$gani5a'i(n !s'&l#sti'a d!l "!nsami!nt& !n
t*$min&s d! ti"&s d! a'tividad, , las a$t!s
'&$$!s"&ndi!nt!s d!l sim+&lism& , la i'&n&g$af)a,
!n las .! l&s !l!m!nt&s d! la f&$ma "$!s!ntad&s
"&$ la Nat$al!5a , $!dimid&s "&$ !l a$t! s! san
'&m& m!di& d! '&mni'a'i(n. 6&s d!sa$$&ll&s
'l#si'&s d! !st! ti"& d! a$t! '&$$!s"&nd!n
"$in'i"alm!nt! al "$im!$ mil!ni& d! la !$a
'$istiana. Ss "$&l&nga'i&n!s "&st!$i&$!s ti!nd!n a
la d!'ad!n'ia, l&s !l!m!nt&s f&$mal!s '&ns!$van
s val&$ !di2'ant!, !n dis!<& , '&m"&si'i(n, "!$&
"i!$d!n s vitalidad, & s&+$!viv!n s(l& !n !l a$t!
f&l3l($i'&, d&nd! la int!nsidad d! na *"&'a
ant!$i&$ .! !%"$!sa+a na v&lntad m#s
'&ns'i!nt! s! $!!m"la5a "&$ na a$m&n)a d! !stil&
m#s sim"l! .! "$!val!'! !n t&d& !l m!di&
am+i!nt! h!'h& "&$ !l h&m+$!. Siam , C!il#n !n !l
sigl& di!'i&'h& n&s "$&"&$'i&nan !8!m"l&s
abril, 97
35
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
admi$a+l!s d! n tal !stil& f&l3l($i'& +asad& !n la
t$adi'i(n 'l#si'a, "!$& !sta '&ndi'i(n $!"$!s!nta la
ant)t!sis d! l& .! ah&$a ti!n! lga$ !n &''id!nt!,
d&nd! !n lga$ d! la v&'a'i(n '&m& !l ti"& g!n!$al
d! a'tividad !n'&nt$am&s l&s ti"&s d!l g!ni&
individal "&$ na "a$t!, , !l d!l t$a+a8& n&
'ali2'ad& "&$ &t$a.
Ot$& ti"& d! a$t!, a v!'!s llamad& $&m#nti'& &
id!alista, "!$& d!s'$it& m!8&$ '&m& imaginista
2C
&
m)sti'&, d&nd! la d!n&ta'i(n , la '&nn&ta'i(n n&
"!d!n s!"a$a$s!, !st# t)"i'am!nt! d!sa$$&llad&
"&$ t&da Asia !n !l s!gnd& mil!ni&. En !st! ti"&
d! a$t! n& s! si!nt! ningna distin'i(n !nt$! l& .!
na '&sa /!s0 , l& .! /signi2'a0. Sin !m+a$g&, al
t$a5a$ as) na distin'i(n !nt$! !l a$t! sim+(li'& , !l
imaginista d!+! s+$a,a$s! m, f!$t!m!nt! .!
l&s d&s ti"&s d! a$t! !st#n ins!"a$a+l!m!nt!
'&n!'tad&s , $!la'i&nad&s hist($i'a ,
!st*ti'am!nt!- "&$ !8!m"l&, la "int$a +dista
Kama3$a !n l&s sigl&s d&'! & t$!'! t&dav)a !s
i'&n&g$#2'a, !n la "int$a d! "aisa8! , animal)sti'a
Sng ha, si!m"$! n sim+&lism& s+,a'!nt!, ,,
"&$ &t$a "a$t!, la !s'lt$a animal india !n
M malla"$am !n !l sigl& si!t! !s ,a $&m#nti'a,
hm&$)sti'a , m)sti'a. Pna $"t$a m#s 'la$a !nt$!
l&s d&s "nt&s d! vista s! ilst$a !n la +i!n
'&n&'ida hist&$ia d!l m&n8! b!n 4an1hsia, .! s(
na imag!n d! mad!$a d!l Uda "a$a ha'!$ s
f!g& :n&, sin !m+a$g&, '&m& i'&n&'lasta, sin&
sim"l!m!nt! "&$.! t!n)a f$)&. 6&s d&s ti"&s d!
a$t! !st#n !nla5ad&s m, !st$!'ham!nt! "&$ la
2l&s&f)a , la "$#'ti'a d!l Y&ga- !n &t$as "ala+$as,
na id!nti2'a'i(n d! s) mism& '&n !l t!ma !s
si!m"$! n "$!$!.isit&. 7!$& mi!nt$as .! !l a$t!
t!&l(gi'& ti!n! .! v!$ '&n l&s ti"&s d!l "&d!$, !l
a$t! m)sti'& s! &'"a s(l& d! n 9ni'& "&d!$. S
t!ma 9ltim& !s !s! "$in'i"i& 9ni'& ! indivis& .!
abril, 97
36
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
s! $!v!la !n 'ada f&$ma d! vida si!m"$! .! la l5
d! la m!nt! +$illa s&+$! alg& d! tal man!$a .! s!
v!$i2'a !l s!'$!t& d! s vida int!$i&$, a la v!5 '&m&
n 2n !n s) mism& sin $!la'i(n '&n ning9n
"$&"(sit& hman&, , '&m& n& &t$a '&sa .! !l
s!'$!t& d!l "$&"i& s!$ m#s "$&fnd& d! n&.
/Cand& v!s n #gila, v!s na "&$'i(n d!l
g!ni&0- /l&s 'i!l&s d!'la$an la gl&$ia d! Di&s0- /n
$at(n !s s2'i!nt! milag$&0, *stas s&n anal&g)as
!$&"!as- & !l :igna et lapides docebunt te" *uod a
magistris audire non posse d! S. U!$na$d&.
A.), "!s, !l t!ma "$(%im& "!d! s!$
'al.i!$ as"!'t& d! la Nat$al!5a, n&
!%'l,*nd&s! la nat$al!5a hmana !%'!"t&
/'and& la m!nt! s! a"!ga0, "!st& .! t&d&
as"!'t& d! la vida ti!n! igal val&$ !n na visi(n
!s"i$ital. En t!&$)a !st! "nt& d! vista "&d$)a
a"li'a$s! "a$a 8sti2'a$ la ma,&$ va$i!dad "&si+l!
d! !l!''i(n individal, ! int!$"$!ta$s! '&m& na
/li+!$a'i(n0 d!l a$tista $!s"!'t& d! las id!as
as&'iadas. Sin !m+a$g&, !n la !'&n&m)a m#s
"$#'ti'a d! las g$and!s t$adi'i&n!s vivas
!n'&nt$am&s, '&m& ant!s, .! ha, na adh!si(n a
'i!$t&s ti"&s & g$"&s d! t!mas $!st$ingid&s
g!n!$a'i(n t$as g!n!$a'i(n !n n #$!a dada, , .!
la t*'ni'a !st# '&nt$&lada t&dav)a "&$ las m#s
!la+&$adas $!glas, , s(l& "!d! ad.i$i$s! !n
la$g&s a<&s d! "a'i!nt! "$#'ti'a @abhy sa A. 6as
'&ndi'i&n!s hist($i'as , !l m!di&, na h!$!n'ia d!
sim+&lism&s m#s antig&s, las s!nsi+ilidad!s
$a'ial!s !s"!')2'as, t&d& !st& "$&"&$'i&na na
d!t!$mina'i(n d! la &+$a .! ha d! ha'!$s! m!8&$
.! la "a$ti'la$- "a$a !l a$tista & !l a$t!san&, .!
/ti!n! !l a$t! .! s! !s"!$a .! "$a'ti.!0, !st&
!s n m!di& "a$a la '&ns!$va'i(n d! la !n!$g)a-
"a$a !l h&m+$! !n g!n!$al, as!g$a na
abril, 97
37
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&m"$!h!si+ilidad '&ntinada d!l a$t!, s val&$
'&m& '&mni'a'i(n.
6&s as"!'t&s m#s s&+$!sali!nt!s d!l a$t!
imaginista & m)sti'& d! Asia s&n !l a$t! Ch[an &
b!n
2D
d! China , =a"(n, d&nd! !l t!ma !s !l "aisa8!
& la vida v!g!tal & animal- la "int$a, "&!s)a ,
m9si'a Kaisnava !n la India, d&nd! !l t!ma !s !l
am&$ s!%al- , la "&!s)a , la m9si'a S f !n _ ,
7!$sia, d!di'ada a la ala+an5a d!l $a"t& & *%tasis.
6a nat$al!5a d!l Ch[an1b!n n& !s f#'il d!
!%"li'a$. Ss f!nt!s s&n !n "a$t! indias, , !n
"a$t! ta&)stas- , s d!sa$$&ll& !s a la v!5 'hin& ,
8a"&n*s. El a$t! +dista 'hin& !s como !l indi& !n
!l as"!'t& g!n!$al, di2$i!nd& s(l& !n !l !stil&- !l
a$t! Ch[an1b!n n&s "$&"&$'i&na n !8!m"l&
"!$f!'t& d! !s! ti"& d! asimila'i(n $!al d! n!vas
id!as 'lt$al!s .! ti!n! '&m& $!sltad& n
d!sa$$&ll& f&$malm!nt! distinto d!l &$iginal. Est&
!s t&talm!nt! dif!$!nt! d! !sa hi+$ida'i(n .!
$!slta d! las /in?!n'ias0 !8!$'idas "&$ n a$t!
s&+$! &t$&- las in?!n'ias !n !st! 9ltim& s!ntid&,
an.! l&s hist&$iad&$!s d!l a$t! l!s at$i+,!n
g$an im"&$tan'ia, s! mani2!stan 'asi si!m"$!
'&m& na "a$&dia in'&ns'i!nt! :"!nsam&s !n !l
a$t! h!l!n)sti'& !n la India, & las chinoiseries !n
E$&"a,: , !n t&d& 'as& "!$t!n!'!n a la hist&$ia
d!l gst& m#s .! a la hist&$ia d!l a$t!. Al ti!m"&
.! $!'&n&'!m&s las f!nt!s indias d!l a$t! Ch[an1
b!n, ha, .! $!'&$da$ .! !l b!n !st# tam+i*n
"$&fndam!nt! !n$ai5ad& !n !l 4a&)sm&- s!
m!st$a s2'i!nt!m!nt! "&$ !l di'h& d! Chang
45 ; /6a m!nt! d!l sa+i&, !stand& !n $!"&s&, _
d!vi!n! !l !s"!8& d!l niv!$s&, !l s"!'lm d!
t&da la '$!a'i(n0, .! China ha+)a sid& si!m"$!, !
ind!"!ndi!nt!m!nt!, '&ns'i!nt! d! la v!$dad!$a
nat$al!5a d! la visi(n imaginativa.
abril, 97
38
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
6a dis'i"lina Ch[an1b!n !s d! a'tividad , d!
&$d!n- s d&'t$ina !s la invalid!5 d! la d&'t$ina, s
2n na ilmina'i(n "&$ la !%"!$i!n'ia inm!diata. El
a$t! Ch[an1b!n, +s'and& la $!ali5a'i(n d!l s!$
divin& !n !l h&m+$!, "$&'!d! a+$i!nd& ss &8&s a
na !s!n'ia !s"i$ital s!m!8ant! !n !l mnd& d!
la Nat$al!5a !%t!$i&$ a s) mism&- la !s'$it$a d!l
b!n /!st# !s'$ita '&n l&s 'a$a't!$!s d!l 'i!l&, d!l
h&m+$!, d! +!stias, d! d!m&ni&s, d! 'i!nt&s d!
h&8as d! hi!$+a , d! mil!s d! #$+&l!s0 @D g!nA,
/'ada fl&$ !%hi+! la imag!n d!l Uddha0 @Dg A.
7!d! &+t!n!$s! na +!na id!a d!l a$t! Ch[an1
b!n d! las "ala+$as d! n '$)ti'& 'hin& d!l sigl&
d&'!, al !s'$i+i$ s&+$! la "int$a d! animal!s; t$as
aldi$ al 'a+all& , al t&$& '&m& s)m+&l&s d!l Ci!l& ,
d! la 4i!$$a, '&ntin9a; /7!$& l&s tig$!s, l!&"a$d&s,
'i!$v&s, 8a+al)!s, v!nad&s , li!+$!s :'$iat$as .!
n& "!d!n s!$ a'&stm+$adas a la v&lntad d!l
h&m+$!: a *st&s !l "int&$ l&s !s'&g! "&$ ss
'a"$i'h&s&s $!t&5&s , v!l&'!s , asstadi5as
!vasi&n!s, l&s ama '&m& '&sas .! +s'an la
d!s&la'i(n d! las g$and!s llan$as , las gla'ial!s
ni!v!s, '&m& '$iat$as .! n& s!$#n d!t!nidas '&n
na +$ida, ni atad&s "&$ !l "i!. El "int&$
!m"$!nd!$)a "inta$ !l !s"l!nd&$ galant! d! s
5an'ada- har=a esto y nada m>s0
2L
. 7!$& !l a$tista
Ch[an1b!n n& "inta m#s d! la Nat$al!5a .! !l
"&!ta !s'$i+! d! la Nat$al!5a- s! l! ha !8!$'itad&
s!g9n t$atad&s s&+$! !stil& tan d!tallad&s ,
!%"l)'it&s .! "a$!'!$)a n& .!da$ siti& algn&
"a$a la &"!$a'i(n d! la "!$s&nalidad. Pn "int&$
8a"&n*s m! di8& na v!5; /N! t!nid& .!
'&n'!nt$a$m! !n !l +am+9 d$ant! m'h&s,
m'h&s a<&s, , a "!sa$ d! !ll& na 'i!$ta t*'ni'a
"a$a la $!"$&d''i(n d! las "ntas d! las h&8as d!
+am+9 t&dav)a m! !ld!0. Y sin !m+a$g& la
inm!diat!5 & la !s"&ntan!idad s! ha al'an5ad&
abril, 97
39
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
m#s "!$f!'tam!nt! !n !l a$t! Ch[an1b!n .! !n
'al.i!$ &t$&. A.) n& ha, ningna i'&n&g$af)a
f&$mal, sin& na inti'i(n .! ha d! !%"$!sa$s! !n
na "int$a a tinta d&nd! n& "!d! +&$$a$s! ni
m&di2'a$s! la m!n&$ "in'!lada- la &+$a !s tan
i$$!v&'a+l! '&m& la vida misma. N& ha, ning9n
ti"& d! a$t! .! !st* m#s '!$'a a /a"$!h!nd!$ !l
g&5& mi!nt$as v!la0, la vida alada .! ,a n& !s
vida 'and& t&mam&s !l "!nsami!nt& d!
$!'&$da$la , d!s'$i+i$la- ning9n ti"& d! a$t! !s m#s
!stdiad& !n !l m*t&d&, , m!n&s !la+&$ad& !n !l
!f!'t&. Cada &+$a d!l a$t! Ch[an1b!n !s 9ni'a, , !n
"$&"&$'i(n a s "!$f!''i(n in!s'$ta+l!.
7!$& !l Ch[an1b!n n& !s s(l& na v)a ha'ia la
!%"!$i!n'ia "!$f!'ta, !s tam+i*n na v)a ha'ia !l
"!$f!''i&nami!nt& d!l 'a$#'t!$. El Ch[an1b!n
$!"$!s!nta t&d& , m#s d! l& .! ah&$a
!nt!nd!m&s "&$ la "ala+$a /'lt$a0; n "$in'i"i&
a'tiv& .! "!n!t$a 'ada as"!'t& d! la vida
hmana, &$a d!vini!nd& la 'a+all!$&sidad d!l
g!$$!$&, &$a la g$a'ia d!l amant!, &$a !l h#+it&
d!l a$t!san&. El 9ltim& "nt& "!d! ilst$a$s! "&$
la hist&$ia d! Chang 45 s&+$! !l ha'!d&$ d! _
$!das d! 'a$$& .! s! av!nt$( a '$iti'a$ a n
n&+l! "&$ l!!$ las &+$as d! n sa+i& m!$t&.
E%'sand& s t!m!$idad, !%"li'(; /K!st$& hmild!
si$vi!nt! d!+! '&nsid!$a$ la '!sti(n d!sd! !l
"nt& d! vista d! s "$&"i& a$t!. Al ha'!$ na
$!da, si "$&'!d& d!masiad& sav!m!nt!, !s
+astant! f#'il, "!$& la &+$a n& s! mant!nd$# 2$m!-
si "$&'!d& d!masiad& vi&l!ntam!nt!, !s& n& s(l&
!s fatig&s&, sin& .! las "a$t!s n& a8sta$#n +i!n.
S(l& 'and& l&s m&vimi!nt&s d! mi man& n& s&n ni
d!masiad& sav!s ni d!masiad& vi&l!nt&s !s
'and& la id!a d! mi m!nt! "!d! $!ali5a$s!. Sin
!m+a$g&, n& "!d& !%"li'a$ !st& !n "ala+$as- ha,
na ha+ilidad !n !ll& .! n& "!d& !ns!<a$ a mi
abril, 97
40
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
hi8&, ni *l "!d! a"$!nd!$ d! m)0. El ha'!d&$ d!
$!das d! 'a$$& s!<al(, !n &t$as "ala+$as, .! la
"!$f!''i(n n& "!d! al'an5a$s! l!,!nd& a'!$'a d!
!lla, sin& s(l& !n la a''i(n di$!'ta.
As) !l Ch[an1b!n n& !s !n m&d& algn& n
as'!tism& div&$'iad& d! la vida, an.! ha,
m'h&s g$and!s m&nast!$i&s Ch[an1b!n- !l a$t!
Ch[an1b!n n& "$!s!nta ningna !%'!"'i(n a la
$!gla g!n!$al !n Asia d! .! t&das las &+$as d!
a$t! ti!n!n signi2'ad&s d!2nid&s , '&m"$!ndid&s
'&m9nm!nt!, a"a$t! d! 'al.i!$ "!$f!''i(n
!st*ti'a d! la &+$a misma. 6&s signi2'ad&s d! l&s
t!mas Ch[an1b!n s&n tal!s '&m& s! han !%"$!sad&
a v!'!s !n !l a$t! !$&"!& "&$ m!di& d! 2g$as
al!g($i'as. El d$ag(n , !l tig$!, la ni!+la , la
m&nta<a, !l 'a+all& , !l t&$&, s&n ti"&s d!l Ci!l& ,
la 4i!$$a, d!l !s")$it , la mat!$ia- !l g!ntil m&n&
d! la$g&s +$a5&s sgi!$! +!n!v&l!n'ia, !l "av& $!al
!s sim+(li'& d! l&ng!vidad, !l l&t& $!"$!s!nta na
"$!5a inma'lada. C&nsid!$!m&s !l 'as& d!l "in&
, la gl&$ia d! la ma<ana, am+&s t!mas fav&$it&s
d!l a$t! 8a"&n*s; /6a gl&$ia d! la ma<ana ?&$!'!
s(l& na h&$a, , sin !m+a$g& n& di2!$! !n !l f&nd&
d!l "in&, .! "!d! d$a$ mil a<&s0. 6& .! ha,
.! '&m"$!nd!$ a.) n& !s na al!g&$)a &+via d!l
ti!m"& , la !t!$nidad, sin& .! !l "in& n& ti!n!
m#s !n '!nta ss mil a<&s .! la gl&$ia d! la
ma<ana s !f)m!$a h&$a- 'ada n& 'm"l! s
d!stin& , !st# '&nt!nt&- , Matsnaga, !l at&$ d!l
"&!ma, d!s!( .! s '&$a5(n "di!$a s!$ '&m& !l
d! !ll&s. Si tal!s as&'ia'i&n!s n& ag$!gan nada
di$!'tam!nt! a la 'alidad !st*ti'a, tam"&'& la
dismin,!n !n a+s&lt&. Cand& 2nalm!nt! !l a$t!
b!n !n'&nt$( !%"$!si(n !n !l !s'!"ti'ism&,
C&n'!did& .! !st! mnd& d! $&')& !s s(l&
n mnd& d! $&')&,
abril, 97
41
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
C&n'!did& !st&, sin !m+a$g&]
2Q
vin& a la !%ist!n'ia !l d!s"$!'iad& a$t! "&"la$ ,
s!'la$ P3i,&,!
2R
d!l =a"(n. 7!$& a.) na t$adi'i(n
a$t)sti'a s! ha+)a !sta+l!'id& tan 2$m!m!nt!, la
visi(n d!l mnd& !$a tan appro-ondi, .! !n na
!sf!$a '&$$!s"&ndi!nt! a la d! la m&d!$na ta$8!ta
"&stal :!l P3i,&,! ilst$a+a !l t!at$&, !l 8oshi'ara
, !l %ussichtspunkt: a9n s&+$!viv)a na "$!5a ,
!n'ant& d! '&n'!"'i(n .! +asta+a, "&$ lig!$a .!
f!$a s !s!n'ia, "a$a gana$ a'!"ta'i(n !n E$&"a,
m'h& ant!s d! .! s! h+i!s! s&s"!'had& la
!%ist!n'ia d! n a$t! m#s s!$i& , 'l#si'&.
Pn d!sa$$&ll& m)sti'& tv& lga$ !n la India alg&
m#s ta$d!, , !n l)n!as dif!$!nt!s. En la visi(n
ant$&"&'*nt$i'a !$&"!a d! la vida, la f&$ma
hmana d!snda ha a"a$!'id& si!m"$! '&m&
"a$ti'la$m!nt! signi2'ativa, "!$& !n Asia, d&nd!
la vida hmana s! ha '&nsid!$ad& '&m& di2$i!nd&
d! la d! &t$as '$iat$as, & in'ls& d! la d! la
'$!a'i(n /inanimada0 s(l& !n g$ad& , n& !n ti"&,
!st& n& ha sid& nn'a !l 'as&. 7&$ &t$a "a$t!, !n !l
India, las '&ndi'i&n!s d!l am&$ hman&, d!sd! !l
"$im!$ !n'!nt$& d! l&s &8&s hasta !l &lvid& d! s)
9ltim&, ha "a$!'id& !s"i$italm!nt! signi2'ant!, ,
si!m"$! ha ha+id& n s& li+$! , di$!'t& d!
imagin!$)a s!%al !n !l sim+&lism& $!ligi&s&. 7&$
na "a$t!, la ni(n f)si'a ha "a$!'id& "$!s!nta$
na imag!n at&1!vid!nt! d! la nidad !s"i$ital-
"&$ &t$a, las f!$5as &"!$ativas, '&m& !n !l m*t&d&
'i!nt)2'& m&d!$n&, s! '&n'i+!n '&m& ma'h& ,
h!m+$a, "&sitiv& , n!gativ&. E$a "!s +astant!
nat$al .! !l misti'ism& Kaisnava "&st!$i&$, al
ha+la$ d! d!v&'i(n, bhakti, l& hi'i!$a !n l&s
mism&s t*$min&s- la $!la'i(n v!$dad!$a ,
at!m"&$al d!l alma '&n Di&s "&d)a !%"$!sa$s!
ah&$a s(l& !n a"asi&nad&s !"italami&s '!l!+$and&
abril, 97
42
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
las n"'ias d! R dh , K$sna, la l!'h!$a , !l
"ast&$, la N&via t!$$!nal , !l N&vi& '!l!stial.
Kini!$&n as) a la !%ist!n'ia 'ant&s , dan5as !n las
.! a n& , !l mism& ti!m"& la s!nsalidad t!n)a
signi2'a'i(n !s"i$ital , la !s"i$italidad
s+stan'ia f)si'a, , "int$as .! $!"$!s!nta+an n
mnd& t$ans2g$ad&, d&nd! t&d&s l&s h&m+$!s
s&n h!$&i'&s, t&das las m8!$!s +!llas ,
a"asi&nadas , t)midas, , d&nd! las +!stias !
in'ls& l&s #$+&l!s , l&s $)&s s&n '&ns'i!nt!s d! la
"$!s!n'ia d!l Amad& : n mnd& d! imagina'i(n
, $!alidad, vist& '&n l&s &8&s d! Ma8< n _
3I
. Si !n la
dan5a @/nat'h0A las $!la'i&n!s mtas d!l h*$&!
, la h!$&)na imitadas "&$ l&s a't&$!s mani2!stan
n s!ntid& !s&t*$i'&
3>
, !st& n& !s "&$ na
int!$"$!ta'i(n a$+it$a$ia & '&m& na al!g&$)a, sin&
"&$ na int$&ss'!"'i(n mta. Si !n la "int$a ,
la "&!s)a la vida dia$ia d! l&s 'am"!sin&s "a$!')a
$!?!8a$ las '&ndi'i&n!s si!m"$! "$!s!nt!s !n !l
Ci!l& "ast&$al d!l R!+a<& Divin&, !st& n& !s n
sim+&lism& s!ntim!ntal & $&m#nti'&, sin& na'id&
d! la '&nvi''i(n d! .! /t&d&s l&s h&m+$!s ,
m8!$!s d!l mnd& s&n Ss f&$mas vivas0
@Ka+ $A, d! .! la $!alidad !s a.) , ah&$a ,
a''!si+l! tangi+l! , visi+l!m!nt!. A.) !l "!$fm!
d! la ti!$$a !st# si!m"$! "$!s!nt!; /Si *l n& ti!n!
&8&s, ni na$i5, ni +&'a, _'(m& "&d$)a ha+!$ $&+ad&
, '&mid& 'a8ada` _7&d!m&s a+and&na$ n!st$&
am&$ a K$sna, "a$a ad&$a$ a na 2g$a "intada !n
n m$&`0 @S $ D sA. 6as $!alidad!s d! la _
!%"!$i!n'ia, , n& na t!&$)a d!l di+8& ni na
ins"i$a'i(n vini!nd& nadi! sa+! d! d(nd!, s&n las
f!nt!s d! !st! a$t!- , .i!n!s n& "!d!n al
m!n&s !n la fantas)a @v san A
32
!%"!$im!nta$ las
mismas !m&'i&n!s , s!nti$ s &"!$a'i(n nat$al n&
"!d!n !s"!$a$ s!$ 'a"a'!s d! !nt!nd!$ !l a$t!
"&$ ning9n &t$& "$&'!s& m#s anal)ti'&. 7!s n&
abril, 97
43
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"!d! 85ga$s! ning9n a$t! hasta .! n&s&t$&s
mism&s n&s '&l&'am&s !n !l "nt& d! vista d!l
a$tista- s(l& as) "!d! '&n&'!$s! la d!t!$mina'i(n
"&$ la .! s di+8& , !8!''i(n !st#n !nt!$am!nt!
'&nt$&lad&s.
Pna t!&$)a f&$mal d!l a$t! +asada !n h!'h&s
'&m& l&s d!s'$it&s a$$i+a s! ha !nn'iad& !n la
India !n na lit!$at$a '&nsid!$a+l! s&+$! la
R!t($i'a @alamk ra A. Es 'i!$t& .! !sta t!&$)a !st#
d!sa$$&llada "$in'i"alm!nt! !n $!la'i(n '&n la
"&!s)a, !l d$ama, la dan5a , la m9si'a, "!$& !s
a"li'a+l! inm!diatam!nt! al a$t! d! t&d&s l&s
ti"&s, g$an "a$t! d! s t!$min&l&g)a !m"l!a !l
'&n'!"t& d!l '&l&$, , t!n!m&s !vid!n'ia d! .! la
t!&$)a tam+i*n s! a"li'( d! h!'h& a la "int$a
33
. En
'&ns!'!n'ia, !n l& .! sig! n& h!m&s va'ilad&
!n da$ na int!$"$!ta'i(n am"liada a t*$min&s
!m"l!ad&s &$igina$iam!nt! !n $!la'i(n '&n la
"&!s)a, & m#s +i!n '&n la lit!$at$a @k vya A,
'&nsid!$ada '&m& !l ti"& d!l a$t!
3B
. 6a 8sti2'a'i(n
d!l a$t! s! ha'! !nt&n'!s '&n $!f!$!n'ia al s&
@prayojanaA & al val&$ @purusrthaA
3C
s!<aland& .!
si$v! a l&s Cat$& 7$&"(sit&s d! la Kida, a sa+!$; la
A''i(n C&$$!'ta @dharmaA, !l 7la'!$ @k ma A, la
Ri.!5a @arthaA , la 6i+!$a'i(n Es"i$ital @moksaA.
D! *st&s, l&s t$!s "$im!$&s $!"$!s!ntan l&s 2n!s
"$(%im&s, , !l 'a$t& !l 2n 9ltim&, d! la vida- la
&+$a d! a$t! !st# d!t!$minada @prativihitaA d!l
mism& m&d&, "$(%imam!nt! '&n $!s"!'t& al s&
inm!diat&, , 9ltimam!nt! !n l& .! $!s"!'ta a la
!%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a. El a$t! s! d!2n! "!s '&m&
sig!; KAKYAM RASc4MAKAM K`KYAM, !s d!'i$, /E6
AR4E ES ES7RESIdN INWORMADA 7OR 6A UE66EbA IDEA60
3D
.
6a m!$a na$$a'i(n @nirv ha , itih sa A, la tilidad a
s!'as, n& s&n a$t!, & s&n a$t! s(l& !n n s!ntid&
$dim!nta$i&. 4am"&'& ti!n! !l a$t! '&m& tal n
val&$ m!$am!nt! inf&$mativ& '&n2nad& a s
abril, 97
44
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
signi2'ad& !%"l)'it& @vyutpattiA; s(l& !l h&m+$! d!
"&'& !nt!ndimi!nt& @alpabuddhiA "!d! n& s!$
'a"a5 d! $!'&n&'!$ .! !l a$t! !s "&$ nat$al!5a
na f!nt! d! d!l!'ta'i(n @ nanda-nisyanda A,
'al.i!$a .! "!da ha+!$ sid& la &'asi(n d! s
a"a$i'i(n
3L
. 7&$ &t$a "a$t!, n& "!d! imagina$s! n
a$t! sin signi2'ad& & tilidad. 6a d&'t$ina d!l a$t!
"&$ !l a$t! s! d!sat&$i5a '&m"l!tam!nt! !n na
s!nt!n'ia 'itada !n !l + hitya 6arpana K.>,
C&m!nta$i&; /4&das las !%"$!si&n!s @v kya A,
hmanas & $!v!ladas, s! di$ig!n a n 2n m#s all#
d! s) mismas @k rya-param , F&t$& -actibileHA- & si
n& !st#n d!t!$minadas @atatparatveA as), !nt&n'!s
s&n '&m"a$a+l!s s(l& a las "!$&$atas d! n l&'&0.
7&$ tant&, /.! !l "$&"(sit& @krtrthatA d! la
ha+ilidad @vaidagdhyaA s!a al'an5ad&0,
M lat m dhava , , I.32 f. Pna v!5 m#s s! ha'! la
distin'i(n !nt$! !l a$t! @manfa't$a '&nt$&lada,
'&sas h!'has +i!n , v!$dad!$am!nt!A , la
Nat$al!5a @!%"$!si(n fn'i&nal, sattva-bh va A d!
la sigi!nt! man!$a; /!l t$a+a8& @karmaA d! las d&s
man&s !s n !l!m!nt& dif!$!nt!m!nt!
d!t!$minad& @parast t-prativihit A d!l s!$ nat$al
@bh ta-m tr _ A, 0aus taki Upanisad , , III.C.
En !sta t!&$)a d!l a$t!, !l t*$min& m#s
im"&$tant! !s RASA t$ad'id& a$$i+a "&$ /U!ll!5a
Id!al0, "!$& signi2'and& lit!$alm!nt! /tint!0 &
!s!n'ia, , t$ad'id& g!n!$alm!nt! !n la $!la'i(n
"$!s!nt! '&m& /sa+&$0- la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a s!
d!s'$i+! '&m& !l sa+&$!& d!l sa+&$ @rassv dana A
& sim"l!m!nt! '&m& !l sa+&$!& @sv da , sv da A,
!l sa+&$!ad&$ '&m& rasika, la &+$a d! a$t! '&m&
rasavat
3Q
. Na+$)a .! s!<ala$ tam+i*n .! la
"ala+$a rasa s! sa @>\A $!lativam!nt!, !n "l$al,
'&n $!f!$!n'ia a las dif!$!nt!s '&ndi'i&n!s
!m&'i&nal!s, n&$malm!nt! &'h& & n!v!, .!
"!d!n '&nstiti$ la g$avid!5 d! na &+$a dada,
abril, 97
45
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
si!nd& !l am&$ @ rng ra-rasa A la m#s signi2'ativa
d! *stas, , @2\A a+s&ltam!nt!, !n singla$, '&n
$!f!$!n'ia al a't& int!$i&$ d!l sa+&$!& d!l sa+&$ n&
"a$ti'la$i5ad&. En !l 9ltim& s!ntid&, !l 9ni'& .!
!s n!'!sa$i& '&nsid!$a$ a.), ha d! distingi$s!
'la$am!nt! la id!a d! na +!ll!5a !st*ti'a .! ha
d! sa+&$!a$1s!, , '&gn&s'i+l! s&lam!nt!
!n la a'tividad d!l sa+&$!$&
3R
, d! las +!ll!5as &
h!$m&s$as $!lativas d! las "a$t!s s!"a$adas d! la
&+$a, & d! la &+$a misma '&nsid!$ada m!$am!nt!
'&m& na s"!$2'i!, la a"$!'ia'i(n d! t&d& l& 'al
!s n asnt& d! gst& @ruciA & d! "$!dil!''i(n
BI
.
Estas 9ltimas +!ll!5as $!lativas a"a$!'!$#n !n !l
t!ma , !n las s"!$2'i!s !st*ti'as, !n t&d& l& .!
ti!n! .! v!$ '&n la d!t!$mina'i(n "$(%ima d! la
&+$a .! ha d! ha'!$s!, !n s &$d!na'i(n "a$a !l
s&- la +!ll!5a f&$mal s! s!nti$# !n la vitalidad , !n
la nidad, !n !l t$a5ad& , !l $itm&, d! .! n&
d!"!nd!n !n m&d& algn& d! la nat$al!5a d!l
t!ma, & d! ss "a$t!s '&m"&n!nt!s. S! s!<ala
m, !%"l)'itam!nt! .! 'al.i!$ t!ma,
/ag$ada+l! & d!sag$ada+l!, n&+l! & vlga$,
g$a'i&s& & t!$$i+l!, !t'.,0 "!d! d!v!ni$ !l v!h)'l&
d! rasa
B>
.
6a d!2ni'i(n d! la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a
@rassv dana A dada !n !l + hitya 6arpana , III.21
3, !s d! tal at&$idad , val&$ '&m& "a$a !%igi$ la
t$ad''i(n in e?tenso- &f$!'!m&s "$im!$& na
v!$si(n m, lit!$al '&n n +$!v! '&m!nta$i&,
d!s"*s na t$ad''i(n lig!$am!nt! m#s li+$!
!vitand& las int!$$"'i&n!s. As), @>\A /El sa+&$
@rasahA !s sa+&$!ad& @ sv dyate A "&$ l&s
h&m+$!s .! ti!n!n n '&n&'imi!nt& innat& d! l&s
val&$!s a+s&lt&s @kai cit-pram trbhih A, !n la
!%alta'i(n d! la "$a '&ns'i!n'ia @sattv9drek t A,
'&m& at&1lmin&sa @svaprak ah A, !n !l m&d& a
la v!5 d! *%tasis , d! int!l!'t& @ nanda-cin-
abril, 97
46
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
mayahA, lim"i& d! '&nta't& '&n las '&sas
'&gn&s'i+l!s @vedyntara-spar a- nyah _ A,
h!$man& g!m!l& d!l sa+&$!& d! U$ahma
@brahmsv da-sah9darah A, d! l& .! la vida !s n
$!l#m"ag& s"$a1mndanal @lok9ttara-camatk ra-
prnahA, '&m& as"!'t& int$)ns!'& @svk ravat @
svar pavat _ A, !n indivisi+ilidad @abhinnatveA0; ,
@2\A /6a "$a !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a !s d! a.!ll&s
!n .i!n!s !l '&n&'imi!nt& d! la +!ll!5a id!al !s
innat&- !s '&n&'ida intitivam!nt!, !n *%tasis
int!l!'tal sin a'&m"a<ami!nt& d! id!a'i(n, !n !l
niv!l m#s alt& d!l s!$ '&ns'i!nt!- na'ida d! na
9ni'a mad$! '&n la visi(n d! Di&s, s vida !s '&m&
n $!l#m"ag& d! l5 '!gad&$a d! &$ig!n
t$ansmndan&, im"&si+l! d! anali5a$, , sin
!m+a$g& a imag!n d! n!st$& v!$dad!$& s!$0.
N!st$as t$ad''i&n!s "$!'!d!nt!s n&
in'&$"&$an ningna mat!$ia !%t$a<a. 7&$ &t$a
"a$t!, s(l& na !%t!nsa s!$i! d! t$ad''i&n!s
alt!$nativas +asta$)a "a$a d!sa$$&lla$ la $!f!$!n'ia
'&m"l!ta d! l&s t*$min&s &$iginal!s. /ram tr @d!
la misma $a)5 .! pram na , "$!s!nt! tam+i*n !n
!l ingl*s /m!t$!0A !s /*uis rationem artis intelligit-
a.) n& '&m& algi!n inst$id&, sin& "&$
nat$al!5a. 6a n&'i(n d!l g!ni& innat& "!d!
'&m"a$a$s! '&n la d! Ula3! /El h&m+$! na'! '&m&
n 8a$d)n ,a "lantad& , s!m+$ad&0, , /El
'&n&'imi!nt& d! la U!ll!5a Id!al n& "!d!
ad.i$i$s!, na'! '&n n&s&t$&s0. 7!$& d!+!
'&m"$!nd!$s! .! d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista indi&, !l
g!ni& n& !s na manif!sta'i(n f&$tita, sin& la
'&ns!'!n'ia n!'!sa$ia d! na $!'ti2'a'i(n d! la
"!$s&nalidad !nt!$a, 'm"lida !n na '&ndi'i(n
"$!via d!l s!$- 'f. la n&'i(n d! n pram na
a+s&lt& nat$al al C&m"$!h!ns&$, al Uddha, v!$
n&ta LB, in-ra. 6a /!%alta'i(n d! sattva0 im"li'a,
"&$ s"!st&, la a+st$a''i(n d! la !%t!nsi(n, d! la
abril, 97
47
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
&"!$a'i(n, d! la m&'i(n l&'al @rajasA, , d! la
ind!t!$mina'i(n & in!$'ia @tamasA. 6a !%"!$i!n'ia
!st*ti'a !s na t$ansf&$ma'i(n n& s(l& d!l
s!ntimi!nt& @'&m& sgi!$! la "ala+$a aesthesis,
per seA, sin& igalm!nt! d! la '&m"$!nsi(n- 'f. !l
!stad& d! /S!<& 7$&fnd&0, 'a$a't!$i5ad& "&$ la
!%"$!si(n praj na-ghana- nanda-mayi , /na
'&m"$!nsi(n '&nd!nsada !n !l m&d& d!l *%tasis0,
!%aminada a+a8&, ". >IQ , n&ta >2 d!l 'a")tl& K.
El niv!l d! la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a "$a !s
'i!$tam!nt! !l d! la '&m"$!nsi(n ang*li'a "$a,
"$&"i& d!l Ci!l& Inmta+l!, !l U$ahmal&3a. C&n
/'&m& !l $!s"land&$ d! n $!l#m"ag&0, 'f.
Brdhad ranyaka Upanisad , III.3.D , 0ena
Upanisad, 2R, d&nd! la visi(n d!l U$ahman s!
'&m"a$a '&n !l /s9+it& $!s"land&$ d!l $!l#m"ag&0,
& /6& .! $!s"land!'! !n !l $!l#m"ag&0. 6a visi(n
!s n!st$& v!$dad!$& S!$, 6ing an +ich, svk ra , ,
!n tant& .! n!st$& S!$, m#s all# d! n!st$&
al'an'! @grahanaA & '&n'!"'i(n @samkalpaA
individalm!nt! limitad&s- /t9 n& "!d!s v!$ al
v!!d&$ d!l v!$0, Brhad ranyaka Upanisad ,
III.B.2
B2
.
En t&d& 'as&, /Es la "$&"ia !n!$g)a @uts ha A
d!l !s"!'tad&$ la .! !s la 'asa d!l sa+&$!&,
'&m& 'and& l&s ni<&s 8!gan '&n !l!fant!s d!
a$'illa0- !l !stad& "!$man!nt! @sth yi-bh va A !s
t$a)d& a la vida '&m& rasa "&$ la "$&"ia 'a"a'idad
d! sa+&$!a$ d!l !s"!'tad&$, /n& "&$ !l 'a$#'t!$ &
las a''i&n!s d!l h*$&! a imita$ @anuk rya A, ni "&$
la &$d!na'i(n d!li+!$ada d! la &+$a a !s! 2n
@tatparatvatahA0
B3
. Mi!n!s 'a$!'!n d! la
'a"a'idad & d! la !n!$g)a $!.!$ida n& s&n
m!8&$!s .! la mad!$a & !l a$t!s&nad& d! la
gal!$)a
BB
. 6a !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a !s "!s a''!si+l!
s(l& a l&s '&m"!t!nt!s @pram tr , rasika,
sahrdayaA. 6a '&m"!t!n'ia d!"!nd! /d! la "$!5a
abril, 97
48
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
& s!n'ill!5 @sattvaA d!l '&$a5(n , d! n 'a$#'t!$
int!$n& @antara-dharmaA & h#+it& d! &+!di!n'ia
@anu la , A t!ndi!nt! a la av!$si(n d! la at!n'i(n
d! l&s f!n(m!n&s !%t!$n&s- !st! 'a$#'t!$ , h#+it&,
.! n& s! ad.i!$! "&$ sim"l! !stdi&, sin& .! !s
innat& & 'ltivad&, d!"!nd! d! na s!nsi+ilidad
id!al @v san A , d! la fa'ltad d! at&1
id!nti2'a'i(n @yogyatA '&n las f&$mas @bhavanaA
$!"$!s!ntadas @varnan ya , A0
BC
. D! la misma
man!$a .! la inti'i(n &$iginal s$gi( d! la at&1
id!nti2'a'i(n d!l a$tista '&n !l t!ma asignad&, as)
la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a, la $!"$&d''i(n, s$g! d!
na at&1id!nti2'a'i(n d!l !s"!'tad&$ '&n !l t!ma
"$!s!ntad&- la '$)ti'a $!"it! !l "$&'!s& d! la
'$!a'i(n. Pn 'as& int!$!sant! !s !l d!l a't&$, & d!
'al.i!$ a$tista, .! n& d!+! s!$ m&vid&
nat$alm!nt! "&$ las "asi&n!s .! $!"$!s!nta,
an.! "!d! &+t!n!$ !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a d!l
!s"!'t#'l& d! s "$&"ia $!"$!s!nta'i(n
BD
.
An.! la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a s! d!'la$a as)
na a'tividad !s"i$ital in!s'$ta+l! ! in'asada,
.! !s vi$talm!nt! si!m"$! "$!s!nt! ,
"&t!n'ialm!nt! $!ali5a+l!, "!$& .! n& !s "&si+l!
$!ali5a$ a m!n&s .! , hasta .! t&das las
+a$$!$as af!'tivas , m!ntal!s s! han $!s!lt&, ,
t&d&s l&s nd&s d!l '&$a5(n s! han d!sh!'h&, s!
admit! n!'!sa$iam!nt! .! la !%"!$i!n'ia s$g!
!n $!la'i(n '&n algna $!"$!s!nta'i(n !s"!')2'a.
6&s !l!m!nt&s d! !sta $!"$!s!nta'i(n, la &+$a d!
a$t! misma, "!d!n !%amina$s! , s&n !%aminad&s
"&$ l&s $!t($i'&s hind9!s '&n g$an am"litd, ,
"$&"&$'i&nan !l mat!$ial , g$an "a$t! d! la
t!$min&l&g)a d!l an#lisis , d! la '$)ti'a. 7a$a !l
'as& "$!s!nt! +asta$# "$!s!nta$ !st&s
'&nstit,!nt!s d! la &+$a d! a$t! !n na f&$ma
+$!v!- "!$& n& ha d! &lvida$s! .! a.) s(l& s!
!n'&nt$a$# la mat!$ia tangi+l! @gr hya A d! la &+$a
abril, 97
49
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d! a$t!, t&d& l& .! "!d! !%"li'a$s! , !stima$s!
!n !lla, , .! t&d& !st& in'l,! "$!'isam!nt! !s!
'&n&'imi!nt& a priori .! !l !s"!'tad&$ d!+!
"&s!!$ & ll!ga$ a "&s!!$ ant!s d! .! "!da
"$!t!nd!$ na '&m"!t!n'ia !n !l s!ntid& d!2nid&
a$$i+a. 6&s !l!m!nt&s d! la &+$a d! a$t! s&n, "!s;
@>\A D!t!$minant!s @vibh va A, a sa+!$ l&s
!stimlant!s f)si'&s "a$a la $!"$&d''i(n !st*ti'a,
!n "a$ti'la$ !l t!ma , ss "a$t!s, las indi'a'i&n!s
d! ti!m"& , lga$, , &t$&s 9til!s d! $!"$!s!nta'i(n
: !n '&n8nt&, t&d&s l&s -actibile. 6a &"!$a'i(n d!
l&s D!t!$minant!s ti!n! lga$ "&$ la &"!$a'i(n d!
na sim"at)a id!al @s dh ranya A, na at&1
id!nti2'a'i(n '&n la sita'i(n imaginada
BL
.
@2\A C&ns!'!nt!s @anubh va A, l&s m!di&s
!s"!')2'&s , '&nv!n'i&nal!s d! /$!gist$a$0
@s can _ A l&s !stad&s !m&'i&nal!s, !n "a$ti'la$
l&s g!st&s @abhinayaA.
@3\A Nm&$!s @bh va A, !s d!'i$, l&s !stad&s
!m&'i&nal!s '&ns'i!nt!s '&m& s! $!"$!s!ntan !n
!l a$t!. Est&s in'l,!n t$!inta , t$!s Nm&$!s
Wgitiv&s & 4$ansit&$i&s @vyabhic ri A tal!s '&m& la
al!g$)a, la agita'i(n, la im"a'i!n'ia, !t'., , &'h& &
n!v! Nm&$!s 7!$man!nt!s @sth yi A, !l E$(ti'&,
!l N!$&i'&, !t'., .! a s v!5 s&n l&s v!h)'l&s d!
l&s rasas & '&l&$ant!s !m&'i&nal!s !s"!')2'&s. En
t&da &+$a, n& d! l&s Nm&$!s 7!$man!nt!s d!+!
'&nstiti$ n m&tiv& d&minant! al .! t&d&s l&s
&t$&s !st#n s+&$dinad&s- "!s /!l d!sa$$&ll&
"$&l&ngad& d! na !m&'i(n t$ansit&$ia d!vi!n!
na inhi+i'i(n d! rasa0
BQ
, &, '&m& l&
!%"$!sa$)am&s ah&$a, la &+$a d!vi!n! s!ntim!ntal,
"!$t$+ad&$a m#s +i!n .! '&nm&v!d&$a.
@B\A 6a $!"$!s!nta'i(n d! $!a''i&n!s f)si'as
inv&lnta$ias @sattva-bh va A, "&$ !8!m"l&
d!sma,a$s!.
abril, 97
50
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
4&d&s !st&s d!t!$minant!s , s)m+&l&s s!
$!'&n&'!n '&l!'tiva ! indivisi+l!m!nt! !n la
!%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a, "!s la &+$a d! a$t! '&m& tal
!s na nidad- "!$& s! $!'&n&'!n "&$ s!"a$ad& !n
!l an#lisis s+s!'!nt!.
S!g9n la Es'!la d! la Manif!sta'i(n
@(yaktiv da A aldida, l& !s!n'ial & !l alma d! la
"&!s)a s! llama dhvani, /la $!v!$+!$a'i(n d!l
signi2'ad& .! s$g! "&$ sg!sti(n @vyajanA0
BR
.
En la g$am#ti'a , la l(gi'a, s! !nti!nd! .! na
"ala+$a &t$& s)m+&l& ti!n! d&s "&d!$!s s(l&, l&s
d! d!n&ta'i(n @abhidhA , '&nn&ta'i(n @laksanaA-
"&$ !8!m"l& gop la !s lit!$alm!nt! /va.!$&0,
"!$& signi2'a '&nstant!m!nt! K$sna. 6&s $!t($i'&s
asm!n "a$a na "ala+$a & s)m+&l& n t!$'!$
"&d!$, !l d! la sg!sti(n @vyajanA, si!nd& la
mat!$ia sg!$ida, .! n&s&t$&s d!+!m&s llama$ !l
v!$dad!$& '&nt!nid& d! la &+$a, dhvani, tant& '&n
$!s"!'t& al t!ma @vastuA '&m& a 'al.i!$
m!t#f&$a &t$& &$nam!nt& @alamkaraA, &, l& .! !s
m#s !s!n'ial, n& d! l&s rasas !s"!')2'&s. En
&t$as "ala+$as, abhidh, laksan, , vyajan
'&$$!s"&nd!n a la signi2'a'i(n lit!$al, al!g($i'a ,
anag(gi'a. 6hvani, '&m& s&+$!t&n& d!l
signi2'ad&, !s as) !l v!h)'l& inm!diat& d! rasa ,
!l m!di& d! la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a
CI
. In'lid& !n
dhvani !st# t tpary rtha , !l signi2'ad&
t$ansmitid& "&$ la t&talidad d! la f$as! & f($mla,
'&m& alg& distint& d! la m!$a sma d! l&s
signi2'ad&s d! ss "a$t!s s!"a$adas. 6a Es'!la
d! la Manif!sta'i(n s! llama as) "&$.! la
"!$'!"'i(n @prat ti , A d! rasa s! '&nsid!$a
sim"l!m!nt! '&m& la manif!sta'i(n d! na
'&ndi'i(n intitiva inh!$!nt! , ,a !%ist!nt! !n !l
!s")$it, !n !l mism& s!ntid& !n .! la Ilmina'i(n
!st# vi$talm!nt! si!m"$! "$!s!nt! an.! n&
si!m"$! $!ali5ada. 7&$ as) d!'i$, la prat ti , d! rasa
abril, 97
51
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"asa a t$av*s d! l&s m$&s @varana, varana A "&$
l&s .! !l alma, an.! "$!dis"!sta "&$ sim"at)a
@s dh ranya A , s!nsi+ilidad @v san A id!al, !st#
t&dav)a !n'!$$ada
C>
! im"!dida d! +$illa$ !n s
v!$dad!$& 'a$#'t!$ '&m& !l sa+&$!ad&$ d! rasa !n
na !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a .! !s, '&m& ,a s! ha
di'h&, !l h!$man& g!m!l& mism& d! la !%"!$i!n'ia
d! la nidad d!l U$ahman.
En !l !s.!ma "&st!$i&$ , "&$ &t$a "a$t! m#s
sint*ti'& d!l + hitya 6arpana , las t!&$)as d! rasa ,
dhvani n& !st#n tan )ntimam!nt! !nla5adas, "!s
dhvani n& !s ah&$a !l alma d! t&da "&!s)a sin& la
'a$a't!$)sti'a d!l ti"& d! "&!s)a s"!$i&$ !n la .!
l& .! s! sgi!$! "$!d&mina s&+$! l& .! s!
!%"$!sa lit!$alm!nt!.
7a$a t!$mina$ d! '&m"l!ta$ ha+$# .!
m!n'i&na$ s(l& d&s t!&$)as ant!$i&$!s !n las .! !l
O$nam!nt& & las Wig$as @alamk ra A , !l Estil& & la
C&m"&si'i(n @r ti , A s! '&nsid!$an $!s"!'tivam!nt!
'&m& l&s !l!m!nt&s !s!n'ial!s !n !l a$t!. Estas
t!&$)as, .! n& han t!nid& a'&gida !n la India,
"!d!n '&m"a$a$s! a las '&n'!"'i&n!s m!n&$!s
d!l a$t! !n E$&"a '&nsid!$ad& '&m& d!st$!5a, &
'&m& '&nsisti!nd& m!$am!nt! !n s"!$2'i!s
!st*ti'as .! s&n signi2'ativas s(l& '&m& f!nt!s
d! s!nsa'i(n. Est! 9ltim& "nt& d! vista s&l&
"!d! mant!n!$s! '&nsist!nt!m!nt! !n !l 'as& d!
India d!sd! la "&si'i(n d!l $!alism& ing!n& .!
s+,a'! a n "$!8i'i& !st$i'tam!nt! m&n#sti'&
'&nt$a !l mnd&.
M!da s!<ala$ .! las t!&$)as d! rasa , dvhani
s&n !s!n'ialm!nt! m!taf)si'as , v!dOnti'as !n !l
m*t&d& , la '&n'lsi(n, an.! n& s! !%"$!s!n
tant& !n l&s t*$min&s d!l K!dOnta "$& d! las
P"anisads '&m& !n l&s d!l K!dOnta "&st!$i&$
'&m+inad&s '&n &t$&s sist!mas, "a$ti'la$m!nt! !l
Y&ga. 6a t!&$)a india "l!nam!nt! d!sa$$&llada d! la
abril, 97
52
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
+!ll!5a d! h!'h& dif)'ilm!nt! "!d! s!$ datada
ant!s d!l sigl& di!5 &n'!, an.! la d&'t$ina d!
rasa !st# ,a 'la$am!nt! !nn'iada !n !l 5 tya
stra d! Uha$ata, .! "!d! s!$ ant!$i&$ al sigl&
.int& , .! d!$iva d! f!nt!s a9n m#s antigas.
En t&d& 'as&, la '&n'!"'i(n d! la &+$a d! a$t!
'&m& d!t!$minada !%t!$i&$m!nt! "a$a !l s& !
int!$i&$m!nt! "a$a na d!l!'ta'i(n d! la $a5(n- la
'&nsid!$a'i(n d! s &"!$a'i(n '&m& n&
int!ligi+l!m!nt! 'asal, sin& "&$ v)a d! na
d!st$''i(n d! las +a$$!$as m!ntal!s , af!'tivas
d!t$#s d! las .! s! &'lta la manif!sta'i(n
nat$al d!l !s")$it- la n!'!sidad d! .! !l alma
!st* ,a "$!"a$ada "a$a !sta !man'i"a'i(n "&$ na
s!nsi+ilidad innata & ad.i$ida- !l $!.!$imi!nt&
d! la at&1id!nti2'a'i(n '&n !l t!ma 9ltim&, tant&
"&$ "a$t! d!l a$tista '&m& d!l !s"!'tad&$, '&m&
"$!$$!.isit& "a$a la visali5a'i(n !n !l "$im!$
'as& , "a$a la $!"$&d''i(n !n !l s!gnd&-
2nalm!nt!, la '&n'!"'i(n d! la +!ll!5a id!al '&m&
in'&ndi'i&nada "&$ las af!''i&n!s nat$al!s,
indivisi+l!, s"!$s!nsal ! indistingi+l! d! la
gn&sis d! Di&s : t&das !stas 'a$a't!$)sti'as d! la
t!&$)a d!m!st$an s '&n!%i(n l(gi'a '&n las
t!nd!n'ias "$!d&minant!s d!l "!nsami!nt& indi&,
, s lga$ nat$al !n !l '!$"& '&m"l!t& d! la
2l&s&f)a india.
En '&ns!'!n'ia, an.! n& "&d$)a
a$gm!nta$s! .! s! !%"&nga !%"l)'itam!nt!
ningna t!&$)a !st*ti'a !n las P"anisads, n& n&s
s&$"$!nd!$# !n'&nt$a$ .! las id!as , la
t!$min&l&g)a d! la !st*ti'a "&st!$i&$ s! !n'!nt$an
$!'&n&'i+l!s ,a ah). 7&$ !8!m"l&, !n la
Brhad ranyaka Upanisad , I.B.L, s! di'! .! !l
mnd& s! dif!$!n'ia & s! '&n&'! !n la "l$alidad
"&$ m!di&, , s(l& "&$ m!di&, d! n&m+$! , as"!'t&,
n mar pa _ , id!a ! imag!n- =dem., III.2.3 , C, /6a
abril, 97
53
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
v&5 @v c A !s na a"$!h!ns&$a @grahaA- !s
a"$!h!ndida "&$ la id!a @namaA '&m& n s&+$!1
a"$!h!ns&$, !nt&n'!s 'i!$tam!nt! "&$ la v&5 @v c A
n& !nn'ia "!nsami!nt&s @n m ni A0, , d!l
mism& m&d& /6a vista @caksuA !s na a"$!h!ns&$a-
!s a"$!h!ndida "&$ !l as"!'t& @r pa _ A '&m& n
s&+$!1a"$!h!ns&$, !nt&n'!s 'i!$tam!nt! "&$ !l &8&
@caksuA n& v! las '&sas @r p ni _ A
C2
. 4am+i*n,
=dem., III.R.2I, /!n !l '&$a5(n @hrdayaA ti!n!n s
+as! l&s as"!'t&s @r p ni _ A0, , d!l mism& m&d&
!n !l 'as& d!l ha+la. En 'ant& al '&$a5(n, /!s l&
mism& .! 7$a8 "ati, !s !l U$ahman0, =dem., K.3,
, /&t$& .! !s! Im"!$!'!d!$&, n& ha, nadi! .!
v!a @$!alm!nt!A0, =dem., III.Q.II
C3
. 6&s &+8!t&s
@r p ni _ A vist&s !n !l !s"a'i& n& s! v!n $!alm!nt!
'&m& tal!s, sin& s(l& '&m& #$!as '&l&$!adas,
"!st& .! !l '&n'!"t& d! !s !s"a'i& !nt!$am!nt!
m!ntal , '&nv!n'i&nal
CB
.
6a t!&$)a india, !n l&s &$)g!n!s , la f&$mla'i(n,
a "$im!$a vista "a$!'! s!$ sui generis. 7!$&
"$!s'indi!nd& d! la f&$ma idi&m#ti'a , m)ti'a
!s"!')2'a !n la .! !n'!nt$a !%"$!si(n, n& d!+!
'&nsid!$a$s! d! &t$& m&d& .! '&m& niv!$sal. D!
h!'h& n& di2!$! d! l& .! !st# im"l)'it& !n la
visi(n !%t$!m&1&$i!ntal d!l a$t!, ni, "&$ &t$a "a$t!,
di2!$! tam"&'& !n nada !s!n'ial d!l "nt& d!
vista '$istian& !s'&l#sti'&, & d! l& .! s! a2$ma !n
l&s af&$ism&s d! Ula3!- di2!$! !s!n'ialm!nt! d!
las m&d!$nas int!$"$!ta'i&n!s n&1int!l!'tal!s d!l
a$t! '&m& s!nsa'i(n. 7$&+a+l!m!nt! l&s !l!m!nt&s
m#s signi2'ativ&s d! la t!&$)a asi#ti'a s&n l&s
"nt&s d! vista d! @>\A .! la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a
!s n *%tasis !n s) mism& in!s'$ta+l!, "!$& !n la
m!dida !n .! "!d! s!$ d!2nida, na d!l!'ta'i(n
d! la $a5(n, , @2\A .! la &+$a d! a$t! misma, .!
si$v! '&m& !st)ml& a la li+!$a'i(n d!l !s")$it d!
t&das las inhi+i'i&n!s d! la visi(n, s(l& "!d! v!ni$
abril, 97
54
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
al s!$ , t!n!$ s!$ '&m& na '&sa &$d!nada a 2n!s
!s"!')2'&s. El Ci!l& , la 4i!$$a !st#n nid&s !n la
anal&g)a @s dr ya , !t'.A d!l a$t!, .! !s na
&$d!na'i(n d! la s!nsa'i(n ha'ia la int!ligi+ilidad
, .! ti!nd! ha'ia na "!$f!''i(n 9ltima !n la .!
!l v!!d&$ "!$'i+! t&das las '&sas imaginadas !n s)
mism&.
CAPTULO I. LA TEORA DEL ARTE EN
ASIA. NOTAS
>
/Pn '&n'!"t& m!ntal @citta-saA s$g! !n
la m!nt! d!l "int&$, d! .! tal , tal f&$ma @r pa _ A
d!+! ha'!$s! d! tal , tal man!$a] 4&das las
dif!$!nt!s a$t!s @sippaA d!l mnd& s&n "$&d'idas
"&$ la m!nt!0 %tthas lin ,, 74S. !d., ". DB- v!$
/An Ea$l, 7assag! &n Indian 7ainting0, Aastern %rt,
III @>R3>A, , 'f. n&ta B3.
2
/At$a,!nd& la f&$ma0 s! !%amina !n B%3+.,
6II.>D, n. Q. El s#ns'$it& krs @la $a)5 !n -karsati A
ti!n! la misma signi2'a'i(n dal .! s! !n'!nt$a
!n !l ingl*s /d$aX0, '&m& @>\A ti$a$, a$$ast$a$ ha'ia
& 8nt& a, at$a!$ , @2\A d!lin!a$, f&$mali5a$,
'&m"&n!$, "&n!$ !n d!+ida f&$ma. El ingl*s dra'
'&$$!s"&nd! al al!m#n tragen, ll!va$, , al s#ns'$it&
dhr @dharA ll!va$, t!n!$ !n m!nt!, s&"&$ta$,
'&n'!+i$, aga$$a$ f!$t! & 2$m!, !t'. Mi!nt$as krs
!s /d$aX0 !n 'al.i!$a d! l&s s!ntid&s, -krs
"!d! t$ad'i$s! !%a'tam!nt! "&$ /'&m"&n!$0 &
/"$&d'i$0. Cf. /f!t'h0 :i$ a +s'a$ alg&: @d! la
imagina'i(nA , /f!t'h0 '&m& na a"a$i'i(n. Pn s&
n&ta+l! d!l ingl*s /d$aX0 !n n!st$& s!ntid& s!
!n'!nt$a !n !l Mysterium /ansophicum d!
UThm!, IK.2 @.! s(l& "!d& 'ita$ !n la v!$si(n d!
Ea$l!A, !n $!la'i(n '&n !l as"!'t& f&$mativ& d! la
v&lntad '$!ad&$a @d! Di&sA, '&m& sig!; /!l d!s!&
!s na at$a''i(n int!nsa] Y at$a! m#gi'am!nt!, a
abril, 97
55
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
sa+!$, s "$&"i& d!s!& a na s+stan'ia0 @'f.
s#ns'$it& dhar-ma, '&m& /s+stan'ia0A.
3
P"anisads, passim. Ra+ind$anath 4ag&$!
$!ti!n! la misma f$as!&l&g)a !n s 'ant& %mi chini
go chini, d&nd! !s /!n !l !s"a'i& inman!nt! d!l
'&$a5(n0 d&nd! !s''ha /na , &t$a v!50 la
'an'i(n d! Uid! in , la !%t$a<a s!<&$a .! !s la ,
+!ll!5a id!al : hrdi m jhe k e sunecchi
tom r g n , . _D(nd! !st# , .* !s !st! !s"a'i&
!n !l '&$a5(n`. En la h ndogya Upanisad , KIII.>B
@tam+i*n KIII.>.>A a k a s! l& llama /!l
$!v!lad&$ d! n&m+$! , as"!'t&0, , s! l& id!nti2'a
'&n U$ahman, !l Im"!$!'!d!$&, !l S) mism&. Est!
!s /!sa mist!$i&sa nada d! la .! !l alma !st#
h!'ha] la 'al nada, !s sin limitaciCn !n !l
t&d&"&d!$&s& "&d!$ d!l 7ad$!0 @E'3ha$tA. Est!
!s"a'i& id!al !s !l "$in'i"i& d&nd! "!d!n
$!ali5a$s! t&das las "&si+ilidad!s d!l s!$
@h ndogya Upanisad , KIII.>.>13A. El antarhrdaya-
k a , !l /!s"a'i& !n !l '&$a5(n0, !s la t&talidad
d! !st! !s"a'i& id!al !n !l '&$a5(n int!$i&$)sim& d!
n!st$& s!$, 9ni'& !s"a'i& d&nd! "!d!
!%"!$im!nta$s! !l '&nt!nid& !nt!$& d! la vida !n
l& inm!diatam!nt! !%"!$im!ntad&- !st!
'&ns!ntimi!nt&, d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista d! la
!st*ti'a, !s la /U!ll!5a0, d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista
d! la !"ist!m&l&g)a la /K!$dad0 @'f. /!l Ni$v na
!s !l '&n&'imi!nt& t$as'!nd!ntal d! la mismidad
d! t&d&s l&s "$in'i"i&s0, +addharma /undar ka , ,
t!%t& d! K!$n, ". >33A, , d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista d!
la *ti'a, la /7!$f!''i(n0. As), mi!nt$as la U!ll!5a
"!d! igala$s! '&n la 7!$f!''i(n , la K!$dad
a+s&ltam!nt! @rasa brahmsv da-sah9dara ,
+ hitya 6arpana , III.>12A, la h!$m&s$a !s
m!$am!nt! n +i!n, , la f!aldad m!$am!nt! n
mal. 6a U!ll!5a !s invisi+l! ! indivisi+l!, ,
9ni'am!nt! "!d! s!$ '&n&'ida '&m& la D!idad !s
abril, 97
56
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&n&'ida, !n !l '&$a5(n- !l a$t! !s na !%"$!si(n
d! la U!ll!5a, la 'i!n'ia na !%"$!si(n d! la
K!$dad, la *ti'a na !%"$!si(n d! la 7!$f!''i(n !n
t*$min&s d! l5 y s&m+$a, t!sis y ant)t!sis, +i!n y
mal. El !$$&$ '&nsist! "$ima$iam!nt! !n la
ad8di'a'i(n d! val&$!s a+s&lt&s a n& &t$& d!
!st&s fa't&$!s $!lativ&s, .! s&n s(l& m!di&s d!
'&m"$!nsi(n, , n& 2n!s !n s) mism&s.
B
Brhad ranyaka Upanisad , IK.2.3, '&n $!s"!'t&
al '&ns!ntimi!nt& d! !s!n'ia , nat$al!5a.
C
/C&nt!nid&s !n !l 6&t& d!l C&$a5(n !st#n !l
Ci!l& , la 4i!$$a] tant& l& .! !s n!st$& a.) ,
ah&$a, '&m& l& .! a9n n& !s n!st$&0,
h ndogya Upanisad , KIII.>.>13- /!l C&$a5(n !s l&
mism& .! 7$a8 "ati, !s U$ahman, !s t&d&0,
Brhad ranyaka Upanisad , K.3- 'f. ;g (eda, IK.CQ.2,
, KI.R.D.
D
El "$!'!d!nt! $!sm!n s! +asa !n n t!%t&
s#ns'$it& 'itad& "&$ A. W&'h!$, :D.conographie
Bouddhi*ue de lD.nde II @>RICA, Q1>>- U.
Uhatta'ha$,a, The .ndian Buddhist .conography
@>R2BA, >DR e., , Buddhist Asoterism, >R32, Ch. SI-
, !n la Brhad ranyaka Upanisad , I.B.>I. Cf.
tam+i*n !l ukran tis ra , , IK.B.LI1L>, a.) !n ".
RC.
S! &+s!$va$# .! la imagina'i(n @!l "&d!$ d!
t!n!$ im#g!n!s m!ntal!sA s! !8!$'! a.)
d!li+!$adam!nt!. 6as im"li'a'i&n!s m#s vagas d!
la ins"i$a'i(n, !l !ntsiasm& , la !m+$iag!5 !st#n
as!nt!s. N& !s "$!'is& d!'i$ .! la imagina'i(n
"!d! t&ma$ f&$ma '&m& visi(n & '&m& adi'i(n-
l& .! s! ha di'h& a$$i+a '&n $!f!$!n'ia al a$t!
visal s! a"li'a igalm!nt! al 'as& d! la lit!$at$a,
,a s!a Es'$it$a & belles lettres. 6&s K!das, , t&das
ss lit!$at$as , 'i!n'ias a''!s&$ias, "&$ !8!m"l&,
!st#n '&nt!nidas !n la 7ala+$a @v c , dharma, omA,
.! ha+i!nd& sid& !%"$!sada @nih vasita ,
abril, 97
57
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
vy hrti A !s !nt&n'!s !s''hada @ ruti A "&$ l&s
7$&f!tas @rsiA, d!"!ndi!nd& !sa adi'i(n n& d! la
/ins"i$a'i(n0, sin& d! la at!n'i(n. K lm 3i, ant!s ,
d! !m"!5a$ a di'ta$, visali5a "$im!$& !n Y&ga !l
; myana !nt!$&, /"$!s!nt#nd&s! l&s 'a$a't!$!s
a s visi(n vivi!nd& , m&vi*nd&s! '&m& !n vida
$!al0- , na v!5 '&m"l!tada as) la &+$a ant!s d!
.! '&mi!n'! la a'tividad "$#'ti'a, !l di'tad& !s
!nt&n'!s tan $#"id& .! ningn& m#s .!
Jan! a, !l d! 'at$& man&s, s#nd&las t&das,
"!d! s!gi$l&. Simila$m!nt!, 'and& !l
U&dhisattva al'an5a la Ilmina'i(n, d!vini!nd& !l
Uddha, !l Dha$ma s! "$!s!nta a *l !n s
!nt!$!idad, list& "a$a s!$ !ns!<ad&, , n&
m!$am!nt! '&m& na id!a a s!$ d!sa$$&llada
s+s!'!nt!m!nt!. C&n'!"'i&n!s simila$!s d! la
&"!$a'i(n d! la imagina'i(n s! !n'!nt$an ,a !n
!l ;g (eda, d&nd!, "&$ !8!m"l&, s! ha+la d! la
sa+id$)a @v c A '&m& /vista0 & /!s''hada0
@S.L>.BA, las id!as s! /la+$an0 @ taks -_ A /!n !l
'&$a5(n0 @hrdA @S..L>.QA, , !l "!nsami!nt& s!
f&$mla @ dh -_ ,, 'f. dhyai -_ , "&$ !8!m"l& !n
dhy na A '&m& n 'a$"int!$& '&n2g$a la mad!$a
@III.3Q.>- 'f. S.C>.R1>I, , S ,ana a'!$'a d! !st&s
"asa8!sA.
6a f&$mla'i(n india !s idi&m#ti'a, "!$& !l
"$&'!s& d!s'$it& !s niv!$sal. 6&s "a$al!l&s
!s'&l#sti'&s !st#n m, "$(%im&s, 'f. E'3ha$t, /6&
.! dig& s$g! !n m), !nt&n'!s m! d!t!ng& !n la
id!a, , !n t!$'!$ lga$ l& !%"$!s&0, , l& mism&
'and& ha+la d!l 'a$"int!$& .! /"$im!$& !$ig! la
'asa !n s m!nt!0, & !%"li'a d! .* m&d& "!d!n
visali5a$s! l&s Eng!l!s @v!$ a$$i+a, "#g. LIA. Cf.
tam+i*n Dant!, 'and& di'! /Y& s&, n& .!
'and& Am&$ m! ins"i$a, "$!st& at!n'i(n- , d!l
m&d& !n .! Gl di'ta d!nt$& d! m), !s& &s ha+l&0
@/urgatorio, SSIII.C31CBA , $!.i!$! d! s adit&$
abril, 97
58
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
/mant!n!$ la imag!n '&m& na $&'a 2$m!0
@/aradiso, SIII.213, , n& !s n!'!sa$i& d!'i$ .! !l
at&$ d!+! ha+!$ /mant!nid& la imag!n0 as) !n
"$im!$ lga$A- s&+$! t&d& 'and& di'! /Mi!n
.i!$a "inta$ na 2g$a, si n& "!d! s!$la, n&
"!d! di+8a$la0 @onvivio, Can5&n! III.C31CBA,
gl&sada /Ning9n "int&$ "!d! $!t$ata$ na 2g$a,
si "$im!$& d! t&d& n& s! ha h!'h& a s) mism& tal
'&m& la 2g$a d!+! s!$0 @onvivio, IK.>I.>ID, ".
3IR d!l t!%t& d! O%f&$dA- & tam+i*n 'and& ha+la
d! /2g$as '&m& las t!ng& !n '&n'!"'i(n0
@/aradiso, SKIII.QCA- hasta .! 2nalm!nt! la /alta
fantas)a 'a$!'! d! "&d!$0 "a$a "inta$ a la D!idad
'&m& !s !n s) misma @/aradiso, SSSIII.>B2A, '&m&
tam+i*n !n la India dhy na n& "!d! "!n!t$a$ !n
sam dhi , , n& al'an5a a visali5a$ al U$ahman,
.! !s sin s!m!8an5a @am rta _ , nir bh sa A : te
contemplans totum de!cit, !n ningna s!m!8an5a,
Chang 45 @Jil!s, ". 2BIA da na !%'!l!nt! _
$!la'i(n d! la &"!$a'i(n d!l Y&ga @an.! n&
llamad& as)A !n $!la'i(n '&n !l 'a$"int!$& .! ha'!
n !st$ad& d! mad!$a "a$a inst$m!nt&s
msi'al!s, .i!n, al s!$ "$!gntad&; /_M*
mist!$i& ha, !n t a$t!`0 '&nt!sta; /Ning9n
mist!$i&, Alt!5a, , sin !m+a$g& ha, alg&. Cand&
m! dis"&ng& a ha'!$ n tal !st$ad&] "$im!$&
$!d5'& mi m!nt! a na a+s&lta .i!s'!n'ia]
m! &lvid& d! t&da $!'&m"!nsa .! gana$] d!
t&da fama .! ad.i$i$] in'&ns'i!nt! d! mi
a"a$!8& f)si'&. Ent&n'!s, '&n ning9n "!nsami!nt&
d! la C&$t! "$!s!nt! a mi m!nt!, mi "!$i'ia
d!vi!n! '&n'!nt$ada, , t&d&s l&s !l!m!nt&s
"!$t$+ad&$!s d! f!$a han "a$tid&. Ent$& !n alg9n
+&s.! d! la m&nta<a. Us'& n #$+&l a"$&"iad&.
Gl '&nti!n! la f&$ma $!.!$ida, .! !s
s!gidam!nt! !la+&$ada. K!& !l !st$ad& !n !l &8&
d! mi m!nt!, , !nt&n'!s m! "&ng& a t$a+a8a$0.
abril, 97
59
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
Y !n 'ant& al h#+it& @ha+its, tao '&m& /v)a0A;
/4&ma$* na ilst$a'i(n0, di8& !l t&$n!$&, /d! mi
"$&"i& &2'i&. Al ha'!$ na $!da, si t$a+a8as
d!masiad& d!s"a'i&, n& "!d!s ha'!$la 2$m!- si
t$a+a8as d!masiad& d!"$isa, l&s $adi&s n&
a8sta$#n. N& d!+!s i$ ni d!masiad& d!s"a'i& ni
d!masiad& d!"$isa. D!+! ha+!$ '&&$dina'i(n d!
m!nt! , man&. 6as "ala+$as n& "!d!n !%"li'a$ l&
.! !s, "!$& ha, n a$t! mist!$i&s& !n !ll&. Y& n&
"!d& !ns!<a$l& a mi hi8&- tam"&'& "!d! *l
a"$!nd!$l& d! m). 7&$ !ll&, an.! d! s!t!nta
a<&s, a9n !st&, ha'i!nd& $!das a mi vi!8a !dad0
@=dem., ". 2L>A. Simila$m!nt! '&n !l f&$8ad&$ d!
!s"adas; /_Es s "!$i'ia, s!<&$, & ti!n! st!d na
man!$a`0 /Es '&n'!nt$a'i(n] Si na '&sa n&
f!s! na !s"ada, ,& n& l& n&ta$)a. M! val) d! t&da
!n!$g)a .! n& sa+a !n &t$as di$!''i&n!s "a$a
as!g$a$ ma,&$ !2'i!n'ia !n la di$!''i(n
$!.!$ida0 @=dem., ". 2RIA.
L
6a t!&$)a d!l a$t! d! Dant! !s t$atada "&$
=lis S'hl&ss!$, 6ie 0unstliteratur @Ki!nna, >R2BA,
"". DD1LL. 6a '&n'!"'i(n d! Dant! d!$iva d!
A$ist(t!l!s, St&. 4&m#s , l&s t$&vad&$!s, , !s a9n
!s!n'ialm!nt! !s'&l#sti'a. En 6e Monarchia ha+la
d!l a$t! '&m& t$i"l!, @>\A '&m& id!a !n la m!nt!,
@2\A '&m& t*'ni'a !n !l inst$m!nt& @m!di&sA, ,
@3\A '&m& "&t!n'ialidad !n !l mat!$ial. En
/aradiso, I.>2L, ha+la d! la 'alidad sorda
@t masika A !n !l mat!$ial, .! "a$!'! $!sisti$ a la
int!n'i(n d!l a$tista, $!'&$dand& al 'a$"int!$& d!
E'3ha$t, .! al '&nst$i$ na 'asa /"$im!$& la
!$igi$# !n s m!nt! ,, d! !sta$ la 'asa
s2'i!nt!m!nt! s8!ta a s v&lntad, !nt&n'!s,
mat!$ial!s a"a$t!, la 9ni'a dif!$!n'ia !nt$! !ll&s
s!$)a la d! !ng!nd$ad&$ , $!"!ntinam!nt!
!ng!nd$ad&0. N& !s n!'!sa$i& d!'i$ .! !l artista
abril, 97
60
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d! Dant! in'l,! a l&s .! ah&$a llamam&s
a$t!san&s- v!$, "&$ !8!m"l&, /aradiso, SKI.BR.
Al a2$ma$ Dant! la n!'!sa$ia id!nti2'a'i(n d!l
a$tista '&n s t!ma @chi pinge !gura '&m&
'it#+am&s a$$i+aA !st# t&dav)a a na '&n &$i!nt! ,
'&n E'3ha$t, '&m& 'and& !l 9ltim& di'!, /Al da$
t&da mi m!nt! al t!ma d! l&s #ng!l!s] m! "a$!'i(
.! ,& !$a t&d&s l&s #ng!l!s0, , /!l "int&$ .! ha
"intad& n +!n $!t$at& m!st$a !n *l s a$t!- n&
!s al "int&$ a .i!n !st! a$t! n&s $!v!la0. 7!$&
6!&na$d& !st# ,a m, al!8ad& d! !st! "nt& d!
vista 'and& d!'la$a m#s d! na v!5, il pittore
pinge se stesso, /!l "int&$ s! "inta a s) mism&0,
d&nd! /s) mism&0 n& !s la !s!n'ia d!l "int&$, sin&
l&s a''id!nt!s d! s s!$, s 2s&n&m)a, .!
a"a$!'!n !n la "int$a, d! la misma man!$a .!
n h&m+$! s! $!v!la d! alg9n m&d& !n s
!s'$it$a. Est! $!?!8& in!vita+l! d!l h&m+$! f)si'&
!n s t$a+a8& manal s! $!'&n&'! tam+i*n
'i!$tam!nt! !n la India, "&$ !8!m"l&, :ekhakasya
ca yad r pam citre bhavati t dEr pFyam _ _ , /la
"$&"ia 2g$a d!l "int&$ a"a$!'! !n la "int$a0
@'itad& d! n /ur na , ; pam _ 2Lf2Q, ". RRA- "!$&
"&$ !st& "$!'isam!nt! !l "int&$ mism& d!+! s!$ n
h&m+$! n&$mal, "!st& .! d! &t$& m&d& s
"!'lia$idad "&d$)a $!?!8a$s! !n s a$t!. D!sd! !l
"nt& d! vista !s'&l#sti'& ! indi&, n $!?!8& tal d!
la "!$s&na d!l a$tista !n s &+$a d!+! '&nsid!$a$s!
'&m& n d!f!'t&- mi!nt$as .! !n !l a$t! !$&"!&
"&st!$i&$, al ha+!$s! ll!gad& a '&nsid!$a$ la ma$'a
d! las "!'lia$idad!s individal!s d!l a$tista '&m&
na vi$td !n !l a$t!, , al halaga$ !l &$gll& d!l
a$tista, s! "$!"a$( !l 'amin& al !%hi+i'i&nism&
!st*ti'& , a la s+stit'i(n d! la $!"$!s!nta'i(n
"&$ !l a't&$ @/!st$!lla0A. D! la misma man!$a la
hist&$ia d! l&s a$tistas ha $!!m"la5ad& a la hist&$ia
d!l a$t!.
abril, 97
61
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
Q
K!$ mi &istory o- .ndian and .ndonesian %rt, ".
>2C- tam+i*n Mah vamsa , SKIII.2B, SSKII.>I12I, ,
SSS.>>, , B taka , n\ BQR. 7&$ !8!m"l&, /v!h)'l&s0
& /t$&n&s0, s#ns'$it& v hana , sana , .! s&n
"$in'i"i&s vivi!nt!s igalm!nt! d!sd! l&s "nt&s
d! vista '$istian& ! hind9 @St&. 4&m#s, +um, Theol. I
..>IQ a.C1L- Ja$da, Namsa , Nandi '&m& las
s!d!s & v!h)'l&s d! Kisn, U$ahm , ivaA-
a$mas & "&d!$!s, Eng!l!s d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista
'$istian&, D!vat s d!sd! !l hind9 @St&. 4&m#s,
=dem., Brhad 6evat, I.LB , 6K.>B3A- & l&s "ala'i&s
, 'a$$&s @vim na , rathaA d! l&s Eng!l!s, imitad&s
!n ss t!m"l!t!s t!$$!n&s.
En Mhb., SII.2QC.>BQ a iva s! l! llama sarva-
ilpa-pravartaka , /instigad&$ d! t&das las a$t!s0,
! =dem., SIII.>Q.2f., d&nd! im"a$t! kal j na , /la
'&m"$!nsi(n d! las $!ali5a'i&n!s0, a Ja$ga. Es d!
&+s!$va$ .! !l /s#ns'$it&0 @samskrtaA !s deva-
n gar ,, /!l l!nga8! d! la 'idad '!l!stial0,
an#l&g& a deva- ilp ni , las /&+$as d! a$t!
ang*li'as0 "a$a las 'al!s v!$ a$$i+a "". D, >IB.
C&n %itareya Br hmana , KI.2L, 'itad& !n !l
t!%t&, 'f. %itareya ranyaka ` , III.2.D, d&nd!
/7$a8 "ati, !l A<&, d!s"*s d! !mana$ a ss hi8&s,
f! d!sint!g$ad& @viyasransataA- s! $!int!g$( a s)
mism& @ tm nam samadadh yat A "&$ m!di& d!
l&s m!t$&s @chandobhirA0, , Baimin ya Upanisad ,
Br hmana , III.2, d&nd! a la ini'ia'i(n s! l! llama
na t$ansf&$ma'i(n m*t$i'a @d ksate ,
chand nsy eva abhisambhavati A. En !st&s "asa8!s
s! a2$ma llanam!nt! la signi2'a'i(n !s"i$ital d!l
$itm&. R!')"$&'am!nt!, tam+i*n s&n d! int!$*s !n
$!la'i(n '&n !l "$&+l!ma d! l&s &$)g!n!s d!l a$t!,
"!s t&d& $itm& '&$$!s"&nd! !n 9ltim& an#lisis a
l&s $itm&s '(smi'&s- 'f. Baimin ya Upanisad ,
Br hmana , I.3C.L, /!l A<& !s sin 2n; ss d&s
"ntas s&n Invi!$n& , 7$imav!$a. A la man!$a @anuA
abril, 97
62
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d! !st& !s '&m& s! n!n las d&s "ntas d! na
ald!a- a la man!$a d! !st& !s '&m& s! n!n las
d&s "ntas d! n '&lla$0- =dem., I.2, !l
$ yatras man /d!+!$)a 'anta$s! s!g9n !l '$s&
@vartmanA d!l Es")$it , las Agas0, , =!$!m)as 6er
0osmos von +umer, >R32, ". B, /Ein! g$&ss!
6!istng N!$man Wi$ths +!$ht da$in, dass !$ in
d!$ 6!h$! v&m W!g! J&tt!s na'h d!m g&nis'h!n
6af ni'ht n$ di! W$5!l d!$ S,m+&li3 g!s!h!n
hat :das Xa$ ni'ht n!: s&nd!$n a'h di! W$5!l
d!$ S"$a'h! nd S'h$ift0.
R
6as "ala+$as indias kal, ilpa ti!n!n am+as
la misma am"lia signi2'a'i(n .! la "ala+$a
/a$t!0 "&s!,( !n &t$& ti!m"& !n E$&"a- 'f. N!X
O%f&$d Di'ti&na$,, s.v. A$t. I, /7!$i'ia "a$a ha'!$
alg& '&m& $!sltad& d!l '&n&'imi!nt& , d! la
"$#'ti'a0, , II, /4&d& a.!ll& !n .! "!da
al'an5a$s! & d!s"l!ga$s! na "!$i'ia0. Na d!
ha'!$s! sin !m+a$g& na distin'i(n !nt$! l&s
ilpas , & a$t!s v&'a'i&nal!s, , l&s kal s , & a$t!s
av&'a'i&nal!s @a2'i&n!sA. N& s! '&n'i+! .! n
ilpa "!da ad.i$i$s! sin !8!$'ita'i(n +a8& n
ma!st$& @ c rya A & .! s! "$a'ti.! d! &t$&
m&d& .! '&m& na "$&f!si(n h!$!dita$ia. Na,
va$ias listas d! ilpas , g!n!$alm!nt! !n n9m!$&
d! di!'i&'h&, , .! in'l,!n si!m"$! la
a$.it!'t$a , la "int$a. En !l
Trisasti alakapurusacaritra , I.2.RCI e. @Ja!3Xa$[s
O$i!ntal S!$i!s 6I, >C2A, ha, na lista d! /Cin'&
A$t!s @ ilpa A0, a sa+!$, las d! alfa$!$&, a$.it!'t&,
"int&$, t!8!d&$ , +a$+!$&, 'ada na '&n s raison
dD1tre @hetuA hmana. 7a$a l&s s!s!nta , 'at$&
kal s v!$ A. K!n3atas++iah, The 0al s @Inag.
Diss., U!$n, Mad$as, >R>>A @a<adi$ a la Ui+li&g$af)a
6. D. Ua$n!tt, %ntagada 6as o , ". 3IA- , A.
K!n3atas++iah, , E, MVll!$, /4h! Kal s0, B;%+.
@>R>BA.
abril, 97
63
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
Na, na 'lasi2'a'i(n d! las a$t!s v&'a'i&nal!s
@sippaA '&m& !l!vadas & $!s"!ta+l!s @ukkatthaA ,
m!n&$!s & vlga$!s @h na , A !n !l (inaya, IK.Df. Na,
tam+i*n na distin'i(n, h!'ha g!n!$alm!nt! !n l&s
stras d$am#ti'&s, !nt$! n !stil& d! dan5a
!l!vad& & 'ltivad& @m rga A , &t$& "&"la$ &
f&l3l($i'& @de,A, !n la .! !l "$im!$& in'&$"&$a
rasa, bh va , vyajan, !t'., , !l s!gnd& '&nsist!
s(l& !n m&vimi!nt& $)tmi'&, , s! '&nsid!$a
@'&$$!'ta & in'&$$!'tam!nt!A '&m& d!s"$&vist& d!
'&nt!nid& !st*ti'&.
As), a"!nas !s "&si+l!, !%'!"t& '&n la
'&nn&ta'i(n /m#s & m!n&s !%"$!siv& &
signi2'ativ&0, ha+la$ d! na distin'i(n d! las a$t!s
s!g9n s 'alidad "si'&l(gi'a & s a"li'a'i(n m#s
& m!n&s h&n&$a+l!- las distin'i&n!s .! s! ha'!n
s&n m#s +i!n '&n $!f!$!n'ia al stats s&'ial d!l
a$tista .! '&n $!f!$!n'ia al a$t! mism&, "!s
ning9n a$tista "$&f!si&nal ti!n! '&m& tal n alt&
stats s&'ial. As) la m9si'a , la 'alig$af)a s&n las
a$t!s m#s altas !n China "&$.! s! s"&n! .!
t&d& 'a+all!$& , &2'ial ha d! s!$ "$&2'i!nt! !n
!llas, mi!nt$as .! !l "int&$, al m!n&s hasta !l
"!$)&d& Sng, !$a '&nsid!$ad& si!m"$! '&m&
a$t!san&, n& '&m& 'a+all!$&. El !s'lt&$, an.!
s &+$a s!$v)a a l&s 2n!s m#s alt&s d!l 'lt&, !$a
'&nsid!$ad& s(l& '&m& n al+a<il !%"!$t&- , si !n
la India a v!'!s "$!t!ndi( n $!s"!t& m#s alt&,
!st& n& !$a !n tant& a$tista !n !l s!ntid& m&d!$n&,
sin& "&$.! al !$igi$ im#g!n!s !8!$')a tam+i*n
fn'i&n!s sa'!$d&tal!s, 'f. M m ns 5y ya ,
/rak sa , "#$$af&s RQ, 22R @!n la !di'i(n d!
Edg!$t&n, N!X Nav!n, >R2R, "". LQ, >3IA. An.!
!l d$ama , la dan5a "!$t!n!'!n a las a$t!s m#s
altam!nt! d!sa$$&lladas , s&2sti'adas d! Asia, !l
stats d!l a't&$ "$&f!si&nal n& ha sid& "&$ l&
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
g!n!$al m#s alt& !n Asia d! l& .! !$a !n E$&"a
!n !l ti!m"& d! Sha3!s"!a$!.
Es g!n!$alm!nt! 'i!$t& .! n '&n'!"t& d!
v&'a'i(n ha "$!val!'id& si!m"$! , "&$ t&das
"a$t!s !n Asia, , .! la "$#'ti'a d! 'al.i!$ a$t!
!st# "$!d!t!$minada "&$ !l na'imi!nt&. Na, sin
!m+a$g& !%'!"'i&n!s a t&das !stas
g!n!$ali5a'i&n!s, a9n hasta !l "nt& d! .! t&d&
a$t! "!d! s!$ "$a'ti'ad& g$atitam!nt! "&$ n
amat!$ '&m& na a2'i(n- "&$ !8!m"l&, !n !l d)a
"$!s!nt!, !n =ava, algn&s d! l&s a't&$!s m#s
!%"!$t&s s&n mi!m+$&s d! las familias $!al!s, , las
hi8as d! l&s "$)n'i"!s s&n '&nsmadas +aila$inas, ,
h+& na *"&'a !n .! !st& s! "!$miti( tam+i*n
!n la India. 6as "atas !n tal!s 'as&s s&n tan altas
"a$a !l a2'i&nad& '&m& "a$a !l "$&f!si&nal, "!$&
s(l& !l 9ltim& $!'i+! s d!signa'i(n s&'ial "&$ s
t$a+a8&. D! n!v& a"a$!'! a.) 'la$am!nt! .! n&
s! ti!n! a ning9n ti"& d! a$t! "&$ alt& & +a8&, n&+l!
& inn&+l! !n s) mism&, "!s s(l& las personas s&n
'&nsid!$adas d! alt& & +a8& $ang& s!g9n s stats
natal !n na 8!$a$.)a s&'ial !sta+l!'ida.
>I
5 tya + stra , I.>>3 , >>2 @Ja!3Xa$[s
O$i!ntal S!$i!sA.
>>
+ hitya 6arpana , KI.2 , 6a ar pa _ , I.L,
IK.BL.
>2
7a$a Nsi!h N& v!$ n&ta >R.
>3
7a$a l&s !s'$it&s d! S!ami v!$ A. Wal!,, The
5G /lays o- Bapan @>R2>A, Int$&d''i(n. S!ami di'!;
8 ga7u no michi 'a issai monomane ari _ , /6as
a$t!s d! la m9si'a , la dan5a '&nsist!n
!nt!$am!nt! !n imita'i(n0. M! !st& n& signi2'a
na imita'i(n & nat$alism& d! tal 'las! '&m& !l
.! "&d$)a +asa$s!, !n !l 'as& d! la "int$a, !n
f&t&g$af)as d! 'a+all&s gal&"and&, s! m!st$a
'la$am!nt! !n la sigi!nt! hist&$ia s&+$! na
!8!''i(n "a$ti'la$;
abril, 97
65
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
En la &+$a d$am#ti'a NT Tahusa, la a'ta'i(n
d! n a't&$ !n !l "a"!l d! n s!gad&$ d! Shinan&
f! '$iti'ada "&$ n !s"!'tad&$ d! Shinan& "&$ n&
'&$$!s"&nd!$ a la san5a !f!'tiva d! l&s s!gad&$!s
d! !s! dist$it&, !s d!'i$, "&$ n& s!$ 2!l a la
nat$al!5a. En la sigi!nt! $!"$!s!nta'i(n s!
/'&$$igi(0 la a''i(n- "!$& la $!"$!s!nta'i(n f! n
f$a'as&, "!s /!s"ant( a l&s &8&s0.
>B
6&s /S!is Mi!m+$&s0 s! dan !n !l '&m!nta$i&
d!l sigl& d&'! & t$!'! d! Ya &dha$a s&+$! !l
0 ma + tra _ , !d. U!na$!s @>R2RA, '&m& sig!;
/; pa-bhedah" pram n ni" bh va-l vanya- _
yojanam
+ dr yam" varnik -bhanga" iti citram
sadangakam0,
/Dif!$!n'ia'i(n d! l&s ti"&s, '#n&n!s d!
"$&"&$'i(n, in'&$"&$a'i(n d! s!ntimi!nt& ,
!n'ant&, '&$$!s"&nd!n'ia d! !l!m!nt&s f&$mal!s ,
"i't($i'&s, "$!"a$a'i(n @lit. /$"t$a0, /an#lisis0A
d! "igm!nt&s, !st&s s&n l&s s!is mi!m+$&s d! la
"int$a0. 7a$a na int!$"$!ta'i(n m#s s+8!tiva v!$
A. N. 4ag&$!, +adanga" ou les +i? anons de la
/einture hindoue @7a$)s, >R22A.
6&s /O'h& Mi!m+$&s0 d!l
+amarnganas tradh ra _ @v!$ B%3+., 6II.>D, n. QA
s&n a"a$!nt!m!nt! vartik @!l l#"i7A,
bh mibandhana _ , @` "$!"a$a'i(n d!l t!$$!n&A,
rekh -karm ni @t$a+a8& d! dis!<&A, laksana
@lin!ami!nt&s 'a$a't!$)sti'&s d! l&s ti"&sA, karsa-
karma @"$&d''i(n, .i5#s h varna-karma,
'&l&$!ad&A, vartan -karma @s&m+$!ad&, !s d!'i$,
indi'a'i(n d!l m&d!lad& "l#sti'&, $!li!v!A, lekha-
karana @` '&$$!''i&n!sA, , dvika-karma @` '&nt&$n&s
2nal!sA.
>C
K!$ D!, +anskrit /oetics, II.BD1BL. El s&nid& ,
!l signi2'ad& @rutrthaA '&m& /l!t$a , !s")$it0 s!
!%aminan d!sd! &t$& "nt& d! vista, !l d! la
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
inad!'a'i(n d! las "ala+$as, !n !l :ankvat ra
+ tra _ @S53i, +tudies in the :ankvat ra + tra _ ,
>R3I, "". >IQ, >>3, B3B, , v!$ n&ta B3A. El s&nid&
!s !l h!'h& f)si'&, las "ala+$as s&n m!$am!nt! na
indi'a'i(n, na alsi(n, n s!<ala$ !l 'amin& :
/n& 'aig#is !n !l !$$&$ d! "!nsa$ .! la "l!nitd
d!l signi2'ad& !st# '&nt!nid& !n la l!t$a0- !l
signi2'ad& !s na man!$a d! "!$'!"'i(n int!$i&$,
.! ha d! adivina$s! s(l& "&$ na a'tividad d!l
int!l!'t& @praj, buddhiA !n distin'i(n d! t&das
las id!as as&'iadas @v san A. 6a $!la'i(n d! !st!
"nt& d! vista '&n la t!&$)a d! la sg!$!n'ia
@dhvaniA !%aminada a+a8& s!$# !vid!nt!. 7!$&
an.! las "ala+$as &t$as im#g!n!s s&n
n!'!sa$iam!nt! m!di&s in'&m"l!t&s d! a2$ma'i(n
, d! '&mni'a'i(n, !l s)m+&l& dad& "!d! s!$
"!$f!'t& !n !l s!ntid& d! .! n& "&d$)a ha+!$s!
!n'&nt$ad& m!8&$, d! la misma man!$a .! !l
$!?!8& d! la lna !n !l aga inm(vil "!d!
llama$s! "!$f!'t&, an.! la lna n& !st* !n !lla
d! &t$& m&d& .! '&m& na imag!n. D! la misma
man!$a .! !l $!?!8& n& !s s+stan'ialm!nt! n
d&+l! d! la lna, as) la &+$a d! a$t! n& "!d! s!$
n d&+l! @savarnaA d! s s8!t&, an.! "!da s!$,
s!g9n la "!$i'ia d!l t$a+a8ad&$, na in'&$"&$a'i(n
"!$f!'ta d! la imag!n m!ntal "$!s!nt! a s
'&ns'i!n'ia. 6a imag!n, tant& !n la m!nt! '&m& !n
la &+$a, !s s(l& n m!di& "a$a !l '&n&'imi!nt&, n&
'&n&'imi!nt& !n s) misma. El a$t! !n !l a$tista !s
la id!ntidad indivisi+l! d! f&$ma , '&n'!"t&, d!
!l!m!nt&s f&$mal!s , "i't($i'&s !n s m!nt!- !l
a$t! !n la &+$a !s la in'&$"&$a'i(n d! !sta
id!ntidad !n n mat!$ial dad&. 6& .! s! !nti!nd!
!n n& , &t$& 'as&s "&$ la /'&n'&mitan'ia0
@s hitya , s dr ya A d! s&nid& , s!ntid&,
!l!m!nt&s "i't($i'&s , f&$mal!s, "!d! inf!$i$s! d!
;aghuvam a , I.>, d&nd! s! ha+la d! 7 $vat , ,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
iva '&m& d! d&s1!n1n&, /'&n1m!5'lad&s '&m&
n s&nid& , s signi2'ad&0, v garth v iva
samprktau- 'f. Uh maha, I.>D, abdrthau
sahitau k vyam , /la lit!$at$a !s la nidad d!
s&nid& , s!ntid&0. El s&nid& , !l s!ntid&, l&s
!l!m!nt&s "i't($i'&s , f&$mal!s, s&n !l '!$"& d!l
a$t!, "!$& !st&s !l!m!nt&s int!ligi+l!s n& s&n !l
alma @ tman A & '&nt!nid& 9ltim& d!l a$t!, '&m&
a"a$!'!$# d!s"*s s!g9n las t!&$)as d! rasa ,
dhvani- , !s "&$ !ll& "&$ l& .! s!g9n la d&'t$ina
b!n @, S. Agst)nA t&da !s'$it$a, !n s s!ntid&
2nit&, !s vana.
El t*$min& simila$ s r pya _ , /'&1
as"!'talidad0, s! sa !n $!la'i(n '&n la t!&$)a d!
la "!$'!"'i(n !m")$i'a @pratyaksaA, d&nd! s!
a2$ma @v!$ Dasg"ta, &istory o- .ndian /hilosophy,
I.>C> f., , St'h!$+ats3,, Buddhist :ogic, II.>2 f. :
mis "nt&s d! vista '&n'!$dan '&n l&s d!
St'h!$+ats3, m#s +i!n .! '&n l&s d! d! la Kall*!
7&ssin !n MHlanges chinois et bouddhi*ues, B>CA
.! !l '&n&'imi!nt& d! n &+8!t& "$!s!ntad& a l&s
s!ntid&s '&nsist! !n na '&&$dina'i(n @s r pyaI _
s dr ya A !nt$! la f&$ma asmida "&$ la
'&ns'i!n'ia .! "!$'i+! , !l as"!'t& "$!s!ntad&
"&$ !l &+8!t&. 6a d!2ni'i(n d! s r pya _ 'itada "&$
St'h!$+ats3,, loc, cit," I.2>3, CC2 , CCC, a sa+!$
atyanta-vilaksan n m s laksanyam ,
/simila$idad d! '&sas !%t$!madam!nt!
d!simila$!s0, '&$$!s"&nd! !%a'tam!nt! a la
d!fini'i(n d!l N, ,a1Kai !si3a d! s dr ya
'itada !n n!st$& t!%t&, .! im"li'a s!m!8an5a "&$
anal&g)a. En 'al.i!$ 'as&, l&s t*$min&s
@s dr ya , s r pya _ , s hitya , tad k rat ,
anukrti, anur pa _ , !t'.A s! $!2!$!n, n& a na
s!m!8an5a !nt$! '&sas @s)m+&l& , $!f!$!nt!,
"int$a , m&d!l&, a sa+!$A sin& a na
'&$$!s"&nd!n'ia !nt$! id!as , '&sas. Esta
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&$$!s"&nd!n'ia ti!nd! ha'ia la id!ntidad !n
niv!l!s d! $!f!$!n'ia m#s alt&s, "!$& al'an5a !sta
id!ntidad s(l& !n l& A+s&lt&, !%"!$im!ntad&
/'&m& n $!l#m"ag& d! ilmina'i(n0 '&m&
s dh ranya , s yujya !n la '&nsma'i(n
@sam dhi A d! la '&nt!m"la'i(n @dhy na A.
M! s dr ya n& signi2'a /s!m!8an5a visal0
s! v! ad!m#s !n !l h!'h& d! .! s dr ya !s
"$!'isam!nt! !s! ti"& d! /s!m!8an5a0 &
/anal&g)a0 .! !st# im"li'ada !n la m!t#f&$a
@upac ra A- 'f. + hitya 6arpana , II.>I, /6a
m!t#f&$a @upac ra A '&nsist! !n la s"$!si(n d! l&
.! im"li'a na dif!$!n'ia d! s!ntid& !nt$! d&s
t*$min&s .! s&n '&m"l!tam!nt! distint&s n& d!l
&t$&, a sa+!$ "&$ m!di& d! n !%'!d!nt! d!
'&$$!s"&nd!n'ia @s dr ya A .! l&s 8nta0.
E8!m"l& 'l#si'&s d! m!t#f&$a s&n gaur b h kah , ,
/n b h ka , @'am"!sin&A !s n +!,0, , agnir
m navakah , /!l ""il& !s n f!g&0.
C&$$!s"&ndi!nt!s a s dr ya , s r pya _ ,
tad k rat , tad tmya , !t'., s&n s dh ranya
@v!$ n&ta BLA , s yujya , la '&nsma'i(n d!l Y&ga
!n la Id!ntidad. S! v!$# .! !st&s t*$min&s s&n al
mism& ti!m"& !.ival!nt!s !%a't&s d! la
adae*uatio !s'&l#sti'a, , .! !l '&n&'imi!nt& !s
na adae*uatio rei et intellectus- "!s /El
'&n&'!d&$0, !n las "ala+$as d! E'3ha$t @I.3RBA /!s
!s& .! s! '&n&'!0.
NsVan 4sang t$ad'! s dr ya "&$ ch)ou
@2CIQA, .! im"li'a la n&'i(n d! $!'i"$&'idad. 7!$&
n& "!d! d!'i$s! .! ning9n t*$min& 'hin&, sad&
!f!'tivam!nt! !n la !st*ti'a, $!"$!s!nt! n
!.ival!nt! !%a't& d! s dr ya - , si s! .isi!$a
a'<a$ n tal t*$min& t*'ni'&, "&d$)a sg!$i$s!
ying @>32RBA ch)ou.
>D
+ hitya 6arpana , III.>R , 2Ia, , 6a ar pa _ ,
IK.C2- 'f. R!gnad, :a ;hHtori*ue sanskrite, ". 2RD.
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
El a't&$ "!d! sa+&$!a$ la !%"!$i!n'ia
!st*ti'a@ sv da A '&m& !l !s"!'tad&$ d! s "$&"ia
$!"$!s!nta'i(n, n& en tanto .! a't&$- 'f.
an3a$O' $,a, ata lokJ , L, /_O a'as& !l
a't&$, .! $!"$!s!nta !l "a"!l @str vesadh r , ,A
d! na m8!$, ans)a n ma$id&, imagin#nd&s! a s)
mism& na m8!$`0.
>L
/ram na , d! la $a)5 m, "$!s!nt! tam+i*n
!n !l ingl*s /m!as$!0 @m!didaA, /m!nt!0 @l)mit!A,
/m!t$!0 @m!t$&A, !t'. A'!$'a d! pram na '&m&
"$in'i"i& v!$ Mass&n1O$s!l, Une onne?ion, !t'., ,
As*uisse, !t'., "". 2CD, 2QQ. C&nsid!$ad& n& '&m&
"$in'i"i&, sin& '&m& n&$ma v!$i2'ada, pram na
"!d! sa$s! tam+i*n !n "l$al '&m& /'an&n d!
"$&"&$'i(n0- v!$ n&ta >B. Es !s!n'ial '&m"$!nd!$
.! in'ls& '&m& /at&$idad0 pram na n& d!+!
'&nsid!$a$s! '&m& na m!dida !n "&si+l!
'&nt$adi''i(n '&n la !%"!$i!n'ia- "&$ !l '&nt$a$i&,
!l '&n&'imi!nt& /'&$$!'t&0 $!.i!$! na
'&in'id!n'ia, consonantia, d! /t!&$)a0 , /h!'h&0-
'f. n&ta >C !n 'ant& a s dr ya , sahitya, ,
W&&d$&e!, $arland o- :etters, ". 2DD. S(l&
'&n'!+id& '&m& n at$i+t& & n&m+$! d! /Di&s0 &
d!l /Uddha0, !n tant& .! /t!stig&0 @sksinA,
"!d! pram na s!$ llamad& a+s&lt&- 'f.
Kas+andh, %bhidharmako a , KIII.BI @7&ssin,
222122CA.
7a$a Siam, 'f. /6a f&$ma @'&nt&$n&A d! n &+8!t&
s! 85ga "&$ !l m&d!l& d! drong @f&$mas '&$$!'tas
!n "$&"&$'i&n!s '&$$!'tasA !n '&nf&$midad '&n
bab & !8!m"l& : .! s! $!2!$! a las !ns!<an5as
d!l ch riya parampar 0 @s'!si(n ""ila$A, 7. C.
=inava$avamsa, /N&t!s !n Siam!s! A$ts and
C$afts0, eylon 5ational ;evie' @=l,, >RILA. Pna
anal&g)a int!$!sant! la "$!s!nta !l a-sman 7!nd,
g!n!$alm!nt! /m!t$&0, "!$& sad& !n 8asna SIS,
'&m& '$it!$i& & n&$ma, '&n $!f!$!n'ia al
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"!nsami!nt& '&$$!'t&, la "ala+$a '&$$!'ta , la
a''i(n '&$$!'ta @humatem, hukhtem, huarestemA.
>Q
7a$a Ching Na& v!$ Wal!,, .ntroduction, !t'.,
". >DR, , Si$*n, % &istory o- Aarly hinese /ainting
@Ind!%, s,v,A. 7!d& d!'i$ .! !l t!%t& d! la
"$!s!nt! &+$a !stv& t!$minad& , mandad& a la
im"$!nta m'h& ant!s d! la a"a$i'i(n d!l
admi$a+l! t$a+a8& d!l "$&f!s&$ Si$*n !n >R33- !l
li+$& d! Si$*n !s "$&+a+l!m!nt! !l m!8&$ !stdi&
d! la !st*ti'a 'hina dis"&ni+l! !n na l!nga
!$&"!a hasta !l m&m!nt&.
6as d&s 'las!s d! "int$a m!n'i&nadas a.), a
sa+!$ sh1n , miao, s&n las d&s "$im!$as !n la t$i"l!
'lasi2'a'i(n t$adi'i&nal, +an p)ing- v!$ ". >2. Ching
Na& ti!n! tam+i*n &t$as d&s 'las!s, la
S&$"$!nd!nt! @ch)i, RR>A , la E%"!$ta & N#+il
@ch)iao, >B>>A- la 9ltima d! *stas '&$$!s"&nd! a la
C&nsmada @n1ng, Q>QBA !n !l +an p)ing. Cf. /Esta
"int$a !s !%"!$ta @ch)iaoA !n '&m"&si'i(n ,
t*'ni'a, "!$& d!2'i!nt! !n id!a1m&vimi!nt& @i
ch)2, C3DLA0.
>R
C&n !l sh1n 'hin&, divin& & !s"&nt#n!&,
'&m"a$a$ tam+i*n las &+s!$va'i&n!s !n la n&ta 2>,
, n&ta >I d!l 'a")tl& II, , Chang 45 a'!$'a d!l _
N&m+$! Divin&, Jil!s, huang T7_, ". >C>. +h1n-
daiva, /ang*li'&0.
/ratibh /ilmina'i(n0, !s la d!signa'i(n
sal d! la fa'ltad "&*ti'a. En 'ant& a la
nat$al!5a d! !sta fa'ltad ha, algna dif!$!n'ia
d! &"ini(n. Algn&s la '&nsid!$an nat$al
@naisargik,A & !s"&nt#n!a @sahajA & in'ls&
s"!$s!nsal @lok9ttarA, ha'i*nd&la na '&n !l
"$in'i"i& d! la f&$ma @prajA & '&n !l g!ni&
@ akti A, , as) !.ival!nt! al i @CC3DA 'hin&, !%'!"t&
.! !l /g!ni&0 indi& n& s! '&nsid!$a al m&d&
!$&"!& , 'hin& '&m& a'tand& !n $!+!li(n '&nt$a
la t$adi'i(n & a"a$t! d! !lla. R!smi!nd& l&s
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"nt&s d! vista .! s! !%"$!san a.) , all), '&n
dif!$!nt!s g$ad&s d! *nfasis !n na di$!''i(n & la
&t$a, "!d! d!'i$s! .! !l v!$dad!$& a$tista a la
v!5 na'! , s! ha'!, .! !st# !.i"ad& a la v!5
t!($i'am!nt! , "$#'ti'am!nt!, '&n g!ni& @ akti A,
imagina'i(n & visi(n @pratibhA, !$di'i(n
@vyutpattiA, '&n'!nt$a'i(n @sam dhi A , "$#'ti'a
@abhy sa A. Est! !s "$#'ti'am!nt! !l "nt& d! vista
d!l 0 vyam m ns , . 7a$a t&da !sta '!sti(n v!$
D!, +anskrit /oetics, "". C3, 3DR.
2I
El !%am!n m#s !la+&$ad& !s !l .! ha'!
7!t$''i, Ancyclopedie, !t'., "". L e., d&nd!
tam+i*n s! 'itan las v!$si&n!s d! Jil!s, Ni$th ,
4a3i. 7!t$''i int$&d'! !n s int!$"$!ta'i(n n
n9m!$& d! id!as m!taf)si'as .! s&n signi2'ativas
!n s) mismas, "!$& a"!nas 8sti2'adas "&$ !l t!%t&.
Mis v!$si&n!s s! +asan !n f!nt!s !%t$!m&1
&$i!ntal!s '&mni'adas ama+l!m!nt! "&$ mi
amig& , '&l!ga K&8i$& 4&mita. 6as '!sti&n!s s&n
t$atadas tam+i*n !nt!$am!nt! "&$ Si$*n, % &istory
o- Aarly hinese /ainting @>R33A.
S! ha sg!$id& a m!nd& na $!la'i(n d! l&s
S!is C#n&n!s d! Nsi!h N& '&n l&s S!is Mi!m+$&s
d! Ya &dha$a @v!$ n&ta >BA. 6a dif!$!n'ia d! &'h&
sigl&s !n la f!'ha n& !%'l,! la "&si+ilidad d! la
d!$iva'i(n, "!s l&s S!is Mi!m+$&s n& $!"$!s!ntan
nada sin& na lista m#s $!'i!nt! d! id!as .! !$an
,a '&$$i!nt!s !n la India !n la *"&'a d! Nsi!h N&, !
in'ls& tal '&m& a"a$!'! "!d! s!$ na 'ita'i(n
di$!'ta d! f!nt!s m#s antigas. Sin !m+a$g&, m!
"a$!'! inn!'!sa$i& "&stla$ na '&n!%i(n di$!'ta,
, !s m!8&$ s!<ala$ sim"l!m!nt! la !%t!nsi(n !n
.! las id!as 'hinas ! indias s! corresponden d!
h!'h&.
En !l "$im!$ 'an&n la "ala+$a ch)i, !s")$it,
signi2'a, d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista ta&)sta, vida, "&$
'ant& "$&'!d! d!l Ci!l& , la 4i!$$a, las d&s
abril, 97
72
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
m&dalidad!s d!l 4a&, ! in'ls& 'and& s! l!
'&m"$!nd! '&m& M!n'i&, !n !l s!ntid& d!
/nat$al!5a1"asi(n0 & /nat$al!5a )gn!a0,
$!"$!s!nta !l "$in'i"i& d! la vida, '&m& d!s!&, la
v&lntad d! vivi$. 6a "ala+$a ch)i ha d! sa$s!
tam+i*n, '&n !%a'titd lit!$al, '&m& la t$ad''i(n
'hina '&$$!'ta d!l t!$'!$ mi!m+$& d! la 4$inidad
C$istiana. El !.ival!nt! indi& !s prna, !s"i$a'i(n,
vida, id!nti2'ada di$!'tam!nt! '&n U$ahman, &
manif!stada '&m& !l Ki!nt& "&$ !l .! las Agas
s&n m&vidas, d! m&d& .! s $!?!8&, .! !s la
"int$a d!l mnd&, a"a$!'! !n !llas. h)i !s "&$
'&nsigi!nt! /f&$ma0 !n !l s!ntid& !n .! /!l
alma !s la f&$ma d!l '!$"&0- & !n !l s!ntid& d!
d!s!& & v&lntad d! vivi$, ch)i s! $!"$!s!nta "&$ !l
k ma @E$&sA indi&. 7&$ &t$a "a$t!, la id!a y2n, d!
&"!$a'i(n & d! $!v!$+!$a'i(n, !s !st$i'tam!nt!
'&m"a$a+l! a l& .! s! !nti!nd! "&$ !l dhvani d!
l&s $!t($i'&s indi&s @v!$ n&ta BRA, "!st& .! !s
s(l& '&m& "&$ n !'& !n !l '&$a5(n d!l &,!nt!
'&m& !l s!ntid& '&m"l!t& d! na "ala+$a @& d!
'al.i!$ &t$& s)m+&l&A "!d! s!$ a"$!h!ndid&. El
'an&n a2$ma .! !l t!ma 9ltim& d! t&d& a$t! !s la
!n!$g)a niv!$sal d!l !s")$it, , "a$a !st! "nt& d!
vista tam+i*n "!d!n !n'&nt$a$s! m'h&s
"a$al!l&s indi&s, "&$ !8!m"l& !n las "ala+$as d!
Ka+ $ @!d. U&l"$, I.DQA /El v!$dad!$& ma!st$& ,
@sadguru, & d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista "$!s!nt!
v!$dad!$& a$tistaA !s !l .! t! ha'! "!$'i+i$ !l S)
mism& S"$!m& @paramtmanA d&nd! .i!$a .!
la m!nt! s! a"li'a0. M#s t!($i'am!nt! !%"$!sad&,
/4&d& l& .! "!d! a"$!h!nd!$s! '&n la m!nt!,
t&d& l& .! "!d! "!$'i+i$s! "&$ l&s s!ntid&s, t&d&
l& .! "!d! dis'!$ni$s! '&n !l int!l!'t&, t&d& !ll&
n& !s sin& na f&$ma d! 4i0 @(isnu /ur na , I.BA.
an3a$O' $,a afi$ma as) mism& .! !l a$t! !s
na t!&fan)a @ bh sa A 'and& di'! .! !l
abril, 97
73
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
U$ahman !n !l t!ma igalm!nt! d! l&s 'ant&s
sag$ad&s , s!'la$!s @C&m!nta$i& s&+$! !l Brahma
+ tra _ , I.>.2IA. M!n&s m!taf)si'am!nt!, !n !l
(isnudharmottara, S6III.3R, s! a2$ma .! n
v!$dad!$& "int&$ !s !l .! "!d! $!"$!s!nta$ al
d$mi!nt! '&m& "&s!)d& d! vida & s!n'i!n'ia
@cetanA, al m!$t& '&m& d!s"$&vist& d! !lla.
El s!gnd& 'an&n a2$ma .! !l v!h)'l& d! la
!%"$!si(n @s!g9n s! d!2n! !n !l "$im!$ 'an&nA !s
la "in'!lada & l)n!a, , !s !vid!nt! d! "&$ s) .! la
"in'!lada & l)n!a !s !n s) misma la "a$t! m#s
a+st$a'ta ! int!ligi+l! d! la &+$a, "!st& .! n
'&nt&$n&, l)mit! & "lan& limitativ& n& '&$$!s"&nd!
a nada visto !n la Nat$al!5a, sin& .! $!"$!s!nta
na int!$"$!ta'i(n d! l& .! n&s&t$&s v!m&s- !n
&t$as "ala+$as, la l)n!a n& !s $!"$!s!ntativa, sin&
sim+(li'a. 6& mism& dan a !nt!nd!$ las
at&$idad!s indias 'and& n&s $!'!$dan .! !s la
l)n!a @rekhA l& .! int!$!sa al ma!st$&, mi!nt$as
.! !l "9+li'& s! int!$!sa s&+$! t&d& "&$ !l '&l&$
@v!$ ". QD , n&ta R d!l 'a")tl& IIIA. El t!$'!$ ,
'a$t& '#n&n!s, t&mad&s "&$ s) mism&s, s!<alan
.! l&s !l!m!nt&s "i't($i'&s & $!"$!s!ntativ&s !n
na &+$a d! a$t! s&n l&s d! la 2g$a @masa & #$!aA
, !l '&l&$, , !st& tam+i*n d!vi!n! !vid!nt! "&$ s)
mism& si $!?!%i&nam&s .! l& .! !l &8& v! !n la
Nat$al!5a n& !s nada sin& n m&sai'& d! '&l&$!s,
'&m& s! $!'&n&'i( "$&nt& !n !l d!sa$$&ll& d! la
"si'&l&g)a india @v!$ n&ta CBA- las !%t!nsi&n!s
'&l&$!adas, si!nd& as) l&s dat&s "$ima$i&s d! la
im"$!si(n d! l&s s!ntid&s, d!vi!n!n !n la &+$a d!
a$t! !l m!di& "$ima$i& d!l $!'&n&'imi!nt&- ,
d!+id& a .! !l int!nt& d! $!'&n&'imi!nt& !s la
"$im!$a $!a''i(n, la $!a''i(n animal d!l
!s"!'tad&$ llan&, s! ha &+s!$vad& .! !l '&l&$ !s
l& .! int!$!sa al "9+li'& @v!$ ". QD , n&tas 2 , R
d!l 'a")tl& IIIA.
abril, 97
74
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
M#s a9n, si t&mam&s 8nt&s !l "$im!$ ,
s!gnd& "a$ d! '#n&n!s @'&m& !stam&s &+ligad&s
ha'!$, "&$.! d!+!m&s asmi$ la '&nsist!n'ia d!
la s!$i!A , asmim&s !l "$in'i"i& g!n!$al 'hin& !
indi& d! la '&nf&$midad d! na '&sa '&n s
nat$al!5a int!$i&$ @"&$ !8!m"l&, Mrcchakatika,
IS.>D, na hy krtih susadr am vijah ti vrttam ,
/6a f&$ma !%t!$i&$ n& '&nt$adi'! !n m&d& algn&
na dis"&si'i(n int!$i&$ s!m!8ant!0-
0um rasambhava , v. 3D, p pavrttaye na r pam _ ,
/la +!ll!5a n& va '&n la mala nat$al!5a0 :
Mallin tha 'ita yatr krtis tatra gun h , /'&m&
s&n las f&$mas, as) s&n las vi$td!s0, , na
sur p h p pasam c r bhavanti _ , /l& +!ll& n&
a't9a "!'amin&sam!nt!0- 6a akum racarita , la
av!nt$a d! Mit$ag"ta, seyam krtir na
vyabhicarati lam , , /4al !s s "!$s&na- !l
'a$#'t!$ d!+! '&$$!s"&nd!$0A, l& .! t!n!m&s !s
!.ival!nt! a na a2$ma'i(n d! .! la nidad
nat$al d! na "int$a !s inh!$!nt! a la
'&nf&$midad d! s signi2'ad& , s $!"$!s!nta'i(n,
, !st! '&ns!ntimi!nt& !s "$!'isam!nt! l& .! ,a
h!m&s $!'&n&'id& @". R , n&ta >CA '&m&
consonantia, s dr ya , !t'. N!m&s vist& tam+i*n
.! la misma n!'!sidad s! !nn'ia
f$!'!nt!m!nt! !n s!nt!n'ias 'hinas s&+$! la
"int$a, , h!m&s sg!$id& @n&ta >CA .! si tvi!s!
.! a'<a$s! n t*$min& "&d$)a '&nv!ni$ !l d!
ying @>32RBA ch)ou @2CIQA.
El .int& 'an&n .i5#s a2$ma s(l& la n!'!sidad
d! '&l&'a$ las "a$t!s d! na "int$a !n s $!la'i(n
nat$al , l(gi'a, & "!d! t&ma$s! !n $!la'i(n '&n
l& .! s! ha di'h& a'!$'a d! la '&m"&si'i(n,
a$$i+a, ". >3.
El 9ltim& 'an&n n& !s inm!diatam!nt!
!.ival!nt! a ningn& d! l&s S!is Mi!m+$&s, "!$&
'&$$!s"&nd! a l& .! n&s !n'&nt$am&s a t$av*s d!
abril, 97
75
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
t&da la t!&$)a , "$#'ti'a d!l a$t! !n la India, "!s
ch)uan !s !.ival!nt! a stram na , n y t ,
vidhivat, sippnur pena _ , !t'. 7&$ !8!m"l&, !s /"&$
la at&$idad t$adi'i&nal @n y t A t&'ant! a !ll&s,
!%"!sta !n t$atad&s @ strar pat _ A '&m"ilad&s
"&$ h&m+$!s inst$id&s d! l&s ti!m"&s a'tal!s,
'&m& las a$t!s @kalA, !t'., !st#n a9n !n vig&$
@vartateA0, Trisasti al k purusacaritra ,
I.2.RL2, d&nd! la $!f!$!n'ia !s a la "$!s!$va'i(n d!
las Cin'& A$t!s , ss s+divisi&n!s, aldidas !n la
n&ta R.
2>
El niv!$s& visi+l! Edr ya , visayaA "!d!
'&nsid!$a$s! '&m& na t!&fan)a $!al, +$illant!,
bh sa , d! Di&s @'f. Chatt!$8i, 0ashmir +haivism
@>R>BA, "". C31D>, , la /l5 "&$ta1imag!n0 !n
"ala+$as d! E'3ha$tA, $!al !n la m!dida !n .!
n&s&t$&s "!$'i+im&s s signi2'ad& 9ltim&,
paramrtha. E%"$!sad& m#s !m")$i'am!nt!, Di&s
!s !l '$!ad&$, nirm na-k raka" d! la "int$a d!l
mnd&, jagaccitra, ',a +!ll!5a, raman yat , , !s
la misma .! !s& .! !n !l a$t! !s la f!nt! d!l
"la'!$ d!sint!$!sad&, id *uod visum placet,
drstipr tim vidhatte , . an3a$O' $,a mism& sa
!st! s)mil, '&m& sig!; /En !l vast& li!n5& d!l S)
Mism&, la "int$a d! l&s m9lti"l!s mnd&s !s
"intada "&$ !l S) Mism& mism&, , !s! S) Mism&
S"$!m&, n& vi*nd&s! sin& a s) mism&, sa+&$!a
na g$an d!l!'ta'i(n @pramudam pray ti A0
@+vtmanir pana _ , RCA. 6a "int$a d!l mnd& n& s!
'&nsid!$a a.) d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista d! la
a'tividad "$#'ti'a '&m& h!'ha d! "a$t!s
ag$ada+l!s , d!sag$ada+l!s, sin& '&m& s! v! !n
'&nt!m"la'i(n, '&m& na !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a.
7!s Di&s !s sin m&tiv& & 2n!s .! al'an5a$
@Bhagavad $ t , , III.22A- s a$t! !s sin m!di&s ,
$!alm!nt! n& !s n ha'!$ & n d!v!ni$, sin& m#s
+i!n na m&dalidad at&1ilminada @svaprak a A,
abril, 97
76
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
, $!?!8ada @ bh sa A, & n 8!g& @l l ,A, !n !l .!
!l 'a$#'t!$ g$atit& d!l a$t! al'an5a s "!$f!''i(n
9ltima. Di&s n& !s visi+l! !n !s!n'ia, sin& s(l& "&$
as) d!'i$ !n la at!n'i(n, !n !l mnd& s!nsi+l!,
s!g9n la man!$a d! n!st$a visi(n, la 'al visi(n,
'and& !st# "!$f!''i&nada, d!v!lv! t&das las
'$iat$as a s f!nt!, vi*nd&las '&m& Gl las v!.
Esta '&n'!"'i(n d! Di&s '&m& !l a$tista
s"$!m&, !n tant& .! $!"$!s!nta la "!$f!''i(n
ha'ia la .! ti!nd! !l a$t! hman&, ha 8gad& n
"a"!l im"&$tant! tant& !n la !st*ti'a '&m& !n la
t!&l&g)a !$&"!a , asi#ti'a. En E$&"a la id!a ha
!stad& vig!nt! d!sd! l&s n!&"lat(ni'&s, , f!
!%"$!sada '&n "a$ti'la$ 'la$idad "&$ St&. 4&m#s ,
"&$ E'3ha$t. Estas id!as s! !%"$!san !n !l
"!nsami!nt& 'hin& n& s(l& "&$ !l t*$min& sh1n
a"li'ad& al a$t! '&n'!+id& '&m& na manif!sta'i(n
inv&lnta$ia, sin& tam+i*n !n l&s mit&s ta&)stas d!
la d!sa"a$i'i(n d!l a$tista, , d! la v!nida a la vida
d! &+$as d! a$t!, m!n'i&nad&s !n !l t!%t&. Estas
s&n d! h!'h& las '&ns!'!n'ias in!vita+l!s d! la
"!$f!''i(n, !s d!'i$, .! !l a$tista, al d!v!ni$ '&m&
Di&s ,a n& s!a vist&, , .! al mism& ti!m"&
"a$ti'i"! !n !l s!m"it!$n& Ah&$a d! la
"$&d'tividad at!m"&$al d! Di&s. En la t$adi'i(n
ta&)sta 'hina !l l&g$& d! la "!$f!''i(n a t$av*s d!l
a$t!, '&m& si f!$a "&$ ilpa-yoga , ha $!'i+id& na
!%"$!si(n m)ti'a !s"!')2'a- "!$& la id!a d! la
d!sa"a$i'i(n n!'!sa$ia @nivrtta, /inv&l'i(n0,
abhisambhava, /$!1d!v!ni$0A d!l s!$
"!$f!''i&nad&, d! 'al.i!$ m&d& '&m& la
"!$f!''i(n s! ha,a $!ali5ad&, !n'!nt$a
nat$alm!nt! s lga$ !n t&d&s l&s sist!mas
m!taf)si'&s. 7&$ !8!m"l&, dh tv ar ram _ ,
akrtam krttm brahma-lokam abhisambhav mi ,
/Na+i*nd&m! sa'did& !l '!$"& @s+stan'iaA,
'&m& n& h!'h& a s) mism& @"!$f!'t&A !st&,
abril, 97
77
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&nf&$mad& al mnd& inh!'h& d! U$ahma0,
h ndogya Upanisad KIII.>3, d&nd! !st# im"l)'ita
la $!ali5a'i(n t&tal, .! '&nll!va na
t$ansf&$ma'i(n in'ls& '&n $!s"!'t& al "lan&
int!ligi+l!. 6a n&'i(n v!lv! a "$!s!nta$s!, "&$
s"!st& !n l&s (ednta + tras _ - 'f. R!n* J*n&n,
:Dhomme et son 6evenir selon le (edanta, "". >RB,
>RC. 6a d!sa"a$i'i(n & s+m!$si(n d!l sant& "&!ta
M ni33a K 'aga$ !n la imag!n d! iva
@Tiruv tav rar /ur na _ , KII.2Q12RA &f$!'! n 'as&
al $!s"!'t&. Cf. !n la t$adi'i(n h!+$!a, a M&s!s,
En&'h , El)as, a"a$!'i!nd& tam+i*n *st! 9ltim& !n
la t$adi'i(n mhamm!diana '&m& ha+i!nd&
+!+id& d!l Aga d! la Kida.
El !.ival!nt! !n !l '$istianism& !s la
As'!nsi(n- 'f. E'3ha$t; /7&d!m&s s"&n!$
$a5&na+l!m!nt! .! 'and& ll!g( !l m&m!nt& d!
.! =an "a$ti!$a, Di&s hi5& .! l! a'&nt!'i!$a l&
.! d!+)a a'&nt!'!$ !n !l d)a d!l 8i'i&] "&d!m&s
da$ "&$ 'i!$t& .! s '!$"&, .! !sta+a d!stinad&
a "!$!'!$ a.) !n la ti!$$a, f! d!sint!g$ad& !n !l
ai$!, d! m&d& .! s(l& !nt$( !n Di&s !l s!$ d! s
'!$"&, .! ha+$)a a'&m"a<ad& al alma !n !l
9ltim& d)a0. 6a !%"li'a'i(n d! la d!sa"a$i'i(n
"$&'!d! inm!diatam!nt! d! la distin'i(n !nt$! las
!sf!$as s!nsi+l! ! int!ligi+l! d! la manif!sta'i(n,
K madh t & K mal&3a, , R "adh t & _
R "al&3a @v!$ n&ta >I d!l 'a")tl& IIIA. 6a _ ilpa-
sth na-kau la & fa'ilidad &"!$ativa d!l int!l!'t&
"$#'ti'&, fn'i&na s(l& !n !l "lan& s!nsi+l!, d&nd!
ha d! ha'!$s! la /&+$a0- Sin !m+a$g&, la '$!a'i(n
int!l!'tal @nirm na A, fn'i&na !n am+&s "lan&s,
@>\A !n !l "lan& s!nsi+l! !s in'&$"&$ada "&$ la
v&lntad hmana !n na obra d! a$t!, .! /viv!0
, ti!n! /m&vimi!nt&0 s(l& m!taf($i'am!nt!, , @2\A
!n !l "lan& int!ligi+l! s! mani2!sta
inm!diatam!nt! '&m& vida f&$mal. En 'al.i!$
abril, 97
78
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'as&, .! !l a$t! d!+! '&nsid!$a$s! '&m& na
/v)a0 !s !vid!nt! s&+$! t&d& !n !l h!'h& d! .! la
"!$'!"'i(n !st*ti'a !s !s!n'ialm!nt!
d!sint!$!sada.
22
6a $!'&gni'i(n n& d!"!nd! d! la
v!$&similitd, sin& .! !s "&$ '&nv!n'i(n- !l
!s"!'tad&$ $!alista invi!$t! !l "$&'!dimi!nt&
/imitativ&0 d!l a$tista .! ha dad& f&$ma a la
2g$a nat$al, al int!$"$!ta$ la imag!n
manfa't$ada @r pa _ A '&n& si f!$a la '&sa misma
"$!s!nt! ant! !l &8& @pratyaksaA @Uha$t$ha$i,
( kyapad ya , , III.L.CA.
23
En !l :ankvat ra + tra _ , loc, cit., s! ilst$a
la i$$!alidad d! las a"a$i!n'ias '&n dif!$!nt!s
s)mil!s, !nt$! !ll&s !l d! las s"!$2'i!s "intadas
@citrakrta-pradeA .! s! v!n '&m& !n $!li!v!
@nimn9nnatA, an.! $!alm!nt! s!an "lanas
@animn9nnatA.
2B
+vapnav savadatt , KI.>3, , Mrcchakatika
IK.I.3. As) tam+i*n !n Mrcchakatika IS.>D,
susadr a !s /s!m!8an5a v!$dad!$a0. Cf.
vrddhisadr a , /.! "a$!'! vi!8&0 !n
ukran tis ra , , IK.B.2I>, , sadr a , /l&
s!m!8ant!0 @h /!t'.0A, !n !l %bhidharmako a d!
Kas+andh, IS @7&ssin, ". 2LCA. 7a$a /s!m!8an5a
!%a'ta0 t!n!m&s tam+i*n tad nur vam _ @-
r pam _ A !n !l %sva yaka T k , d! Na$i+had$a,
II.Q, 2 , 3, , pratyaksam !n !l 0arp ramajar _ ,,
I.3I.
En !l (isnudharmottara, III.B>.2, s dr ya , !s
n n&m+$!, , kicilloka-s dr ya d!+! t&ma$s!
'&m& signi2'and& /!n l& .! ha, na similitd
s(l& "a$'ialm!nt! '&n!'tada '&n !l mnd&
mat!$ial0- !n 'al.i!$ 'as&, !st& n& "&d$)a
'&nsid!$a$s! '&m& n "$!'!"t& d! $!alism&, "!s
la "int$a satya !n '!sti(n ti!n! .! v!$
'la$am!nt! '&n la !sf!$a ang*li'a, , !n !lla s!
abril, 97
79
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
$!.i!$!n tant& pram na '&m& s dr ya . Mi
v!$si(n !n B%3+., 6II.>3 n!'!sita "&$ l& tant&
'&$$!''i(n - 'f. mi /7aint!$[s A$t in An'i!nt India-
A8ant 0, !n Bourn .ndian +ociety o- 3riental %rt,
I.D, n. 2.
2C
/Imagin!$&0 "&d$)a .i5#s t$ad'i$s!
'&nv!ni!nt!m!nt! "&$ adhyav sana , ,
/int$&ss'!"tiv&0, + hitya 6arpana , II.Q1R.
7&$ s"!st& n& faltan "a$al!l&s indi&s d!l b!n-
"&$ !8!m"l&, !n = ta3a, n\ BDI, la !van!s'!n'ia
d!l $&'i( d! la ma<ana +asta "a$a la ilmina'i(n, ,
an#l&ga a la hist&$ia d! 4an Nsia !s la d! la "&!tisa
, d!v&ta tamil, Avvai, .! al s!$ $!"$!ndida "&$
s!nta$s! '&n ss "i!s !%t!ndid&s ha'ia la imag!n
d! n t!m"l&, n a't& d! i$$!v!$!n'ia f&$mal,
admiti( s falta, "!$& ag$!g( /Si m! indi'as !n .*
di$!''i(n n& ha d! !n'&nt$a$s! a Di&s, !%t!nd!$*
ha'ia all) mis "i!s0. Na, igalm!nt! a+ndant!s
"a$al!l&s !n la t$adi'i(n !$&"!a, "&$ !8!m"l& !n
l&s Evang!li&s, , !n E'3ha$t , Ula3!.
2D
Chin& ch)an @3BQA, 8a"&n*s 7en h s#ns'$it&
dhyana, "ali jh na .
2L
4$ad''i(n d! Wal!,. 6as +asta$dillas s&n
m)as.
2Q
Pn hokku 8a"&n*s- !n "&!mas d! !st! ti"& s!
!s"!$a .! !l &,!nt! '&m"l!t! !l "!nsami!nt& !n
s "$&"ia m!nt!- 'f. la f$as! 'hina /da$ f&$ma
!s"i$ital @sh1nA a la v!$dad!$a "a$t! d!8ada sin
d!lin!a$0, , l& .! s! ha di'h& a$$i+a !n 'ant& a
la inad!'a'i(n lit!$al "!$& !2'i!n'ia "$#'ti'a d!
las "ala+$as @n&ta >CA, , a+a8& s&+$! !l "$&"i&
!sf!$5& d!l !s"!'tad&$ @n&ta B3A.
2R
Ukiyoye signi2'a /"int$as d!l mnd&
!f)m!$&0- la "&stal 8a"&n!sa !s s "$&d't& t)"i'&,
"!$& tam+i*n ha, "int$as d!l mism& ti"&.
3I
Pna alsi(n a la hist&$ia S f "!$sa d! 6ail _ ,
, Ma8< n. Cand& s! &+8!t( a Ma8< n .! 6ail _ _
abril, 97
80
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
n& !$a tan +!lla '&m& *l "$!t!nd)a, $!s"&ndi(; /K!$
la +!ll!5a d! 6ail $!.i!$! l&s &8&s d! Ma8< n0. _
3>
7!d! 'ita$s! a.) !l admi$a+l! "$!fa'i& d!
4i$v!n3ata a la !di'i(n 4!lg @>QQLA d!l
%bhinaya 6arpana @v!$ C&&ma$asXam, ,
Dggi$ala, The Mirror o- $esture, Cam+$idg!,
Massa'hs!tts, >R>LA. 4i$v!n3ata ald! "$im!$&
al a+and&n& d!l a$t! , la 'i!n'ia d! la dan5a
mim*ti'a @nat'hA !n l&s ti!m"&s m&d!$n&s,
a+and&n& .! ha sid& "$in'i"alm!nt! !l $!sltad&
d! in?!n'ias !$&"!as , "$itanas, an.! *l n&
di'! tant&, , a '&ntina'i(n "$&'!d! a la
$!a2$ma'i(n d!l "nt& d! vista n&$mal hind9;
/Es d! t&d&s '&n&'id& .! !n !st&s d)as
n!st$& "!+l& n& s(l& d!s'ida !sta !ns!<an5a
'&m& si f!$a d! n ti"& '&m9n, sin& .! ll!gan a
d!'la$a$ .! !s n a$t! '&nv!ni!nt! s(l& "a$a !l
!nt$!t!nimi!nt& d!l vlg&, indign& d! h&m+$!s
'ltivad&s, , a"t& "a$a s!$ "$a'ti'ad& s(l& "&$
'(mi'&s. 7!$& !lla !s '&m& la Ci!n'ia d! la Pni(n
@yoga- stra A, .! !s !l m!di& d! al'an5a$ la
li+!$a'i(n !s"i$ital @moksaA- , la $a5(n "&$ la .!
ha ll!gad& a '&nsid!$a$s! d! tal m&d&, !s .! !s
"&$ l&s m&vimi!nt&s d!l '!$"& @angikbhinayaA
'&m& s! !%hi+!n 'la$am!nt! l&s lin!ami!nt&s , la
int!$a''i(n d!l h*$&! , la h!$&)na !t'., a 2n d!
di$igi$ a l&s h&m+$!s !n la v)a d! la $!'titd, , d!
$!v!la$ n signi2'ad& !s&t*$i'&, &+t!ni!nd& la
a"$!'ia'i(n d! l&s '&n&'!d&$!s , d! .i!n!s !st#n
v!$sad&s !n la 'i!n'ia d!l g!st&. 7!$& si
'&m"$!nd!m&s !sta 'i!n'ia '&n n dis'!$nimi!nt&
m#s agd&, s!$# !vid!nt! .! vin& a la !%ist!n'ia
"a$a $!"$!s!nta$ !l 8!g& , "asati!m"& d! $ ,
K$ishna, .! !s !l "$&g!nit&$ d! t&d&s l&s mnd&s,
, la d!idad "at$(n d!l sa+&$ d!l am&$
@ rng rarasa A- d! man!$a .! al !%"$!sa$
'la$am!nt! !l sa+&$, , al ha'!$ "&si+l! a l&s
abril, 97
81
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
h&m+$!s sa+&$!a$l&, l!s da la sa+id$)a d!
U$ahm , "&$ la .! "!d!n '&m"$!nd!$ '(m&
t&d&s l&s asnt&s s&n in!sta+l!s- d! la 'al
'&m"$!nsi(n s$g! la av!$si(n a tal!s asnt&s, ,
d! ah) s! &$iginan las m#s altas vi$td!s d! la "a5
, la "a'i!n'ia, , '&n !ll& "!d! gana$s! d! n!v&
la Ui!nav!nt$an5a d! U$ahm .
/U$ahm , &t$&s han d!'la$ad& .! las
$!la'i&n!s mtas d!l h*$&! , la h!$&)na, !n s
signi2'ad& !s&t*$i'&, "a$ti'i"an d! la nat$al!5a
d! la $!la'i(n d!l ma!st$& , !l dis')"l&, d! mt&
s!$vi'i& , mt& !nt!ndimi!nt&- , "&$ tant& !l
Uha$ata st$a, .! !s n m!di& "a$a la
&+t!n'i(n d! l&s Cat$& Win!s d! la Kida Nmana-
Ki$td, Ri.!5a, 7la'!$, , 6i+!$a'i(n Es"i$ital, :,
.! !s na 'i!n'ia !%altad)sima, "$a'ti'ada in'ls&
"&$ l&s di&s!s,: d!+!$)a tam+i*n s!$ "$a'ti'ad&
"&$ n&s&t$&s0.
32
+ hitya 6arpana , III.R. ( san , '&m&
/af!''1i(n0, '&m& /&d&$i5ant!0, !s la m!m&$ia
lat!nt! d! la !%"!$i!n'ia "asada, , la '&ns!'!nt!
s!nsi+ilidad "$!s!nt!. Igalm!nt! d!sd! !l "nt&
d! vista !st*ti'& , g!n!$alm!nt! hman&,
v san "!d! '&nsid!$a$s! '&m& n mal
n!'!sa$i&. C&nsid!$ad& '&m& na a"titd af!'tiva,
'&m& na "$&"!nsi(n a di$igi$ la sim"at)a ha'ia, &
!l "$!8i'i& !n fav&$ d!, n&s&t$&s mism&s &t$&s,
$!"$!s!nta n im"!dim!nt& igalm!nt! "a$a la
ilmina'i(n !n g!n!$al , "a$a la !%"!$i!n'ia
!st*ti'a !n "a$ti'la$- "!$& !n tant& .! la +as!
n!'!sa$ia "a$a la sim"at)a id!al , d!sint!$!sada,
tal '&m& la .! s!ntim&s ant! !l !s"!'t#'l& d!
di'ha , a?i''i(n $!"$!s!ntad& !n !l a$t!, !s !l
"$!$$!.isit& "a$a la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a. Cf. n&ta
BL.
El 'a$#'t!$ id!al d! la s!nsi+ilidad "&*ti'a, !s
d!'i$ la nat$al!5a d!sint!$!sada d! la
abril, 97
82
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&nt!m"la'i(n !st*ti'a, s! s+$a,a
'&nstant!m!nt! !n la lit!$at$a Alam3 $a. En !l
+ hitya 6arpana , III.C , D, s! s!<ala, "&$ !8!m"l&,
.! in'ls& !n !l 'as& d! &+$as d! a$t! !n las .!
l&s t!mas s&n !n s) mism&s a?i'tiv&s, !l
!s"!'tad&$ n& si!nt! ningna a?i''i(n, sin& s(l&
d!l!'ta'i(n, d! l& 'al .i!n!s ti!n!n na
d!l!'ta'i(n int!lig!nt! !n !l a$t! dan n
t!stim&ni& n#nim!.
33
7a$a las t!&$)as d! rasa, !t'., a"li'adas a la
"int$a & la !s'lt$a, v!$ B%3+., 6II.>C, n. C, ,
Uasava Ra8a, iba Tattva ;atn kara , @!d. Mad$as,
>R2LA, KI.2.>R.
3B
0 vya , !s"!')2'am!nt! "&!s)a @"$&sa &
v!$s&A, tam+i*n a+a$'a la id!a g!n!$al d! /a$t!0-
l&s signi2'ad&s !s!n'ial!s "$!s!nt!s !n la $a)5 k_
in'l,!n /sa+id$)a0 , /"!$i'ia0. 7&d!m&s
'&m"a$a$ !l s& "&$ Ula3! d!l /J!ni& 7&*ti'&0
'&m& !.ival!nt! d! la /Imagina'i(n0 !n !l
s!ntid& m#s am"li& d! la "ala+$a, , a la anal&g)a
d!l g$i!g& , .! d!n&ta la "$&d''i(n __^_
d! 'al.i!$ '&sa, "&$ !8!m"l&, /'$iat$as0 & n
+a$'&.
3C
7&$ !8!m"l& !n !l M lat m dhava , , I.33.R1
>I, d&nd! !l "$&"(sit& d! n $!t$at& @ lekhya-
prayojanaA !s la '&ns&la'i(n !n !l anh!l&
@utkanth vinodana , & /riyadar ika , I.3, d&nd! !l
8!g& ha /d!s!ad& f$t&0, v chita-phala .
3D
+ hitya 6arpana , I.3. Cf. /En 'ant& al h!'h&
d! .! !l alma d! la "&!s)a !s !l sa+&$, , l&
s!m!8ant!, n& !%ist! dif!$!n'ia d! &"ini(n0 :
(yaktiviveka- , /4&da la "&!s)a viv! "&$ rasa0:
A+hinavag"ta.
3L
El signi2'ad& & la tilidad !s !l m&tiv&
indis"!nsa+l! d! t&d& a$t!, "!$& d!sd! !l "nt& d!
vista indi& n& !s a$t! !l .! n& si$v! tam+i*n al 2n
9ltim& d! la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a, l& .! n& &'$$!,
abril, 97
83
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
&'$$! s(l& !n !l g$ad& m#s limitad&, !n l&s
'as&s d! sim"l! !2'a'ia, d! sim"l! !%"&si'i(n
d!s'$i"tiva, & in'ls& d! /"&!s)a ilst$ativa0,
citrak vya . 7&$ !8!m"l&, na "i!5a d! hi!$$&
a'analad& "!d! "$!s!$va$ d! la llvia, , "!d!
llama$s! a$t! !n tant& .! !s n "$&d't& d!l
'&n&'imi!nt& , d! la "!$i'ia t*'ni'a, "!$&
dif)'ilm!nt! !s n t!'h&, a$.it!'t(ni'am!nt!
ha+land&- !n la 'i!n'ia, la m!$a ilst$a'i(n ,
'lasi2'a'i(n s&n !s'asam!nt! a$t!, "!$& na
!l!gant! !'a'i(n mat!m#ti'a, & n inst$m!nt&
+i!n dis!<ad&, tal '&m& n t!l!s'&"i&, !s a$t!.
Cal.i!$ s& d! las "ala+$as & la a"li'a'i(n d! la
int!lig!n'ia !s a$t! d! n 'i!$t& ti"&, "!$& la sim"l!
d!s'$i"'i(n , !2'a'ia s&n !l ti"& d! a$t! m#s
'$d&, n& /"$imitiv&0, sin& !l!m!ntal, !n tant& .!
n& !st#n m, al!8adas d! la !%'lama'i(n
fn'i&nal. En t&d& 'as& !s a.) d&nd! "!d!
t$a5a$s! na distin'i(n d! g$ad& !nt$! /+!llas0
a$t!s , a$t!s /s!$vil!s0. 7!$& !st# "&$ d!+a8& d! la
dignidad d!l h&m+$! mant!n!$ s !%ist!n'ia !n n
niv!l d! "$a tilidad , d! n!'!sidad fn'i&nal, ,,
'&m& ha di'h& +i!n Rs3in, /la indst$ia sin a$t! !s
+$talidad0.
3Q
6lama$ a na &+$a d! a$t! rasavat, &
id!alm!nt! +!lla, n& !s !st$i'tam!nt! l!g)tim&,
sin& sim"l!m!nt! na man!$a d! ha+la$ , "&$
"$&,!''i(n, im"ta'i(n, & inf!$!n'ia @anum na A &
2g$ativam!nt! @upac ra A- "!s s! insist!
'&nstant!m!nt! !n .! rasa n& !s na 'alidad
&+8!tiva "$!s!nt! !n la &+$a d! a$t! & !n
'al.i!$a d! ss "a$t!s. Cf. M3h!$8!!, Assai, !t'.,
". DD- D!, +anskrit /oetics, II.2IC, , n&ta B3 a+a8&.
3R
+ hitya 6arpana , III.2I+, e.
BI
M lavikgnimitra , I.B, bhinna-rucer janasya,
/g!nt! d! div!$s&s gst&s0.
abril, 97
84
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
/Es dif)'il d!'i$ l& .! !s Est*ti'a, .! im"li'a
"!nsami!nt& , '&n'!"t& d!l a$t!, , .! "!d!
t$ata$ d!l "$& gst& sin '&n'!"t&0, C$&'!, /4h!
U$!via$, &f A!sth!ti'0, !n ;ice .nstitute /amphlet,
II @>R>CA, 3IC.
B>
6a ar pa _ , IK.RI. El "nt& d! vista &"!st&,
!s d!'i$, .! !l a$t! @!s"!'ialm!nt! !l d$ama, la
m9si'a, la "int$a , las a$t!s snta$iasA n& !s
nada m#s .! n l8&, n '&s.ill!& d! l&s
s!ntid&s, s! manti!n! s(l& d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista
m&n#sti'&, "$itan& , !n $!alidad ing!nam!nt!
mat!$ialista, "$in'i"alm!nt! !n &+$as +ddhistas ,
8ainas "$imitivas, '&n n al'an'! m#s limitad& !n
l&s 6harma stras , , !n l&s ti!m"&s m&d!$n&s
'&m& n $!sltad& d! la in?!n'ia !$&"!a- 'f.
n&ta 3>. Ent$! l&s t!%t&s +ddhistas , 8ainas
"&d$)an 'ita$s! Brahma-B la +utta , I.>.>3- (isuddhi
Magga, 3Q- , y r mga +utta ` , II, l!'t. >3.
B2
Cf. Ma$itain, .ntroduction to /hilosophy ". 2D3,
n.>; /la "ala+$a estHtica s! d!$iva
!tim&l(gi'am!nt! d! @la "ala+$a g$i!ga "a$aA
s!nsi+ilidad @ h s!nti$A, __^__'__
mi!nt$as .! !l a$t!, , la +!ll!5a tam+i*n, s&n
asnt& d!l int!l!'t&, tant& '&m& d!l s!ntimi!nt&0.
Si !st& s! '&m"$!ndi!s! m#s g!n!$alm!nt!, "&d$)a
!vita$s! na g$an sma d! s!ntim!ntalism& !n !l
"!nsami!nt& a'tal a'!$'a d!l a$t!.
B3
6a ar pa _ , IK.BL.CI. Cf. :ankvatara + tra _ ,
II.>>L.>>Q. ;ange na vidhyate citram na bh mau _
na ca bh jane tattvam hy aksaravarhitam , /la
"int$a @$!alA n& !st# !n !l '&l&$, ni !n la
s"!$2'i!, ni !n l&s '&nt&$n&s @sin& !n la m!nt!A]
!l "$in'i"i& t$as'i!nd! la l!t$a0. En !st! "asa8!
bh jana "!d! s!$ la "al!ta d!l "int&$, '&m&
m!di& & 'asa mat!$ial d! la &+$a, "!$&
'&nsid!$ad& m#s a+st$a'tam!nt! '&m&
/$!'!"t#'l&0 signi2'a !l !nt&$n& d! la &+$a d!
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
a$t!, & in'ls& !l mnd& f)si'&- 'f. !l '&sm&s '&m&
bh jana , /$!'!"t#'l&0, Kas+andh,
%bhidharmako a , III.BB @7&ssin, ". >Q2 f.A.
Cf. C&nf'i&, Kragmentos, SKII.>>, /_S&n
'am"anillas , tam+&$!s t&d& l& .! s! !nti!nd!
"&$ m9si'a`0- , Walt Whitman,
4&da m9si'a !s l& .! d!s"i!$ta !n ti
'and& t! a'!$das d! !lla
"&$ l&s inst$m!nt&s,
N& !st# !n l&s vi&lin!s , '&$n!tas]
ni !n la "a$tit$a
d!l 'ant&$ +a$)t&n&
Est# m#s '!$'a , m#s l!8&s .! !ll&s.
BB
Dha$madatta, 'itad& !n + hitya 6arpana ,
III.Ri, '&m!nta$i&.
BC
+ hitya 6arpana , III.2 , 3 , '&m!nta$i&-
6hvany locana , !d. Ni$na,a S ga$a, ". >>.
BD
6a r pa _ , IK.C>- + hitya 6arpana , III.>R12I.
BL
+ dh ranya !s an#l&g& a !m"at)a,
Ain-2hlung- v san @/&d&$i5ant!0A !s la
s!nsi+ilidad innata & ad.i$ida, na t!nd!n'ia
!m&'i&nal .!, an.! "!da d!sa$$&lla$s! '&m&
s!ntim!ntalism&, !s n& &+stant! !s!n'ial "a$a la
"&si+ilidad d! s dh ranya !n tant& .! simpat=a
id!al. + dh ranya !s &t$& as"!'t& d! !s!
/'&ns!ntimi!nt&0 .! h!m&s $!'&n&'id& ,a '&m&
s drsya , s hitya , s r pya _ , , tad k rat ,
C&ntinand& '&n l& .! s! ha di'h& !n la n&ta
32; la sim"at)a !st*ti'a !s id!al, sin ning9n
!l!m!nt& *ti'&- !s d!'i$, s! si!nt! igalm!nt! '&n
$!s"!'t& al +i!n , al mal, al "la'!$ & al d&l&$, !n
tant& .! $!"$!s!ntad&s. Ci!$tam!nt! "!d!
s!nti$s! l!g)timam!nt! na sim"at)a *ti'a '&n
$!s"!'t& a n h*$&! tal '&m& R ma $!"$!s!ntad&
'&m& n m&d!l& d! '&nd'ta !n n "&!ma, d$ama
& "int$a, "!$& tal sim"at)a "!$t!n!'! al val&$
"$(%im& d!l a$t! !n $!la'i(n '&n !l dharma, n& a la
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
a"$!'ia'i(n !st*ti'a @ sv da A, !n la 'al !l
!s"!'tad&$ v! '&m& si f!$a '&n !l &8& d! Di&s,
.! /n& '&nsid!$a ni las +!nas ni las malas &+$as
d! nadi!0 @Bhagavad $ t , , K.>CA, sin& .! /ha'!
.! S s&l +$ill! "&$ igal s&+$! !l 8st& , s&+$! !l
in8st&0, "!s /la visi(n d! Di&s t$as'i!nd! las
vi$td!s0, E'3ha$t, I.2L3. 6a im"a$'ialidad d! la
$!"$&d''i(n !st*ti'a, !l h!'h& d! .! !l a$t!
'&m& tal s! $!la'i&na m#s +i!n '&n la l!, .! '&n
la !.idad, s! m!st$a +i!n !n !l 5 tya stra ,
I.>>2 e.- v!$ la t$ad''i(n !n !l The Mirror o-
$esture, ". 2.
BQ
6a ar pa _ , IK.BC.
BR
6hvani !s lit!$alm!nt! /s&nid&0,
!s"!'ialm!nt! n s&nid& '&m& !l d!l t$!n& & !l
d! n tam+&$, d! a.) /$!s&nan'ia0 & /s&+$!t&n&0
d!l signi2'ad&. 7!d! !n'&nt$a$s! na anal&g)a
s&$"$!nd!nt! !n !l "$im!$ 'an&n d! Nsi!h N&
d&nd! '&n !l 'a$#'t!$ y2n @>3QB3A s! !s'$i+! .!
l& !s!n'ial !n !l a$t! !s la $!v!$+!$a'i(n @y2nA d!l
!s")$it !n las f&$mas d! la vida0, !stand&
"$!s!nt! la id!a d! sonar m#s +i!n .! la d!l m!$&
s&nid& tant& !n dhvani '&m& !n y2n @>3QB3A.
Sin(nim&s signi2'ativ&s d! vyajan, lit.
/$!v!land&0, s&n dhvanana, /ha'i!nd& !'&0, ,
gamana, /m&'i(n0. En 'ant& a !st& 9ltim&, "!d!
&+s!$va$s! .! 'and& s! ha+la d! na '&sa '&m&
$!"$!s!ntada !n na imag!n, s! di'! .! !s
citragata, /!nt$ada !n $!"$!s!nta'i(n0- 'f. E'3ha$t,
/"a$a s!$ !%"$!sada a"$&"iadam!nt!, na '&sa
d!+! "$&'!d!$ d!sd! d!nt$&, m&vida "&$ s
f&$ma0, , 6!&na$d&, /El m!8&$ di+8& !s !l .!
!%"$!sa la "asi(n .! anima a la 2g$a0. Sin
!m+a$g&, (yajan, a sa+!$, !n !l s& +ddhista,
signi2'a s(l& la /l!t$a0 !n tant& .! &"!sta al
/!s")$it0 & /signi2'ad&0 @attha @ arthaA. El
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
s!ntid& "&st!$i&$ d&ta a la /l!t$a0 '&n na
signi2'a'i(n sg!stiva m#s all# d! la lit!$al.
CI
K!$ Dhvani3O$a, 6hvyany lokalocana @/El
O8& d! la 7!$'!"'i(n d!l C&nt!nid&0A 'itad& "&$
M3h!$8!!, Assai, !t'., "". QC1RI.
C>
D!sd! !l "nt& d! vista d!l :ankvat ra
+ tra _ , l&s d&s im"!dim!nt&s "$in'i"al!s s&n
kle varana @a"!g& s!nsalA , jeyvarana
@im"!dim!nt&s m!ntal!s & sist!m#ti'&sA, "&d$)a
d!'i$s! af!''i&n!s , "$!8i'i&s. Cf. Ula3!, /!l
h&m+$! s! ha !n'!$$ad& a s) mism&
'&m"l!tam!nt!] Si las "!$tas d! la "!$'!"'i(n
s! lim"ias!n, t&das las '&sas a"a$!'!$)an '&m&
s&n, In2nitas0. D!+! t!n!$s! "$!s!nt! .! d!sd! !l
"nt& d! vista indi& la ilmina'i(n , la "!$f!''i(n
!st#n si!m"$! vi$talm!nt! "$!s!nt!s, !s d!'i$, n&
han d! s!$ ad*uiridas "&$ ning9n m!di& sin& s(l&
reveladas 'and& !l !s"!8& d!l alma !st# lim"i& d!
"&lv&. Esta !s na m!t#f&$a "a$ti'la$m!nt!
a"li'a+l! !n !l 'am"& !st*ti'&- la '&nt!m"la'i(n
!st*ti'a n& "!d! !ns!<a$s!- t&d& l& .! "!d!
ha'!$s! !s d!sha'!$ las +a$$!$as .! s!
int!$"&n!n !n la v)a a la $!ali5a'i(n.
C2
S! t$a5a a.) na distin'i(n 'la$a !nt$! l&s
m!di&s d! "!$'!"'i(n fn'i&nal!s '&m& s&n !n s)
mism&s @"&$ !8!m"l&, la fa'ltad int$)ns!'a d!l
&8&A, , s s& d!t!$minad& "&$ la int!lig!n'ia- la
v&5 @v c @ visaya abda A !n !st! "asa8! ha d!
distingi$s! d!l ha+la @v c A !n la Brhad ranyaka
Upanisad, IK.>, d&nd! !l ha+la s! id!nti2'a '&n la
dis'$imina'i(n & !l int!l!'t& "$& @prajA, , !n la
h ndogya Upanisad , KII.2, d&nd! !l ha+la /ha'!
'&n&'id&0 al n&m+$!.
/N&m+$! , as"!'t&0 @n ma-r pa _ A s&n las
'&nv!n'i&n!s fndam!ntal!s @$!s"!'tivam!nt!
int!ligi+l! , s!nsi+l!A "&$ las .! l&s f!n(m!n&s
s&n '&gn&s'i+l!s @dis'$iminad&sA. As) !n !l
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
atapatha Br hmana , SI.2.3, n&m+$! , as"!'t&
s! t$atan '&m& las d&s manif!sta'i&n!s d!l
U$ahman, "&$ las .! Gl !s '&n&'id& !n !l niv!$s&
'&nting!nt!, /si!nd& !l as"!'t& int!l!'t&, !n tant&
.! !s "&$ !l int!l!'t& '&m& n& a"$!h!nd! !l
as"!'t&0, , /si!nd& !l n&m+$! ha+la, !n tant& .!
!s "&$ !l ha+la '&m& n& a"$!h!nd! !l n&m+$!0, ,
!st&s d&s n& s&n distingi+l!s !n nat$al!5a, "!s
/t&d& l& .! !s n&m+$! !s 'i!$tam!nt! as"!'t&0.
El 9ltim& "asa8! a2$ma $!alm!nt! la id!ntidad !n
"$in'i"i& d! t&das las a$t!s- 'f. E'3ha$t, /la f&$ma
!s na $!v!la'i(n d! la !s!n'ia0 @3QIA , /!l alma
'&n&'! s(l& !n !2gi!0. As) mism&, /Nasta tan l!8&s
'&m& ha, n&m+$! , as"!'t&, hasta tan l!8&s
'i!$tam!nt! s! !%ti!nd! !st! mnd&0 @ , Br,"
ibid,A. Cf. 0aus taki Upanisad , , I.3, d&nd! M nas ,
, C 3ss , /Int!lig!n'ia0 , /7!$'!"'i(n0, s! ,
"!$s&ni2'an '&m& las '&ns&$t!s d! U$ahma ,
'asas inm!diatas d!l niv!$s& f!n&m*ni'&. 7!$&
!n !l U$ahman, llamad& !l Es"!'tad&$ & !l
7$!s!n'iad&$ @paridrastrA, s&n t$as'!ndid&s n&m+$!
, as"!'t& !n tant& .! m&d&s hman&s d!
"!$'!"'i(n , $!"$!s!nta'i(n @/ra na Upanisad ,
KI.CA. Na, d! h!'h& t$!s m&d&s d! visi(n, la d!l &8&
'a$nal fn'i&nal @m mas-caksu A, !l &8& ang*li'&
@divya-caksu" !l int!l!'t&A, , !l &8& d! la sa+id$)a
t$ans'!nd!nt! @praj -caksu , gn&sisA,
$!s"!'tivam!nt! fn'i&nal, &mnivid!nt!, ,
"$!s!n'iad&$ !n simltan!idad. El 9ltim& !s !l
t!$'!$ &8& d! iva, .! d!st$,!, & m#s +i!n
t$ansf&$ma, la a"a$i!n'ia "&$ s n& "!$'!"'i(n d!
la dalidad. As), !n 9ltim& an#lisis, /N& s&n l&s
as"!'t&s l& .! n& d!+! +s'a$ '&m"$!nd!$, sin&
al K!!d&$ @drastrA d! l&s as"!'t&s0 @0aus taki ,
Upanisad, III.QA; /vi!nd& a Mi!n, nada m#s .!da
.! v!$, yad drstv n param dr yam 0
@ an3a$O' $,a, tmabodha ` , CCA. A.!l .!
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
al'an5a as) !l mnd& d! U$ahma d!vi!n! n
/K!!d&$ sin dalidad @drast advaitah A, *sta !s la
s!nda m#s alta d!l h&m+$!, s f!li'idad m#s alta,
!t'.0 @Brhadranyaka Upanisad, IK.3.32A.
Na d! &+s!$va$s! d! na v!5 "&$ t&das .!, al
igal .! !n ingl*s, tam+i*n !n s#ns'$it& m'has
"ala+$as, "&$ !8!m"l&, v c , r pa _ , s! san
n!'!sa$iam!nt! !n d&s s!ntid&s, !m")$i'& ! id!al,
& in'ls& !n t$!s s!ntid&s, lit!$al, id!al ,
t$as'!nd!ntal. N& &+stant!, r pa _ , 'ant& !st#
'&$$!la'i&nada '&n n ma , ha d! t$ad'i$s!
si!m"$! "&$ /as"!'t&0 m#s +i!n .! "&$ /f&$ma0-
!s $!alm!nt! n ma , /n&m+$!0, & /id!a0, l& .!
!s !l "$in'i"i& d!t!$minant! & la /f&$ma0 d! la
!s"!'i!. As), '&n $!s"!'t& al h&m+$!, n ma-r pa _
!s /alma , '!$"&0- si!nd& !l alma la /f&$ma0 d!l
'!$"&. 4$ad'i$ n ma-r pa _ "&$ /n&m+$! ,
f&$ma0 !s tat&l(gi'&.
7a$a la distin'i(n !nt$! ha+la , s&nid& 'f.
Chang 45 ; /El ha+la n& !s m!$& s&"l&. Est# _
dif!$!n'iad& "&$ !l signi2'ad&0 @Jil!s, huang
T7_, >QQR, ". >DA.
C3
Ldem., IK.>.L, !l '&$a5(n @hrdayaA s! di'! .!
!s !l s&"&$t! d! t&das las '&sas, !l U$ahman m#s
alt&- 'f. n&ta 3. El '&$a5(n !s as) n sin(nim& "a$a
!l '!nt$& , la !nt!$!idad d!l s!$; Est& ha d!
t!n!$s! !n '!nta !n $!la'i(n tam+i*n '&n !l
t*$min& sahrdaya, /t!n!$ '&$a5(n0, !.ival!nt! a
rasika , pram tr .
CB
%tthaslin,, ". 3>L- W&&dXa$d, $radual
+ayings, I.>CR, n. 2- K!ith, Buddhist /hilosophy, ".
>DR.
CAPTULO II
LA VISIN DEL ARTE EN EL MAESTRO
ECKART
abril, 97
90
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
6octi rationem artis intelligunt"
indocti voluptatem.
Mintilian&, IS.B.

/6&s !s'&l#sti'&s n& '&m"si!$&n ning9n
t$atad& !s"!'ial '&n !l t)tl& FWil&s&f)a d!l A$t!H]
Sin !m+a$g& "!d! !n'&nt$a$s! !n ss !s'$it&s
na t!&$)a d!l a$t! d! g$an al'an'!0
>
. D! !st&s
!s'$it&s ningn& ha, m#s niv!$sal, m#s "$&fnd&,
& m#s n&ta+l! "&$ !l vig&$ d! la !%"&si'i(n , la
'la$idad d!l "!nsami!nt& .! l&s d! M!ist!$
E'3ha$t
2
, ',&s +ermones +i!n "&d$)an
d!n&mina$s! na P"anisad d! E$&"a. 6a
"$!!min!n'ia d! E'3ha$t n& !s d!l &$d!n d!l g!ni&-
l& .! !s n&ta+l! !n *l n& !s ning9n m&d&
!s"!'ial, nada individal & '$i&s&, sin& s(l& na
g$an !n!$g)a & v&lntad .! l! "!$mit! $!smi$ ,
'&n'!nt$a$ !n na 9ni'a d!m&st$a'i(n '&nsist!nt!
!l s!$ !s"i$ital d! E$&"a !n s t!nsi(n m#s alta.
Es !%t$!madam!nt! d!v&t& ha'ia s t!ma, , ss
fa'ltad!s m!ntal!s +i!n !nt$!nadas s&n las
at&$as d! s !stil&, "!$& "&$ l& d!m#s, !n ss
"$&"ias "ala+$as '&n $!f!$!n'ia al "int&$ d!
$!t$at&s, /n& !s al "int&$ mism& l& .! !l $!t$at&
n&s $!v!la0 @3LA- /6& .! "$&'lam& !st# !n m)]
'&m& !l d&n d! Di&s0 @>B3A.
6a anal&g)a $!al !nt$! l&s m&d&s d!
"!nsami!nt& d! E'3ha$t , l&s .! han sid&
'&mn!s d!sd! la$g& ti!m"& !n la India d!+!$)a d!
ha'!$ f#'il al v!dOntista & +dista Mah , na
!nt!nd!$l!, l& .! $!.!$i$)a n !sf!$5& m'h&
m#s g$and! "&$ "a$t! d! n '$istian& "$&t!stant! &
2l(s&f& m&d!$n&. En l&s l!'t&$!s !$&"!&s ha d!
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
da$s! "&$ s"!st& alg9n '&n&'imi!nt& d!l
"!nsami!nt& !s'&l#sti'& , la t!&l&g)a '$istiana. En
"a$t! !n '&nsid!$a'i(n d! l&s l!'t&$!s indi&s, , !n
"a$t! "&$.! !l s& d! l&s t*$min&s t*'ni'&s
&$i!ntal!s a la "a$ d! l&s !$&"!&s n& "!d!
!vita$s! "&$ m'h& m#s ti!m"& "&$ l&s !stdiant!s
d! !st*ti'a & m!taf)si'a, h! "!st& !n +asta$dilla
l&s !.ival!nt!s s#ns'$it&s d&nd!.i!$a .!
s!$v)an "a$a !%"li'a$ & d!2ni$ m!8&$ !l signi2'ad&.
En l& $!stant!, t&da "ala+$a & "asa8! in'lid& !n
ma$'as d! 'ita !s d! E'3ha$t. N& h! '$!)d&
n!'!sa$i& distingi$ ss "$&"ias "ala+$as d! las d!
va$i&s d&'t&$!s, ma!st$&s , 2l(s&f&s "agan&s a l&s
.! a v!'!s 'ita , $!f$!nda, "!st& .! *st! n& !s
n !stdi& d! las f!nt!s d! E'3ha$t. N! int!ntad&
&$d!na$ l(gi'am!nt! !l mat!$ial dis"&ni+l!, ,
d&nd! ha sid& n!'!sa$i& d!sa$$&lla$ la id!a,
ha'!$l& !st$i'tam!nt! !n a$m&n)a '&n las id!as
!s'&l#sti'as !n g!n!$al , '&n las f$as!s d! E'3ha$t
!n "a$ti'la$, sand& a m!nd& ss "$&"ias
"ala+$as a9n 'and& !st& n& !st* !s"!')2'am!nt!
indi'ad& "&$ las $!f!$!n'ias d! "#gina.
4&da la '&n'!"'i(n d! E'3ha$t s&+$! la vida
hmana !n s &"!$a'i(n , '&ns!''i(n !s
!st*ti'a; t&d& s "!nsami!nt& !st# $!'&$$id& "&$ la
id!a d! .! !l h&m+$! !s n a$tista !n la anal&g)a
d!l /a$t)2'! !%altad&0, , s id!a d!l /+i!n
s"$!m&0 , d! la /d!l!'ta'i(n inmta+l!0 !s la d!
n a$t! h!'h& "!$f!'t&
3
. El a$t! !s $!ligi(n, la
$!ligi(n a$t!, n& $!la'i&nad&s, sin& la misma
mismidad. Nadi! "!d! !stdia$ t!&l&g)a sin
"!$'i+i$ !st&- "&$ !8!m"l&, la 4$inidad !s na
/dis"&si'i(n0 d! Di&s
B
, n /l!nga8! a$ti'lad&0
@3DRA, /d!t!$minad& "&$ n&'i&n!s f&$mal!s0 @2DQA,
na /sim!t$)a '&n s"$!ma l'id!50 @3DDA. E'3ha$t
!st# !s'$i+i!nd&, n& n t$atad& s&+$! las a$t!s
'&m& tal!s, an.! !st# !vid!nt!m!nt! m,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
familia$i5ad& '&n !llas, sin& s!$m&n!s s&+$! !l a$t!
d! '&n&'!$ a Di&s. 6a ign&$an'ia !s /falta d!
'&n&'imi!nt&] +$tal0 @>3A.
_M* !s !l '&n&'imi!nt&` El '&n&'imi!nt& !s
t$i"l!; @>\A d! "a$ti'la$!s , g!n!$al!s, s!nsi+l!,
!m")$i'&, lit!$al, indi'ativ&, samvyavah rika-
pratyaksa, @2\A d! niv!$sal!s, $a'i&nal &
int!ligi+l!, al!g($i'&, '&nv!n'i&nal, paroksa, , @3\A
d! mismidad, sin imag!n & s!m!8an5a,
t$ans'!nd!ntal, anag(gi'&, aparoksa @
paramrthika-pratyaksa @>3, 32, QL1QQ, >DD, 22Q,
II.>Q3, !t'.- 'f. 'a")tl& KA. D! *st&s l&s d&s
"$im!$&s @avidyA s&n $!lativ&s, !l 9ltim& @vidyA
inm!diat& , a+s&lt&, "di!nd& !%"$!sa$s! s(l& !n
t*$min&s d! n!ga'i(n.
7a$a 'la$i2'a$ !st! signi2'ad&, E'3ha$t ha'!
alsi(n '&nstant! a la "$#'ti'a d! las a$t!s
!s"!')2'as, al a$t! !n !l a$tista, , al
"!$f!''i&nami!nt& d!l a$t! , d!l a$tista. 6a
'&m"$!nsi(n "!d! s!$ "!$'i+ida adi+l! &
visi+l!m!nt!, !n n& , &t$& 'as& '&m& n "$&'!s&
!st*ti'&. 7&$ !8!m"l&; /v!& l&s li$i&s !n !l 'am"&,
s al!g$)a, s '&l&$, t&das ss h&8as0 @>B3A, al igal
.! las "!$'i+! n animal i$$a'i&nal- !st& !s
sim"l!m!nt! !l $!'&n&'imi!nt& , !l sa+&$!& d! las
/'$iat$as '&m& '$iat$as0, /'&m& s&n !n s)
mismas0, .! han d! $!'&n&'!$s! , val&$a$s!
s!g9n ss s&s. 7!$& mi /h&m+$! int!$i&$ sa+&$!a
d! las '&sas n& '&m& '$iat$as sin& '&m& !l d&n d!
Di&s0 @>B3A, !s d!'i$, '&m& im#g!n!s int!ligi+l!s,
a.) '&n na '&nn&ta'i(n !s"!'ialm!nt!
!di2'ant!. /Y ad!m#s, "a$a mi h&m+$!
int!$i&$)sim& n& sa+!n a d&n d! Di&s sin& a
mismidad !t!$na. As) t&das las '$iat$as ha+lan d!
Di&s0 @>B3A, /h! v!nid& '&m& la f$agan'ia d! na
?&$0 @2QBA- *s! !s !l s&+$!t&n& d!l signi2'ad&, la
sg!sti(n, dhvani, !l sa+&$!& sin m!5'la, rasa. En
abril, 97
93
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
t&tal, *stas s&n las t$!s fn'i&n!s !st*ti'as d! la
d!n&ta'i(n, la '&nn&ta'i(n , la im"li'a'i(n,
'&$$!s"&ndi!nt!s al $!'&n&'imi!nt&, la
int!$"$!ta'i(n , la '&m"$!nsi(n inm!diata.
El alma ti!n! d&s "&d!$&sas fa'ltad!s, !l
int!l!'t& , la v&lntad, !%"$!sadas !n la visi(n , !l
am&$, .! "!d!n !8!$'ita$s! !n &"!$a'i(n
f$'t)f!$a, !%t!$i&$ ! int!$i&$m!nt! @>DDA. D&nd! las
'&sas !%ist!n '&m& im#g!n!s int!ligi+l!s, '&m&
m!di& d! '&m"$!nsi(n , d! '&mni'a'i(n,
int!l!'talm!nt!, !n la imagina'i(n, all) !st# la v)a
d!l h&m+$!. Es a.) d&nd! las '&sas s! '&n&'!n !n
mlti"li'idad inint!ligi+l! , d!+!n v!$i2'a$s! !n
nidad int!ligi+l!, a.) d&nd! s! '&m"$!nd! !l s&
d! las '&sas, , d&nd! d!+! ha'!$s! la $!nn'ia d!
t&d&s l&s s&s; /"a$a !n'&nt$a$ a la nat$al!5a
misma han d! d!st$i$s! t&das ss s!m!8an5as ,
'ant& m#s l!8&s ll!g!m&s !n !st& tant& m#s
'!$'a !sta$!m&s d! la '&sa $!al0 @2CRA- , tal
$!nn'ia , d!st$''i(n "!$t!n!'!n a la !s!n'ia d!l
a$t!, "!s !n !l a$t! t&das las '&sas s! v!n
igalm!nt! sin ning9n s!ntid& d! "&s!si(n, n& !n
s nat$al!5a sin& !n s s!$, d! m&d& t&talm!nt!
d!sint!$!sad&
C
.
En la &"!$a'i(n !%t!$na, !stas "&t!n'ias d!l
alma, int!l!'t& , v&lntad, '&$$!s"&nd!n a la
v&'a'i(n, '&m& !n !l a$tista @a$tif!%A, "$&f!s&$
@d&'t&$A, & '!l!+$ant! @sa'!$d&t!A, , a la '&nd'ta
'&m& distinta d! la ha+ilidad !s"!')2'a. El a$tista
n& !s n ti"& !s"!'ial d! h&m+$!, sin& .! t&d&
h&m+$! !s n ti"& !s"!'ial d! a$tista. 6as
v&'a'i&n!s @/&$d!na$ !st& & !s&0, >DA s&n &t$as
tantas dis'i"linas dif!$!nt!s- la '&nd'ta
@/'&nf&$ta$ a &t$&0, >DA !s &t$a dis'i"lina "$&"ia d!
t&d&s l&s h&m+$!s "&$ igal. 4&da a'tividad im"li'a
l& .! ah&$a llama$)am&s n "$&'!s& !st*ti'&, na
s'!si(n d! "$&+l!ma, s&l'i(n , !8!''i(n.
abril, 97
94
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
Mat!$ial!s a"a$t!, .i!n.i!$a .! a't9a, a't9a
d!l mism& m&d&, "!s la v&lntad sig! al
int!l!'t&, ,a haga na 'asa, & !stdi!
mat!m#ti'as, & $!ali'! na '!l!+$a'i(n, & haga
+!nas &+$as.
N!st$& sist!ma d! "!nsami!nt& m&d!$n& ha
sstitid& !sta divisi(n !s"i$ital d!l t$a+a8& "&$ n
sist!ma d! 'astas .! divid! a l&s h&m+$!s !n
!s"!'i!s. Mi!n!s m#s han "!$did& '&n !st&,
ha+land& "$&f!si&nalm!nt!, s&n l&s a$tistas, "&$
na "a$t!, , l&s lai'&s !n g!n!$al, "&$ &t$a. El
a$tista @signi2'and& '&n !ll& a .i!n a9n s! llama
as)A "i!$d! "&$ s aislami!nt& , '&$$!s"&ndi!nt!
&$gll& , "&$ la 'ast$a'i(n d! s a$t!, '&n'!+id& n&
,a '&m& int!l!'tal, sin& s(l& '&m& !m&'i&nal !n
m&tiva'i(n , signi2'ad&- !l t$a+a8ad&$ @a .i!n
ah&$a s! ni!ga !l n&m+$! d! a$tistaA "i!$d! !n .!
n& !s llamad&, sin& f&$5ad& a t$a+a8a$
inint!lig!nt!m!nt!, "!st& .! las m!$'an')as s!
val&$an "&$ !n'ima d! l&s h&m+$!s. 4&d&s han
"!$did& igalm!nt!, "!st& .! al s!$ !l a$t! ah&$a
n l8&, , n& ,a !l ti"& n&$mal d! t&da a'tividad,
t&d&s l&s h&m+$!s !st#n &+ligad&s a vivi$ !n la
inmndi'ia , !l d!s&$d!n , han ll!gad& a !sta$ tan
ha+itad&s a !st& .! s&n in'&ns'i!nt!s d! !ll&.
6&s 9ni'&s a$tistas .! s&+$!viv!n, !n !l s!ntid&
!s'&l#sti'& , g(ti'&, s&n l&s 'i!nt)2'&s, 'i$8an&s !
ing!ni!$&s, , l&s 9ni'&s tall!$!s, l&s la+&$at&$i&s.
7$!'isam!nt! "&$.! !l t$atami!nt& d! la
!st*ti'a "&$ E'3ha$t n& !s ad hoc, sin& .! da "&$
s"!st& !l "nt& d! vista d! na !s'!la, .! n&
!s !n ning9n s!ntid& "$ivad& s,& "$&"i&, ti!n! n
val&$ !s"!'ial- n& "&d!m&s t!n!$ ningna dda d!
.! $!alm!nt! !$a d! !sta man!$a '&m& l&s
h&m+$!s 'lt&s d! 7a$)s , d! C&l&nia, !n l&s sigl&s
d&'! , t$!'!, 'and& !l a$t! '$istian& !sta+a !n s
5!nit, '&n'!+)an !l a$t! , las a$t!s !s"!')2'as.
abril, 97
95
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
Est&s mism&s h&m+$!s !n s 'a"a'idad '&l!'tiva
'&m& la Igl!sia "$!s'$i+)an l&s t!mas d! a$t! , l&s
d!tall!s m#s !s!n'ial!s d! s i'&n&g$af)a- !l
t$a+a8ad&$, a v!'!s n m&n8! !8!$'itad& !n !l
&2'i&, m#s a m!nd& n h&m+$! d!l g$!mi&,
a<ad)a, d!l alma'*n d! la t$adi'i(n, &t$& !l!m!nt&
a la f&$ma, a"a$t! d! la "!$i'ia d!l &2'i& .! s!
!s"!$a+a .! "$a'ti'as! !n s v&'a'i(n. As), !l
int!l!'t& , la v&lntad t$a+a8a+an !n nanimidad.
_N& !s la d!t!$mina'i(n d! !st! a$t! :!s d!'i$,
s(l& !s& .! !s '&m9n !n *l a la m!nt! , al
"$&d't&, !s d!'i$, s imagin!$)a, n& s !stil&, ,
m!n&s a9n ning9n mani!$ism& individal: alg&
.! d!+! s!$ '&m"$!ndid& si .!$!m&s
'&m"$!nd!$ d! alg9n m&d& !l a$t! '$istian&` A
v!'!s m! "$!gnt& si $!alm!nt! .!$!m&s
'&m"$!nd!$l&. 7!s, "&$ na "a$t!, "&$ las
hist&$ias d!l a$t! vig!nt!s ah&$a s! "&d$)a s"&n!$
.! "!d! d!s'ida$s! la f&$ma misma .! m!v!
al a$t! d!sd! d!nt$&, , .! !n !l a$t! n& im"&$ta
nada !%'!"t& l&s h!'h&s d! la hist&$ia, l&s
a''id!nt!s d! la "$&'!d!n'ia ! in?!n'ia, , l&s
"$&+l!mas d! la at$i+'i(n :'&sas *stas !n las
.! !l t$a+a8ad&$ m!di!val n& !sta+a int!$!sad&
!n l& m#s m)nim&- , "&$ &t$a "a$t!, t!n!m&s a
.i!n!s insist!n !n .! !l g&'! d! la &+$a d! a$t!,
admitidam!nt! s val&$ 9ltim& @si !nt!nd!m&s
/g&'!0 '&$$!'tam!nt!, l& 'al !s !l "$&+l!ma
mism& d! la !st*ti'a, , n& "!d! da$s! "&$
s"!st&A n& $!.i!$! ningna &t$a dis'i"lina
"$!"a$at&$ia, "!st& .! !s n *%tasis inint!ligi+l!
@l& 'al "!d! admiti$s!A, , "!d! !ns!<a$s! @l&
'al !s inadmisi+l!A a .i!n!s as"i$an a la visi(n
t$ans'!nd!nt!, "!$& s&n d!masiad& "$&"!ns&s a
"!$sadi$s! d! .! !l !s"!8& d!l niv!$s& !s la
fa'ltad int$)ns!'a d!l &8& @tal "$&"!nsi(n !s /n
!nga<& .! !l alma ti!n!, 'and& s! "$!sta a
abril, 97
96
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
inti'i&n!s '&nf&$ta+l!s d! la divinidad0, BBLA. El
!stdi& d!l a$t!, d!sd! n "nt& d! vista hist($i'&,
"!d! s!$ in&f!nsiv& !n s) mism&, an.! n& !s
m!8&$ .! la satisfa''i(n d! na '$i&sidad- !l
g&'! d! las &+$as d! a$t! m!$am!nt! '&m& n
"la'!$ d!l &8& & d!l &)d& "!d! s!$ in&f!nsiv& !n s)
mism& @/.! n $id& d!sag$ada+l! s!a tan g$at&
al &)d& '&m& l&s dl'!s t&n&s d! na li$a !s alg&
.! nn'a al'an5a$*0, II.RLA, n& &+stant! n& s!$#
m#s .! na s!nsa'i(n !n'a$!'ida. Si !st& f!$a
t&d&, la !st*ti'a n& s!$)a m#s .! na dis'si(n
s&+$! !l gst&, , as) l& '$!!n 'i!$tam!nt! l&s
"si'(l&g&s !%"!$im!ntal!s.
Na+la$ d!l a$t! !%'lsivam!nt! !n t*$min&s d!
s!nsa'i(n !s ha'!$ vi&l!n'ia al h&m+$! int!$i&$, !l
s8!t& '&ns'i!nt!- !%t$a!$ d!l "!nsami!nt& d!
E'3ha$t na t!&$)a d!l gst& @ruciA s!$)a ha'!$
vi&l!n'ia a s nidad. Si m! at$!v& d! t&d&s
m&d&s a !%t$a!$ d! *l na t!&$)a d!l a$t!, !ll& n&
!s '&m& n !8!$'i'i& dial*'ti'&, sin& "&$.! s!
$!.i!$! "a$a la int!$"$!ta'i(n !s"!')2'a d!l a$t!
'$istian&, , "&$.! !l "nt& d! vista !s'&l#sti'& !s
m#s .! na g$an !s'!la d! "!nsami!nt&
"$&vin'ian&- $!"$!s!nta n m&d& d! "!nsami!nt&
niv!$sal, , !st! m&d& a$$&8a na l5 s&+$! las
t!&$)as an#l&gas .! han "$!val!'id& !n Asia, ,
.! d!+!$)an s!$vi$ a l&s !stdiant!s &''id!ntal!s
'&m& n m!di& d! a"$&%ima'i(n, , d!
'&m"$!nsi(n d!l a$t! asi#ti'&.
6a d&'t$ina d! l&s ti"&s, id!as, f&$mas &
im#g!n!s !s d! na im"&$tan'ia fndam!ntal "a$a
la '&m"$!nsi(n d! las $!f!$!n'ias d! E'3ha$t al
a$t!. M#s $a$am!nt!, tam+i*n s! !m"l!an las
"ala+$as a"a$i!n'ia, s!m!8an5a, s)m+&l&, !2gi!,
m&d!l&, , "$&t&ti"&. Ent$! t&das *stas, ti"& ,
"$&t&ti"&, m&d!l&, id!a ! id!al s! san s(l& '&n
$!f!$!n'ia a '&sas '&n&'idas , vistas
abril, 97
97
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
int!l!'talm!nt! @paroksaA, las &t$as !n !l mism&
s!ntid& & '&n $!f!$!n'ia a la imag!n in'&$"&$ada
mat!$ialm!nt! @pratyksaA. 7a$a !m"!5a$, _.* !s
na imag!n !n !st&s d&s s!ntid&s` Pna imag!n !s
/alg& '&n&'id& & na'id&0 @2CQA, & alg& a la v!5
'&n&'id& , na'id& & h!'h&. El Ni8&, "&$ !8!m"l&, !s
/la "$&"ia imag!n d!l 7ad$! .! m&$a !n s)
mism&] s f&$ma inman!nt!0, , al mism& ti!m"&
/la s!m!8an5a !%a'ta, la imag!n "!$f!'ta d! s
7ad$!0 @2CQA !n na 7!$s&na distinta. D! la misma
man!$a t&das las '$iat$as /!n ss f&$mas
"$!!%ist!nt!s !n Di&s han sid& vida divina
si!m"$!0, si!nd& s(l& s in'&$"&$a'i(n mat!$ial
/'and& la Nat$al!5a !st# t$a+a8and& !n !l
ti!m"& , !l !s"a'i&0 @L>A "&$ na'imi!nt& , '&m& si
f!$a la manfa't$a d! Di&s; /!stas f&$mas
"$!!%ist!nt!s s&n !l &$ig!n & "$in'i"i& d! la
'$!a'i(n d! t&das las '$iat$as, , !n !st! s!ntid&
s&n ti"&s ! in'm+!n al '&n&'imi!nt& "$#'ti'&0
@2C3A. Kiv!n !n la /m!nt! divina0, la /"$&visi(n0
.! !s /!l a$t! d! Di&s0 @BD>A; /El int!l!'t& !s !l
t!m"l& d! Di&s d&nd! *l +$illa !n t&da S Jl&$ia.
En ning9n lga$ m&$a Di&s m#s $!alm!nt! .! !n
!st! t!m"l& d! la nat$al!5a d! s int!l!'t&0
@2>2A. @ laya-vij na A, /la .ididad & m&d& !s la
v)a ad!nt$& d! !st! t!m"l&0 @=dem.A. Y '&m& la
"$&visi(n d! Di&s, as) /Na, na fa'ltad !n !l alma
llamada m!nt! @vij na , samkalpaA- !lla !s s
alma'*n d! f&$mas in'&$"&$al!s , n&'i&n!s
int!l!'tal!s0 @BI2A- las id!as !n !st! alma'*n d!l
alma "!d!n "a$!'!$ n!vas & $!'&$dadas @>ICA,
"!$& !n am+&s 'as&s s&n '&m& si f!$an
$!'&$dadas @22D, 2RCA, "!s /t&das las "ala+$as d!
s !s!n'ia divina ?,!n !n la "ala+$a !n n!st$a
m!nt! !n distin'i(n d! 7!$s&na al igal .! la
m!m&$ia vi!$t! n t!s&$& d! im#g!n!s !n las
fa'ltad!s d!l alma0 @BI2A. Ot$a distin'i(n
abril, 97
98
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
s"!$2'ial d! las id!as !n 'ant& al ti"& "!d!
ha'!$s! !nt$! las id!as d! las !s"!'i!s nat$al!s,
'&m& 'and& n& t$a+a8a '&n la /f&$ma d! la $&sa0
@2C>A & la imag!n d! C&n$ad @>2QA, , las id!as
a$ti2'ial!s, .! s$g!n /t!($i'am!nt!, '&m& la
'asa d! mad!$a , "i!d$a s! dis!<a !n la m!nt!
"$#'ti'a d!l a$.it!'t&, .! ha'! la 'asa tan
s!m!8ant! a s id!al '&m& "!d!0 @2C2A, "!s
'ada ti"& !s, /!n la fa'ltad "$#'ti'a0, '&m& la
/id!a d! la &+$a0 @2C2A .! ha d! ha'!$s!, si !s
na &+$a .! ha d! ha'!$s!, al ti!m"& .! ha+itan
!n la m!nt! '&m& &+8!t&s d! '&m"$!nsi(n ,
m!di&s d! '&mni'a'i(n $a'i&nal a priori.
Cal.i!$a d! !st&s ti"&s d! id!as !s igalm!nt!
na inv!n'i(n @anuvittaA, n d!s'+$imi!nt& !nt$!
la /sma d! t&das las f&$mas '&n'!+idas "&$ !l
h&m+$! , .! s+sist!n !n Di&s mism&, n&
t!ni!nd& ,& nada "$&"i& !n !llas ni ningna id!a
d! "$&"i!dad0 @3C, 'f. >LA- "nt& d! vista .!
t&d&s $!f$!ndam&s 'and& d!'im&s .! n&s ha
v!nid& na id!a, & .! la h!m&s d!s'+i!$t&,
eureka, nn'a .! la h!m&s h!'h&. En !l m!8&$ d!
l&s 'as&s, n&s h!m&s "$!"a$ad& "a$a !lla va'iand&
n!st$a '&ns'i!n'ia d! t&das las d!m#s im#g!n!s
'$iat$al!s , !m&'i&n!s fgitivas, a'!"tand& "&$ !l
m&m!nt& s(l& !l s!ll& & la im"$&nta d! !sta 9ni'a
'&sa. As) la imag!n !st# !n !l a$tista, n& *l !n !lla-
!lla !s imag!n d! .i!n !lla !s imag!n, n& d!
.i!n la al+!$ga @C2A. Cand& !n'&nt$am&s /d! la
misma man!$a .! !l a$tista, ins"i$ad& "&$ s a$t!,
talla$# !n mad!$a & "inta$# !n li!n5& & !n !l m$&0
@II.2>>A, /a$t!0 signi2'a la id!a d!l t!ma, '&m& !lla
s! "$!s!nta a *l. 6a imag!n !n !l &+8!t&, !n la
m!nt! d!l a$tista, , !n la imag!n tallada s&n l&
mism&, an.! !n !l a$tista , !n s &+$a s(l&
s!g9n ss 'a"a'idad!s, n& !n s !nt!$a
"!$f!''i(n. En la imag!n tallada d! na '&sa, la
abril, 97
99
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
imag!n n& "!d! '&nsid!$a$s! '&m& int$&d'ida
"&$ !l a$tista sin& '&m& lat!nt! !n !l m!di&,
d!+id& al a"!tit& d! f&$ma .! ti!n! la mat!$ia-
"&$ !8!m"l&, /'and& !l a$tista ha'! na !stata
d! mad!$a & d! "i!d$a n& "&n! la imag!n !n la
mad!$a, sin& .! d!s+asta la mad!$a .! &'lta la
f&$ma. N& da nada a la mad!$a, l& .ita; talla
d&nd! !s d!masiad& g$!sa, $!d'! la '&+!$t$a, ,
!nt&n'!s a"a$!'! l& .! !sta+a &'lt&0 @II.Q2A :
na anal&g)a d! '(m& la imag!n d! Di&s !st#
si!m"$! "$!s!nt! !n !l t!$$!n& d!l alma, "!$&
&'ltada "&$ v!l&s ! im"!dim!nt&s @II.Q>A.
6as id!as & l&s ti"&s d! Di&s , !l h&m+$! n& s&n
"!s id!as "lat(ni'as !%t!$i&$!s al int!l!'t& @!n la
Es!n'ia n& ha, s!m!8an5a & imag!n, sin& s(l&
Mismidad, samatA, ni inmta+l!s & g!n!$al!s,
sin& ti"&s d! a'tividad, f!$5as, "$in'i"i&s d!
t$a+a8& & d! d!v!ni$, viv&s , "a$ti'la$!s :
/llama$ a n #$+&l n #$+&l n& !s n&m+$a$l&, "!s
t&das las !s"!'i!s !st#n '&nfndidas0 @>>LA, , d&s
'$iat$as n& s&n igal!s !n s nat$al!5a, "!s
/'ada '$iat$a ha'! na n!ga'i(n innata- na
ni!ga .! !s la &t$a0 @2BRA. 6as id!as s&n tantas
!n n9m!$& '&m& '&sas ha ha+id& & "!d! ha+!$
!n !l ti!m"&, /ha, tant&s ti"&s '&m& g$ad&s d!
nat$al!5a "&$ ti"i2'a$0 @2C2, 2C3A- n& "!d!n s!$
m#s !n n9m!$& .! *st&s, "&$.! la &+$a d! Di&s
n& !s "&$ !l!''i(n- n& ha, nada .! d!8! sin ha'!$;
l& .! "i!nsa !s- l& .! !s, !s l& .! "i!nsa- s
'$!a'i(n !s sin m!di&s ni s'!si(n. /4&da
nat$al!5a !mana d! s f&$ma a"$&"iada0 @BLLA,
"!$& n!st$a '&n'!"'i(n d!l "$&'!s& , d! la
s'!si(n /s! d!+! m!$am!nt! a n!st$&s s!ntid&s
g$&s!$&s0 @3DCA- d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista d! Di&s
las id!as s&n '&n&'idas t&das a la v!5 !n
"!$f!''i(n , !n na 9ni'a f&$ma- d!sd! n!st$&
"nt& d! vista t!m"&$al las id!as s&n li+$!s ,
abril, 97
100
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d!vi!n!n, & '&m& ah&$a d!'im&s, !v&l'i&nan
va$ia+l!m!nt!. D!sd! &t$& "nt& d! vista, las id!as
& f&$mas @n ma A s&n /vivi!nt!s0, n& m!$am!nt!
/!%ist!nt!s0 '&m& "at$&n!s 28ad&s , d!"&sitad&s
!n salvaga$da : s&n id!as n& m!$am!nt! d!
2g$as !st#ti'as, sin& id!as d! a't&s @>DA.
Pn i'&n& d! "i!d$a & "intad& !n la "a$!d, sin
fndam!nt& algn& "a$a *l, @!s d!'i$, mat!$ial!s
a"a$t!, ,A t&mad& sim"l!m!nt! '&m& f&$ma, !s la
misma f&$ma .! la d! a.*l d! .i!n *l !s la
f&$ma0 @DBA. As) "!s n&$malm!nt! n& ha+$# nada
d!l a$tista !n la &+$a !%'!"t& s "!$i'ia; /!l "int&$
.! ha "intad& n +!n $!t$at& m!st$a s a$t! !n
*l- n& !s a s) mism& a .i!n n&s $!v!la0 @3LA. 7!$&
si !l "int&$ "inta s "$&"i& $!t$at&, '&m& Di&s ha'!,
!nt&n'!s tant& s "!$i'ia '&m& s imag!n !sta$#n
!n *l, *l mism& '&m& s! '&n&'! a s) mism&, "!$&
n& s v!$dad!$& s!$; /*st! $!?!8a !l '$*dit& d!l
"int&$ .! in'&$"&$a !n *l s m#s .!$ida
'&n'!"'i(n d! s a$t! , l! ha'! la imag!n d! s)
mism&. 6a s!m!8an5a d!l $!t$at& ala+a al at&$ sin
"ala+$as0 @RLA. /Si ,& "int& mi s!m!8an5a !n la
"a$!d, !l .! v! la s!m!8an5a n& !st# vi*nd&m!-
"!$& 'al.i!$a .! m! v!, v! mi s!m!8an5a , n&
s(l& mi s!m!8an5a sin& mi hi8&. Si ,& '&n&'i!$a mi
alma $!alm!nt!, .i!n.i!$a .! vi!s! mi
'&n'!"'i(n d! !lla di$)a .! !$a mi hi8&, "!s ,&
'&m"a$t& '&n !lla mi !n!$g)a , mi nat$al!5a, ,
'&m& a.) as) !s !n la Divinidad. El 7ad$! s!
'&m"$!nd! a S) mism& '&n "!$f!'ta 'la$idad, , as)
a"a$!'! a *l s imag!n, !s d!'i$ s Ni8&0 @BIQA @!l
$!t$at& , !l h&m+$! '&$"&$al s&n am+&s la
'&n'!"'i(n d! s) mism& d!l h&m+$!, s&n
/s!m!8ant!s0 !n la f&$ma, "&$ m#s dif!$!nt!s .!
la 'a$n! , la "int$a d!+an s!$ !n as"!'t&A.
En $!la'i(n '&n !st& "!d! '&nsid!$a$s! n
"asa8! dif)'il .! a"a$!'! !n la !%*g!sis d!l
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
J*n!sis I.2D, /Nagam&s al h&m+$! a n!st$a
imag!n , s!m!8an5a0. E'3ha$t di'!, /6a &+$a vi!n!
d!l h&m+$! !%t!$i&$ , d!l h&m+$! int!$i&$, "!$& !l
h&m+$! int!$i&$)sim& n& t&ma "a$t! !n !lla. Al
ha'!$ na '&sa !l v!$dad!$& s) mism& int!$i&$)sim&
d! n h&m+$! s! m!st$a !n la !%t!$i&$idad0
@>RCA, !n l& 'al "a$!'! ha+!$ algna
'&nt$adi''i(n. 6& "$im!$& !s 'la$&; la &+$a '&m&
na s+stan'ia !n na f&$ma dada vi!n! d! las
man&s d!l h&m+$! .! m&ld!an la mat!$ia, ,
'&m& f&$ma d! la id!a !s"!')2'a !n *l, '&m& !lla
!s !n s int!l!'t&, .! n& t$a+a8a !n m&ld!a$ la
mat!$ia, sin& .! s&lam!nt! !lig! l& m!8&$ .!
"!d! s!g9n s idi&sin'$asia. 7!st& .! la &+$a
manal !f!'tiva s! ha'! '&n !l '!$"& mism& d!l
h&m+$!, !s nat$al .! .!d! !n !lla n $ast$& d!
s 2s&n&m)a, d! la misma man!$a .! !l ha'ha
.! /ll!va a 'a+& !l 2n d!s!ad& "&$ !l t$a+a8ad&$0
@II.>LQA d!8a s ma$'a !n la mad!$a , *l "&d$)a s!$
id!nti2'ad& "&$ !lla. As) "!s !n !l t&.! , !l
!stil& la &+$a $!v!la d! alg9n m&d& al h&m+$!, !s
d!'i$ !n 'ant& a l&s a''id!nt!s d! s s!$. M! !l
v!$dad!$& s) mism& int!$i&$)sim& d! n h&m+$!
tam+i*n /s! m!st$a !n la !%t!$i&$idad0 s!g9n la
"$&"ia anal&g)a d! E'3ha$t, '&m& /Cand& Di&s
hi5& al h&m+$!, !l v!$dad!$& '&$a5(n int!$i&$)sim&
d! la Divinidad, !stv& "!st& !n s h!'h$a0
@>RC, B3DA, , sin !m+a$g& /las &+$as d! Di&s
!n'i!$$an na m!$a nada d! Di&s, "&$ l& .! n&
"!d!n d!s'+$i$l!0 @QL, 'f. Bhagavad $ t , , IS.B
, CA. O tam+i*n, /6a f&$ma !s na $!v!la'i(n d! la
!s!n'ia0 @3QA, !n la .! n& ha, ni imag!n ni
s!m!8an5a- la !s!n'ia !st# !n t&das las '&sas, ,
an.! n& /ha'!0, sin !m+a$g&, /m!v! t&das las
'&sas m&vi+l!s '&m& a '$iat$as0 @2QBA. C&m& la
Divinidad !s a Di&s, as) !s !l h&m+$! int!$i&$)sim&
al t$a+a8ad&$, "!s la Divinidad , !l h&m+$!
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
int!$i&$)sim& !st#n "$!s!nt!s !n la &+$a, s&n n&
!n !l s!$ '&n !lla, "!$& n& &"!$ativam!nt! &
int!ligi+l!m!nt!. En la "$&"ia &+$a d! E'3ha$t
v!m&s al h&m+$! "&s!)d& d! ss id!as, ,
t$a+a8and& '&n ss m!di&s, la /int$ata+l!0 @>>RA ,
$da l!nga al!mana d! s ti!m"&- "!$& !n las
id!as, 2nalm!nt! tan vig&$&sam!nt! !%"$!sadas,
ha, na /"$a nada d!l h&m+$!0, '&m& *l !s !n
Di&s. 7a$a .! !l h&m+$! !stvi!$a !n s &+$a
manal '&m& Di&s !st# !n s '$!a'i(n t!nd$)a .!
s!$ '&m& vida inman!nt!, la '&sa h!'ha t!nd$)a
.! !sta$ viva , "&s!!$ li+$! al+!d$)&. Si a v!'!s
d!'im&s .! na &+$a viv! !st& !s s(l& m!taf($i'&,
na s!$t! d! animism& .! "$&,!'ta n!st$as
"$&"ias $!a''i&n!s vivas !n la '&sa '&m& !s !n s)
misma.
M! n& ha,a vida !n la &+$a manal d!l
h&m+$! !s la $a5(n d! la "$&hi+i'i(n d!l a$t!
$!"$!s!ntativ& "&$ l&s d&'t&$!s mhamm!dian&s,
"!s la imita'i(n d! las f&$mas vivas s! '&nsid!$a
'&m& na +lasf!mia, !n tant& .! !l a$tista t$a! a
la !%ist!n'ia na "s!d&1'$!a'i(n, '&m& si f!$a
na +$la d! Di&s, !l 9ni'& .! da la vida. Sin
!m+a$g&, '&m& h!m&s vist& , d!m&st$a$!m&s m#s
ad!lant!, !l a$t! '$istian& n& !s n $!m!d& d! las
!s"!'i!s nat$al!s, ni m!$am!nt! na f!nt! d!
s!nsa'i&n!s "la'!nt!$as, sin& .! !s na man!$a
d! ha+la$ d! Di&s , d! la Nat$al!5a; n& t$ansg$!d!
m#s la dignidad d! Di&s .! 'and& ha+lam&s d!
Gl & d! v!$16! & d! sa+&$!a$16!, sand& n&m+$!s
&t$as im#g!n!s
D
, mi!nt$as s&m&s +i!n '&ns'i!nt!s
d! .! /nada v!$dad!$& "!d! d!'i$s! d! Di&s0
@QA, .! /Di&s !s sin1n&m+$!0 @2BDA, .! /n& ha,
'&n&'imi!nt& d! Gl "&$ s!m!8an5a0 @CCA, @.! !s
nir bh sa , am rta _ A, .! /n $!t$at& d!l m#s alt&
s!$af)n "intad& !n n!g$& s!$)a na s!m!8an5a
m'h& m!8&$ .! Di&s "intad& '&m& !l m#s alt&
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
s!$af)n- l& 'al s!$)a na d!s!m!8an5a
"$!!min!nt!0 @BDA, al ti!m"& .! '$!!m&s, sin
!m+a$g&, .! n& ha, nada /m#s 9til , salda+l!
"a$a !l alma .! las in'$si&n!s !n la 'i!n'ia d! la
sag$ada 4$inidad , nidad0 @3R2A, in'$si&n!s !n
las .! !stam&s nat$alm!nt! &+ligad&s a ha'!$
s& d!l n&m+$! , d! la f&$ma, !st#nd&n&s
/"!$mitid& sa$ l&s n&m+$!s "&$ l&s .! ss sant&s
6! han llamad&0 @LI, 'f. St. 4&m#s, +um, Theol. I
..C> a.3, /n& !s m&d& algn& '&nt$a$i& a la v!$dad
.! las '&sas int!ligi+l!s s! "$!s!nt!n !n la
Es'$it$a +a8& 2g$as s!nsi+l!s, "!st& .! !ll& n&
s! di'! '&n !l "$&"(sit& d! mant!n!$ .! las '&sas
int!ligi+l!s s&n s!nsi+l!s, sin& "a$a .! las
"$&"i!dad!s d! las '&sas int!ligi+l!s "!dan
'&m"$!nd!$s! s!g9n la similitd a t$av*s d!
2g$as s!nsi+l!s0A. 6a d!m&st$a'i(n d!l
i'&n&'lasm& !s '&m& sig!; /!ll&s 'alla$&n "&$
t!m&$ a m!nti$0 @23LA- /Cal.i!$a .! s!
'&nt!nt! '&n l& .! "!d! !%"$!sa$s! !n "ala+$as
:Di&s !s na "ala+$a, !l Ci!l& !s na "ala+$a: !s
8stam!nt! titlad& n in'$*dl&0 @33RA. 7!$& !st&
!s n ti"& d! as'!tism& & d! $!nn'ia '&nv!ni!nt!
s(l& "a$a .i!n!s ti!n!n na visi(n d! Di&s sin
m!di&s a%ilia$!s , han ganad& !l d!$!'h& a d!'i$
.! t&da !s'$it$a !s vana- !n t&d&s l&s d!m#s
'as&s, na n!ga'i(n d! las fa'ltad!s d!l alma,
!%"$!sadas !n las &+$as !%t!$i&$!s, '&m& m!di& d!
!di2'a'i(n , d! ilmina'i(n, n& !s !n m&d& algn&
!%'sa+l!.
A "!sa$ .! la &+$a d!l h&m+$! !s sin vida, !l
ha'!d&$ hman& !s n& &+stant! na anal&g)a d!l
/t$a+a8ad&$ !%altad&0 @3LDA, !l a$.it!'t& divin&,
&mni1ha'!d&$ @(i vakarma A. /S"&n!d n
ma!st$& d! las a$t!s. Si "$&d'! na &+$a d! a$t!,
"&$ !ll& n& "$!s!$va m!n&s ss a$t!s d!nt$& d! s)
mism&; las a$t!s s&n !l a$tista !n !l a$tista0 @!s
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d!'i$, !n !l h&m+$! llamad& as)A, d! la misma
man!$a .! /6as '&sas ?,!$&n 2nitas !n !l
ti!m"& al ti!m"& .! m&$an !n la !t!$nidad0
d&nd! s&n /Di&s !n Di&s0 @2QCA. /6a id!a d! la
&+$a !%ist! !n la m!nt! "$#'ti'a d!l t$a+a8ad&$
'&m& n &+8!t& d! s '&m"$!nsi(n, .! '&nsid!$a
'&m& !%"$!sand& s id!a '&n la 'al f&$ma la &+$a
mat!$ial0 @2C2A, !s d!'i$, n& !n s m!nt! '&m& n
modo d! '&m"$!nsi(n, sin& '&m& na '&sa ,a
'&m"$!ndida, , di$!'tam!nt!, "!s /Y& hag& na
l!t$a d!l alfa+!t& '&m& la imag!n d! !sa l!t$a !n
mi m!nt!, n& '&m& mi m!nt! misma0 @23CA. Cada
m)nim& d!tall! d! la &+$a '&$$!s"&nd!$# a l&s
d!tall!s d! la f&$ma !n la m!nt! d!l a$tista;
/ning9n a$.it!'t& "!d! ll!va$ !n s 'a+!5a !l
"lan d! t&da na 'asa sin l&s "lan&s d! t&d&s ss
d!tall!s0 @2C2A.
Ad!m#s /la f&$ma, la id!a & la s!m!8an5a d!
na '&sa, na $&sa, "&$ !8!m"l&, !st# "$!s!nt! !n
mi alma, , d!+! !sta$l& "&$ d&s $a5&n!s. Pna,
"&$.! a "a$ti$ d! la a"a$i'i(n d! s f&$ma m!ntal
@j na-sattva-r pa _ A ,& "!d& "inta$ la $&sa !n
mat!$ia '&$"&$al, d! m&d& .! d!+! ha+!$ na
imag!n d! la f&$ma d! la $&sa !n mi alma. 6a
s!gnda $a5(n !s "&$.! "&$ la id!a s+8!tiva d!
la $&sa ,& $!'&n&5'& la $&sa &+8!tiva an.! n& la
'&"i! @!s d!'i$, n& '&"i! la $&sa "int#nd&laA. D! la
misma man!$a .! "!d& ll!va$ !n mi m!nt! la
n&'i(n d! na 'asa .! n& t!ng& la int!n'i(n d!
'&nst$i$ nn'a0 @2C2A. /C&n !l "$&"(sit& d! ha'!$
n '!n'& n h&m+$! t&ma n "<ad& d! a$'illa-
!s! !s !l m!di& !n !l .! t$a+a8a. Ent&n'!s l! da
na f&$ma .! ti!n! !n *l, m#s n&+l! .! s
mat!$ial0 @DQA. Y !n 'ant& a !sta f&$ma '&m& !lla
!%ist! !n la m!nt! d!l a$tista, /Es &t$a la fa'ltad
d!l alma '&n la .! !lla "i!nsa @dh,, dhyaiA. Esta
fa'ltad !s 'a"a5 d! "inta$ !n s) misma las '&sas
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
.! n& !st#n ah), d! m&d& .! "!d& v!$ las '&sas
tan +i!n '&m& '&n mis &8&s, & a9n m!8&$. 7!d& v!$
na $&sa !n invi!$n& 'and& n& ha, $&sas @'f. >>DA-
"&$ l& tant&, '&n !sta fa'ltad, !l alma "$&d'!
@ karsati A '&sas d! l& n&1!%ist!nt! @hrdaya-
k a A '&m& Di&s .! '$!a las '&sas d! la nada
@kha @ A0 @2>2, 'f. BBCA. En t&d& 'as& -_
/"a$a !%"$!sa$s! "$&"iam!nt! na '&sa d!+!
"$&'!d!$ d!sd! d!nt$&, m&vida "&$ s f&$ma- n&
d!+! !nt$a$ d!sd! af!$a, sin& sali$ f!$a d!sd!
d!nt$&0 @>IQA.
En &t$as "ala+$as, d! la misma man!$a .! /!l
alma !s la f&$ma d!l '!$"&0, as) !l a$t! !n !l
a$tista !s la f&$ma d! la &+$a; /!l '&$t! d! la
mad!$a vi!n! d! la si!$$a- "!$& .! asma al 2n la
f&$ma d! na 'ama vi!n! d!l dis!<& d!l a$t!0 @!n
!l a$tistaA, /la f&$ma d! la 'ama n& !st# !n la
si!$$a ni !n !l ha'ha, sin& !n n 'i!$t& m&vimi!nt&
ha'ia !sa f&$ma0, St. 4&m#s, +um, Theol. I ..>>I
a.2 , ..>>Q a.>, 'itand& tam+i*n a Avi'!na, /t&das
las f&$mas .! !st#n !n la mat!$ia "$&'!d!n d!l
'&n'!"t& d!l int!l!'t&0.
El s$gimi!nt& d! la imag!n n& !s "&$ n a't&
d! v&lntad hman& & divin&, sin& d! at!n'i(n
@dh ran A 'and& la v&lntad !st# !n $!"&s&- n&
"!d! ha+!$ nada m!$it&$i& @>LA !n la "&s!si(n d!
im#g!n!s, "!st& .! na imag!n /$!'i+! s s!$
d! la '&sa d! .i!n !lla !s la imag!n, .! !s n
"$&d't& nat$al, ant!$i&$ a la v&lntad, , la
v&lntad sig! a la imag!n0 @C>, 'f. >LA. El "$&'!s&
!st*ti'& !s '&m& sig!; l& .! dig& /s$g! !n m),
!nt&n'!s m! d!t!ng& !n la id!a, , !n t!$'!$ lga$
l& !%"$!s&0 @222A, & tam+i*n, /7$im!$am!nt!,
'and& na "ala+$a !s '&n'!+ida !n mi m!nt!, !s
na '&sa stil, intangi+l!- !s na v!$dad!$a
"ala+$a 'and& t&ma 2g$a !n mi "!nsami!nt&.
D!s"*s, 'and& !s "$&nn'iada !n v&5 alta "&$
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
mi +&'a, !s s(l& na !%"$!si(n !%t!$i&$ d! la
"ala+$a int!$i&$0 @QIA, /la m!nt! v! , f&$mla , la
v&lntad .i!$! , la m!m&$ia l& a"$!h!nd!0 @>DA.
En 'ant& a !sta int!n'i(n '&nstant!, & d!t!n'i(n
!n la id!a, /mi anh!l& d! h&, !s mi "$&"(sit& d!
ma<ana, la id!a d! l& 'al s! manti!n! viva
@sthitaA "&$ mi "!nsami!nt& @vibh vayati A a'tal
d! !ll&, d! la misma man!$a .!, di8!$&n, !st#n
h!'has las &+$as d! Di&s 0 @23QA. En 'ant& a la
&+$a, /4$a+a8a$ , d!v!ni$ s&n l& mism&. Cand& !l
'a$"int!$& d!8a d! t$a+a8a$, la 'asa d!8a d! d!v!ni$.
D!t*n !l ha'ha , !l '$!'imi!nt& s! "a$a0 @>D3A- /El
h&m+$! $!.i!$! m'h&s inst$m!nt&s "a$a ss
&+$as !%t!$nas- s! n!'!sita m'ha "$!"a$a'i(n
ant!s d! .! "!da "$!s!nta$las '&m& las ha
imaginad&0 @CA- !l int!l!'t& .! +s'a /!m"l!a
.i5#s n a<& & m#s inv!stigand& s&+$! alg9n
h!'h& nat$al, av!$igand& .* !s, s(l& "a$a
t$a+a8a$ &t$& tant& d!s"*s d!s"&8#nd&l! d! l& .!
n& !s0 @>LA, "!$& /l&s #ng!l!s] n!'!sitan m!n&s
m!di&s "a$a ss &+$as , ti!n!n m!n&s im#g!n!s0
@CA.
C&m& h!m&s vist& !l "$&'!s& !st*ti'& !s t$i"l!,
!l s$gimi!nt& d! la id!a !n g!$m!n, s t&ma d!
2g$a ant! !l &8& d! la m!nt!, , la !%"$!si(n
!%t!$i&$ !n la &+$a @QI, 22QA. El "$im!$ a't& !s
n!'!sa$iam!nt! !l !f!'t& d! la at!n'i(n di$igid& a
n &+8!t& dad&; al a$tista n& s! l! !n'a$ga "inta$,
sin& "inta$ alg& !n "a$ti'la$, digam&s na ?&$ &
n #ng!l @devaA &t$& &+8!t&. E'3ha$t t&ma !l 'as&
d! la h!st! d! l&s #ng!l!s, , an.! n& ha'!
$!f!$!n'ia a la t!$'!$a !ta"a d! la !8!''i(n
!f!'tiva, *st! s!$)a n "as& f#'il. /Pn ""il&
"$!gnt( na v!5 a s ma!st$& a'!$'a d!l &$d!n
ang*li'&. El ma!st$& l! $!s"&ndi( , di8&; K! ,
$!t)$at! ad!nt$& d! ti mism& hasta .!
'&m"$!ndas; !nt$!ga t&d& t s!$ a !ll&, !nt&n'!s
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
mi$a, n!g#nd&t! a v!$ nada sin& l& .! !n'!nt$!s
all). 4! "a$!'!$# al "$in'i"i& '&m& si f!$as l&s
#ng!l!s '&n !ll&s , 'and& t! d!s a s s!$
'&l!'tiv& t! "!nsa$#s a ti mism&
L
l&s #ng!l!s '&m&
n t&d& '&n t&da la '&m"a<)a d! l&s #ng!l!s0
@2>DA. Nasta a.), !l "$&'!s& !s id*nti'& al d!l
imagin!$& indi&, dhy na-yoga ; , si s! h+i!$a
$!.!$id& na "int$a !f!'tiva d! l&s #ng!l!s,
"&d$)a ha+!$s! ag$!gad& dhy tv kury t , !s
d!'i$, /Na+i!nd& vist& as) , ha+i*nd&t! dad& as) a
la f&$ma "$!s!ntada, !m"i!5a la &+$a0. Si la
"int$a s! h+i!s! $!.!$id& "a$a ll!na$ n
!s"a'i& dad&, & si s! h+i!s! d!t!$minad& .! l&s
#ng!l!s !stvi!$an !n algna $!la'i(n "a$ti'la$
'&n &t$as 2g$as !n la "int$a, t&d& !st&, si!nd&
na "a$t! d!l &+8!t& "$!s'$it&, ha+$)a t!nid& s
"$&t&ti"& !n la imag!n m!ntal "!$f!''i&nada. En
'ant& a la "int$a misma, si s! h+i!s! h!'h&, !s
m!$am!nt! na dis"&si'i(n d! "igm!nt&s, , mi &8&
n& "!d! a"$!nd!$ nada s&+$! l&s #ng!l!s "&$ ss
s!nsa'i&n!s d! l5 $!?!8ada; s&l& yo "!d& t!n!$
algna id!a d! !ll&s, , !s& n& !n la s!nsa'i(n ni
"&$ la s!nsa'i(n, sin& "&$ s imag!n, la misma .!
!sta+a !n la m!nt! d!l a$tista, , ah&$a $!'!dida
d!sd! la "int$a ad!nt$& d! mi m!nt!, "!s, /la
adi'i(n , la visi(n '&$"&$al s! g!sti&nan !n la
m!nt!0 @R3A , /Si mi alma '&n&'! a n #ng!l, l&
'&n&'! "&$ algn&s m!di&s , !n na imag!n, na
imag!n sin imag!n, n& !n na imag!n tal '&m& las
im#g!n!s s&n a.)0 @>>2A /Ant!s d! .! mi &8&
"!da v!$ la "int$a !n !l m$& *sta d!+! 2lt$a$s!
a t$av*s d!l ai$!, , !n na f&$ma a9n m#s t!n!,
s!$ ll!vada ad!nt$& d! mi fantas)a "a$a s!$
asimilada "&$ mi '&m"$!nsi(n0 @>>>A.
As) "!s !l m&d!l& d!l a$tista !s si!m"$! na
imag!n m!ntal. El &8& @m msa-caksu A n& !s nada
sin& n !s"!8&; "!d! d!'i$s! .! el ojo v! n
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
&+8!t&, tal '&m& na $&sa & na "i!d$a & na &+$a
d! a$t!, !n vi$td d! alg9n "a$!nt!s'& s+stan'ial
!nt$! !ll&s @>IB, >IC, >>D, >C2, 2>2, 2BIA- /!s n
'as& d! s!m!8ant! a s!m!8ant!0 @2CQA. 7!$& si ,&
dig& .! yo v!&, !s s(l& n como si, "!s /Si !l &8&
f!$a int!l!'t&, ,& n& v!$)a nada0 @>ICA. /Y& v!&0
s(l& indi$!'tam!nt! , "&$ m!di& d!l &8& '&m&
inst$m!nt&, !l 'al inst$m!nt& m! si$v! d!+id& a
na fa'ltad '&$$!s"&ndi!nt! d!l alma ligada a *l,
"!$& m, al!8ada d! la mat!$ia @>IBA- /s+st$a! la
m!nt!, , !l &8& !st# a+i!$t& a ning9n "$&"(sit&0
@22QA. Mi &8& v! llan&, "!$& ,& v!& !n $!li!v!- !st!
$!li!v! n& !s n!'!sa$iam!nt! n h!'h&, sin& na
id!a d! $!la'i(n, .! t!nd$)a valid!5 "a$a m) a9n
s"&ni!nd& na t&tal i$$!alidad d!l mnd& !%t!$n&.
El as"!'t& '&n&'id& int!$i&$m!nt! @antarjeya-
r pa _ A, $!lativam!nt! inmat!$ial, !s !l m!di& "&$ !l
.! ,& $!'&n&5'& l& .! !l &8& v!, !l 9ni'& m!di&
"&$ !l .! "!d& "$!t!nd!$ '&m"$!nd!$ l& .! !l
&8& $!2!$!, & '&n !l .! "!d& ha+la$ d! !ll& a
&t$&s. /Y& n& v!& la man& misma, la "i!d$a misma-
v!& la imag!n d! la "i!d$a, "!$& n& v!& !sta
imag!n !n na s!gnda imag!n & "&$ ning9n &t$&
m!di&- la v!& sin m!di& , sin imag!n. Esta imag!n
!s !lla misma !l m!di&; imag!n sin imag!n, '&m&
m&'i(n sin m&'i(n, an.! 'asand& la m&'i(n ,
!l tama<& .! n& ti!n! tama<& an.! !s !l
"$in'i"i& d!l tama<&0 @>>BA. /El alma '&n&'! s(l&
!n !2gi!0 @2B3A, n& alg& !n s) mism&, sin& d!
m&d& m#s "$(%im& a '&m& las '&sas s&n !n Di&s,
id!alm!nt!. Y& nn'a "!d& v!$ l& .! mi &8& v!
@s!nsi+l!m!nt!A ni &)$ l& .! mi &)d& &,! '&m&
vi+$a'i(n, ,& s(l& "!d& '&n&'!$ $a'i&nalm!nt!,
"&$ m!di& d! na imag!n. /N&s&t$&s "&d!m&s v!$
la l5 d!l s&l d&nd! 'a! s&+$! n #$+&l & 'al.i!$
&t$& &+8!t&, "!$& n& "&d!m&s a"$!h!nd!$ al s&l
mism&0 @L2A !%'!"t& '&m& na id!a. N& ha, nada
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!%(ti'& !n !st! "nt& d! vista- !s n a%i&ma d! la
'i!n'ia m&d!$na, .! '&n&'! la mat!$ia s(l& !n
f($mlas mat!m#ti'as, n& !n la s!nsa'i(n.
7&$ t&d& !st& s! '&m"$!nd!$# '(m& d!sd! !l
"nt& d! vista !s'&l#sti'& n a$t! nat$alista &
visal, h!'h& s(l& '&nf&$m! a l&s &8&s @!s d!'i$,
h!'h& "a$a "$&'$a$ s!nsa'i&n!s tan id*nti'as
'&m& !s "&si+l! a las !v&'adas "&$ !l m&d!l&
mism&A, , s(l& "a$a l&s &8&s, d!+! s!$ '&nsid!$ad&
n& m!$am!nt! '&m& i$$!ligi&s& & id(lat$a @la
id&lat$)a !s !l am&$ a las '$iat$as '&m& s&n !n s)
mismasA, sin& tam+i*n i$$a'i&nal ! ind!t!$minad&.
7!s la 9ni'a '&sa .! "!d! "a$!'!$s!
v!$dad!$am!nt! a la !s"!'i! nat$al !s s $!?!8&
!n !l !s"!8& d!l &8&, .! !s na s!nsa'i(n, n& na
'&m"$!nsi(n @"!st& .! !l &8&, al n& t!n!$
ningna '&m"$!nsi(n "$&"ia, "!$man!'!
in'&m"$!nsi+l! "a$a !l int!l!'t&, n 'as& d!
d!s!m!8ant! a d!s!m!8ant!A. 7&$ &t$a "a$t!, la
imag!n mat!$ial, la &+$a d! a$t!, !s
'&nm!ns$a+l! '&n la !s"!'i! nat$al s(l& !n
'ant& a la s+stan'ia @am+as s&n !s!n'ia, "!$& la
!s!n'ia n& "!d! s!$ m!didaA; fndam!ntalm!nt!
in'&nm!ns$a+l!s, !n dif!$!n'ia d! mat!$ial ,
vida. 6a nat$al!5a , !l a$t! s&n s!m!8ant!s
@s dr ya A s(l& !n la id!a, d! &t$& m&d& s&n
i$$!'&n'ilia+l!s.
6a $!'&gn&'i+ilidad, ,a s!a d! la !s"!'i!
nat$al & d! la imag!n mat!$ial, n& ti!n! nada .!
v!$ '&n na s!m!8an5a imaginada !nt$! !stas d&s,
sin& .! !s "&$ m!di& d! la f&$ma & imag!n
in'&$"($!a @n ma A .! !st# !n !l &+8!t&, !n !l
a$tista, !n la &+$a d! a$t!, , 2nalm!nt! !n !l
!s"!'tad&$, la 'al ha sid& t$a)da a la visi+ilidad,
!n la m!dida d! l& "&si+l!, !n la imag!n mat!$ial
@r pa _ A !n &t$a nat$al!5a, "!$& n& h!'ha d! !sa
nat$al!5a. En la m!dia !n .! alg& "di!$a
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
ha'!$s! '&m& na !s"!'i! nat$al, !s d!'i$, at&1
m&vid&, l& 'al !s in'&n'!+i+l!, & '&m& l&s
mhamm!dian&s di$)an, !st# "$&hi+id&, n& s!$)a
a$t! sin& Nat$al!5a, & !n !l m!8&$ 'as&
n!'$&man'ia- & !n la m!dida !n .! !l a$tista
"di!$a al'an5a$ la "!$f!''i(n, l& 'al !s
"&t!n'ialm!nt! '&n'!+i+l!, an.! "!da s!$
t!m"&$alm!nt! im"&si+l!, d!vini!nd& n& '&n
Di&s, "a$ti'i"a$)a !n la '$!a'i(n d! Di&s d!sd! n
ti!m"& s!m"it!$n&, las !s"!'i!s nat$al!s s!$)an
s imag!n !n !l ti!m"& '&m& s&n la d! Di&s, nada
"!$man!'!$)a sin& la "int$a d!l mnd& si!m"$!
"$!s!nt! '&m& Di&s la v!. N& ha+$)a &'asi(n "a$a
&+$as d! a$t!, al ha+!$s! $!ali5ad& !l 2n d!l a$t!.
Ent$! tant&, d&nd! n&s&t$&s mism&s n&s
!n'&nt$am&s, n a$t! h!'h& hasta d&nd! !s
"&si+l! s!g9n la fa'ltad int$)ns!'a d!l &8& @2C3A ,
m!$am!nt! "a$a !l &8& s(l& "!d! '&nsid!$a$s!
'&m& na s"!$"&si'i(n d! ilsi(n s&+$! ilsi(n,
na s+stit'i(n !%"$!sa d! la s!$"i!nt! "&$ la
'!$da, si!nd& la "$&"ia m!t#f&$a d! E'3ha$t d! la
d&+l! ilsi(n la d! na ?!'ha $!'ta vista !n !l aga
'&m& si !stvi!$a t&$'ida @II.LLA.
En .* s!ntid& !l a$t! !s n!'!sa$iam!nt!
'&nv!n'i&nal & $a'i&nal *l l& !%"$!sa as); /6& .!
!l &8& v! ha d! s!$l! '&mni'ad& @al almaA "&$ n
m!di&, !n im#g!n!s0 @III, 'f. Q2A. El "int&$ di!st$&
"!d! /ha'!$ a C&n$ad '&m& '&n vida0 @>2QA, "!$&
_.* !s ha'!$ a C&n$ad '&m& '&n vida` N& !s
ha'!$ alg& .! "&d$)a '&nfndi$s! '&n !l h&m+$!
mism&, sin& ha'!$ /la imag!n v!$dad!$a d! *l0
@=dem,A !s d!'i$, !n l& .! !st# !n la 'a"a'idad d!l
"int&$, s /imag!n !%"$!sa0 @2C3A '&m& !%ist!
$!?!8ada !n !l !s"!8& d! la !s!n'ia d! Di&s, /!l
!l!m!nt& !8!m"la$i& !n *l @C&n$adA .! !s n "a$
'&n Di&s0, /na '!sti(n d! s!m!8an5a d! f&$ma0
@>CLA. /6a v&lntad sa+&$!a d! las '&sas '&m& s&n
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!n s) mismas, mi!nt$as .! !l int!l!'t& las sa+&$!a
'&m& s&n !n *l. ]El &8& !n s) mism& !s na '&sa
m!8&$ .! !l &8& "intad& !n la "a$!d. Sin !m+a$g&,
mant!ng& .! !l int!l!'t& !s m#s alt& .! la
v&lntad0 @2>3A. Mi!$! d!'i$ !n tant& .! !l
int!l!'t& v! las '&sas !n 'i!$t& m&d& '&m& Di&s las
v!, sub specie aeternitatis @BLA, !n s f!nt!,
im"a$'ialm!nt!- "!s /6as '$iat$as vi!n!n t&das
a mi m!nt! , s&n $a'i&nal!s !n m). S(l& ,& "$!"a$&
a t&das las '$iat$as "a$a v&lv!$ a Di&s0- /s(l& ,&
sa'& a t&das las '$iat$as d! s s!ntid& , las a'&8&
!n mi m!nt! , las hag& na 9ni'a '&sa !n m)0
@>B3A- /!l int!l!'t& @manas, prajA al5a t&das las
'&sas hasta !l ad!nt$& d! Di&s0 @QDA. /6as
'$iat$as 8am#s d!s'ansan hasta .! han !nt$ad&
!n la nat$al!5a hmana- all) al'an5an s f&$ma
&$iginal, !s d!'i$, Di&s0 @3QIA, "!s la nat$al!5a
hmana n& ti!n! /nada .! v!$ '&n !l ti!m"&0
@2IDA. /6a '&sa m#s t$ivial "!$'i+ida !n Di&s, na
?&$ "&$ !8!m"l& '&m& !s "$!s!n'iada !n Di&s @!s
d!'i$, !n s @d! !llaA , S @d! GlA v!$dad!$& , 9ni'&
as"!'t&, svar pa _ A, s!$)a na '&sa m#s "!$f!'ta
.! !l niv!$s&0 @2IDA '&m& !s !n s) mism&. Es
'&m& a$tista, vi!nd& $a'i&nal & f&$malm!nt!, '&m&
!l h&m+$! v! las '&sas !n s "!$f!''i(n , 8v!ntd
!t!$nas, !n la m!dida !n .! s idi&sin'$asia l&
"!$mit!, /!n la m!dida !n .! !l $!'i"i!nt!
admita0 @2>2A.
El nat$alism& !n !l a$t! n& ti!n! nada .! v!$
'&n !l t!ma !n s) mism&. Pna imag!n d! Di&s
"!d! ha'!$s! $!"lsiva "&$ s sg!sti(n d!
$!alism&- na "int$a d! na ?&$ "!d! n&
"a$!'!$s! a nada s&+$! la ti!$$a. E'3ha$t n& a+&ga
"&$ ningna f($mla, tant& !n l& .! '&n'i!$n! al
a$t! hi!$#ti'& '&m& !n l& .! '&n'i!$n! al a$t!
"$&fan&, '&n $!s"!'t& al t!ma. /Mi!n +s'and& a
Di&s +a8& f&$mas !sta+l!'idas s! a"&d!$a d! la
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
f&$ma mi!nt$as "i!$d! al Di&s &'lt& !n !lla0 @BRA,
!s $!alm!nt! n id(lat$a. 6&s t!mas sag$ad&s n&
s&n im#g!n!s d! Di&s m#s v#lidas .! las f&$mas
d! las !s"!'i!s nat$al!s; /S! ha+la d! &'h& 'i!l&s
, d! n!v! '&$&s d! #ng!l!s] d!+*is sa+!$ .!
las !%"$!si&n!s d! !st! g*n!$&, .! '&n8$an
im#g!n!s !n la m!nt!, si$v!n m!$am!nt! '&m&
ali'i!nt!s ha'ia Di&s0 @32QA, , '&m& / di'! Agst)n,
Toda escritura es vana0 @DRA. Pna , &t$a v!5
E'3ha$t insist! !n .! t&d& '&nt!nid& @n& t&d&
int!nt&A !s Di&s, .! n& d!+! a"$!nd!$ a v!$l! !n
t&das "a$t!s , !n 'ada "a$t!; /"a$a .i!n Di&s !s
m#s .!$id& !n na '&sa .! !n &t$a, !s! h&m+$!
!s n +#$+a$&, a9n salva8!, n ni<&0 @B>RA,
/!n'&nt$a$ a Di&s d! n m&d& m#s +i!n .! &t$&]
n& !s l& m!8&$0, /d!+!m&s s!$ 'a"a'!s d!
sa+&$!a$l! !n t&d& disf$a5 , !n t&da '&sa0 @BQ2,
BQ3A, /'al.i!$ '&sa .! s!a0 @B>RA, /N! v!nid&
'&m& la f$agan'ia d! na ?&$0 @2QBA, /na "lga
'&m& !lla !s !n Di&s !s m#s n&+l! .! !l m#s alt&
d! l&s #ng!l!s !n s) mism&0 @2BIA. Esta !s la
im"a$'ialidad "!$f!'ta d!l a$t!- !l "nt& d! vista
ang*li'& @adhidaivataA, !n !l .! t&das las '&sas
s&n amadas "&$ igal, /!n s) mism& t&d& !s dign&
d! am&$, , nada !s &di&s&0, Dant!, onvivio,
IK.>.2C.
Nasta a.) !n 'ant& al m&d& d! '&m"$!nsi(n
d!l a$tista, int!l!'tal & $a'i&nal. 6a &+$a d! a$t!,
la /'$iat$a0 d!l h&m+$!, !s "&$ !l mism& m&tiv&,
a9n m#s .! "&$ s distin'i(n s+stan'ial d!l
&+8!t&, '&nv!n'i&nal- a 2n d! .! s!a int!$"$!tada
, '&m"$!ndida, n& '&m& n $!?!8& di$!'t& d!l
mnd& '&m& !l mnd& !s !n s) mism&, sin& '&m&
n s)m+&l& & g$"& d! s)m+&l&s .! ti!n!n n
signi2'ad& $a'i&nal v!$i2'ad& , n '&nt!nid& a9n
m#s "$&fnd&, n& fn'i&nand& s(l& '&m& m!di& d!
$!'&gni'i(n sin& '&m& m!di& "a$a la '&mni'a'i(n
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
, la visi(n. As) "!s, '&n $!f!$!n'ia a la
int!$"$!ta'i(n d! la !s'$it$a , d! l&s mit&s !n
g!n!$al, , l& mism& !s v#lid& "a$a 'al.i!$ &t$&
ti"& d! a$t!, /las '&sas mat!$ial!s !n !ll&s, di'!n,
d!+!n t$aslada$s! a n "lan& m#s alt&] 4&das las
hist&$ias t&madas d! !ll&s ti!n!n &t$& signi2'ad&,
n signi2'ad& !s&t*$i'&. N!st$a '&m"$!nsi(n d!
!llas !s tan t&talm!nt! dif!$!nt! d! la '&sa '&m&
!s !n s) misma , '&m& !s !n Di&s '&m& si *sta n&
!%isti!$a0 @2CLA, "!$& ha, m#s !n la &+$a d! a$t!
d! l& .! "!d! '&m"$!nd!$s!, /, n& ha, nadi!
tan sa+i& .! 'and& int!nt! s&nd!a$las n&
!n'!nt$! .! !st#n m#s all# d! s "$&fndidad ,
d!s'+$a m#s !n !llas0 @=dem,A El a$t! !s
simlt#n!am!nt! d!n&ta'i(n, '&nn&ta'i(n ,
sg!sti(n- a2$ma'i(n, im"li'a'i(n , '&nt!nid&-
lit!$al, al!g($i'& , anag(gi'&.
Si !l a$t! !s as) "&$ nat$al!5a $a'i&nal, _"&$
.* n& !s t&da &+$a d! a$t! inm!diatam!nt!
int!ligi+l!` 7$!'isam!nt! "&$.! !l a$tista s(l& v!
d! la imag!n !%"$!sada l& .! ss fa'ltad!s l!
"!$mit!n- las im#g!n!s d!l h&m+$! s&n na
s!l!''i(n !s"!')2'a d! na sma d! "&si+ilidad!s
inag&ta+l!. /6as "ala+$as derivan s "&d!$ d! la
7ala+$a &$iginal0 @RRA, ha'i*nd&s! tal!s
s!l!''i&n!s dif!$!nt!m!nt! !n dif!$!nt!s !dad!s,
"&$ $a5&n!s dif!$!nt!s, , a n g$ad& m!n&s
a'!ntad& "&$ individ&s dif!$!nt!s. C&m& a2$ma
'&nstant!m!nt! la 2l&s&f)a !s'&l#sti'a, la '&sa
'&n&'ida !st# !n !l '&n&'!d&$ s!g9n !l m&d& d!l
'&n&'!d&$; "&$ l& tant& /4&das las almas n& ti!n!n
la misma a"titd] la visi(n] n& !s sa+&$!ada l&
mism& "&$ t&d&s0 @3I>A. /El a$t! !.ival!, !n las
'&sas t!m"&$al!s, a singla$i5a$ l& m!8&$0 @BD>A
Q
,
!s d!'i$, l& m#s !s!n'ial d!sd! n "nt& d! vista
dad&, .! "!d! s!$ v!st$& & m)&, & .! "!d!
ha+!$ sid& !l d!l sigl& "$im!$& & !l d!l sigl& t$!'!,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
& !l d! 'al.i!$ &t$& m!di& am+i!nt! & h!$!n'ia
dad&s. Esta !s la $a5(n "&$ la .! !n !l a$t!,
an.! s! ha,a t$atad& !l mism& t!ma, & s! ha,a
/imitad&0 la misma !s"!'i! nat$al, !n'&nt$am&s
na ina'a+a+l! va$i!dad d! t$atami!nt&, .!
'&nstit,! l& .! llamam&s !stil&s. 6as dif!$!n'ias
d!l l!nga8! ha+lad& s&n !l !8!m"l& !vid!nt! d!
!st&- "!$& s! !nga<a m'h& a s) mism& .i!n
"i!nsa .! 'al.i!$a d! las a$t!s !s n l!nga8!
niv!$sal, & .! !l l!nga8! d! 'al.i!$ a$t! !s
"&$ nat$al!5a &n&mat&"&*ti'&. 6a va$i!dad d!
!stil&s, , l& .! a m!nd& s! ha llamad& "$&g$!s&
, d!'ad!n'ia !n !l a$t!, "!$& .! !s $!alm!nt! la
"$&'!si(n hist($i'a d! l&s !stil&s, n& ti!n! nada
.! v!$ '&n la ha+ilidad d!l h&m+$!, va$iant! ,
si!m"$! m, limitada, "a$a imita$ a la nat$al!5a.
6&s !stil&s s&n idi&mas d! '&n&'imi!nt& ,
'&mni'a'i(n. Uastan "a$a la '&mni'a'i(n !n la
m!dida .! , d$ant! tant& ti!m"& '&m& s!
'&m"$!nd!n "&$ '&nv!n'i(n @samketaA- !n
'al.i!$ &t$& lga$ & !n &t$& ti!m"& d!+!n
a"$!nd!$s! ant!s d! .! !l a$t! "!da s!$
d!s'if$ad&, l& .! $!.i!$! /a"li'a'i(n ,
"a'i!n'ia0, /8stam!nt! '&m& n& a"$!nd! a
!s'$i+i$0 @>I, RA, & '&m& /'ita$ $!.i!$! l&s s&s d!
la dis'$imina'i(n0 @II.R3A.
N!m&s adivinad& .! !l !stil& & !l idi&ma
$!"$!s!nta na m&dalidad "a$ti'la$ & "a$'ialidad
d! la visi(n- l&s lin!ami!nt&s @laksanasA d! !sta
m&dalidad !st#n d!t!$minad&s "&$ la $!la'i(n
!nt$! !l a$tista individalm!nt! , s t!ma @'f.
ukran tis ra , , IK.B.>CR1>DIA- , '&m& !sta
$!la'i(n !s 9ni'a , $!?!8a las fa'ltad!s ,
limita'i&n!s d!l individ&, !l m&d& d!l m&d!l& !n
s m!nt! "!d! llama$s! s,& "$&"i&. 6&s
a''id!nt!s d!l s!$, "&$ l&s .! s! $!'&n&'! na
individalidad, "!d!n llama$s! 'i!$tam!nt!
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"$&"i&s d! n h&m+$!, !l h&m+$! '&m& !s !n s)
mism&- /mis a"a$i!n'ias n& s&n mi nat$al!5a, s&n
a''id!nt!s d! la nat$al!5a0 @RBA, /l&s a''id!nt!s
s&n m9lti"l!s0 @2C3A. En !st! s!ntid& 'ada a$tista
d!8a !n t&da s &+$a alg& d! s) mism&, ,
/S"&ni!nd& .! Di&s h+i!s! llamad& a n #ng!l
"a$a a,da$l! !n la h!'h$a d!l alma, d!+!$)a
ha+!$ "!st& !n !l alma alg& d!l #ng!l, "!s
nn'a n a$tista "int(, tall( na imag!n & !s'$i+i(
las l!t$as d!l alfa+!t&, sin .! h+i!s! '&"iad& !l
m&d!l& !n su m!nt!0 @II.2I3A, , n& !l m&d!l& !n la
m!nt! niv!$sal, "!s !l int!l!'t& individal n&
ti!n! /d! ning9n m&d& la "!$f!''i(n ni la "l!nitd
"a$a !ll&0 @>LA. El !stil& n& !s '&nv!n'i(n '&m&
"$in'i"i&, an.! t&d&s l&s !stil&s , t&d& a$t! s!an
'&nv!n'i&nal!s, & '&m& di'! E'3ha$t /$a'i&nal!s0;
!l !stil& !s n '!$"& d! '&nv!n'i(n "a$ti'la$
distingid& d! &t$&s '!$"&s. Si !l !stil& !s
!nt&n'!s !l h&m+$!, '&m& s! ha di'h& '&n 'i!$ta
m!dida d! v!$dad, !st& n& signi2'a .! !l !stil& !s
!n s) mism& na vi$td, & na &'asi(n "a$a !l
&$gll&. El t&.! , !l !stil& s&n l&s a''id!nt!s d!l
a$t!. C&m& l& !%"$!sa Chang 45 , l&s l)mit!s d! _
las '&sas s&n ss "$&"i&s l)mit!s !n tant& .! s&n
'&sas. En la m!dida !n .! !l a$t! t$ans'i!nd! !l
!stil&, l& llamam&s niv!$sal; Ua'h s&+$!"asa a
U!!th&v!n. Di&s n& ti!n! !stil&, su /idi&sin'$asia
!s s!$0 @2IDA.
En !l int!l!'t&, .!, '&m& tan a m!nd& insist!
E'3ha$t, !s la smidad, la 'a+!5a & la fa'ltad m#s
alta d!l alma, '&n la 'al *sta t&'a la '&ns'i!n'ia
d! Di&s, !l h&m+$! , Di&s s&n s!m!8ant!s- "!$& !n
la int!n'i(n inh!$!nt! @kratuA , !n la h!'h$a
@karmaA s&n !%t$!madam!nt! d!s!m!8ant!s, "!s
a.) !nt$an l&s !l!m!nt&s d! la v&lntad , !l
ti!m"&. 6as id!as d!l h&m+$! viv!n !n s m!nt!
s(l& "&$ n ti!m"&, an.! s!a t&da s vida @23QA-
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"!$& las '$iat$as han !stad& vivas !n Di&s
si!m"$!, , si!m"$! !sta$#n vivas, an.! !n s)
mismas !st#n vivas s(l& "&$ na'imi!nt& !n n
ti!m"& dad& @3C2, 'f. /acavim a Br hmana ,
KI.R.>QA. Y !n !l 'as& d! las 'asas d!l d!v!ni$,
.! n& s!an la 'asa "$im!$a, tal!s 'asas
/"!d!n d!8a$ !n s!g$idad las '&sas .! 'asan
'and& *stas han ganad& s s!$ "$&"i&. Cand& la
'asa !st# h!'ha s '&nst$'t&$ "!d! "a$ti$, "&$ la
$a5(n d! .! n& !s !l '&nst$'t&$ s(l& .i!n ha'!
la 'asa; l&s mat!$ial!s d! *sta l&s sa'a d! la
Nat$al!5a. 7!$& Di&s "$&v!! a la '$iat$a '&n t&d&
l& .! !lla !s, d! tal f&$ma .! d!+! "!$man!'!$
'&n !lla & d!sa"a$!'!$# inm!diatam!nt! d! la
!%ist!n'ia0 @B2LA, /d! la misma man!$a .! na
"int$a s! "inta s&+$! !l li!n5&, , s! ma$'hita0
@23LA- simila$m!nt!, /&+s!$va Agst)n .! !l
a$.it!'t& .! '&nst$,! na 'asa d!s"li!ga !n
!lla s a$t!- an.! *sta "!da 'a!$ a$$inada, !l
a$t! d!nt$& d! s alma jd!l a$.it!'t&k n& !nv!8!'!
ni d!'a!0 @>2RA.
C&n $!s"!'t& a S /"!$man!'i!nd& '&n las
'$iat$as "a$a mant!n!$las !n !l s!$0 @B2L, 'f. 2D>A
E'3ha$t '&n'i+! a Di&s '&m& na mad$! @tant& las
'$!a'i&n!s d! Di&s '&m& las d!l h&m+$! s&n !n la
nat$al!5a d! l&s ni<&s !ng!nd$adas ,
'&n'!+idasA, , n& s! "asa$# "&$ alt& .! !n tant&
.! !l h&m+$! 'ida d! las '&sas .! han sid&
h!'has , las "$!s!$va d!l d!'aimi!nt&, !st#
t$a+a8and& t!m"&$alm!nt! !n la anal&g)a d!l
mant!nimi!nt& mat!$nal d! Di&s. 4&d& !l t$a+a8&
d!l h&m+$! !n '$!a'i(n, "$!s!$va'i(n ,
d!st$''i(n !s na anal&g)a t!m"&$al d! la
!%"$!si(n, mant!nimi!nt& , $!s&l'i(n
simlt#n!as d! Di&s, srsti, sthiti, laya. 7!$& /m#s
all# n& s! ha'! ning9n t$a+a8& !n a+s&lt&0 @23QA-
/si !l 'a$"int!$& f!$a "!$f!'t& !n s &+$a n&
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
n!'!sita$)a mat!$ial!s- tan "$&nt& '&m& "!nsa$a
na 'asa, h!la a.), ,a !sta$)a h!'ha0, '&m& !s !l
'as& /'&n las &+$as !n Di&s- *l las "i!nsa , h! a.)
.! !llas s&n0 @23QA- & tam+i*n, /n 'a$"int!$&
.! '&nst$,! na 'asa la !$igi$# "$im!$& !n s
m!nt! ,, d! !sta$ la 'asa l& s2'i!nt!m!nt! s8!ta
a s v&lntad, !nt&n'!s, mat!$ial!s a"a$t!, la
9ni'a dif!$!n'ia !nt$! !ll&s s!$)a la d! !ng!nd$ad&$
, $!"!ntinam!nt! !ng!nd$ad&] @'&m&A !s !n
Di&s] n s(l& Di&s, n& ha+i!nd& ningna
distin'i(n d! !mana'i(n @abhisrstiA , !manad&
@abhisargaA0 @L2A
R
.
Igalm!nt! !n !l h&m+$! , !n Di&s, !l /a$t!0
@inti'i(n1!%"$!si(nA !st# , "!$man!'!
!nt!$am!nt! !n !l a$tista- "!$& /n& "i!ns!s .!
'&n Di&s !s '&m& '&n n 'a$"int!$& hman&, .!
t$a+a8a & n& t$a+a8a s!g9n !lig!, .! "!d! ha'!$
& d!8a$ sin ha'!$ a s +!n "la'!$. N& !s as) '&n
Di&s- sin& .! !n'&nt$#nd&t! dis"!st&, !st#
&+ligad& a a'ta$, a v!$t!$s! !n ti- d! la misma
man!$a .! !l s&l d!+! n!'!sa$iam!nt! $!+&sa$
'and& !l ai$! !s 'la$&, , !s in'a"a5 d!
'&nt!n!$s!0 @23A. El /!sta$ dis"!st&0 s! !%"$!sa
d! &t$& m&d& '&m& la /insa'ia+ilidad d! f&$ma0 d!
la mat!$ia @>QA- as) Di&s /d!+! ha'!$,
f&$5&sam!nt!0 @>D2A, s!g9n s nat$al!5a, sin n
"&$ .*. En !l h&m+$! !st& d!vi!n! l& .! s! ha
llamad& la g$atidad d!l a$t!; /!l h&m+$! n& d!+!
t$a+a8a$ "&$ ning9n "&$ .*, n& "&$ Di&s ni "&$ s
gl&$ia ni "&$ nada !n a+s&lt& .! !st* f!$a d! *l,
sin& s(l& "&$ a.!ll& .! !s s s!$, s v!$dad!$a
vida d!nt$& d! *l0 @>D3, 'f. Brhad ranyaka
Upanisad, IK.C.DA- /n& t!ngas ning9n "$&"(sit&
lt!$i&$ !n t t$a+a8&0 @>BRA, /t$a+a8a '&m& si
nadi! !%isti!s!, nadi! vivi!s!, nadi! h+i!s!
v!nid& nn'a s&+$! la ti!$$a0 @3IQA- /4&da la
f!li'idad a .i!n!s han !s''had& !st! s!$m(n. Si
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
n& h+i!$a ha+id& nadi! a.) ,& d!+!$)a ha+!$l&
"$!di'ad& a la h'ha d! l&s "&+$!s0 @>B3A /Di&s ,
la v&lntad d! Di&s s&n na s&la '&sa, "!s si ,&
s&, n h&m+$! , si t!ng& la int!n'i(n d! ha'!$ na
&+$a $!al !nt!$am!nt! sin v&lntad & li+$! d! !lla]
d!+& ha'!$ mis &+$as d! tal m&d& .! n& !nt$!n
!n mi v&lntad] d!+& ha'!$las sim"l!m!nt!
s!g9n la v&lntad d! Di&s0 @3IQA, /S&+$! t&d& n&
"$!t!ndas nada. D*8at! i$, , d!8a .! Di&s a't9!
"&$ ti0 @3IQA. El a$tista ti!n! 'i!$t& /atis+&0 @BLA d!
la man!$a d! &+$a$ d! Di&s /v&lnta$iam!nt! "!$&
n& "&$ v&lntad, nat$alm!nt! "!$& n& "&$
nat$al!5a0 @22CA 'and& ha ad.i$id& la ma!st$)a
, !l h#+it& @habitus, listatva A d! s t$a+a8& , n&
va'ila sin& .! /"!d! i$ ad!lant! sin n
!s'$9"l&, n& "$!gnt#nd&s! _!st&, !n l& 'i!$t& &
!st&, &+$and& !.iv&'adam!nt!` Si !l "int&$
tvi!s! .! "lan!a$ 'ada "in'!lada ant!s d! da$ la
"$im!$a n& "inta$)a !n a+s&lt&0 @>B>A. A9n m#s,
/!l Ci!l& ha'! m#s .! !l 'a$"int!$& .! '&nst$,!
na 'asa0 @II.2IRA.
/Ins"i$ad& "&$ s a$t!0 @II.2>>A, /tan s!m!8ant!
a s id!al '&m& "!da0 @2C2A, , /t$a+a8a$ "&$
am&$ d! la &+$a0, s!na a l&s &)d&s m&d!$n&s
'&m& !l a$t! "&$ !l a$t!. 7!$& !l /a$t!0 , /s id!al0
n& ti!n!n a.) ss '&nn&ta'i&n!s s!ntim!ntal!s
m&d!$nas, , n& $!"$!s!ntan nada sin& la
'&m"$!nsi(n .! !l a$tista ti!n! d! s t!ma, la
&+$a .! ha d! s!$ h!'h& @krtrthaA- t$a+a8a$ "&$
/la int!n'i(n $!al d! la "$im!$a 'asa d! la &+$a0
@2C2A n& !s t$a+a8a$ "&$ t$a+a8a$, '&m& im"li'a la
d&'t$ina m&d!$na- /t$a+a8a$ "&$ am&$ d! la &+$a0
signi2'a !n li+!$tad, sin m&tiv& lt!$i&$,
f#'ilm!nt!, @'f. Bhagavad $ t , , passimA. 4$a+a8a$
s!g9n la /m#s .!$ida '&n'!"'i(n d! s a$t!0
@RLA, !s d!'i$, '&n t&da la "!$i'ia , 'idad& d! .!
s! s!a 'a"a5, !s m!$am!nt! h&n!st&, , /7&$
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
h&n!st& .i!$& d!'i$ ha'!$ l& m!8&$ .! n& "!da
!n !l m&m!nt&0 @II.RCA, t!ni!nd& /+!nas $a5&n!s
"a$a "!nsa$ .! ning9n &t$& "&d$)a ha'!$ !l
t$a+a8& tan +i!n0 @II.RIA, , !stand& "&$ la
/"!$f!''i(n !n las &+$as t!m"&$al!s0 @II.R2A, l&s
/'idad&s&s0 s&n /a.!ll&s .! n& d!8an .!
nada l!s &+sta'li'! !n s t$a+a8&0 @II.RIA.
6a "$im!$a 'asa d! la &+$a , !l +i!n d! la &+$a
.! ha d! s!$ h!'ha s&n n& , l& mism&, /!l 2n
9ltim& @prayojanaA d! la &+$a !s si!m"$! la
int!n'i(n @arthaA $!al d! la 'asa "$im!$a d! la
&+$a0 @2C2A, /'and& !l 'a$"int!$& '&nst$,! na
'asa s "$im!$a int!n'i(n !s n t!'h& @!s d!'i$, la
id!a d! '&+i8&A, , !sa !s @d! h!'h&A la t!$mina'i(n
d! la 'asa0 @>RDA. Ning9n h&m+$!, si!nd& n s!$
$a'i&nal, t$a+a8a sin ningna 2nalidad; /El
'&nst$'t&$ .! '&$ta mad!$a , "i!d$a "&$.!
.i!$! '&nst$i$ na 'asa '&nt$a !l 'al&$ d!l v!$an&
, !l f$)& d!l invi!$n& !st# "!nsand& d!sd! !l
"$in'i"i& hasta !l 2nal !n la 'asa, , !%'!"t& "&$ la
'asa nn'a '&$ta$)a na s&la "i!d$a ni s! "&nd$)a
man&s a la &+$a0 @II.L2A.
El +i!n d! la &+$a !s s +i!n f)si'& inm!diat&,
n& s "$&"(sit& !di2'ant!. 6a &+$a !f!'tiva
$!.i!$! na sa+id$)a mndana, na a"li'a'i(n ,
na ha+ilidad, .! n& han d! '&nfndi$s! '&n la
visi(n, sin& '&n la mat!$ia d! h!'h&, , '&n la
d!+ida '&nsid!$a'i(n al mat!$ial @II.R3A; "&$
!8!m"l&, /Pn '!l!+$ant! @d! la misaA
!%'!sivam!nt! at!nt& a $!'&$da$ !st# !%"!st& a
'&m!t!$ !$$&$!s. 6a m!8&$ man!$a !s int!nta$
'&n'!nt$a$ la m!nt! ant!s , d!s"*s, "!$& 'and&
la !st* di'i!nd& ha'!$l& d! m&d& '&m"l!tam!nt!
di$!'t&0 @II.>LCA. Pna &+$a "!d! !m"$!nd!$s! ad
majorem gloriam 6ei & "a$a n 2n m#s inm!diat&,
"!$& !l 2n s(l& "!d! sa+&$!a$s! !n la "$&s"!''i(n
& !n !l a'a+ad& d! la &+$a. En la a''i(n !l
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
t$a+a8ad&$ n& !s nada sin& n inst$m!nt&, , d!+!
sa$s! a s) mism& '&ns!'!nt!m!nt!, int!$!sad&
!n la &+$a , n& !n ss $!sltad&s- "!d! , d!+!
!sta$ t&talm!nt! a+s&$+id& !n la &+$a, '&m& !l
/2l(s&f& "agan& .! !stdia+a mat!m#ti'as] !n
"$&s!''i(n d! s a$t!] d!masiad& a+s&$+id&
"a$a v!$ &)$ a s !n!mig&0 @>2A. 4$a+a8a$ as) n&
!s "&$ 'asa d! la "!$i'ia ni "a$a m&st$a$la, sin&
"a$a s!$vi$ , ala+a$ a la "$im!$a 'asa d! la &+$a,
!s d!'i$, !l t!ma imaginad& !n la m!nt! d!l a$tista
/sin id!a d! "$&"i!dad0 @3CA. Es indif!$!nt! l& .!
"!da s!$ la &+$a, "!$& !s !s!n'ial .! !l a$tista
!st* !nt!$am!nt! !nt$!gad& a !lla, /"a$a *l !s
!%a'tam!nt! l& mism& .! !sta$ amand&0 @II.DDA,
!s t$a+a8a$ "&$ am&$ d! Di&s !n t&d& 'as&, "&$.!
la "!$f!''i(n d! la &+$a !s /"$!"a$a$ a t&das las
'$iat$as "a$a v&lv!$ a Di&s0 @>B3A ,a .! /!n s
m&d& nat$al @*stasA !st#n !8!m"li2'adas !n la
divina !s!n'ia0 @2C3A , !st& s!$# v#lid& a9n si !l
"int&$ "inta s "$&"i& $!t$at&, la imag!n d! Di&s !n
s) mism&
>I
. N& !s n v!$dad!$& t$a+a8ad&$ sin& n
at&1vanagl&$iad& !%hi+i'i&nista .i!n +s'a
as&m+$a$ '&n s "!$i'ia- /n h&m+$! h&n!st&
d!+! av!$g&n5a$s! d! .! las g!nt!s +!nas
t!ngan n&ti'ias d! !st& !n *l @II.C>A- t!ni!nd& s
a$t!, .! s! !s"!$a .! "$a'ti.!, d!+! da$ "&$
s"!st& s a$t! , s d!st$!5a. Si !n $a5(n d! s
"!$i'ia ti!n! na +!na $!"ta'i(n, !s& ha d!
t&ma$s! '&m& !l /d&n d! Di&s0 @>B3A, n& '&m&
alg& .! s! d!+a a .i!n d!+! t$a+a8a$ /'&m& si
nadi! !%isti!$a0 @3IQA. Simila$m!nt! !n 'ant& al
sala$i&, !l t$a+a8ad&$ m!$!'! 'i!$tam!nt! s "aga,
"!$& si !s /'idad&s&0 d! t&d& !%'!"t& d!l +i!n d!
la &+$a .! ha d! ha'!$s!, n& !s n t$a+a8ad&$ sin&
n /!s'lav& , al.ilad&0 @>BRA.
4$a+a8a$ !n !l mnd& /!n na &'"a'i(n 9til0
@22A n& !s !n m&d& algn& n im"!dim!nt& "a$a !l
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"!$f!''i&nami!nt& d!l h&m+$!, , an.! /$!5a$ !s
n a't& m!8&$ .! hila$0 @II.QA n h&m+$! d!+!
a+and&na$ !l /$a"t&0 "a$a a8sta$s! 'al.i!$
a'tividad .! "!da $!.!$i$s! d! *l a m&d& d!
s!$vi'i& @II.>B, !t'.A, ! in'ls& !s& /sin l& 'al ,& n&
"!d& !nt$a$ !n Di&s, !s t$a+a8&, v&'a'i(n &
llamada !n !l ti!m"&, .! n& int!$2!$! n #"i'!
'&n la salva'i(n !t!$na0 @II.R3A. /7a$a !sta$ !n !l
!stad& '&$$!'t& na d! d&s '&sas ha d! a'&nt!'!$;
& +i!n *l d!+! !n'&nt$a$ a Di&s , a"$!nd!$ a
t!n!$l! !n ss &+$as, & +i!n tant& las '&sas '&m&
las &+$as han d! a+and&na$s! t&das. 7!$& nadi! !n
!sta vida "!d! !sta$ sin a'tividad!s, a'tividad!s
hmanas, , n& "&'as, ad!m#s, d! m&d& .! !l
h&m+$! ti!n! .! a"$!nd!$ a !n'&nt$a$ a Di&s !n
t&d&0 @II.2, 'f. Bhagavad $ t , , III.33A- a9n "a$a !l
$!ligi&s& /la vida a'tiva '+$! l&s h!'&s !n la vida
d! '&nt!m"la'i(n0, , /A.!ll&s .! ll!van la vida
'&nt!m"lativa , n& ha'!n &+$as !%t!$nas, !st#n
m, !.iv&'ad&s, , '&m"l!tam!nt! !n la s!nda
!$$(n!a0- /Nadi! !n !sta vida "!d! al'an5a$ !l
"nt& !n !l 'al !st# !%'sad& d! las &+$as
!%t!$nas0 @B2C 'f. Bhagavad $ t , , III.>D , 2CA-
"&$ tant&, /Ft$a+a8a !n t&das las '&sasH , F'm"l!
t d!stin&H0 @>DCA. A9n m#s, !n !l 'as& d! n&
/.! n& sa+! nada d! la v!$dad d!sd! d!nt$&, si la
'&$t!8a f!$a la !n'&nt$a$# tam+i*n d!nt$&0 @BBIA.
En t&d& 'as& /El "$&"(sit& d! Di&s !n la ni(n
@yogaA d! la '&nt!m"la'i(n !s la f!'ndidad !n las
&+$as0 @>DA.
El t$a+a8ad&$ !s nat$alm!nt! f!li5 !n s
t$a+a8&, vi!nd& d!v!ni$ la imag!n !n s m!nt!, !n
la anal&g)a d! Di&s, ',a visi(n d! t&das las
'$iat$as !s la visi(n d! s) mism& !n s) mism&- !st!
"la'!$ t!nid& !n la visi(n d! la mat!$ia !n !l a't&
d! $!'i+i$ la f&$ma !s, !n !l t$a+a8ad&$ .! !st#
t$a+a8and&, na f&$ma d! !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a.
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
7!$& !n .* '&nsist! !s!n'ialm!nt! !sta
!%"!$i!n'ia, s!$# m#s '&nv!ni!nt! '&nsid!$a$l&
d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista d!l !s"!'tad&$ .! v! la
&+$a '&m"l!tada !n int!n'i(n & !n a'talidad, n&
!n !l "$&'!s& d! d!v!ni$ sin& '&m& si !stvi!$a
a"a$t! d! la d$a'i(n, "!s /Ningna a'tividad !s
tan "!$f!'ta .! n& &+sta'li'! la $!'&$da'i(n. El
&)$ misa "!$mit! la $!'&$da'i(n m#s .! !l d!'i$la0
@II.>LBA.
As) "!s, _.* !s la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a, &
'&m& E'3ha$t la llama, la $!'&$da'i(n, la
'&nt!m"la'i(n, la ilmina'i(n @avabh sa A, !l
"nt& 'lminant! d! la visi(n, !l $a"t&, !l $!"&s&`
En tant& .! !s a''!si+l! al h&m+$! '&m& n
$m&$ @RCA & n "$!sa+&$!& @BLRA, .! "asa '&m&
n $!l#m"ag& d! l5 @2CCA, !s la visi(n d! la
"int$a d!l mnd& '&m& Di&s la v!, amand& a
t&das las '$iat$as "&$ igal, n& '&m& d! tilidad,
sin& '&m& la imag!n d! s) mism& !n s) mism&
@3DIA, 'ada na !n s nat$al!5a divina , !n
nidad, '&m& n &8& '&ns'i!nt! sitad& !n s
!s"!8& @2C3, 3QBA "&d$)a v!$ t&das las '&sas !n
t&das ss dim!nsi&n!s a"a$t! d!l ti!m"& , !l
!s"a'i& '&m& !l &+8!t& 9ni'& d! s visi(n, n&
"asand& d! na '&sa a &t$a @>2A sin& vi!nd& sin
l5, !n na l5 "&$ta1imag!n at!m"&$al, d&nd!
/s&+$! t&das las '&sas s!nsi+l!s "!nd! la ni!+la
inmta+l! d! la nidad0. Est& !s na visi(n d! las
'&sas !n s "!$f!''i(n, si!m"$! v!$d!s, sin v!8!5 ,
sin !dad @3DA; /4!n!$ t&d& l& .! ti!n! s!$ , !s
f!$t!m!nt! d!s!a+l! , da d!l!'ta'i(n- t!n!$l&
t&d& a la v!5 , '&m"l!t& !n !l alma indivisa , !s&
!n Di&s, $!v!lad& !n s "!$f!''i(n, !n s ?&$,
d&nd! "$im!$& +$&ta !n !l t!$$!n& d! s
!%ist!n'ia] !s& !s la f!li'idad0 @Q2A, na
/ma$avilla "!'lia$0 @BLA /ni !n !l int!l!'t& ni !n la
v&lntad, ] '&m& f!li'idad , n& '&m& int!l!''i(n0
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
@2IIA, n& dial*'ti'am!nt! sin& '&m& si n& tvi!$a
!l '&n&'imi!nt& , !l "&d!$ d! 8nta$ t&d& !l ti!m"&
!n n 9ni'& ah&$a !t!$n& @Q>A, '&m& Di&s s!
sa+&$!a a s) mism& @>B2, 2BIA.
Pna v!5 m#s, !ll& s! '&m"a$a '&n la visi(n d!
na $!"$!s!nta'i(n, na a'ta'i(n @l l ,A
$!"$!s!ntada !t!$nam!nt! ant! t&das las '$iat$as,
d&nd! !l at&$ , la adi!n'ia, la a'ta'i(n , l&s
a't&$!s, s&n l& mism&, , d&nd! s nat$al!5a
"$&'!d! "&$ s) misma, !n 'la$a '&n'!"'i(n ,
d!l!'ta'i(n @>BL, >BQA, & a na &"!$a'i(n !n la
.! Di&s , ,& s&m&s n&, , !n la .! t&das las
&+$as $!ali5adas all) !st#n vivas. Esta "a$ti'i"a'i(n
d! la visi(n d! s) mism& d! Di&s !n s /&+$a0, .!
!n la m!dida !n .! n&s&t$&s "&d!m&s t!n!$ n
/atis+&0 d! !lla !s l& .! !nt!nd!m&s "&$
!%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a, !s igalm!nt! l& .!
!nt!nd!m&s "&$ U!ll!5a !n tant& .! distinta d! la
h!$m&s$a & !l ag$ad&, .! ti!n!n ss
'&nt$a"a$tidas !n ss &"!st&s. /El !s"l!nd&$
s"$!mam!nt! "$& d! la !s!n'ia indivisi+l!
ilmina t&das las '&sas a la v!50. S!g9n Di&nisi& la
U!ll!5a !s &$d!n, sim!t$)a '&n s"$!ma l'id!5. En
!st! s!ntid& /la Divinidad !s la +!ll!5a d! las t$!s
7!$s&nas0 @3DDA, /+!ll!5a '&m"a$ad& '&n la 'al !l
s&l n& !s nada0 @3RRA, /'ada 7!$s&na $adiant! "a$a
!l $!st& '&m& "a$a s) misma. Esta ilmina'i(n !s la
"!$f!''i(n d! la +!ll!5a0. /4&das las '&sas ti!nd!n
ha'ia s "!$f!''i(n 9ltima0 @L2A.
4anta !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a "$a '&m& l! !s
"&si+l! a n& !s s ga$ant)a d! "!$f!''i(n 9ltima ,
d! f!li'idad "!$f!'ta. Es '&m& a$tista1!stdi&s&
'&m& !l h&m+$! "$!"a$a t&das las '&sas "a$a
v&lv!$ a Di&s, !n tant& .! las v! int!l!'talm!nt!
@paroks t A , n& s(l& s!nsi+l!m!nt! @pratyaksenaA.
Gst! !s d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista d! E'3ha$t !l
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
/signi2'ad&0 d!l a$t!. /Es d!'i$, hasta d&nd! ,&
"!d& '&m"$!nd!$l&0 @2Q2A.
LA VISIN DEL ARTE EN EL MAESTRO
ECKART. NOTAS
>
Ma$itain, %rt and +cholasticism, ". >.
2
M!ist!$ E'3ha$t na'i( !n Sa8&nia & 4$ingia
al$!d!d&$ d! >2DI. W! "$&f!s&$ !n 7a$)s, ,
"&st!$i&$m!nt! &'"( !l!vadas "&si'i&n!s
!'l!si#sti'as !n U&h!mia , Al!mania. W!
s&s"!'h&s& d! h!$!8)a, , '&nd!nad& !n >32R, d&s
a<&s d!s"*s d! s m!$t!. N& !ns!<( !n lat)n
sin& !n l!nga v!$n#'la, , s! l! ha llamad& !l
"ad$! d! la l!nga al!mana. St&. 4&m#s ha+)a
m!$t& @>2LBA 'and& !$a a9n m, 8&v!n- 4al!$ ,
R,s+$&!'3 f!$&n ss '&nt!m"&$#n!&s, ,
"$&+a+l!m!nt! l! ha+)an &)d& "$!di'a$. 6&s
mat!$ial!s 'itad&s !n !l "$!s!nt! !nsa,&
"$&vi!n!n d! Meister Ackhart, t$ad'id& "&$ C. d!
U. Evans d! la !di'i(n $!nida al!mana d! >QCL,
$!ali5ada "&$ W$an5 7f!ie!$ !n d&s v&l9m!n!s,
6&nd$!s >R2B , >R3>- las $!f!$!n'ias d! "#ginas
s&n al "$im!$ v&lm!n a m!n&s .! s! diga &t$a
'&sa.
E'3ha$t "$!s!nta n "a$al!l&
s&$"$!nd!nt!m!nt! '!$'an& a l&s m&d&s d!
"!nsami!nt& indi&s- algn&s "asa8!s !nt!$&s ,
m'has s!nt!n'ias aisladas a"a$!'!n '&m& na
t$ad''i(n di$!'ta d!l s#ns'$it&. 7a$a !st! "nt& d!
vista s!<alam&s a R. Ott&, Mysticism Aast and
Mest @N!X Y&$3, >R3>A, , mi 5e' %pproach to the
(edas @6&nd&n, >R3BA.
7&$ s"!st&, n& sg!$im&s .! !n l&s !s'$it&s
d! E'3ha$t s! !n'!nt$!n !f!'tivam!nt! "$!s!nt!s
'al!s.i!$a !l!m!nt&s indi&s, an.! ha,
algn&s fa't&$!s &$i!ntal!s !n la t$adi'i(n !$&"!a,
d!$ivad&s d! f!nt!s n!&"lat(ni'as , a$#+igas.
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
7!$& l& .! s! "$!+a '&n las anal&g)as n& !s la
in?!n'ia d! n sist!ma d! "!nsami!nt& s&+$!
&t$&, sin& la '&h!$!n'ia d! la t$adi'i(n m!taf)si'a
!n !l mnd& , !n t&das las *"&'as.
3
En !st! $!s"!'t&, !l d!s'!ndi!nt! m#s
'!$'an& , nat$al d! E'3ha$t !s Ula3!- "&$ !8!m"l&,
=!s9s , ss dis')"l&s !$an t&d&s A$tistas- la
Ala+an5a !s la 7$#'ti'a d!l A$t!- Is$a!l li+!$ad& d!
Egi"t& !s !l A$t! li+!$ad& d! la Nat$al!5a , la
Imita'i(n- !l C!$"& Et!$n& d!l N&m+$! !s la
Imagina'i(n- l&s di&s!s d! J$!'ia , Egi"t& !$an
Diag$amas Mat!m#ti'&s- la Et!$nidad !st#
!nam&$ada d! las "$&d''i&n!s d!l ti!m"&- !l
N&m+$! n& ti!n! ning9n C!$"& distint& d! s
Alma- Si las "!$tas d! la "!$'!"'i(n s! lim"ias!n,
t&das las '&sas a"a$!'!$)an al h&m+$! '&m& s&n,
In2nitas- En la Et!$nidad 4&d& !s Kisi(n.
B
Cf. tridh, samhit !n las P"anisads, "&$
!8!m"l&, Brhad ranyaka Up ., I.2.3 , Taittir ya ,
Up., I.3.>13.
C
4&d& $ital, &2'i&s , sa'$am!nt&s @p j _,
yaja, samsk ra A s&n a$t!. 7a$a la
t$ans+stan'ia'i(n v!$ E'3ha$t, QL, BLL- /!l
sa'$am!nt& alim!nta '&m& 'al.i!$ &t$&
alim!nt&. 7!$& n& ti!n! nada d! la nat$al!5a d!l
"an0 @BLLA, al igal .! '&n las d!m#s &+$as d!
a$t!, .! "!d!n ag$ada$ a 'al.i!$ s!ntid&, "!$&
.! han d! t&ma$s! !n &t$& s!ntid&, al!g($i'& &
anag(gi'&. El "nt& d! vista 'at(li'& !s .!
an.! n h&m+$! "!da s!$ at$a)d& a na &+$a
d! a$t! @tal '&m& la !s'$it$aA, la causa voluptatis,
"!d! "asa$ f#'ilm!nt! a rationem artis intelligere,
Cf. :ankvat ra + tra _ , II.>>Q, >>R, d&nd! s! di'!
.! na "int$a s! "inta !n '&l&$!s /'&n !l 2n d!
at$a!$ @karsanaA a l&s !s"!'tad&$!s0, an.! la
"int$a misma n& !st# !n l&s '&l&$!s @range na
citramA, sin& .! s+sist! '&m& !l a$t! !n !l
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
a$tista, , "&$ !l "$&"i& !sf!$5& d!l !s"!'tad&$, d!
n!v& '&m& a$t! !n *l.
D
.l pittore pinge se stesso, d! 6!&na$d&, !s
.i5#s la "$im!$a !nn'ia'i(n d!l "$in'i"i& d!l .!
d!"!nd! la valid!5 d!l "asati!m"& m&d!$n& d! la
at$i+'i(n.
L
Est! "nt& d! vista s&+$!viv! a9n !n hi
pinge !gura" si non pu# esser lei" non la pu# porre,
d! Dant!.
Q
El '&nv!n'i&nalism& d!li+!$ad&, la +9s.!da
'al'lada d! l& a+st$a't& & mal llamad& id!al,
'&m& !n la "$#'ti'a m&d!$na d!l di+8&, , !n !l
a$'a)sm&, !s na a'tividad dif!$!nt!, n& !s na
/singla$i5a'i(n d! l& m!8&$0 .! ,& puedo, sin&
d! l& .! m! gusta m#s.
R
/El 2l(s&f& "agan& A$ist(t!l!s di'!, FD! n&
ha+!$ all) 'asa ni lga$ ni mat!$ial!s t&d& s!$)a n
s(l& s!$, na mat!$ia, .! si!nd& dividida !s '&m&
&t$a almaH0 @II.2RIA.
St&. 4&m#s @+um, Theol., III ..23, a.3A; /la f&$ma
d! na 'asa ,a '&nst$ida !s '&m& la "ala+$a
m!ntal d!l '&nst$'t&$ !n s f&$ma !s"!')2'a, "!$&
n& !n int!ligi+ilidad, "&$.! la f&$ma mat!$ial d!
na 'asa n& !s int!ligi+l!, '&m& l& !$a !n la m!nt!
d!l '&nst$'t&$0.
>I
6a nat$al!5a hmana '&m& !s !n Di&s /n&
a"a$!'! !n la imag!n d!l !s"!8&] s(l& las
fa''i&n!s s! v!n !n !l !s"!8&0 @C>A, si!nd& las
fa''i&n!s l&s a''id!nt!s d!l s!$, n& !l h&m+$!
'&m& *l es. Cf. la f$as! 'hina "a$a !l $!t$at&, -u
sh1n, /$!t$ata$ la imag!n divina !n n h&m+$!0.
6a hist&$ia d!l $!t$at& !n E$&"a "$&"&$'i&na n
'&nt$ast! int!$!sant! , m#s +i!n inf&$tnad&
$!s"!'t& a las n&'i&n!s 'hinas ! indias d! -u sh1n,
/$!t$ata$ !l alma0, , sva-r pa _ /as"!'t&
int$)ns!'&0. En l& .! sig! las 'itas s&n d! =itta1
bad&3s, %ncestral /ortraiture in ;ome @Amst!$dam,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
>R32A, "". QL, R2 f. 6a t!nd!n'ia al $!alism& , !l
s& d! m#s'a$as m&$t&$ias s&n /d&s
'&ns!'!n'ias '&&$dinadas d! na , la misma
m!ntalidad] Esta m!ntalidad "$&d'i$# tant&
$!t$at&s d! !%t$!m& $!alism& @mal llamad&
v!$ism&A '&m& la "$#'ti'a d! ha'!$ m&ld!s d! las
fa''i&n!s !f!'tivas0 d!l m&d!l& viv&. Ah&$a +i!n,
las !2gi!s !n las tm+as !m"!5a$&n a sa$s!
al$!d!d&$ d!l >2II; /Estas !statas $!"$!s!nta$&n
"$im!$am!nt! al difnt& n& '&m& d! h!'h&
a"a$!')a t$as la m!$t! sin& '&m& !s"!$a+a ,
'&n2a+a s!$ !n !l d)a d!l =i'i&. Est&] !s "at!nt!
!n la !%"$!si(n "$a , f!li5 d! t&das las 'a$as
igalm!nt! 8(v!n!s ! igalm!nt! +!llas .! han
"!$did& t&d& $asg& d! individalidad. 7!$& ha'ia !l
2n d!l sigl& SIII] !l int!$*s s! v&lvi( d!l ft$&
'!l!stial al "$!s!nt! mndanal. 6& .! s!
'&nsid!$a+a im"&$tant! n& !$a '(m& l&s m!$t&s
a"a$!'!$)an .i5#s n d)a sin& '(m& ha+)an sid&
d! h!'h& !n vida. Ah&$a s! .!$)a m#s & m!n&s
s!m!8an5a] C&m& la 9ltima '&ns!'!n'ia d! !sta
!%ig!n'ia d! s!m!8an5a !%a'ta hi5& s a"a$i'i(n la
m#s'a$a m&$t&$ia, t&mada d! las fa''i&n!s
!f!'tivas] '&n l& 'al !l $a'i&nalism& , !l $!alism&
a"a$!'i!$&n al mism& ti!m"&] 6a m#s'a$a
m&$t&$ia] a,d( 'i!$tam!nt! al a$tista a
a'!$'a$s! a la Nat$al!5a , !st& l& hi5&
!ns!<#nd&l! la '&nst$''i(n d! la 'a$a] @"&$
9ltim&A] la 'a+!5a f! '&nst$ida d!sd! d!nt$& ,
f! '$!ada "&$ !l a$tista '&m& "&$ la Nat$al!5a
misma0. 6a hist&$ia d!l a$t! !$&"!& "&st1
$!na'!ntista t&ma as) !l as"!'t& d! na
$!anima'i(n d! l&s 'ad#v!$!s d! n &sa$i& @'f.
+peculum, Av$il, >R33, 6#m. SIA, m#s .! !l d! na
R!s$$!''i(n d! l&s M!$t&s !n na f&$ma m#s
gl&$i&sa. Em"!5am&s a v!$ "&$ .* 3$O'O$,a
"&d)a ha+la$ d!l $!t$at& '&m& asvargya. /El $!t$at&
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"!$t!n!'! a las 'ivili5a'i&n!s .! ti!n!n mi!d& d!
la m!$t!0 @K$am$is'h, .ndian +culpture, ". >3BA.
C&n $!s"!'t& a la $!"$!s!nta'i(n d! l&s
d!'!did&s, n& '&m& "&d)an ha+!$ a"a$!'id& !n la
vida $!al sin& '&m& /!s"!$a+an , '&n2a+an s!$ !n
!l d)a d!l =i'i&0, '&m"a$a$ @>\A la "$#'ti'a india, ,
m#s t)"i'am!nt! 'am+&,ana , 8avan!sa, d!
$!"$!s!nta$ a l&s ant!"asad&s d!'!did&s !n la
f&$ma d! la d!idad d! .i!n ha+)an sid& d!v&t&s, ,
@2\A !n !l +addharma /undarika la $!s$$!''i(n d!
l&s Uddhas , U&dhisattvas "asad&s !n '!$"&s
gl&$i2'ad&s : las $!"$!s!nta'i&n!s i'&n&g$#2'as
$!"$&d'!n si!m"$! l&s /!l!m!nt&s !8!m"la$i&s0 &
lin!ami!nt&s @laksanaA d! !st&s '!$"&s
gl&$i2'ad&s, m#s +i!n .! 'al!s.i!$a d!
a.!ll&s a''id!nt!s individal!s "&$ l&s .! s!
"&d)a ha+!$ $!'&n&'id& al h&m+$! !n !l ti!m"& d!
s minist!$i& t!$$!nal.
CAPTULO III
REACCIONES AL ARTE EN LA INDIA
uando la mNsica es demasiado arcaica o
inaccesible para darnos datos estHticos"
puede aprenderse m>s de la disposiciCn de
a*uellos a *uienes deleitaba *ue de sus
datos tHcnicos registrados,
D. W. 4&v!,, !n
En'i'l&"a!dia U$itanni'a, s.v. Music.
El "$&"(sit& d! las n&tas a '&ntina'i(n !s
$!ni$, "$in'i"alm!nt! d! la lit!$at$a g!n!$al, , n&
t*'ni'a, algn&s "asa8!s !n l&s .! s! $!2!$! la
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
$!a''i(n d!l "9+li'& ha'ia las &+$as d! a$t!, !n
"a$t! '&m& '&nt$i+'i(n al v&'a+la$i& d! la
'$)ti'a, "!$& m#s '&n vistas a m&st$a$ '(m&
'&nsid!$a+an d! h!'h& !l a$t! a.!ll&s .! l&
ha')an. El a$tista mism& @ ilpin , k raka , kaviAs!
d!s'$i+! n&$malm!nt! '&m& /'&n&'!d&$ d! s
&2'i&0 @ ilpa-vi rada , !t'.A , '&m& /di!st$&0
@ku ala A- n& s! m!n'i&na nada s!m!8ant! a na
s!nsi+ilidad !s"!'ial & tal!nt& nat$al, "!$&
!n'&nt$am&s .! !n !l a$tista s! !s"!$an las
vi$td!s m&$al!s d! l&s h&m+$!s '&mn!s, , .!
ad!m#s ti!n! s a$t! .! s! !s"!$a .! "$a'ti.!.
S a'titd '&n $!s"!'t& a s !n'a$g& s! !%"$!sa d!
man!$a nat$al !n B taka , II.2CB, '&m& sig!;
/N&s&t$&s l&s m9si'&s, Oh $!,, vivim&s d! la
"$#'ti'a d! n!st$& a$t! @sippam niss ya A- "&$ la
$!mn!$a'i(n, t&'a$*0, "!$& '&m& "$!+an
nm!$&s&s t!%t&s ! ins'$i"'i&n!s , 'and& !l
t$a+a8ad&$ !$a m&vid& "&$ la "i!dad !sta+a
dis"!st& a t$a+a8a$ g$atitam!nt! '&m& n a't&
d! m*$it&. En !l 9ltim& 'as&, !l a$tista , !l "at$(n
s&n n&, "!st& .! la &+$a !s !l !n'a$g& d!l
"$&"i& s!ntimi!nt& d!v&'i&nal d!l a$tista. En
'ant& a la fama, , !l "$&"(sit& d! la &+$a, n
"a$!ad& ilst$ativ&, at$i+id& a n& d! l&s
s'!s&$!s d!l Asta''h " d! la lit!$at$a hind , ,
n&s di'!;
6a n!st$a !s v!$dad!$a "&!s)a, si as) "la'!
a l&s g$and!s "&!tas "&$ v!ni$,
D! &t$& m&d&, s "$!t!%t& !s s!$ n
$!'&$dad&$ d! R dha , K$sna.
7!st& .! !l t$a+a8ad&$ !s n s!$ $a'i&nal, s!
da "&$ h!'h& .! t&da &+$a ti!n! n t!ma & s8!t&
@vastu, k rya" krtrtha , anuk rya , likhitavya ,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!t'.A , na tilidad & signi2'ad& '&$$!s"&ndi!nt!
@artha, arthat, prayojanaA.
6a "ala+$a g!n!$al "a$a '&m"$!nsi(n &
a"$!h!nsi(n !s grahana, /aga$$a$0, "&$ !8!m"l&,
(isnudharmottara, III.B>.>2- 'f. l&s s!ntid&s '&m&
/a"$!h!ns&$!s0 @grah h A , las id!as '&m& /s&+$!1
a"$!h!ns&$!s0, Brahd ranyaka Upanisad , III.2, ,
!l "ali gahana sad& '&n sippa "a$a d!n&ta$
/a"$!nd!$ n &2'i&0. S! ala+a a na adi!n'ia
'&m& /a"$!'iativa d! l&s m*$it&s @guna-gr hin ,A0
d! na &+$a d! t!at$&, /riyadar ika , I.3. S!g9n !l
%bhinaya 6arpana, /6a adi!n'ia +$illa '&m& n
#$+&l d!l d!s!&, 'and& l&s K!das s&n ss $amas,
l&s stras ss ?&$!s, , l&s h&m+$!s inst$id&s las
a+!8as] 6&s Si!t! Mi!m+$&s d! la adi!n'ia s&n
l&s h&m+$!s d! inst$''i(n, l&s "&!tas, l&s
an'ian&s, l&s 'ant&$!s, l&s +f&n!s, , l&s v!$sad&s
!n la hist&$ia , la mit&l&g)a0, , !l 8!f! d! la
adi!n'ia, !l "at$(n, d!+! s!$ n '&n&'!d&$
>
. El
a"las& !s ukkutthi, !n B taka , II.2C3 , 3DL, , m#s
a m!nd& la !%'lama'i(n a9n '&$$i!nt!, s dhu ,
/+i!n1h!'h&0.
En !l 6 tav kya _ d! Uh sa, L, s! llama
/admi$a+l!0 @dar an ya , , 'f. !l '&l&.ial /f#'il d!
mi$a$0 m&d!$n&A a la "int$a @pataA d! la Es'!na
d!l =!g&- ,, t$as na d!s'$i"'i(n d!tallada d!l
asnt& $!"$!s!ntad&, D$,&dhana '&n'l,!, =dem.,
>3; /YOh, .* $i.!5a d! '&l&$ @varndhyatAZ
YM* "$!s!nta'i(n d! l&s !stad&s d! #nim&
@bh v9papannat AZ YM* di!st$a a"li'a'i(n d! l&s
'&l&$!s @yuktalekhatAZ YC#n !%"l)'ita la "int$a
@suvyaktam likhito AZ Est&, '&m"la'id&0.
En 'ant& a !st&s '&m!nta$i&s, s! a2$ma .!
varndhya !s l& .! m#s int!$!sa a l&s /&t$&s0
@itare jan h A
2
, !s d!'i$, a la g!nt! !n g!n!$al, n&
l&s ma!st$&s @ c rya A ni a l&s '&n&'!d&$!s
@vicaksana, (isnudharmottara, III.B>.>>- v!$ B%3+.,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
6II.>>, '&n2$mad& "&$ !l "asa8! d!l
Trisasti al k purusacaritra 'itad& m#s a+a8&A-
"a$a la !%"$!si(n d! bhava , rasa !n la "int$a,
v!$ B%3+., 6II.>C, n. C , Uasava Ra8a, iva-Tattva-
;atn kara , KI.2.>R- !l signi2'ad& !%a't& d!
yuktalekhata !s m!n&s s!g$&. Cf. la "ala+$a
s!g9n s! 'ita m#s a+a8&.
6ar an ya , /dign& d! v!$0, a"a$!'!
$!gla$m!nt! !n $!la'i(n '&n "int$as, !s'lt$a ,
a$.it!'t$a. Cf. lavamsa _ , C.2C>, manoharam
dassan yam toranam , - =dem., 2CQ, na imag!n d!l
Uddha !s dassan yam c rudassanam , - !
=dem., 2D2, las "int$as s&n dassaniyypare c r _
cittakamme- an#l&g& !s !l s& d! savan ya ,
@ ravan ya , A, /dign& d! &)$0, , savan yataram , ,
m, dign& d! &)$0, =dem., 6SSSIS.33, mi!nt$as .!
l&s d&s t*$min&s s! san 8nt&s, =dem., 3C, '&n
$!f!$!n'ia a 'ant&s , dan5as, .! s&n
dassanassavana-ppiyam, /ag$ada+l!s d! v!$ ,
&)$0. Cf. rotram sukhayati , /ag$ada al &)d&0, ,
drstipr tim vidhatte , , /ag$ada al &8&0, '&n
$!f!$!n'ia a las +!ll!5as nat$al!s, /riyadar ika ,
II.B. Pna "ala+$a a"li'ada m, '&m9nm!nt! a las
"int$as !s manorama, /.! ag$ada al '&$a5(n0.
En !l 6ivy -vad na , 3D>13D2, M $a, a "!ti'i(n d!
P"ag"ta, s! mani2!sta !n la f&$ma d!l Uddha,
'&n t&d&s ss lin!ami!nt&s !s"!')2'&s
@laksandhyamA. P"ag"ta s! in'lina ant! !sta
$!"$!s!nta'i(n, !s d!'i$, '&m& *l mism& !%"li'a,
ant! a.!l a .i!n '&$$!s"&nd! !sta imag!n. El
as"!'t& @r pa _ A asmid& "&$ M $a, '&m& n a't&$
asm! n "a"!l, !s nayanak ntim krtim , /na
$!"$!s!nta'i(n .! d!l!ita l&s &8&s0, ,
nayana ntikaram nar n m , /.! da "a5 al &8&
d!l h&m+$!0- P"ag"ta !s abhipramudita,
pramuditamana, /a$$!+atad& d! al!g$)a0-
pr mpdyam utpannam , /!l g&5& s! d!s+&$da0, ,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!%'lama %ho" r pa- obh _ , kim bahun, /En
sma, Y.* +!ll!5a d! as"!'t&Z0.
D!sd! n "nt& d! vista m&n#sti'&,
salm!nt!, an.! n& !%'lsivam!nt!, +dista &
8aina, las a$t!s s! $!'ha5an !nt!$am!nt! '&m& na
m!$a f!nt! d! s!nsa'i&n!s ag$ada+l!s- 'f.
v san , !n la "si'&l&g)a mah , na '&m&
/n&stalgia0, "!$& !n !l a$t! na s!nsi+ilidad innata
indis"!nsa+l!. C&m& n 9ni'& !8!m"l& d! la
a'titd m&n#sti'a "!d! 'ita$s!
Trisasti al k purusacaritra , I.>.>3D, d&nd! s!
a2$ma .! la m9si'a @samg ta , A n& si$v! d!
ningna man!$a "a$a !l +i!n!sta$ @ku ala A, sin&
.! s(l& infat9a dand& n "la'!$ m&m!nt#n!&
@muhurta-sukhaA. El h!'h& !s .! l& .! l&s
hind9!s !nti!nd!n "&$ !l /"la'!$ d! l&s &8&s0
"!d! s!$ & n& n "la'!$ d!sint!$!sad&, , !st& ha
d! d!t!$mina$s! si!m"$! "&$ !l '&nt!%t&- 'f. !l id
*uod visum placet !s'&l#sti'&.
En !l akuntal @KI.>31>B, !n la !di'i(n d!
Kal! @KA, =dem., KI.>C1>D, !n la d! 7is'h!l @7A, ,
a.) tili5am&s las va$iant!s d! am+as v!$si&n!sA,
!l R!,, mi$and& a s "$&"i& $!t$at& $!'&$dat&$i& d!
a3ntal , !%'lama '&n $!f!$!n'ia al t!ma m#s
.! a la manfa't$a, /Oh, la +!ll!5a d! la
"int$a0, @aho r pam lekhyasya _ A, , m#s ta$d!
ha'! na distin'i(n !nt$! l& .! !s /'&$$!'t&0
@s dhu A !n la &+$a, , l& .! !s /in'&$$!'t&0 &
/falta0 @anyath, .! n& ha d! '&nfndi$s! '&n
ardhalikhita, /ina'a+ad&0, .! a"a$!'! m#s
a+a8&A- sin !m+a$g&, /alg& d!l !n'ant& d!
a3ntal @ l vanya A !st# "$!ndid& @kimcid-
anvitaA !n la l)n!a @rekhA0. El Kid sa3a _
!n'!nt$a .! la l)n!a @rekhA !st# ll!na d! ti!$n&
s!ntimi!nt& @bh va-madhur , 7A, , .! la
/imita'i(n d!l !stad& d! #nim& !n l&s "asa8!s m#s
ti!$n&s !s s&+$!sali!nt!0 @madhurvasth na-
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
dar an yo bh v nuprave ah , , KA-
alt!$nativam!nt!, /"a$!'! s!$ la v!$si(n misma d!
la $!alidad0 @sattvnuprave a- a khaya, 7A- !l
R!, !%'lama; /En sma0 @kim bahun, 7A, /m!
ha'! .!$!$ ha+la$ '&n !lla0 @ lapana-
kaut halam me janayati _ A- "$!t!nd! .! s &8&
t$&"i!5a !f!'tivam!nt! @skhalatiA '&n las '&linas ,
l&s vall!s @ninn9nnata-prade esu A
3
. Mi $a3! ,
ha'! na &+s!$va'i(n s&+$! la "!$i'ia d!l R!, '&n
!l /"in'!l , !l '&nt&$n&0 @vartik rekh -
nipunatA- alt!$nativam!nt!, /!n !l '&l&$ , la
l)n!a0 @varnarekhA.
En !l /ratij yaugandharyana d! Uh sa, III.>,
!l +f(n d! la '&$t! ha+la d! la h#+il a"li'a'i(n d!l
'&l&$ @yuktalekhatA !n n f$!s'&, l& .! m!st$a
!l h!'h& d! .! 'and& f$&ta la "int$a s(l& s!
ha'! m#s +$illant! @ujjvalataraA.
En !l M lavikgnimitra , II.2, s! m!n'i&na na
falta d! '&$$!s"&nd!n'ia !nt$! la +!ll!5a d!l
m&d!l& , la $!"$!s!ntada !n la "int$a
B
'&m&
k nti-visamv da , , s! at$i+,! a na
'&n'!nt$a'i(n im"!$f!'ta @ ithila-sam dhi A "&$
"a$t! d!l "int&$. En !l /riyadar ika , III, ,
(ikram9rv,, II @!stan'ia int$&d't&$iaA, las
im"!$f!''i&n!s al a'ta$ s! at$i+,!n simila$m!nt!
a la dist$a''i(n d!l a't&$ @ nya-hrdayat _ A.
En !l /ratim n taka d! Uh sa, III.C, Uha$ata,
vi!nd& las !statas d! ss "ad$!s, a .i!n!s n&
$!'&n&'!, !%'lama; /YAh, .* dl5$a !n !l t$a+a8&
d! !stas "i!d$as @aho kriy -m dhuryam
p s n n m AZ YAh, .* s!ntimi!nt& @bh va A ha,
in'&$"&$ad& !n !stas im#g!n!s @aho bh vagatir
krt n m , AZ0 S! "$!gnta .* $!"$!s!ntan las
2g$as, "!$& /D! 'al.i!$ m&d&, ha, n g$an
d!l!it! @praharsaA !n mi '&$a5(n0, d!l!it! .! s!
'&nsid!$a .i5#s n& tant& !st*ti'& '&m& d!+id& a
na $!'&gni'i(n s+'&ns'i!nt! d! las !statas
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&m& las d! ss "ad$!s. 7!$& pramudam pray ti ,
di'h& d!l S) mism& '&n $!s"!'t& al "la'!$ s!ntid&
ant! !l !s"!'t#'l& d! s "$&"ia manif!sta'i(n
'&m& la "int$a d!l mnd& @jagaccitra,
an3a$O' $,a " +vtmanir pana _ , RCA, im"li'a n
d!l!it! in'!sti&na+l!m!nt! d!sint!$!sad&.
En !l Uttara-; ma-aritra , I.3R, d!
Uhava+h ti, la visi(n d! las "int$as d!8a na _
im"$!si(n !m&'i&nal lat!nt! & "!$sist!nt!, n& na
m!$a m!m&$ia, d! n "$&l&ngad& s!ntimi!nt&, !n
la m!nt! d! S t - !st& "!d! '&m"a$a$s! '&n ,
/4&dav)a m! "a$!'! !s''ha$ la m9si'a mi!nt$as
'amin&0, 'itad& a+a8&, , akuntal , K.Q sig.
@7is'h!lA, d&nd! Dhsanta, &,!nd& 'asalm!nt! !l
'ant& d! s $!ina Namsavat , di'! ha+land& a ,
s&las, /YM* a"asi&nad& @r ga-pariv hin ,A
'ant&Z] _7&$ .*, "!s, s&, ll!nad& as) d! anh!l&
al !s''ha$ tal 'ant&, '&m& si !stvi!$a s!"a$ad&
d! na amada` S!a '&m& f!$!, si d!s"*s d! v!$
'&sas ag$ada+l!s, & d! !s''ha$ "ala+$as dl'!s,
n h&m+$! .!da tan !nt$ist!'id& '&m&
!n'antad&, "!d! s!$ "&$.! in'&ns'i!nt!m!nt!
$!'!$da am&$!s s!ntid&s d! '&$a5(n ant!s d!l
na'imi!nt&, s"!$viv!n'ias d! na dis"&si'i(n
ant!$i&$ @p rvam-bh va-sthir ni _ A0- la d!s'$i"'i(n
"$&sig!; /Gl $!gist$a @r payati _ A la "!$"l!8idad
&'asi&nada "&$ na '&sa &lvidada0.
En !l 'as& d! $!t$at&s, s! '&m!nta
nat$alm!nt! la !%'!l!n'ia d! la s!m!8an5a, "&$
!8!m"l&, +vapnav savadatt , KI.>3, ,
Mrcchakatika, IK.>, !m"l!#nd&s! las "ala+$as
sadr, , susadr, @n& s dr ya A. En !l
+vapnav savadatt , 'itad& a$$i+a, la R!ina,
mi$and& !l $!t$at& d! K savadatt , !st#
/d!l!itada , "!$"l!8a0 @prahrst9dvign m iva A,
"!$& !st& !s "&$.! $!'&n&'! a la "!$s&na
$!"$!s!ntada- n& !s n !f!'t& !st*ti'&. En !l
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
M lat m dhava , I.33 @R1>IA, !l "$&"(sit& d!l
$!t$at& @ lekhya-prayojana A s! di'! .! !s !l
'&ns!l& !n !l anh!l& @utkanth -vinodana A.
6&s dif!$!nt!s m&d&s !n l&s .! "!d!
'&nsid!$a$s! na "int$a "&$ l&s !s"!'tad&$!s d!
va$ias 'las!s s! $!gist$an '&n 'i!$t& d!tall! !n !l
Trisasti al k purusacaritra , I.>.DBQ sig., d&nd!
s! d!s"li!ga @vist rya A na "int$a s&+$! li!n5&
@pataA '&n n "$&"(sit& "$#'ti'&, a sa+!$, '&n la
!s"!$an5a d! .! alg9n !s"!'tad&$ l& $!'&n&5'a
'&m& na $!"$!s!nta'i(n d! l&s s'!s&s d! s
"$&"ia vida ant!$i&$. 6&s v!$sad&s !n la !s'$it$a
@ gamavit A ala+an la $!"$!s!nta'i(n d! l&s 'i!l&s
d! Nand va$a, "&$.! /'&n'!$da '&n !l ,
s!ntid& d! la !s'$it$a0 @ gamrthvisamv di A-
l&s m, "iad&s&s @mah raddha A asi!nt!n '&n
ss 'a+!5as , s! d!s'$i+!n n&s a &t$&s las 2g$as
@bimb ni A d! l&s sant&s @jinaA- l&s !%"!$t&s !n la
"$#'ti'a d! las a$t!s @kal -kau ala lin A ala+an
la "$!5a d! l&s '&nt&$n&s @rekh - uddhi A,
mi!nt$as l&s !%aminan na , &t$a v!5 '&n mi$adas
s!sgadas- &t$&s ha+lan d! l&s '&l&$!s, +lan'&,
n!g$&, ama$ill&, a5l , $&8& .! ha'!n "a$!'!$ a la
"int$a na +$illant! "!sta d! s&l.
Pna a"$!'ia'i(n d! la +!ll!5a a$.it!'t(ni'a s!
!%"$!sa f$!'!nt!m!nt! !n t*$min&s g!n!$al!s-
ha,, "&$ !8!m"l&, na '&nm&v!d&$a d!s'$i"'i(n d!
la 'idad d! 7&l&nn $v !n $inas, ',&s
!di2'i&s, /"&$ d!'aimi!nt& , v!8!5 s&n '&m&
+a$+i'an&s ! in'a"a'!s d! mant!n!$s! !n "i!,
d!vini!nd& m#s , m#s !n'&$vad&s 'ada d)a0-
lavamsa _ , 6SSSKIII. En !l mism& t!%t&,
6SSKIII.3R, !n'&nt$am&s la f$as! /'$!and& d!
lad$ill& , "i!d$a n !li%i$ "a$a l&s &8&s0 @rasyanaA-
'f. netrmrta, d! na "int$a, %vad na 0alpalat ,
". KII.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
En !l $uttila B taka @N\ 2B3A ha, na
'&m"!ti'i(n !nt$! d&s t&'ad&$!s d! v n , ,
.i!n!s m!st$an s a$t! @sippam dassesantiA, .!
la g!nt! v! @pasantiA. Al "$in'i"i&, 'and& am+&s
t&'an igalm!nt! +i!n, !l "9+li'& !st# d!l!itad&
@tuttho @ tusthaA
C
. 6a '&m"!ti'i(n d!vi!n!
!nt&n'!s n& tant& s&+$! !l tal!nt& msi'al '&m&
s&+$! la $!ali5a'i(n d! n !8!$'i'i& d! ha+ilidad, !n
!l .! !l v!n'!d&$ t&'a '&n n n9m!$& $!d'id& d!
'!$das, , 2nalm!nt! s(l& '&n !l '!$"& d! s
inst$m!nt&. El "9+li'& g$ita '&nt$a !l '&m"!tid&$
d!$$&tad&, di'i!nd&; /N& '&n&'!s la m!dida
@pam na @ pram na A d! t 'a"a'idad0.
En !l (ikramacaritra, III.2 @&3+., 2D.>Q ,
2L.>CA
D
, d&nd! ha, na '&m"!ti'i(n d! dan5a
!nt$! d&s a"s#$as!s, Ki3$amOdit,a, .! '&n&'!
t&das las a$t!s @sakala-kalbhijaA , !s
!s"!'ialm!nt! n '&n&'!d&$ @vicaksanaA d! la
'i!n'ia d!l '&n8nt& d! las a$t!s msi'al!s
@samgita-vidyA, a't9a '&m& 8!5
L
. D!'id! !n fav&$
d! P$va "&$.! 'm"l! l&s $!.isit&s d!l ,
5 tya stra , tant& !n 'ant& a s "!$s&na
'&m& !n 'ant& a s 'a"a'idad- la 9ltima s!
m!st$a !s"!')2'am!nt! !n !l $!gist$& @s can _ A
d!l signi2'ad& "l!n& "&$ m!di& d!l l!nga8!
!%"$!sad& "&$ l&s m&vimi!nt&s '&$"&$al!s, !n l&s
$itm&s !%a't&s d! l&s "i!s, !n l&s g!st&s
@abhinayaA s!nsitiv&s d! las man&s , s
'&n'&$dan'ia '&n las va$ia'i&n!s
@tadvikalpnuvrttauA "!$mitidas, !n !l
d!s"la5ami!nt& '&nstant! d! n !stad& d! #nim&
"&$ &t$& !n !l 'am"& d! la $!"$!s!nta'i(n, , !n s
h#+il m!5'la d! las "asi&n!s @r gabandha A. En
$!sm!n, /7$!f!$) a P$va "&$.! la !n'&nt$* ,
na dan5a$ina d! n ti"& tal '&m& s! d!s'$i+! !n
!l 5 tya stra 0.
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
En !l /riyadar ik , III, d&nd! ha, na &+$a d!
t!at$& d!nt$& d! na &+$a d! t!at$&, la "$im!$a
!l!va !l int!$*s d!l !s"!'tad&$ al g$ad& m#s alt&,
adhikataram kaut halam vardhayati _ , l& .! !l
at&$ !%"li'a m&d!stam!nt! '&m& d!+id& al
m*$it& d!l t!ma. En !l mism& a't& d! la misma
&+$a, !l v!$+& avahr" /t$ans"&$ta$0, /$a"ta$0, s!
sa '&n $!f!$!n'ia a l&s !f!'t&s d! na !8!''i(n
al a$"a @v n , A- !l R!,, tam+i*n, !v&'a admi$a'i(n
& as&m+$& @vismayaA "&$ s !8!''i(n.
En !l Mrcchakatika, III.21C, C $datta ha
asistid& a na !8!''i(n msi'al @g ndharva A- !s
$!minis'!nt!, , !%'lama, /YAh, ah, +i!n h!'h&
@s dhAZ El 'ant& d!l Ma!st$& R!+hila f!
!%'!l!nt! @susthuA0. A '&ntina'i(n, m#s
t*'ni'am!nt!
Q
, ha+land& '&m& !%"!$t& !n !l a$t! ,
'&m& rasika, /El s&nid& !sta+a inf&$mad& "&$ l&s
!stad&s d! #nim& @bh va A, &$a a"asi&nad&s
@raktaA, &$a dl'!s @madhuraA, &$a 'alm&s @samaA,
langid!'i!nt!s @lalitaA , $a"t&$!s tam+i*n- "a$!')a
la v&5 amada d! mi "$&"i& am&$ &'lt&. 6as
"$&g$!si&n!s +a8as @svara-samkramaA as!ntadas
!n las vi+$ant!s '!$das, !l '$!s'!nd& @t ra A d!
las !s'alas @varnaA , l&s m&d&s @m rcchana _ A, , s
dimin!nd& @mrduA !n las "asas :'and& la
"asi(n !st# '&nt!nida, !l d!s!& $!"it! s langid!5
@lalitaA: , an.! la $!alidad a'a+( '&n !l 'ant&
mism&, t&dav)a m! "a$!'! !s''ha$l& mi!nt$as
'amin&0. Na, na a"$!'ia'i(n simila$m!nt!
t*'ni'a d! na !8!''i(n d! v n , !n
/riyadar ik , III.>I.
R!smi!nd&, s! v!$# .! s! '&nsid!$a .!
'ada n& ha'! s& d! la &+$a d! a$t! a s man!$a
"$&"ia, "!s la &+$a d! a$t! visal, n& m!n&s .!
na "ala+$a, !s n k ma-dhenu , .! t$ansmit! al
!s"!'tad&$ 8stam!nt! l& .! +s'a !n !lla & l&
.! !s 'a"a5 d! '&m"$!nd!$. 4&d&s !st#n
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
int!$!sad&s !n !l t!ma & a"li'a'i(n d! la &+$a,
'&m& alg& dad& "&$ s"!st&. M#s
!s"!')2'am!nt!, !n'&nt$am&s .! l&s h&m+$!s
inst$id&s, l&s "andits, !st#n int!$!sad&s !n la
'&$$!''i(n d! la i'&n&g$af)a- l&s "iad&s&s !n la
$!"$!s!nta'i(n d! l&s t!mas sag$ad&s '&m& tal!s-
l&s '&n&'!d&$!s @vicaksana !n l&s "asa8!s 'itad&s,
!n &t$&s lga$!s, rasika, pram tr , sahrdayaA s&n
m&vid&s "&$ la !%"$!si(n d! bh va , , rasa, ,
aman !%"$!sa$ s a"$!'ia'i(n !n la t!$min&l&g)a
t*'ni'a d! la $!t($i'a- l&s ma!st$&s d!l a$t!, l&s
a$tistas '&m"a<!$&s, '&nsid!$an "$in'i"alm!nt! !l
di+8&, , la "!$i'ia t*'ni'a !n g!n!$al- l&s l!g&s
&$dina$i&s aman l&s '&l&$!s +$illant!s, & s!
ma$avillan ant! la d!st$!5a d!l a$tista
R
. 6&s .!
!st#n !nam&$ad&s !st#n int!$!sad&s
"$in'i"alm!nt! !n !l $!t$at& .! $!?!8! t&d&s l&s
!n'ant&s @k nti , l vanya A d!l &$iginal. Ra$am!nt!
n&s !n'&nt$am&s '&n ningna m!n'i(n d! la
&$iginalidad & la n&v!dad
>I
. 7a$a a"$!'ia$ !l a$t!
indi& d!sd! t&d&s l&s "nt&s d! vista, d!+!m&s
"!s !sta$ !.i"ad&s '&n inst$''i(n, "i!dad,
s!nsi+ilidad, '&n&'imi!nt& d! la t*'ni'a, ,
sim"li'idad; '&m+inand& las 'alidad!s d!l
pandita, !l bhakta, !l rasika, !l c rya , , !l
alpabuddhi-jana.
CAPTULO III. REACCIONES AL ARTE EN LA
INDIA. NOTAS
>
7a$a !l '&nt!%t& '&m"l!t& v!$ C&&ma$asXam,
, Dggi$ala, The Mirror o- $esture, "". >B, >C.
2
Es "&si+l!, "&$ tant&, .! !l ha'!$ d!
varndhya la "$im!$a !%'lama'i(n d!
D$,&dhana t!nga algna int!n'i(n d! sa$'asm&.
3
Cf. Trisasti al k purusacaritra , I.>.3DI,
d&nd! s! di'! d! n h&m+$! ',&s &8&s !st#n
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
atad&s a las f&$mas @_"intadas`A d! +!llas m8!$!s,
!t'., .! t$&"i!5a @skhalatiA, '&m& si !l +&$d! d! s
v!stid& s! h+i!$a !ngan'had& !n na valla. Cf.
/n& ha, alivi& !f!'tiv& !n na "int$a, , sin
!m+a$g& l& v!m&s all)0, citre nat9nnatam nsti
ca, dr yate atha ca , Mah y na + trlamk ra _ ,
SIII.>L- 'f. :ankvat ra + tra _ , v!$ n&ta 23 d!l
'a")tl& I.
En !l akuntal , las /'&linas , vall!s0 "!d!n
s!$ l&s d! l&s '!$"&s d! las +!llas m8!$!s
$!"$!s!ntadas !n la "int$a, "!s nimn9nnata
ti!n! !sta a"li'a'i(n !n M lat m dhava , , IK.>I- &
las d!l "aisa8! d!l f&nd&, "!s prade a ti!n! !st!
s!ntid& !n !l akuntal mism&, inf$a, KI.>R, ,
.i5#s tam+i*n !n :ankvat ra + tra _ , ". R>.
B
A sa+!$, r pa- obh _ , '&m& !n
6ivyvad na , ". 3D>.
C
Simila$m!nt! !n !l 'as& d! la '&m"!ti'i(n d!
dan5a, (ikramacaritra, &3+., SSKII.>C, las d&s
a"sa$as!s dan5an "$im!$& 8ntas , la asam+l!a d!
l&s di&s!s !st# d!l!itada, nrtyam drstv
samtosam agamat,
D
El t!%t& a.), vv. B, C, , D, !s 'asi id*nti'& al
d!l M lavikgnimitra , II.3.D , Q.
L
El /8i'i&0 !s viv danirnaya . En !l
Malavikgnimitra, !l R!,, '&m& '&n&'!d&$, !s
vi esaja , '&m& 8!5, pra nika .
Q
R,d!$, !n &3+., IS.BB, t$ad'!
admi$a+l!m!nt! la s+stan'ia d! las
&+s!$va'i&n!s d! C $datta, "!$& '&n n mati5
!$&"!& , !vitand& t&d&s l&s t!'ni'ism&s. El
"asa8! d!l Mrcchakatika !st# anti'i"ad& !n na
f&$ma m#s +$!v! !n !l 6aridra- rudatta , II.2, d!
Uh sa ,
R
C&nstant!m!nt! s! m!st$a .! !l a$t!san& ,
!l '$)ti'& '&n'!d!n la "$in'i"al im"&$tan'ia al
di+8&, "&$ !l .! s! !%"$!san l&s !stad&s d!
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
#nim&, "!$& .! l& .! int!$!sa al "9+li'& !s !l
'&l&$. C&m& ha &+s!$vad& Uin,&n, /6a "int$a d!
Asia !s a t$av*s d! s "$in'i"al t$adi'i(n n a$t! d!
la l)n!a0.
>I
6& m#s a"$&%imad& a alg& d! !st! ti"& !n
$!la'i(n '&n las a$t!s f&$mativas a"a$!'! !n
B taka , KI.332, d&nd! !l U&dhisattva !m"l!a a n
ma!st$&1a$.it!'t& @mah -vaddhaki A "a$a
'&nst$i$ na sala tal '&m& *l $!.i!$!.
El ma!st$&1a$.it!'t& n& '&m"$!nd! la id!a d!l
J$an S!$ @mah satta-cittam na ganhati A, , 'and&
s! l! '&$$ig! !%"li'a .! *l s(l& "!d! t$a+a8a$ d!
a'!$d& '&n la t$adi'i(n d!l &2'i&
@sippnur pena _ A, , .! n& '&n&'! &t$& m&d&
@aatha na j n mJti A. El U&dhisattva mism&
dis"&n! !nt&n'!s !l "lan& /'&m& si Ki va3a$ma
mism& l& h+i!$a h!'h&0. A9n as), la f&$ma d! la
sala !st# d!t!$minada !nt!$am!nt! "&$ !l s& .!
l! va a da$- !l "lan& d!l U&dhisattva n& !s n
'a"$i'h& "!$s&nal & na "i!5a d! at&1!%"$!si(n,
!s sim"l!m!nt! .! '&n&'! m!8&$ .! !l
a$.it!'t& t&d& l& .! !st# "$!s!nt! a la m!nt! d!l
a$t!san& divin&, !l /Omniha'!d&$0.
Esta vi$t&sidad @kau ala A s&+$!nat$al d!l
U&dhisattva s! d!s'$i+! !n !l :alita (istara, Ch. SII-
!s n d&mini& d! las a$t!s n& ad.i$id& "&$ !l
!stdi&, na ca yogy krt ilpakaualam
@!d. 6!fmann., ". >CD, I.>A Cf. !l Mah y na
+ trlamk ra _ d! Asanga, KII.D, d&nd! !l sa+i&
@dh ragata , , /.! ha d!v!nid& !n n v!!d&$0A s!
di'! .! !%hi+! n t$i"l! nirm na ,
/manif!sta'i(n0 & /fa'ilidad0, , .! !l "$im!$& d!
*st&s s! d!s"li!ga !n !l 'am"& d!l a$t!
@ ilpakarma-sth na A.
D! n m&d& m#s '&m"l!t& !n !l
%bhidharmako a , II.L>1L2 @7&ssin, ". 32IA, la
vi$t&sidad @kau ala A !n !l a$t! @ ilpa-sth na A ,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!l "&d!$ d! '$!a'i(n m!ntal s&n d&s d! las 'at$&
a'tividad!s m!ntal!s "&$ n s!$ "!$f!''i&nad& !n
!l "lan& d! la manif!sta'i(n s!nsi+l!
@k madh tu , k maloka A. D! !stas d&s, la ilpa-
sth na-kau ala , & fa'ilidad d!l int!l!'t& "$#'ti'&
&"!$a+l!, !st# nat$alm!nt! as!nt! !n !l "lan&
d! la manif!sta'i(n int!ligi+l! @; padh tu _ ,
; paloka _ A, mi!nt$as .! am+as, "&$ s"!st&,
!st#n as!nt!s !n !l "lan& s"!$s!nsal , s"!$1
$a'i&nal d! la n&1manif!sta'i(n @6harmadh tu ,
%r pyaloka _ A] 6a misma id!a s! !%"$!sa d! &t$&
m&d& "&$ la at$i+'i(n d! n pram na a+s&lt& al
s!$ "!$f!''i&nad&, si!nd& t&d&s l&s d!m#s
pram nas m!$am!nt! $!f!$!nt!s a l& .! !s
'&$$!'t& +a8& 'i!$tas 'i$'nstan'ias- v!$ n&ta >L
d!l 'a")tl& I.
Na, algnas $!f!$!n'ias m!n&$!s !n 'ant& a
la &$iginalidad !n la "&!s)a. As), R 8a !3ha$a,
0 vyam m ms , , SI @v!$ D!, +anskrit /oetics,
II.3L3A, al t$ata$ d!l "lagi& @harana, /$&+&0A '&n
algna !%t!nsi(n, di'! .! !l g$an "&!ta
@mah kavi A d!s"$!'ia l& n!v& @n tana _ A !n
signi2'ad& , !%"$!si(n tant& '&m& l& .! !s vi!8&-
, !l $&+& ?ag$ant! @pariharanaA s! d!n&mina n&1
"&*ti'& & ina$t)sti'&, akavitvad yi . Pn !8!m"l&
a"a$!'! !n !l 0arp ramajar _ ,, III.3>, d&nd! !l
R!, 'm"lim!nta a la h!$&)na '&n ss v!$s&s,
$!"a$and& !n s 'a"ta'i(n @damsanaA d! l&s
m&tiv&s n!v&s @nava-vastuA, d!l v&'a+la$i&
va$iad& @ukti-vicitratvaA, , d!l s!ntid& d! la +!ll!5a
@raman yat , A, , !n !l ?8& d! rasa.
CAPTULO IV
LA EST!TICA DEL UKRAN TIS RA
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
El ukran tis ra , d! 3$O' $,a !s n
t$atad& indi& m!di!val s&+$! !l a$t! d!l g&+i!$n& ,
na &+$a !n'i'l&"*di'a s&+$! la &$gani5a'i(n s&'ial
'&nsid!$ada d!sd! t&d&s l&s "nt&s d! vista. En
l&s "asa8!s .! t$atan d! la h!'h$a d! im#g!n!s
s! in'&$"&$an algnas a2$ma'i&n!s m, d!2nidas
d! "$in'i"i&s !st*ti'&s- , ,a .! !st&s "asa8!s han
sid& mal !nt!ndid&s , mal t$ad'id&s, & al m!n&s
t$ad'id&s inad!'adam!nt!, "a$!'! d!s!a+l!
"$!s!nta$ na v!$si(n n!va , '&m"l!ta. 6&s
v!$s&s t$ad'id&s '&mi!n5an '&n !l Ca". IK, S!'. B
v!$s& LI, , la nm!$a'i(n !s la d!l t!%t& d!
Kid, s ga$a, '&n l&s d! la t$ad''i(n d! Sa$3a$
!nt$! "a$*nt!sis;
>
/S! d!+! ha'!$ s& d! @yojayetA las f($mlas1
visal!s @dhy na A "$&"ias d! l&s #ng!l!s @devatA
',as im#g!n!s han d! ha'!$s! @ rambhya A. 6&s
lin!ami!nt&s @laksanaA d! las im#g!n!s s!
"$!s'$i+!n "a$a !l l&g$& 'm"lid& d! !sta "$#'ti'a
@yogaA d! la f&$mla'i(n1visal @dhy na A. El
imagin!$& hman& @pratim k ra A d!+! s!$
!%"!$t& !n !sta '&nt!m"la'i(n visal, "!st& .!
as), , n& d! &t$& m&d&, , 'i!$tam!nt! n& "&$ la
&+s!$va'i(n di$!'ta @pratyaksaA, @"!d! al'an5a$s!
!l 2nA0. LI, L> @>BL1>CIA.
/6as im#g!n!s h!'has d! a$!na @saikataA, "asta
@paistaA, & "intadas @lekhyaA, & d! !st'& @lepyaA, &
t!$$a'&ta @mrnmayaA, & mad!$a @vrksaA, & "i!d$a
@p s na A, & m!tal @dh tu A s&n d! $!lativa
d$a+ilidad !n !l mism& &$d!n0. L2 @>C>A.
/6as im#g!n!s h!'has '&m& s! "$!s'$i+!, '&n
t&d&s ss !l!m!nt&s '&m"l!t&s, s&n at$a'tivas ,
dad&$as d! m*$it&- las .! n&, s&n d!st$'tivas d!
vida , $i.!5a, , si!m"$! am!ntan la a?i''i(n- s!
d!+!n ha'!$ im#g!n!s d! #ng!l!s @devaA, "!s
*stas s&n "$&d'tivas d! +i!n, , '&nd'!nt!s al
'i!l& @svargyaA, "!$& las d! l&s h&m+$!s &t$as
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
@'$iat$asA n& '&nd'!n al 'i!l& ni s&n as"i'i&sas.
S! di'! .! !s +!lla @ramyaA, la imag!n .! n&
ti!n! ni m#s ni m!n&s .! las "$&"&$'i&n!s
@m na A "$!s'$itas. 6as im#g!n!s d! l&s #ng!l!s,
a9n '&n l&s lin!ami!nt&s @laksanaA
im"!$f!'tam!nt! $!"$!s!ntad&s, "$&d'!n +i!n a
l&s h&m+$!s, "!$& nn'a las d! l&s m&$tal!s,
an.! ss lin!ami!nt&s @!st*n !%a'tam!nt!
$!"$!s!ntad&sA0. L31LD @>C21>CQA.
/6as im#g!n!s d! l&s #ng!l!s s&n d! t$!s ti"&s,
"$&s @s ttvika , !s d!'i$, '&m& s&n !n s) mism&s
nat$alm!nt!A, a'tiv&s @r jasika , !%"ansiv&s,
manif!st#nd&s! !n la F&+$aHA , &+s'$&s
@t masika , '&m& si !stvi!s!n !f!'tivam!nt!
limitad&s "&$ la in!$'ia d! la mat!$ia , !m"!<ad&s
!n n t$a+a8& d! h!'h&A. 6as d! Kisn , &t$&s
#ng!l!s d!+!n !m"l!a$s! , $!nd)$s!l!s 'lt&
@yogya p jya _ A s!g9n las n!'!sidad!s d!l 'as&. 6a
imag!n s ttvika !st# !n na "&st$a d! yoga,
at&1s&st!nida, '&n las man&s !%hi+i!nd&
mni2'!n'ia , #nim& @varbhayaA, , l! $ind!n 'lt&
l&s #ng!l!s "$in'i"al!s , l&s s!$!s s!m!8ant!s
@devendrdiA. 6a imag!n r jasika !st# s&"&$tada
"&$ n v!h)'l& @v hana A, ad&$nada '&n na
va$i!dad d! &$nam!nt&s, '&n las man&s asi!nd&
a$mas ! im"l!m!nt&s, , !%hi+i!nd& mni2'!n'ia ,
#nim&. 6a imag!n t masika !s d! as"!'t& t!$$i+l!
@ugraA, !st# !nt$!gada a mata$ d!m&ni&s "&$
m!di& d! a$mas ! im"l!m!nt&s, , '&m& si
!stvi!$a #vida d! '&m+at!0. LL1QI @>CR1>DDA.
/S! "$!s'$i+! .! n& han d! m&st$a$s! las
v!nas d! las man&s , "i!s, ni d!+!n v!$s! l&s
t&+ill&s. S! di'! .! s&n $!alm!nt! +!llas
@su obhana A a.!llas "a$t!s d! las im#g!n!s .!
n& s&n !n "$&"&$'i(n @m na A ni m#s ni m!n&s .!
l&s mi!m+$&s d! las im#g!n!s .! han sid&
h!'has "&$ !%"!$t&s, , .! s!$# !nt!$am!nt!
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
ag$ada+l! @sarvamanoramaA t&d& mi!m+$& .! n&
!s d!masiad& g$!s& ni d!masiad& d!lgad&.
An.! s! ha'! !s'asam!nt! na d! 'ada 'i!n mil
.! s!a !nt!$am!nt! ag$ada+l! !n t&d&s l&s
mi!m+$&s, sin !m+a$g& la .! '&n'!$da '&n la
"$!s'$i"'i(n 'an(ni'a @ stram na A !s la 9ni'a
v!$dad!$am!nt! +!lla @ramyaA, ningna &t$a,
Y'i!$tam!nt!Z. Na, algn&s "a$a .i!n!s l& .!
'ativa s '&$a5(n @tat lagnam krdA !s +!ll&- "!$&
"a$a l&s .! sa+!n, l& .! n& al'an5a la "$&"&$'i(n
'an(ni'a @ stram na A n& !s +!ll&0. >I>1>ID
@2IR12>CA.
/7a$a 'ada mi!m+$& d!+! id!a$s! tal g$a'ia
@p tava A '&m& s!a a"$&"iada0. >2> @2CDA.
/En !l 'as& d! las im#g!n!s "intadas, & d! las
h!'has d! !st'&, a$!na, t!$$a'&ta, & "asta, na
&misi(n d! lin!ami!nt&s @laksanaA n& ha$# ning9n
da<&- ha d! t!n!$s! 'idad& '&n l&s d!f!'t&s d!
"$&"&$'i(n @m na A s(l& !n !l 'as& d! las im#g!n!s
d! "i!d$a & d! m!tal0. >C2, >C3 @3ID, 3IRA.
/6&s lin!ami!nt&s @laksanaA d! la im#g!n!s s!
'&n&'!n @smrtaA "&$ las nat$al!5as @bh va A d! l&
.! $!'i+! !l 'lt& , d!l .! l& $ind!
@sevyasevakaA. 7&$ !l "&d!$ d! la int!nsi(n @tapasA
d!l &2'iant! @arcakaA ',& '&$a5(n !st# "!st&
si!m"$! !n !l S!<&$, las faltas d! na imag!n s!
d!svan!'!n inm!diatam!nt!0. >CR, >DI @32I1322A.
/N& ha, ningna $!gla @niyamaA "a$a !l g$&s&$
d! l&s mi!m+$&s d! n ni<&- d!+!n d! t$a5a$s! d!
m&d& .! "a$!5'an +!ll&s0. >QC @3LCA.
/El a$tista @ ilpi A d!+! '&n'!+i$ si!m"$! la
+!ll!5a @vapuA d! las im#g!n!s @d! l&s #ng!l!sA
'&m& 8(v!n!s @tarunaA, $a$am!nt! s!m!8ant!s a
ni<&s @b la-sadr a A, nn'a '&m& an'ian&s
@vrddha-sadr a A0. 2I> @BI3, BIBA.
/El R!, n& d!+! !$igi$ & '&ns!$va$ !n n t!m"l&
na imag!n d!s"$&"&$'i&nada & $&ta- las im#g!n!s
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
gastadas d! l&s #ng!l!s, , l&s t!m"l&s !n $inas
han d! s!$ 'idad&sam!nt! $!sta$ad&s0. 2I3
@BIL, BIQA.
6& sigi!nt!, d! la S!''i(n L, s! $!2!$! s(l& a
las 2g$as d! 'a+all&s; /Cand& ha d! ha'!$s! la
2g$a @r pa _ A d! n 'a+all&, !l m&d!l& @bimbaA
d!+! !sta$ si!m"$! a la vista @v ksya , A, , si n& s!
"!d! mi$a$ @adrstvA a n 'a+all& n& d!+!
ha'!$s! la 2g$a. Pna v!5 .! !l a$tista @ ilpi A ha
h!'h& "$im!$& @agreA s '&nt!m"la'i(n visal
@dhy tv A d!l 'a+all&, , at!nt& a ss f&$mas
@avayavnatahA, d!+! ha'!$ s t$a+a8&,
in'&$"&$and& t&das las "$&"&$'i&n!s @m na A d! l&s
'a+all&s a"tas "a$a !l !s"l!nd&$ , div&$'iadas d!
l&s mal&s ag$i&s0. L3, LB @>BC1>BLA. S! v!$#
a.), .! a "!sa$ d! la a"a$!nt! !%ig!n'ia d!
s!m!8an5a '&n !l 'a+all& a la vista, ha, na
insist!n'ia !n la visali5a'i(n , !n la adh!si(n a
las "$&"&$'i&n!s id!al!s.
6as "&$'i&n!s d!l t!%t& &mitidas a$$i+a
"$&"&$'i&nan las m!didas d!talladas "$&"ias a l&s
dif!$!nt!s ti"&s d! s!$!s. S!$# '&m"l!tam!nt!
!vid!nt! .! 3$O' $,a !st# "$&"&ni!nd& na
'&n'!"'i(n "$am!nt! !s'&l#sti'a ! hi!$#ti'a d! l&
.! !s ag$ada+l! & +!ll&, , !n ning9n lga$ admit!
la valid!5 d!l gst& individal. C&m& ha &+s!$vad&
8stam!nt! !l "$&f!s&$ Mass&n1O$s!l;
2
/El a$t!
indi& a"nta a alg& '&m"l!tam!nt! dif!$!nt! d! la
'&"ia d! la Nat$al!5a. 6& .! n&s&t$&s t&mam&s,
m, s"!$2'ialm!nt!, '&m& la ins"i$a'i(n d! n
a$t! "&$ !l a$t!, "$&'!d! $!alm!nt! d! n
!s'&lasti'ism& $!ligi&s& .! im"li'a na
'lasi2'a'i(n t$adi'i&nal d! ti"&s !sta+l!'id&s "&$
'&nv!n'i(n. Si a.) & all) n $!li!v! & na "int$a
!%hi+!n algna 'a$a't!$)sti'a sa'ada d! la vida, !s
s(l& a''id!ntalm!nt! '&m& !l a$tista, a "!sa$ d! s)
mism&, ha t$ans'$it& alg& d! la Nat$al!5a
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!f!'tiva; , *sta !s 'i!$tam!nt!, d!sd! !l "nt& d!
vista ind)g!na, la "a$t! m!n&s m!$it&$ia d! s
t$a+a8&0. Mi!n!s d!s!an !stdia$ !l /d!sa$$&ll&0
d! a$t! indi& d!+!n !man'i"a$s! !nt!$am!nt! d!
la t!nd!n'ia !$&"!a innata '&nsist!nt! !n sa$ n
s"!st& g$ad& d! &+s!$va'i(n ma,&$ & m!n&$ d!
la Nat$al!5a '&m& na va$a d! m!di$ '&n .!
$ast$!a$ las s!'!n'ias !stil)sti'as & $!'&n&'!$ !l
m*$it& !st*ti'&. El a$t! indi& s(l& "!d! !stdia$s!
'&m& m&st$and&, !n dif!$!nt!s *"&'as, n ma,&$ &
m!n&$ g$ad& d! '&ns'i!n'ia, na ma,&$ & m!n&$
!n!$g)a- l&s '$it!$i&s s&n g$ad&s d! vitalidad, d!
nidad, d! g$a'ia , s!m!8ant!s, nn'a d! ilsi(n,
En la India, n a$t! d! int!$*s ant! t&d&
$!"$!s!ntativ&, !l d!l $!t$at&, s! "$a'ti'a+a
"$in'i"alm!nt! "&$ a2'i&nad&s, , a9n as) $!.!$)a
na visali5a'i(n m!ntal s(l& n "&'& m!n&s
f&$mal .! la d! la &+$a hi!$#ti'a- !n s) mism& !l
$!t$at& t!n)a salm!nt! n "$&"(sit& & '&nt!nid&
!$(ti'&, , !n 'al.i!$ 'as& n val&$ sim"l!m!nt!
"!$s&nal , t!m"&$al, n& na signi2'a'i(n !s"i$ital
9ltima
3
.
CAPTULO IV. EST!TICA DEL
UKRAN TIS RA. NOTAS
>
El t!%t& im"$!s& !s !l 'itad& "&$ 7andit
= +Onanda Kid, s ga$a @Cal'ta, 2i !d., >QRIA. ,
6a 9ni'a t$ad''i(n '&m"l!ta !s la d! U!n&,
Kma$ Sa$3a$, The +ukran ti , @Allah + d, >R>B,
+acred Books o- the &indus K&l. SIIA. Pna
int$&d''i(n a !sta t$ad''i(n, "&$ D$. @Si$A
U$a8!nd$anath S!al, titlada The /ositive
Background o- &indu +ociology, f&$ma l&s v&ls. SKI
, SSK d! la misma s!$i!.
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
2
Mass&n1Os!l, /Pn! C&nn!%i&n dans
l[Esth*ti.! !t la 7hil&s&"hi! d! l[Ind!0, ;ev, 6es
%rts %siati*ues II @>R23A, , N. bimm!$, 0unst-orm
und 8oga mi indischen 0ultbild @U!$l)n, >R2DA.
3
A. K. C&&ma$asXam,, /Nga$a 7ainting0
;_pam 3L, BI @>R2RA, , (isnudharmottara, III.B>,
B%3+., 6II @>R32A.
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
CAPTULO V
PAROKSA
:as cuales cosas tambiHn nosotros
hablamos" no en las palabras *ue ensea la
sabidur=a del hombre" sino en las *ue
ensea el Asp=ritu +anto,
C&$inti&s, I.2.>3.
6&s t*$min&s paroksa , pratyaksa s! san !n
s!ntid&s '&nt$astad&s. N& !s n!'!sa$i& .! n&s
d!t!ngam&s !n la distin'i(n "$am!nt! g$amati'al
d! paroksa , pratyaksa; na !stan'ia .! s!
$!2!$! a n Eng!l @devaA, si s! !%"$!sa !n la
t!$'!$a "!$s&na, s! di'! .! !s paroksa,
/indi$!'ta0, & si s! di$ig! inm!diatam!nt! !n la
s!gnda "!$s&na, pratyaksa, /di$!'ta0, 5irukta,
KII.>. 6& .! n&s int!$!sa m#s a.) !s la distin'i(n
d! paroksa '&m& "$&"i& d! l&s Eng!l!s
@adhidaivataA, .! '&ns!'!nt!m!nt! s! d!s'$i+!n
'&m& paroksa-priya, /amad&$ d!0 l& sim+(li'&, ,
pratyaksa '&m& "$&"i& d!l h&m+$! @m nusa A !n
tant& .! individ& @adhy tma A, .! !s
!vid!nt!m!nt! pratyaksa-priya, /amad&$ d!0 l&
&+vi&, an.! !st& n& s! a2$ma !%"l)'itam!nt!.
En Baim, Up, Br., I.2I, %it, Br., III.33 , KIII.3I, .
Br., KI.>.>.2 , II , SIK.I.>.>3, Br, Up., IK.2.2 , %it, Up.,
III.>B, s! dan !8!m"l&s s!g9n sig! @las
d!signa'i&n!s paroksa van s!gidas !n 'ada 'as&
"&$ las d!signa'i&n!s pratyaksa im"$!sas !n
+asta$dillaA; anta$i3sa, antaryaksaO m nsa,
m dusaO n,ag$&dha, nyagrohaO Ind$a, indha,
idandraO Agni, agriO a va, a ru, A *stas "!d!n
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
a<adi$s! d! "asa8!s 'itad&s a+a8&; Ahi Udhn,a,
%gni $ rpatyaO S&ma, nyagrodhaO , vi va8it,
vrata. El t*$min& pratyaksa $!"$!s!nta al $!f!$!nt!
paroksaO "&$ !8!m"l&, /!l l&t& signi2'a las Agas,
!sta 4i!$$a !s na h&8a d! *l0, , Br ., KII.B.>.Q,
d&nd! !l l&t& , la h&8a ti!n!n $!f!$!nt!s f)si'&s, las
Agas @h la 7&si+ilidadA , la 4i!$$a @h !l 4!$$!n&A
m!taf)si'&s. Evid!nt!m!nt! n& !s n!'!sa$i& .!
l&s t*$min&s paroksa , pratyaksa s!an
s!nsi+l!m!nt! distint&s- !l puskara, !l .! s!
ha+la '&m& !l lga$ d! na'imi!nt& d! Agni & d!
Kasistha, , .! $!"$!s!nta !l 4!$$!n& d! t&da
!%ist!n'ia, n& !s !l puskara d!l +&t#ni'&, an.!
las "ala+$as s!an las mismas. 6a h&8a d! l&t&
!f!'tiva .! s! d!"&sita !n !l Alta$ d!l W!g& n&
ti!n! ning9n signi2'ad& n!'!sa$i& "&$ s) misma, !n
tant& .! h&8a d! l&t&- !s m!$am!nt! n dat&
$!s"!'t& al 'al n&s&t$&s s(l& "&d!m&s t!n!$ n
'&n&'imi!nt& !stimativ& & af!'tiv&- es !l $!f!$!nt!
d!l puskara-parna, "!$& personi!ca al $!f!$!nt! d!l
t*$min& paroksa, prthiv,. 6a distin'i(n !s d!
$!f!$!n'ia, l& .! !l !stdiant!, giad& "&$ !l
'&nt!%t&, & si f!$a n!'!sa$i& "&$ !l C&m!ntad&$,
s! !s"!$a .! '&m"$!nda
>
- , si t&ma la $!f!$!n'ia
lit!$alm!nt!, d!'im&s .! s '&m"$!nsi(n !s
s"!$2'ial. 7!s las $!f!$!n'ias paroksa ,
pratyaksa n& s&n '&in'id!nt!s; las "$im!$as s&n
n&m+$!s d! $!f!$!nt!s asmid&s, & '&n&'id&s d!
&t$& m&d&, "!$& n& "!$'!"ti+l!s @'f.
an3a$O' $,a s&+$! %it, Up., III.>BA- , l&s
s!gnd&s s&n n&m+$!s d! $!f!$!nt!s
!%"!$im!ntad&s s!nsi+l!m!nt! .! s&n, & s!
'&nsid!$a .! s&n, m!$am!nt! s)m+&l&s d!, &
s+stitt&s '&nv!ni!nt!s "a$a, l&s ant!di'h&s
$!f!$!nt!s invisi+l!s. D! !ll& s! sig! .! la
$!f!$!n'ia d!l t*$min& paroksa !s m'h& m#s
am"lia .! la d!l t*$min& pratyaksaO a sa+!$, !n
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
.! d! l&s m'h&s sign&s & s+stitt&s
'&n'!+i+l!s "a$a !l $!f!$!nt! &"!$ativ& "!$&
invisi+l!, !l t*$min& pratyaksa !s"!'i2'a s(l& n&.
Al mism& ti!m"& s! sig! tam+i*n .! !l
v&'a+la$i& paroksa s!$# m'h& m!n&s nm!$&s&
.! !l pratyaksaO l&s Eng!l!s ti!n!n m!n&s id!as,
, san m!n&s m!di&s .! l&s h&m+$!s.
El "asa8!, %it, Up., III.>B, ,a 'itad& "!d!
$!"$&d'i$s! !n t&da s !%t!nsi(n. En !l v!$s&
"$!'!d!nt! s! di'! .! !l S) Mism&,
individalm!nt! '&ns'i!nt! !n la "l$alidad d! l&s
s!$!s, '&nt!m"l( al U$ahman inm!diatam!nt!, !s
d!'i$, $!'&n&'i( s manif!sta'i(n !n !l mnd& @'f.
0ena Up., 2B12QA, , /Y& 6& h! vist& @idam
dadar a A, di8&0. Ent&n'!s sig!; /7&$ tant& s
n&m+$! !s Idam1d$a @Fvi*nd&16&HA, Idand$a
'i!$tam!nt! !s s n&m+$!. D!l .! !s Idand$a, l&s
Eng!l!s ha+lan @lit. F'&nsid!$anH, caksate A
m!taf)si'am!nt! @paroksenaA '&m& Ind$a, "!s l&
m!taf)si'&, 'i!$tam!nt!, !s "$&"i& d! l&s Eng!l!s0.
an3a$O' $,a '&m!nta '&m& sig!; /7&$.! !l
S"$!m& S) mism& vi& FEst&H, al U$ahman
inman!nt!, 'a$a a 'a$a di$!'tam!nt! @s ks d
aparoks t A, inm!diatam!nt! @aparoksenaA '&m&
FEst&H, "&$ !ll& Gl @!l S"$!m& S) Mism&A !s
llamad& Idand$a- Di&s @ vara - A !st# !n !l mnd&
@lokeA !%"l)'itam!nt! @prasiddhaA '&n !l n&m+$! d!
Idand$a. FEl .! !s Idand$a, m!taf)si'am!nt!
Ind$aH; !s d!'i$, l&s '&n&'!d&$!s d!l U$ahman
ha+lan d! Gl as), '&n $!f!$!n'ia m!taf)si'a
@paroksbhidh nena A, "a$a "$&"(sit&s "$#'ti'&s
@samvyavah rikrtha A "&$ t!m&$ a t&ma$
@grahanaA @!n van&A S n&m+$! .! !s dign& d!
t&da ad&$a'i(n. F6& m!taf)si'& !s "$&"i& d! l&s
Eng!l!sH; !s d!'i$, !ll&s !st#n ha+itad&s @priyA
a l&s n&m+$!s m!taf)si'&s @paroksaA, , !s "&$ !ll&
'i!$tam!nt! .! s&n FEng!l!sH
2
. M'h& m#s as) !n
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!l 'as& d! Di&s @ vara - A, .! !s !l Eng!l d! t&d&s
l&s Eng!l!s0.
%dhidaivata , adhy tna s! '&nt$astan d!l
mism& m&d& .! paroksa , pratyaksa; "&$
!8!m"l&, 0ena Up., 2R13I, '&n $!f!$!n'ia a la visi(n
d!l U$ahman. A.) /'&n $!s"!'t& a l&s Eng!l!s
@adhidaivataA la visi(n s! '&m"a$a a n $!l#m"ag&
d! l5- "!$& /'&n $!s"!'t& al S) Mism& !n'a$nad&0
@adhy tma A la visi(n !s na '&sa .!, 'and& !l
Int!l!'t& @manasA s! di$ig! , $!?!%i&na
at!ntam!nt! s&+$! !l U$ahman, d!vi!n! n
'&n'!"t& @samkalpaA. 6a 0aus taki Upanisad , , IK.2,
da na lista m#s '&m"l!ta d! '&$$!s"&nd!n'ias,
.! '&mi!n5a '&n /En !l S&l S"!$nal !l J$an
7$in'i"i&0 @!s d!'i$, niv!$salm!nt!, adhidaivataA ,
/En !l Es"!8& la C&nt$a1imag!n0 @!s d!'i$,
individalm!nt!, adhy tma A.
El "$&+l!ma s! "$!s!nta a la v!5 !n $!la'i(n
'&n la lit!$at$a , !n $!la'i(n '&n !l a$t! $ital ,
"l#sti'&- , la !8!''i(n d!l $ital, & la
$!"$!s!nta'i(n i'&n&g$#2'a, as!g$an
/indi$!'tam!nt!0 @paroksena, paroks t A !f!'t&s
"$#'ti'&s al "&n!$ !n m&'i(n las f!$5as
'&$$!s"&ndi!nt!s. As), !l &2'iant!, /indi$!'tam!nt!
"&$ m!di& d! Ahi Udhn,a0 @!s d!'i$, '&n la
!n'anta'i(n d!l v!$s& d! ;g (eda, KI.CI.>BA,
an.! /di$!'tam!nt! "&$ m!di& d! Agni
J $ha"at,a0 @!l f!g& d!l h&ga$ !n'!ndid&
!f!'tivam!nt!A, d&ta al sa'$i2'ant! d! !n!$g)a
)gn!a @tejasA, %it. Br., III.3D- !l Ksat$i,a .! '&m!
l&s +$&t!s , f$t&s d!l nyagrodha &+ti!n!
/indi$!'tam!nt!0 @paroksenaA la +!+ida d! S&ma
: /*l n& "a$ti'i"a d! S&ma di$!'tam!nt!
@pratyaksamA0, =dem, KII.3>. D! n!v&, !n !l
/acavim a Br hmana , SSII.R.B , 3, /El @$it&A
Ki va8it !s, indi$!'tam!nt! !l @Mah 1Av$ata- *l,
"&$ m!di& d! *st!, &+ti!n! di$!'tam!nt! !l
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
alim!nt&0, "!s, /6& .! s! "$!s!nta di$!'tam!nt!
a l&s h&m+$!s s! "$!s!nta indi$!'tam!nt! @&
m!taf)si'am!nt!A a l&s Eng!l!s, , l& .! s!
"$!s!nta indi$!'tam!nt! a l&s h&m+$!s s! "$!s!nta
di$!'tam!nt! a l&s Eng!l!s0. En !st! s!ntid& t&d&s
l&s $ital!s K*di'&s s&n M,st!$im nd Mims,
Mist!$i&s ! Imita'i&n!s ; l& .! l&s ant$&"(l&g&s
d!s'$i+!n !m")$i'am!nt! @pratyaksenaA '&m&
/magia sim"at*ti'a0 !s na &"!$a'i(n m!taf)si'a,
n !n'antami!nt& , na '&n8$a'i(n, n& n
s!$vi'i& $!ligi&s& , d!v&'i&nal & na /"l!ga$ia0.
En la i'&n&g$af)a, d&nd! na v!5 m#s l&s
t*$min&s n& s&n d! !l!''i(n individal, sin&
stram na , smrta, !t'., n&s !n'&nt$am&s '&n
n l!nga8! visal d!l mism& ti"& .! !l v!$+al. El
l&t& d! la i'&n&g$af)a n& !s !l l&t& d! la
!%"!$i!n'ia s!nsi+l!- !s paroksa, /n&
$!'&gn&s'i+l!0 "&$ a.!ll&s .! n& /'&m"$!nd!n
!l a$t!0- la ma,&$)a d! l&s a''id!nt!s "$&"i&s d!l
l&t& d!l +&t#ni'& s! &mit!n d!l s)m+&l&, .! !s,
ad!m#s, d! dim!nsi&n!s ind!2nidas @d! n!v&,
/f!$a d! "$&"&$'i(n0 "a$a a.!ll&s .! n&
/'&m"$!nd!n !l a$t!0, l&s mism&s .! di'!n '&n
$!s"!'t& a l&s "$imitiv&s italian&s, /Es& !$a ant!s
d! .! !ll&s s"i!$an alg& s&+$! anat&m)a0A,
am tra , '&m& la prthiv, .! s! sim+&li5a, n&
'&m& l&s &+8!t&s !s"!')2'am!nt! dim!nsi&nad&s
@m tr h A vist&s "&$ la fa'ltad int$)ns!'a d!l &8&
@caksusA, Maitri Up., KI.D.
3
En &t$as "ala+$as, la
$!f!$!n'ia d!l l&t& d! la i'&n&g$af)a !s /ang*li'a0,
adhidaivata, la d!l /l&t&0 d!l +&t#ni'&, /s!nsi+l!0,
pratyaksa,
Al d!'i$ /i'&n&g$af)a0, n& t!n!m&s la int!n'i(n
d! distingi$ la i'&n&g$af)a d!l a$t!
B
; t&d& a$t! !s
/imagina'i(n0, !s d!'i$, na "$!s!nta'i(n d!
im#g!n!s .! '&$$!s"&nd!n a $!f!$!n'ias
&$iginalm!nt! !n la m!nt! d!l a$tista, , n& @a9n
abril, 97
153
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&n las /m!8&$!s0, & m#s +i!n /"!&$!s0
int!n'i&n!sA a n m&d!l& /nat$al0, pratyaksa. 7&$
!8!m"l&, %it, Br., KI.2L, /Es !n imita'i(n @anukrtiA
d! las &+$as d! a$t! @ ilpa A ang*li'as @devaA '&m&
s! ll!va a 'a+& @adhigamA na &+$a d! a$t! @ ilpa A
a.)
C
; "&$ !8!m"l&, n !l!fant! d! a$'illa, n &+8!t&
d! +$&n'!, na "$!nda d! v!sti$, n &+8!t& d! &$&,
n 'a$$& d! mlas s&n F&+$as d! a$t!H- na
@v!$dad!$aA &+$a d! a$t! s! !8!'ta @adhigamA !n
!l .! '&m"$!nd! !st&0
D
- , ukran tis ra , ,
IK.B.LI1L>, d&nd! /!l imagin!$& d!+! s!$ !%"!$t&
!n la visi(n @dhy na A, , n& d! &t$a man!$a,
'i!$tam!nt! n& !n la "$!s!n'ia d! n m&d!l&
@pratyaksenaA "!d! !8!'ta$s! la &+$a0. Al
distingi$ as) n l!nga8! d! s)m+&l&s d! n
l!nga8! d! sign&s t!ng& "$!s!nt! las distin'i&n!s
d! s)m+&l& , sign& !sta+l!'idas "&$ =ng
L
. Pna
!%"$!si(n sim+(li'a !s la .! s! ti!n! '&m& la
m!8&$ f($mla "&si+l! "&$ la .! "!d! ha'!$s!
alsi(n a na /'&sa0 $!lativam!nt! d!s'&n&'ida,
$!f!$!nt! .!, n& &+stant!, s! $!'&n&'! & s!
"&stla '&m& /!%ist!nt!0. El s& d! 'al.i!$
s)m+&l&, tal '&m& la 2g$a d!l /vajra0 & la "ala+$a
/U$ahman0, im"li'a na '&nvi''i(n, ,
g!n!$alm!nt! n a'!$d& '&nv!n'i&nal .!
d!s'ansa s&+$! la at&$idad, d! .! !l $!f!$!nt!,
$!lativam!nt! d!s'&n&'id&, & .i5#s in'&gn&s'i+l!,
n& "!d! s!$ $!"$!s!ntad& m#s 'la$am!nt!. Pn
sign&, "&$ &t$a "a$t!, !s na !%"$!si(n an#l&ga &
a+$!viada "a$a na '&sa d!2nitivam!nt! '&n&'ida-
t&d& h&m+$! '&n&'! & "!d! s!$ inf&$mad&, "&$
indi'a'i(n d! n &+8!t&, !n 'ant& a l& .! !l sign&
/signi2'a0. As) las alas s&n s)m+&l&s 'and&
/signi2'an0 la ind!"!nd!n'ia ang*li'a d! la
m&'i(n l&'al, "!$& /sign&s0 'and& d!signan a n
aviad&$- la '$5 !s n s)m+&l& 'and& s! sa
@m!taf)si'am!nt!A "a$a $!"$!s!nta$ la !st$'t$a
abril, 97
154
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d!l Pniv!$s& '&n $!s"!'t& a la 8!$a$.)a , a la
!%t!nsi(n, "!$& n sign& 'and& s! sa
@"$#'ti'am!nt!A "a$a adv!$ti$ al at&m&vilista d!
n '$'! d! 'a$$!t!$as "$(%im&. El s& d! las
palabras alas & '$5 "a$a d!signa$ $!f!$!nt!s
$!lativam!nt! d!s'&n&'id&s, /&'lt&s0, &
a+st$a't&s !s sim+(li'&, paroksenaO s s& "a$a
d!signa$ $!f!$!nt!s '&n&'id&s, visi+l!s &
"&t!n'ialm!nt! visi+l!s , '&n'$!t&s !s s!mi(ti'&,
pratyaksena. O si sam&s "igm!nt& a5l "a$a
/$!"$!s!nta$0 &8&s a5l!s & n 'i!l& a5l, !s n
sign&- "!$& si ha'!m&s a5l !l mant& d! la Ki$g!n,
!nt&n'!s /a5l0 d!vi!n! !l s)m+&l& d! na id!a, ,
la $!f!$!n'ia ,a n& !s a la '&sa /'i!l&0 sin& a
'i!$tas 'alidad!s a+st$a'tas tal!s '&m&
/in2nitd0, .! h!m&s im"tad& a la /'&sa0 .!
v!m&s a$$i+a. En !st! 'as& "a$ti'la$ !l sign& , !l
s)m+&l& s&n l& mism&, a sa+!$, "igm!nt& a5l, , al
igal .! !n !l 'as& d!l sign& & s)m+&l& puskara,
l&t&, !l /signi2'ad&0 d!+! '&m"$!nd!$s! !n
$!la'i(n '&n !l '&nt!%t&. Pna '&m"$!nsi(n d! !st!
ti"& !s d! sma im"&$tan'ia- "!s si t&mam&s !l
sign& "&$ n s)m+&l&, !sta$!m&s
s!ntim!ntali5and& n!st$a n&'i(n d! l&s &8&s
a5l!s, , si t&mam&s !l s)m+&l& "&$ n sign&,
!sta$!m&s $!d'i!nd& !l /"!nsami!nt&0 al
/$!'&n&'imi!nt&0. En !l 9ltim& 'as&, n!st$a
asmi'i(n t#'ita "!d! s!$ s(l& .! la Ki$g!n ll!va
!l 'i!l& d! la misma man!$a .! n&s&t$&s ll!vam&s
n!st$& '!$"&s, l& .! !.ival! a ha+la$ d! la
Ki$g!n '&m& na /"!$s&ni2'a'i(n d!l 'i!l&0 , a
na id!nti2'a'i(n d! la Ma$i&lat$)a '&n !l /'lt& d!
la Nat$al!5a0
Q
. El l!'t&$ "!d! s"&n!$ .! na
!.iv&'a'i(n tan +$da !s im"&si+l!, '&m& .i5#s
l& s!a "a$a .i!n '&m& h!$!d!$& d! la t$adi'i(n
'$istiana ti!n! ma,&$ '&n&'imi!nt& d! !st&- sin
!m+a$g&, !s *sta misma !.iv&'a'i(n la .!
abril, 97
155
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&m!t! 'and&, d!sd! n "nt& d! vista
s"!stam!nt! /'i!nt)2'&0, "!$& d! h!'h&
m!$am!nt! /"$&fan&0, ha+la d! la 2l&s&f)a 8&nia
'&m& /nat$alista0, & d! la $!ligi(n d! l&s K!das
'&m& n /'lt& d! las f!$5as nat$al!s0.
En "$im!$ lga$, !stam&s ah&$a !n '&ndi'i&n!s
d! '&m"$!nd!$ '(m& !s .! !n 'i!$t&s 'as&s las
id!as, !s"!'ialm!nt! las id!as m!taf)si'as &
t!&l(gi'as @.i5#s n& ha, &t$as, "!s las id!as
/'i!nt)2'as0 s&n, !st$i'tam!nt! ha+land&, d! ti"&
t!&l(gi'&A "!d!n '&mni'a$s! m!8&$ '&n s)m+&l&s
visal!s .! v!$+al!s @l&s s)m+&l&s visal!s
in'li$#n, "&$ s"!st&, l&s g!st&s & t&n&s
!m"l!ad&s !n !l $ital, al igal .! las s"!$2'i!s
d! l&s -actibiliaA. 6as palabras, /l&t&0, puskara, "&$
!8!m"l&, s&n las mismas d! 'al.i!$ m&d& !n .!
s! !m"l!!n, paroks t , & pratyaksena, "!$& !l l&t&
d! la i'&n&g$af)a dif)'ilm!nt! "!d! '&nfndi$s!
'&n !l l&t& d!l +&t#ni'&- n a$t! !n .! tal
'&nfsi(n d!vi!n! "&si+l! n& !s ,a n a$t!, n& !s
,a i'&n&g$af)a, sin& s!mi(ti'a. Es 'i!$t& .! !n la
d!'ad!n'ia d!l a$t! l& .! d!+!$)an s!$ s)m+&l&s
s! $!!m"la5an "&$ l& .! s&n sim"l!m!nt! sign&s,
n $!f!$!nt! inf&$mal "&$ &t$& f&$mal- , !n tal!s
ti!m"&s d! d!'ad!n'ia s! '$!! in'ls& .! l&s
im"ls&s d! l&s /7$imitiv&s0 !$an tam+i*n
d!s'$i"tiv&s- s! '$!!, '&m& h!m&s di'h&, .! l&s
!n'antami!nt&s K*di'&s @mantraA s&n
d!s'$i"'i&n!s d! f!n(m!n&s nat$al!s. En s!gnd&
lga$, "$!'isam!nt! !n $!la'i(n '&n !st&, "&d!m&s
ll!ga$ a '&m"$!nd!$ '(m& , "&$ .* !l a$t!
/$!alista0 d!+! '&nsid!$a$s! /d!'ad!nt!0, !s
d!'i$, '&m& n& al'an5and& a l& .! !s "$&"i& d! la
dignidad d!l h&m+$! !n tant& .! h&m+$!, "a$a
.i!n s&n a''!si+l!s n& s(l& l&s mnd&s s!nsi+l!s,
sin& tam+i*n l&s int!ligi+l!s. C&nv!nim&s !n .!
$!sta$and& al l&t& t&d&, & t&d& l& .! "&d!m&s,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d! a.!ll&s a''id!nt!s .! s&n "$&"i&s d!l l&t& d!l
+&t#ni'&, "$&d'im&s n &+8!t& 'a"a5 d! !nga<a$
a n animal; l& .! h!m&s h!'h& as) !s d!8a$ 'la$&
.! n!st$a $!f!$!n'ia !s, , s&lam!nt!, a na
!s"!'i! nat$al , n& a na id!a- n!st$a /&+$a d!
a$t!0 ,a n& !s '$!ativa, /imitativa0 d! na f&$ma
!8!m"la$ia
R
, sin& s(l& n s'!d#n!&, m#s & m!n&s
a"t& "a$a !n'andila$ a l& s!ntid&s. Si las a+!8as
han sid& !nga<adas '&n ?&$!s "intadas, _"&$ .*
n& "$&"&$'i&na$&n tam+i*n mi!l` Cant& m#s /2!l
a la nat$al!5a0 !s na imag!n, tant& m#s mi!nt!.
Mi!nt! !n am+&s s!ntid&s, paroksa , pratyaksa; !l
$!t$at& d! la !s"&sa d!l a$tista "&sand& '&m& la
Mad$! d! Di&s !s inv!$dad!$& !n s im"li'a'i(n d!
s!m!8an5a @!l s!$ d! la Mad$! d! Di&s n& !s !n !l
m&d& hman&A , "&$ &t$a "a$t!, !l $!t$at& d! la
!s"&sa d!l a$tista '&m& tal !s inv!$dad!$& '&n
$!s"!'t& a la af!'ti+ilidad hmana, !n tant& .!
n& "!d! t&ma$ !l lga$ d! la 'a$n! viva @/El &8&
!n s) mism& !s na '&sa m!8&$ .! !l &8& !n tant&
.! "intad& !n la "a$!d0, E'3ha$tA. D! a.) .! !l
ukran tis ra , , IK.B.LD, ha+l! d!l $!t$at& '&m&
/in'!l!stial0, asvargya, , .! l&s d&'t&$!s d!l
Islam d!sa"$!+!n !l a$t! $!"$!s!ntativ& "&$.!
simla la &+$a d!l A$tista S"$!m&, , sin !m+a$g&
!st# d!s"$&vist& d! vida.
A "a$ti$ d! la lit!$at$a v*di'a, "&d$)an
a'mla$s!, "&$ s"!st&, innm!$a+l!s !8!m"l&s
d! la '&$$!s"&nd!n'ia !nt$! l& .! !s '&n&'id& "&$
l&s Eng!l!s d! n m&d&, , "&$ !l h&m+$! d! &t$&.
M! !stas '&$$!s"&nd!n'ias s! '&nsid!$!n '&m&
$!al!s , n!'!sa$ias im"li'a la n&'i(n d! la $!la'i(n
anal(gi'a d!l ma'$&'&sm&s , !l mi'$&'&sm&s, tal
'&m& s! a2$ma d!l m&d& m#s !%"l)'it& !n %it, Br.,
KIII.2, d&nd! 'ada n& d! l&s d&s mnd&s, /*st!0 ,
/a.!l0, !s anur pam _ , /!n la imag!n d!0 !l &t$&.
Y d! h!'h& la "ala+$a paroksa n& s! !n'!nt$a !n
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!l ;g (eda, d&nd! la n&'i(n d! n l!nga8!
ang*li'& distint& d!l d!l h&m+$! s! !%"$!sa m,
'la$am!nt! d! &t$&s m&d&s. Uasta$# 'ita$ I.>DB.>I,
3L , BC; /All) !n la 'm+$! d!l 'i!l& @dyuA 'antan
@mantrA na Sa+id$)a @v c A .! !s &mni1
'&n&'i!nt! @vi v -vid A "!$& n&1&mni1animant!
@avi -vaminva , .i5#s F&mni1dis"&ni!nt!HA0- !s
d!'i$, d! a'!$d& '&n S ,ana, l&s Eng!l!s s!
'&mni'an !nt$! s) !n n l!nga8! &'lt& @guptaA,
.! a+a$'a t&das las '&sas "!$& n& s! !%ti!nd! a,
& n& !s '&m"$!ndid& "&$, t&d&s @na sarva-
vy pakam A. N!vam!nt!, /Cand& !l 7$im!$1
na'id& d! la 6!, @s'. Agni, & !l S&lA s! a'!$'( a m),
!nt&n'!s &+tv! na "a$ti'i"a'i(n d! !sa
Sa+id$)a0. 6& .! s! !nti!nd! "&$ /na0
"a$ti'i"a'i(n a"a$!'! !n !l v!$s& BC, /6a Sa+id$)a
@v c A ha sid& m!dida !n 'at$& g$ad&s @padaA, !l
U$ahmana '&m"$!h!ns&$ l&s '&n&'!; t$!s
mant!nid&s &'lt&s '!$'a @guh nihit A n& 'asan
ningna m&'i(n @na ingayanti, '&m!ntad& "&$
S ,ana na cestante, Fn& '&nti!nd!nH, & Fn& ha'!n
g!st&sHA- l&s h&m+$!s ha+lan s(l& !l 'a$t& g$ad&
d! la Sa+id$)a0. El mantra s! 'ita !n Baim, Up, Br,,
I.L, d&nd! s! di'! .! l&s t$!s g$ad&s s&n l&s @t$!sA
Mnd&s- la n&'i(n !s !vid!nt!m!nt! la misma .!
la d! Maitri Up., KI.D, d&nd! /raj pati /"$&nni'a0
l&s 4$!s Mnd&s .! s&n s manif!sta'i(n @tan @ _
r pa _ A '(smi'a @lokavatA, , !stas
/"$&nn'ia'i&n!s0 @vy hrtih , a sa+!$, Bh r _ ,
Bhuvas, +var @ in!ma parte" me77a, , cima del
mondo d! Dant!A s&n l&s /n&m+$!s0 & /f&$mas0
@n ma A d! l&s Mnd&s. 6a t$i"li'idad d! la
"$&nn'ia'i(n '&$$!s"&nd! a la t$inidad d!l
"$&nn'iad&$, "!s !st&s Mnd&s s&n las !sf!$as
d! iva, U$ahm , Kisn, & Agni, K , @& Ind$aA ,
dit,a `
>I
. 6as t$!s /"$&nn'ia'i&n!s0 s&n sim"l!s,
"!$& !8!m"la$ias- mani2!stan t&das las '&sas, "!$&
abril, 97
158
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
n& las !s"!'i2'an. Estas t$!s "a$t!s d! la Sa+id$)a
@& /Na+la0A s! di'! .! !st#n &'ltas , .! /n&
ha'!n ning9n g!st&0, "&$.!, an.! l&s Mnd&s
s&n m&vid&s por !llas, ellas n& s! m!v!n, sin&
.! s&n s(l& /"!nsadas0 ! imman!nt!s; /Gl las
"i!nsa, , h! a.) .! !llas s&n0 @E'3ha$tA
>>
. Es !l
N&m+$! .i!n al da$ n&m+$!s a las '&sas @n ma-
dheya, ;g (eda, S;L>.>A '&nt$a! ! id!nti2'a @vi-
dh, vy kr , vi-kalpA las '&sas d!nt$& d! la
va$i!dad !n !l ti!m"& , !n !l !s"a'i&, , as)
'&m"l!ta la '$!a'i(n !n ss ti"&s, '&m& ha d!
'&m"$!nd!$s! tam+i*n !n J*n!sis, II.>R12I. 7&$
/N&m+$!0 ha d! '&m"$!nd!$s! n& t9 , ,&
individalm!nt!, sin& !l N&m+$! Pniv!$sal '&m&
7$!s!n'iad&$ @rsiA & !l J!ni& 7&*ti'& @kaviA. N& ha,
im"li'ada a.) ningna d&'t$ina d!l s&li"sism&.
M! /l&s h&m+$!s ha+lan s(l& !l 'a$t& g$ad&
d! Sa+id$)a0 '&$$!s"&nd! a ;g (eda, S.RI.B,
/S(l& n 'a$t& d! Gl na'! a.)0, !s d!'i$, !n !l
ti!m"& , !n !l !s"a'i&. Maitri Up., KII.>> @QA, ,
Mnd_kya Up. A'la$an .! !st! 'a$t&
'&$$!s"&nd! a l&s t$!s !stad&s @ vasatha A &
niv!l!s @sth na A d! s!$, '&n&'id&s '&m& /Kigilia0,
/S!<&0 , /S!<& 7$&fnd&0, mi!nt$as .! l&s
ant!di'h&s t$!s 'a$t&s '&$$!s"&nd!n a !s!
in!s'$ta+l! @anirukta, av cya , !t'.A niv!l d! la
/N&1dalidad0 @d! manif!sta'i(n , n&1
manif!sta'i(n, A"a$a1 , 7a$a1U$ahmanA, d!l .! s!
ha+la '&m& !l /Ca$t&0 '&n $!s"!'t& a l&s t$!s
!stad&s d! /Kigilia0, /S!<&0, , /S!<&
7$&fnd&0.
_C(m& "&d!m&s d!t!$mina$ "!s !l niv!l d!
$!f!$!n'ia paroksa m#s !%a'tam!nt!` 6&s /t$!s
'a$t&s d! Gl0, !l Ca$t& !stad&, 7a$a+$ahman, la
/Divinidad0 d! E'3ha$t, !st# !%'lid& d!l
"$&+l!ma, dad& .! all) la '&m"$!nsi(n n& !s ni
"!nsada ni ha+lada- "&$ &t$a "a$t!, !l l!nga8!
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
paroksa n& !s 'i!$tam!nt! ina''!si+l! a l&s s!$!s
hman&s, "!st& .! l&s mant$as v*di'&s , &t$as
!s'$it$as t$adi'i&nal!s ha+ladas !n !st! l!nga8!
s&n a''!si+l!s a 'al.i!$ !stdiant!. N!st$a
indaga'i(n d!+! '&m!n5a$ a "a$ti$ d! la indi'a'i(n
dada d! .! !l niv!l d! $!f!$!n'ia !s adhidaivata,
/ang*li'&0, !n tant& .! distingid& d! adhy tma
& m nusa , /.! ti!n! na $!f!$!n'ia a n&
mism&0, , /hmana0 & /m&$tal0. _M* !s
/ang*li'&0, , .* /hman&0`. En t*$min&s d! la
2l&s&f)a !s'&l#sti'a, /"$am!nt! int!ligi+l!0 ,,
/$a'i&nal0, $!s"!'tivam!nt!, , n& "&d$)a da$s!
ningna $!s"!sta m!8&$ !n na f&$ma tan +$!v!.
6&s #ng!l!s, sin !m+a$g&, s&n d! m'has
8!$a$.)as , ($d!n!s; Di&s mism& !s Mah d!va, !l
Eng!l S"$!m& & D!vad!v n m1D!vOtid!va, !l
Eng!l d! l&s Eng!l!s @'f. /R!% ang!l&$m0A, , "&$
&t$a "a$t!, "!d! ha+la$s! in'ls& d! las "&t!n'ias
d!l alma individal '&m& dev h . En 'al.i!$
'as&, /El $!in& d! l&s 'i!l&s !st# d!nt$& d!
v&s&t$&s0, /4&das las d!idad!s $!sid!n !n !l
ad!nt$& hman&0 @Ula3!A, d&nd! /d!nt$& d!
v&s&t$&s0 !s antarbh tasya khe _ , , /ad!nt$&0 !s
hrdaya- 'f. Baim, Up. Br., I.>B, mavy et h sarv
devat bhavanti , /t&d&s l&s Eng!l!s !st#n !n
m)0. /Nman&0, "&$ &t$a "a$t!, '&m& "$!+a la
!.ival!n'ia adhy tma @ m nusa , , la
'&$$!la'i(n d! la '&m"$!nsi(n /Nman&0 '&n l&s
t$!s !stad&s d! /Kigilia0, /S!<&0 , /S!<&
7$&fnd&0 @, n& m!$am!nt! '&n !l "$im!$& d!
*st&sA, n& ti!n! s(l& na '&nn&ta'i(n /'&$"($!a0,
sin& na '&nn&ta'i(n .! im"li'a t&das las
!%t!nsi&n!s , t$ans"&si'i&n!s d! la individalidad.
El !stad& d! S!<& 7$&fnd&, !n "a$ti'la$, an.!
s"$a1individal, !s t&dav)a /hman&0, "!st& .!
si!m"$! !s "&si+l! na v!lta d!sd! !sta
'&ndi'i(n a la d! la '&$"&$!idad, "&$ la v)a d!l
abril, 97
160
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
avatarana, /!n'a$na'i(n !s"!'ial0, & !n la v!lta
d!l sam dhi a la '&ns'i!n'ia d!l mnd&. Es
"!$f!'tam!nt! 'la$& "&$ tant& .! la '&m"$!nsi(n
paroksa , pratyaksa n& !st#n divididas "&$ n
m$& im"asa+l! @,a h!m&s vist& .! /!st&0 ,
/a.!ll&0 s&n !n la imag!n n& d!l &t$&A, sin& .!
!n ss g$ad&s $!"$!s!ntan na 8!$a$.)a d! ti"&s
d! '&ns'i!n'ia .! s! !%ti!nd!n d!sd! !l animal
hasta la d!idad, , s!g9n l&s 'al!s n& , !l mism&
individ& "!d! fn'i&na$ !n dif!$!nt!s &'asi&n!s.
S(l& "&d!m&s d!t!$mina$ !l /niv!l d! $!f!$!n'ia0
a+s&ltam!nt! si '&n2nam&s n!st$a at!n'i(n a
las '&ndi'i&n!s limitativas.
Si "$!gntam&s !n !st! s!ntid& a .* niv!l d!
'&ns'i!n'ia la '&m"$!nsi(n m!taf)si'a @paroksa
j na A !n &mnis2'i!nt!, , la $!f!$!n'ia
!s"!')2'a s"!$?a, la $!s"!sta "!d!
!n'&nt$a$s! !n ;g (eda I.>DB.>I, divo prsthe /!n
la !s"alda @!s d!'i$, smidadA d!l 'i!l&0, "!s !s
all) d&nd! l&s Eng!l!s s! '&mni'an n&s '&n &t$&s
d! na man!$a "$am!nt! paroksa, llam#nd&s! a
n tal ha+la$ n 'anta$ @mantrayante, /!ll&s
in'antan0A, , all) d&nd! la /"$&nn'ia'i(n0 d!l 1
/Eng!l d! l&s Eng!l!s0 s! /!s''ha0
"$im&$dialm!nt!. Es d!'i$, !n !l 7a$a)s& d!
U$ahm s!g9n s! d!s'$i+! !n 0aus taki Up , ., I.33
sigs., m#s all# d! la /"!$ta d! l&s mnd&s0 S&la$,
ga$dada "&$ Agni, !l Eng!l d! la Es"ada
Wlam)g!$a. En !l l!nga8! hman& @m nusa A, !s&
s! llama /S!<& 7$&fnd&0, "!$& ha+land&
ang*li'am!nt!, /7$a Int!lig!n'ia0 @prajA0- /!s
na '&m"$!nsi(n ni2'ada , sim"l! @ek bh tah , _
praj na-ghana A0
>2
, M nd kya Up _ ., ,
'a$a't!$i5ada "&$ /la '!sa'i(n d! la '&ns'i!n'ia d!
l&s "a$ti'la$!s0, +arvopanisats ra , L. 6&s
!.ival!nt!s +distas s&n !l S3h vat , !l ,
San+h&ga3 ,a- l&s '$istian&s, s&n !l Ci!l& Em")$!&
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
& !l Ci!l& Sin M&'i(n- all) !st# la /"a5 .! $!+&sa
la '&m"$!nsi(n0, K!nid a M), , Y& &s da$*
d!s'ans&0, si!nd& !s! d!s'ans& "$!'isam!nt!
n!st$& /S!<& 7$&fnd&0. N& !s n!'!sa$i& d!'i$
.! !l d!s'ans& , !l s!<&, .! !n !l niv!l d!
$!f!$!n'ia d! la /Kigilia0 s(l& "!d!n
$!"$!s!nta$s! '&m& na va'an'ia ! in'&ns'i!n'ia,
s&n !n !l niv!l d!l /S!<& 7$&fnd&0 na a'tividad
"$!!min!nt! , '$!ativa. /S!<&0 , /S!<&
7$&fnd&0 n& s&n lga$!s, sin& '&ndi'i&n!s d!l s!$,
/'&m"l!tam!nt! '&nt!nid&s !n la '#ma$a va')a
d!l '&$a5(n0, guh nihitam" antarbh tasya khe" _
antarhrdayk e . Na, d!nt$& d! n&s&t$&s
/niv!l!s d! $!f!$!n'ia ang*li'&s "$am!nt!
int!ligi+l!0.
El t!%t& d! M nd kya Up, _ , C, '&ntin9a,
an nda-mayo hy nanda-bhuk , /!n la m&dalidad
d!l G%tasis, sa+&$!and& !l Am&$0. A.) nanda
$!"$!s!nta la t$ansf&$ma'i(n @par vrtti A
>3
d!l am&$
'a$nal, d! la misma man!$a .! praj $!"$!s!nta
la t$ansf&$ma'i(n d! la '&m"$!nsi(n 'a$nal- !l
Am&$ !s, !n !l s!ntid& d! E'3ha$t, /N&s&t$&s
d!s!am&s na '&sa mi!nt$as n& la "&s!!m&s.
Cand& la t!n!m&s, la amam&s, d!sa"a$!'i!nd&
!nt&n'!s !l d!s!&0. El s!$ '!l!stial !s "!s a la
v!5 int!l!'tal , !%t#ti'&. C&n !sta '&n'!"'i(n, ,
!n $!la'i(n '&n l& .! ,a s! ha di'h& '&n $!s"!'t&
a l&s niv!l!s d! $!f!$!n'ia !n !l a$t!, "!d! 'ita$s!
la d!2ni'i(n d! la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a
@rassv dana , /!l sa+&$!& d! la tint$a0A !n !l
+ hitya 6arpana , III.21B, '&m& nanda-cin-maya
/!n !l m&d& d! *%tasis ! int!l!'t&0, lok9tttara-
camatk ra-pr nah /d! l& 'al la vida !s n
$!l#m"ag& s"!$s!nsal0, vedyntara-spar a-
nyah _ /sin '&nta't& d! nada m#s '&n&'id&0,
brahmsv da-sah9darah /!l g!m!l& mism& d!l
sa+&$!& d!l U$ahman0, , sacetas m anubhavah
abril, 97
162
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
pram nam tatra kevalam , /d! l& 'al la 9ni'a
!vid!n'ia !s la d! l&s h&m+$!s int!l!'tal!s0.
Nasta a.) n& h!m&s t&mad& !n '&nsid!$a'i(n
.! pratyaksa @h aparoksa, sks t A !s d! d&s
ti"&s m, dif!$!nt!s, '&n $!s"!'t& a las 'al!s
paroksa &'"a n lga$ int!$m!di&. El pratyaksa
'&nsid!$ad& hasta ah&$a !s samvyavah rika
/mndanal0 & /"$#'ti'&0, "$&"i& al m&d& d! s!$
hman&. 7!$& ha, tam+i*n n paramrthika-
pratyaksa @h aparoksa-sks t A .! t$as'i!nd!
in'ls& l&s m&d&s d! '&m"$!nsi(n , '&mni'a'i(n
ang*li'&s. En n m&d& &t$&, niv!$salm!nt! &
!s"!')2'am!nt!, /!l S) Mism& @ tman A '&n&'!
t&d&. 7!$& d&nd! la '&m"$!nsi(n @vij na A !s sin
dalidad @advaitaA, lim"ia d! 'asa, !f!'t&, ,
&"!$a'i(n, sin "ala+$as, in'&m"a$a+l!, !
in!%"li'a+l!] _.* !s !s&`. Es& n& "!$t!n!'! al
ha+la @tad av cyam A0, Maitri Up., KI.L C&m& s!
di'! !n &t$a "a$t!, /Est! U$ahman !s sil!n'i&0. D!l
'&n&'imi!nt& !n !st! s!ntid&, .! n& !s !l d! l&s
s!ntid&s ni !l d!l int!l!'t&, s! ha+la '&m& !vid!nt!
@pratyaksa, sks t A s(l& anal(gi'am!nt!, '&n
$!s"!'t& a s inm!diat!5. Es aparoksa !n am+&s
s!ntid&s, '&m& /at&1!vid!nt!0, , /n&1sim+(li'&0.
Es& .! !s a8!n& a t&d& ha+la @av cya A, ,
t$ansmndan& @avyavah rika A, !s a8!n&
igalm!nt! a la '&m"$!nsi(n samvyavah rika-
pratyaksa , a la '&m"$!nsi(n paroksa, "!s am+&s
!st#n !n !l d&mini& d! avidy, d&nd! s! ha+la d!
las '&sas !n na s!m!8an5a. All), n& ha, ni sign&s
ni s)m+&l&s, ni $!f!$!n'ia ni $!f!$!nt!- /!ll&0 s(l&
"!d! $!ali5a$s! inm!diatam!nt!, m#s all# d!
t&d&s l&s niv!l!s d! $!f!$!n'ia.
7!d! &+s!$va$s! .! '&n $!s"!'t& a l&s t$!s
ti"&s d! $!f!$!n'ia, hman&, ang*li'& ,
t$ans'!nd!ntal, !l &8& @aksa, caksuA s! sa '&m& !l
s)m+&l& d! la "!$'!"'i(n "&$ l&s s!ntid&s @d!
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
h!'h& & anal(gi'am!nt!A, !l &)d& '&n $!s"!'t& a la
$!f!$!n'ia int!l!'tal, '&nsid!$ad& '&m&
/adi'i(n0 m#s .! '&m& &)d&, "!s !n !st!
s!ntid&, /"&$ !l &)d&0 @ rotrena A, !s !.ival!nt! a
paroksa, /n& "&$ !l &8&0, d&nd! /&8&0 $!"$!s!nta
l&s s!ntid&s !%t!$n&s. En la t!$min&l&g)a .!
!stam&s !%aminand&, ha, !n '!sti(n t$!s /&8&s0
dif!$!nt!s, a sa+!$, !l &8& 'a$nal & la fa'ltad
int$)ns!'a @m msa-caksu A d!l &8&, !l &8& ang*li'&
@divya-caksuA, , !l &8& d! la sa+id$)a @j na-
caksu, !t'.A. El /'&n&'imi!nt&0 a''!si+l! a l&s d&s
"$im!$&s d! *st&s !s n '&n&'imi!nt& m!$am!nt!
$!lativ& & fals& @avidyA- s(l& !l d!l 9ltim& !s n
'&n&'imi!nt& v!$dad!$& @vidyA !n na mismidad
indif!$!n'iada. 6a '&m"$!nsi(n ang*li'a, "&$
'ant& in'&$"&$a !l!m!nt&s d! mlti"li'idad,
"!$man!'! /$!lativa0 @avidyA, an.! !n s
niv!l m#s alt&, sm!$gida !n la nidad, !s
vi$talm!nt! a+s&lta @vidyA.
_C(m& d!+!$)an t$ad'i$s! !nt&n'!s l&s
t*$min&s paroksa , pratyaksaP 6&s t$ad't&$!s d!
l&s "asa8!s 'itad&s a$$i+a han t$ad'id& paroksa
'&m& sig!;
>B
/m)sti'&0 & /!s&t*$i'&0 @Egg!lingA,
/'$)"ti'&0 @Nm! , CalandA, /mist!$i&s&0 @Ma%
MVll!$ , K!ithA, /in'(gnit&0 @S. Sita$am Sast$iA, /n&
$!'&n&'i+l!0, /&'lt&0 @O!$t!lA, /indi$!'t&0
@Sa$"A. 6! 7. Dand&, t$ad'! /m*diat0, !n
'&nt$ast! '&n @paramrthika-A pratyaksa,
/inmm*diat0
>C
. 7a$a l&s t*$min&s !m"a$!8ad&s,
paroksa , @vyavah rika- A pratyaksa ,a h!m&s
!m"l!ad& & sg!$im&s ah&$a; ang*li'&, humanoO
indi$!'t&, directoO sim+(li'&, semiCticoO n&m!nal,
-enomHnicoO niv!$sal, particularO t!&$*ti'&,
pr>cticoO a+st$a't&, concretoO int!ligi+l!, sensibleO
m!taf($i'&, literal.
Ent$! !st&s t*$min&s, /indi$!'t&0 , /di$!'t&0
s&n 'la$am!nt! satisfa't&$i&s '&n $!s"!'t& a las
abril, 97
164
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d!2ni'i&n!s "$am!nt! g$amati'al!s, , !n la &t$a
$!la'i(n /di$!'t&0 ti!n! ad!m#s la v!nta8a d!
'&$$!s"&nd!$ a am+&s s!ntid&s d! pratyaksa.
/Inm!diat&0 !s !vid!nt!m!nt! satisfa't&$i& "a$a
paramrthika-pratyaksa, "!$& /m!diat&0 !s
!vid!nt!m!nt! insatisfa't&$i& "a$a paroksa, !n
tant& .! l&s Eng!l!s san m!n&s m!di&s , n&
m#s, .! l&s h&m+$!s- samvyavah rika-pratyaksa
n& !s /inm!diat&0 !n !l s!ntid& t*'ni'& d! !sta
"ala+$a, sin& m!$am!nt! /perceptible
sensiblemente0, & m#s +i!n /*ue tiene un
re-erente perceptible0. 7a$a paroksa, han d!
!vita$s!, 'i!$tam!nt!, l&s t*$min&s .! im"li.!n
in'&m"$!nsi+ilidad
>D
, "!st& .! paroksa !s
"$!'isam!nt! l& /int!ligi+l!0 !n '&nt$ast! '&n l&
/s!nsi+l!0- /&+s'$&0 , /mist!$i&s&0 !st#n "!s
!%'lid&s, "!$& /s!'$!t&0 /&'lt&0 @!l gupta d!
S ,anaA n& s&n in'&$$!'t&s
>L
. /M)sti'&0 !s
d!saf&$tnad& al t!n!$ na '&nn&ta'i(n distinta
d!, ! /inf!$i&$0 a, la d! /m!ta2si'&0, , tam+i*n
"&$.! /m)sti'&0 s! '&nfnd! a m!nd& '&n
/mist!$i&s&0. /Es&t*$i'&0, !n $!la'i(n a
/!%&t*$i'&0, $!"$!s!nta n ti"& d! distin'i(n
dif)'ilm!nt! a"$&"iad& "a$a la m!taf)si'a. /O'lt&0
!s !%'!l!nt!, si "!d! ha'!$s! !vid!nt! .! s!
!%'l,!n '&m"l!tam!nt! l&s signi2'ad&s
as&'iad&s ah&$a '&n !l /&'ltism&0. /Ang*li'&0 !n
$!la'i(n a /hman&0 !s '&$$!'t& !n $!f!$!n'ia,
"!$& n& !s na t$ad''i(n. Sg!$im&s '&m& las
t$ad''i&n!s m#s d!s!a+l!s, "a$a @vyavah rika- A
pratyaksa, ,a s!a /di$!'t&0, /!vid!nt!0, /&+vi&0 &
/s!mi(ti'&0- "a$a paroksa, ,a s!a /indi$!'t&0,
/m!taf)si'&0, /&'lt&0, /niv!$sal0, /a+st$a't&0, &
/sim+(li'&0- "a$a paramrthika-pratyaksa @h
aparoksa" sks t A, /inm!diat&0.
Pna '!sti(n a9n; !n la !%"$!si(n a m!nd&
$!'$$!nt! paroksa-priy iva dev h , /priy0 n&
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d!+! t$ad'i$s! "&$ /s!$ amad&$ d!0, "&$.! la
'&m"$!nsi(n paroksa !s na "$&"i!dad ang*li'a,
.! n& d!"!nd! d! la !l!''i(n sin& d! la
nat$al!5a- sin dda !s 'i!$t& .! l&s Eng!l!s
/aman l& .! !s s "$&"i&0 @!s d!'i$, n& .!$$)an
s!$ &t$a '&sa .! l& .! s&nA, "!$& n& "&d!m&s
im"li'a$ '&n !ll& .! !st! /am&$0 s!a na
/af!''i(n0 :*l !s s s!$, n& n a''id!nt! d!l s!$-
>Q
'f. Maitri Up., KI.3B, /6& .! !s !l "!nsami!nt& d!
n&, !s& *l d!vi!n!0, , simila$m!nt!
6hammapada, I.>.2. 6a 9ltima '&nsid!$a'i(n n&s
$!'!$da .! !n la m!dida !n .! !l h&m+$!
!m"l!a , '&m"$!nd! l&s m!di&s d! '&mni'a'i(n
ang*li'&s, !l /l!nga8! d! l&s "#8a$&s0, *l !s d!l
ti"& ang*li'& @/!l int!l!'t& !s !l m#s v!l&5 d! l&s
"#8a$&s0, mano javistham patayatsu antah, ;g
(eda, KI.R.CA- mi!nt$as .! !n la m!dida !n .!
ss '&mni'a'i&n!s , '&m"$!nsi(n s! limitan a las
/mat!$ias d! h!'h&0, *l n& !st# m!$am!nt! /n
"&'& "&$ d!+a8&0 sin& in2nitam!nt! /"&$ d!+a8&
d! l&s Eng!l!s0.
CAPTULO V. PAROKSA. NOTAS
>
En ingl*s, a m!nd& distingim&s l&s t*$min&s
paroksa '&n ma,9s'las- "&$ !8!m"l&, al distingi$
S!lf @S) mism&A d! s!lf @s) mism&A, $!"$!s!ntad&s
am+&s !n !l s#ns'$it& tman , & 'and& s!
disting! C$&ss @C$5A '&m& s)m+&l& d! tal!s
'$'!s '&m& s! $!"$!s!ntan !n la l!t$a %.
2
yasm d dev h , an3a$O' $,a s&+$! %it,
Up., III.>B- t$ad'id& m#s li+$!m!nt!, /"!s,
'i!$tam!nt!, l& .! l&s Eng!l!s s&n !s
Int!lig!n'ias 7$as0.
3
Cf. Brhad r, Up, , I.B.>L, /K!$dad!$am!nt!, "&$
la "!$'!"'i(n @caksusA Gl !nt$a !n "&s!si(n d!
ss "&s!si&n!s @vittaA hmanas @m nusa A0.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
B
6a i'&n&g$af)a @pratim karana A '&m& a$t!
!%ist!nt! ha d! distingi$s! d! la i'&n&g$af)a
@r pa-bheda _ A '&m& 'i!n'ia, 9til & n!'!sa$ia "a$a
!l a$tista & !l !stdiant!.
C
%nukrti !s /imita'i(n0 !n !l s!ntid& d! %rs
imitatur naturam in sua operatione, l& .! no
signi2'a imitatur entem naturatam, n!st$&
!nt&$n&.
6a misma n&'i(n !st# im"l)'ita !n m'h&s
"asa8!s d!l ;g (edaO "&$ !8!m"l&, K.2.>> d&nd! !l
a$t! d! la !n'anta'i(n @mantra, 'f. mantrayanti '&n
$!f!$!n'ia a la int!$'&mni'a'i(n ang*li'a, =dem.,
I.>DB.>IA s! '&m"a$a al d! n 'a$"int!$& & t!8!d&$.
D
A.) "!d! $!"$!s!nta$s! n "nt& d! vista
.! igala la /'$)ti'a0 , la /$!"$&d''i(n0, '&m&
s! da 'i!$tam!nt! !n la !st*ti'a india "&st!$i&$.
L
Tipos /sicolCgicos, ". DI>.
Q
6a /Nat$al!5a0 a.) !n !l s!ntid& "&"la$ d!
ens naturata, !l !nt&$n& f!n&m*ni'&. El /'lt& a la
Nat$al!5a0 !n !st! s!ntid& im"li'a n
/"ant!)sm&0. N& !s "$!'is& d!'i$ .! la
/Nat$al!5a0, int!$"$!tada a n niv!l d! $!f!$!n'ia
m#s alt&, a sa+!$, '&m& natura naturans @h prakrti,
m y , !t'.A, , la /Nat$al!5a0 '&m& la /Mad$!
d!l Ni8& d! Di&s0 ti!n!n am+as la misma $!f!$!n'ia
@!s "&$ la d! Ella '&m& Gl t&ma la nat$al!5a
hmanaA. /7a$a !n'&nt$a$ a la nat$al!5a misma0
@!n !st! s!ntid&A /han d! $&m"!$s! t&das ss
s!m!8an5as0 @E'3ha$tA. Es! i'&n&'lasm& "!d!
!f!'ta$s! d! d&s man!$as dif!$!nt!s,
$!s"!'tivam!nt! paroksat , pratyaksena; !n !l
"$im!$ 'as&, int!l!'talm!nt!, ha'i!nd& las
$!f!$!n'ias a"$&"iadas- !n !l s!gnd& 'as&,
+$talm!nt!, "&$ na /d!st$''i(n d! l&s )d&l&s0
lit!$al.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
R
S manif!sta'i(n int$)ns!'a @svar pa _ A !s la
manif!sta'i(n d! '&sas m, dif!$!nt!s
@vi var pa _ A.
>I
Cand& s! ha+la d!l S!<&$ @ vara , A !n S
as"!'t& nita$i&, la 7ala+$a Na+lada !s 9ni'a.
>>
En tant& .! la Sa+id$)a s! mid! !n "a$t!s,
n& "!d! a$gm!nta$s! .! /&'lt&s '!$'a0
signi2'a s(l& in potentia, !n la Divinidad,
7a$a+$ahman, solus ante principium, p rna _
apravartin, d&nd! las '&sas n& s&n si.i!$a
/"!nsadas0 +a8& !l as"!'t& d! la distin'i(n
'&nting!nt!. /O'lt&0, !t'. !s !.ival!nt! a in
principio.
>2
$hana, d! ghan, g&l"!a$, im"!di$, !t'., ti!n!
n s!ntid& "$ima$i& d! /masa d!nsa0, .! im"li'a
na '&nd!nsa'i(n d! fa't&$!s m9lti"l!s sin
!%t!nsi(n !n !l !s"a'i&. D! a.) /sim"l!0 &
/!s!n'ial0; & praj na-ghana "&d$)a t$ad'i$s!
m#s li+$!m!nt! '&m& /'&m"$!nsi(n !8!m"la$ia0.
>3
Cf. mi /7a$v$tti h 4$ansf&$mati&n,
$!g!n!$ati&n, Anag&g,0, !n Kestschri-t Arnst
Minternit7, >R33.
>B
En l& .! sig!, las n&'i&n!s pratyaksa s!
disting!n d! n!v& "&$ l!t$a +asta$dilla.
>C
J. Dand&,, S. =., :)3ntologie du (ednta
@7a$)s, >R32A, ". >2C.
En Brhad r, Up, , III.B.2, Nm! t$ad'! sksat
aparoksa @!.ival!nt! a paramrthika pratyaksaA
"&$ /"$!s!nt! , n& m#s all# d! n!st$a vista0. 7!$&
!l signi2'ad& !s /inm!diatam!nt!0, n& '&m& s!
im"li'a as), /&+8!tivam!nt!0. /N& m#s all# d!
n!st$a vista0 d!svi$t9a !l s!ntid&- !l U$ahman,
.! !s !l S) Mism& !n n&s&t$&s , !n t&das las
'&sas @'&m& s! d!sta'a !n !l t!%t& mism&A n&
"!d! s!$ n &+8!t& d! '&n&'imi!nt&.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
S53i, :ankvat ra + tra _ , ". SSKI, t$ad'!
@paramrthika-A pratyaksa "&$ /"!n!t$a'i(n
intitiva0.
St'h!$+ats3,, Buddhist :ogic, II.2QB, al t$ad'i$
n "asa8! d!l K 'as"atimit$a !n !l .! la
"$!snta id!ntidad d! n &+8!t& '&n&'id& !n !l
"asad& , !n !l "$!s!nt! s! !n'!nt$a s&m!tida a
!%am!n, t$ad'! paroksa, .! 'ali2'a la '&gni'i(n
"$!via, '&m& /t$as'i!nd! la visi(n0, , aparoksa,
.! 'ali2'a la '&gni'i(n "$!s!nt! '&m& /n&
t$as'i!nd! la visi(n0, , !st& !n !l '&nt!%t& dad&
"a$!'! s!$ t&talm!nt! l!g)tim&. 4am+i*n =dem., ".
333, n. >, /l&s &+8!t&s s! divid!n !n @>\A h!'h&s
!vid!nt!s @pratyaksaA, @2\A h!'h&s inf!$id&s
@paroksaA d! l&s .! @si'A h!m&s t!nid&
ant!$i&$m!nt! algna !%"!$i!n'ia, , @3\A h!'h&s
m, &'lt&s @atyanta-paroksa @ in-tu-lkog-pa A
.! s&n & +i!n !ntidad!s t$ans'!nd!ntal!s &
inimagina+l!s, & +i!n h!'h&s nn'a
!%"!$im!ntad&s, "!$& n& &+stant! n&
inimagina+l!s.
M nasa-pratyaksa !s /at!n'i(n0
@St'h!$+ats3,, l&'. 'it., II.32Q, n. 2A.
Mi$, 4!%t&s S#ns'$it&s, IK.22, t$ad'! paroksa,
"&$ /!s&t*$i'am!nt!0. /7a$ad(8i'&0, /!nigm#ti'&0
& /mist!$i&s&0 s!$)an t$ad''i&n!s satisfa't&$ias
s(l& si s! t&man !n ss s!ntid&s !st$i'tam!nt!
t*'ni'&s.
>D
N& "!nsam&s .! !l l!nga8! t*'ni'& d! na
'i!n'ia !s"!'ial s!a /&+s'$&0, ni tam"&'&
/'$)"ti'&0 & /!s&t*$i'&0, m!$am!nt! "&$.! '&m&
l!g&s n& "&dam&s '&m"$!nd!$l&. An.! la
m!taf)si'a n& !s na 'i!n'ia !s"!'ial, la anal&g)a
!s s2'i!nt!m!nt! v#lida.
>L
$uhya @/&'lt&0A !s f$!'!nt!m!nt! !l
!.ival!nt! d! paroksa; "&$ !8!m"l&, !n ;g (eda,
K.C.>I, /D&nd! .i!$a .! s!a, Oh Kanas"ati
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@AgniA, .! t9 '&n&'!s l&s n&m+$!s &'lt&s @guhyaA
d! l&s Eng!l!s, t$ansmit! all) n!st$as &f$!ndas0.
>Q
K!$ n&ta 2 d!l 'a")tl& K- , 'f. padmapriy,
.! 'a$a't!$i5a a $ 16a3sm , , , r s kta , _ , 2C,
d&nd! d! n!v& -priy n& im"li'a /!l!''i(n0 sin&
/nat$al!5a0.
CAPTULO VI
" SA
bh sa ` , lit!$alm!nt! /+$illa$ "&$ $!?!8&0,
/$!?!8&0, /s!m!8an5a0 s! di'! d!l s) mism&
individal @j va , A '&n $!s"!'t& al U$ahman
@(ednta + tra _ , II.3.CI, d&nd! an3a$O' $,a
!%"li'a bh sa '&m& /'&nt$a1imag!n0, &
/$!?!8&0, pratibimbaA. En t!%t&s t!)stas, tal!s '&m&
l&s d!l aivism& d!l n&$t!, bh sa im"li'a !l
mnd& '&n'!+id& '&m& na t!&fan)a. El v!$dad!$&
S) Mism& /s! '&nt$a1v! a S) mism&0 $!?!8ad& !n
las "&si+ilidad!s d!l s!$ @/acavim a Br hmana ,
KII.Q.>A, '&m& la "int$a d!l mnd& @jagac-citraA
"intada "&$ !l S) Mism& !n !l li!n5& d!l S) Mism&
@ an3a$O' $,aA
>
. /Gl ilmina @bh sayati A !st&s
mnd&s] Gl al!g$a @ranjayati, F'&l&$!aHA !st&s
mnd&s0 @Maitri Upanisad, KI.LA- !s d!'i$, /Di&s
hi5& al h&m+$! !n S "$&"ia imag!n0- bh sa !s la
/l5 "&$taimag!n0 !n "ala+$as d! E'3ha$t- 'f.
citra-bh sa , ;g (eda, KI.>I.3, sar pa jyoti _ , =dem.,
S.CC.3, bh -r pa _ , Maitri Upanisad, KI.B. bh sa ` ,
"!s, , citra, /a$t!0, s&n fndam!ntalm!nt!
/imag!n0, , d!+!n t&da la $!alidad .! ti!n!n a
Es& ',a imag!n $!?!8an.
En !l s& ilpa , '&m& h! m&st$ad& !n B%3+.,
S6KIII.2C>, bh sa signi2'a /"int$a0, , n& alg9n
mat!$ial mist!$i&s& , "&$ l& d!m#s d!s'&n&'id&,
'&m& sgi!$! A'ha$,a, 6ictionary o- &indu
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
%rchitecture, ". D3 , M nas ra , ". L>. Of$!5'&
ah&$a !n a"&,& d!l mism& "nt& d! vista la
t$ad''i(n d! n t!%t& n& 'itad& "&$ A'ha$,a, a
sa+!$, !l 0 yapa ilpa , Ca". 6, /ratim -laksana ,
vv. >1L @ nandO $ ma S!$i!s, N\ RC, ". >DLA; `
>. Ati!nd! '&n la m!nt! n)v&'am!nt! di$igida
a la !%"&si'i(n d! las 'a$a't!$)sti'as d! las
im#g!n!s, las inm&vi+l!s, las m&vi+l!s , las .!
s&n tant& m&vi+l!s '&m& inm&vi+l!s, .! f&$man
na 'las! d! t$!s
2
.
2. 6as h!'has d! t!$$a'&ta @mrnmayaA & a$'illa
@ rkara A, d! !st'& @sauyajaA, & "intadas @l!)d&
alekhyam, 'f. lekhyam !n ukran tis ra , , IK.B.LIA,
s&n las inm(vil!s- las h!'has d! "i!d$a, mad!$a,
min!$al @dh tu , "&si+l!m!nt! 8ad!A, & g!ma.
3. S&n tant& inm&vi+l!s '&m& m&vi+l!s- las d!
m!tal @lohaA s&n las inm&vi+l!s. @Ad!m#sA ardha-
citra, citra , citrbh sa f&$man na 'las! d! t$!s,
B. @d! las 'al!sA ardha-citra @s!mi1
$!"$!s!nta'i(n, $!li!v! alt&A !s na imag!n !n la
.! la mitad d!l '!$"& n& s! v! @l!)d&
ardhngadar anam A, citra @$!"$!s!nta'i(n
'&m"l!taA !s 'and& la imag!n s! v! '&m"l!ta
@sarvyavasamdrstamA
3
,
C. @YA bh sa @"int$aA s! di'! '&n $!s"!'t& a
na imag!n !n n li!n5& & m$& @a la .! s! ha'!
"a$!'!$ '&m& si !stvi!$aA !n $!li!v! @nimn9nnate
pate bhittauA. @Ad!m#sA, ardha-citra s! ha'! !n
,!s& @sudhA, , s mitad !st# !n !l "&d!$ d! la
&t$a $!"$!s!nta'i(n '&m"l!ta @citraA,
D. @YA bh sa @"int$aA ha d! ha'!$s! '&n
'&l&$!s min!$al!s @dh tu A
B
, , as) tam+i*n citrrdha
@h ardha-citraA. 7!$& las "int$as @citrbh sa A d!
l&s Eng!l!s s&n @tam+i*nA d! t$!s ti"&s, ("timas,
int!$m!dias, , +!nas,
7. @7&$ !8!m"l&A, n +asam!nt& @p tha , A d!
lad$ill& @lis&A !s +!n&, &t$& "intad& @ bh saka A
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!s m!8&$, , &t$& d! $!li!v! d! t!$$a'&ta "intada
@ bh srdham mrnmayam A !s !l m!8&$.
Ot$a f!nt! n& 'itada "&$ A'ha$,a !s !l
ilparatna , S6KI.>12- a.) citra, ardha-citra, ,
citrbh sa s! disting!n simila$m!nt!, si!nd& la
"$im!$a sarvnga-dr yakaranam , /.! ti!n!
t&das ss "a$t!s visi+l!s0, la s!gnda bhitty dau
lagna-bh venpy-ardham , /'and& la mitad d! s
s!$ !st# adh!$id& a n m$& & s"!$2'i! "a$!'ida0,
, la t!$'!$a s! m!n'i&na '&m& na vilekhanam
/"int$a0, , m#s ad!lant!, '&m& lekhyam
n n -varnnvitam , /"intada '&n !l s& d!
m'h&s '&l&$!s0. 4am+i*n s! a2$ma .! citra, ,
citrrdha "!d!n ha'!$s! !n a$'illa & ,!s&,
mad!$a, "i!d$a & m!tal.
bh sa ` s! sa !n l&s t!%t&s il"a tam+i*n !n
&t$& s!ntid&
C
, '&n $!f!$!n'ia a la nidad d! m!dida
a"$&"iada "a$a !m"l!a$s! !n l&s div!$s&s ti"&s d!
!di2'i&s, si!nd& las 'at$& nidad!s !s"!'i2'adas
j ti , !l '&d& !nt!$& @hastaA, chanda, t$!s 'a$t&s
d! '&d&, vikalpa @n& d!2nid&A, , bh sa , m!di&
'&d&. Estas nidad!s s! !m"l!an $!s"!'tivam!nt!
!n la '&nst$''i(n "a$a Di&s!s , U$ahman!s,
Ksat$i,as, Kai ,as , d$as. 7&$ l& tant&, !st# _
'la$& .! bh sa $!"$!s!nta a.) la m!n&$ !n
na s!$i! d! m&di2'a'i&n!s & t$ansf&$ma'i&n!s d!
na nidad !nt!$a. Est! signi2'ad& !s
'&m"l!tam!nt! '&nsist!nt! '&n !l d! bh sa ,
/"int$a0, '&nsid!$ada '&m& na m&di2'a'i(n d!
citra, /$!"$!s!nta'i(n '&m"l!ta0, '&n !l d!
rasbh sa , /s!m!8an5a d! sa+&$0 !n la
t!$min&l&g)a alam3 $a, '&n !l d! vastrbhasa,
/s!m!8an5a d! v!stid&s0 !n na "int$a
@/acada,, KI.DA, '&n !l d! cid- bh sa , /$!?!8&
d! la int!lig!n'ia a+s&lta0, =dem., L, , '&n !l d!
bh sa '&m& /t!&fan)a0.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
bh sa-gata ` a"a$!'! !n Kas+andh,
%bhidharmako a , K.3B @7&ssin, ". L2A, '&n !l
signi2'ad& af)n d! /!n !l 'am"& d! la !%"!$i!n'ia
&+8!tiva0, d&nd! bh sa !s !.ival!nt! a
visayar pat _ , /&+8!tividad s!nsi+l!0, , bh sa-
gata a dr ya , /"!$'!"ti+l! !m")$i'am!nt!0.
Dign ga sa ava-bh sate '&n $!f!$!n'ia al
'a$#'t!$ a"a$!nt!m!nt! &+8!tiv& d! na imag!n
int!l!'tal @antarjeya-r pa _ A- ava-bh sa "!d!
sa$s! tam+i*n "a$a /ilmina'i(n0 '&m& na
!%"!$i!n'ia !s"i$ital. Bh v-bh sa !s
/s!m!8an5a d! !%ist!n'ia0. 6& &"!st& d!
bh sa !s nir- bh sa & an bh sa , /sin
imag!n0
D
.
6a "ala+$a bh sa '&m& /"int$a0 im"li'a
algnas '&nsid!$a'i&n!s int!$!sant!s .! s!
a"li'an a la '&n'!"'i(n "si'&l(gi'a d! la $!la'i(n
d! la "int$a '&n la !s'lt$a , !l $!li!v!, , a la
id!a d! la t!$'!$a dim!nsi(n !n la "int$a. El v!$s&
C+, t$ad'id& lit!$alm!nt! a$$i+a, im"li'a, al igal
.! la "ala+$a misma, citrbh sa , lit!$alm!nt! /!l
+$ill& & a"a$i!n'ia d! citra0, .! la "int$a s!
'&nsid!$a '&m& n modo '&nst$!<id& d! la
!s'lt$a- , !l $!li!v!, .! tam+i*n "!d! !sta$
'&l&$!ad&, &'"a l(gi'am!nt! n lga$ int!$m!di&.
El "nt& d! vista d! .! la "int$a, an.!
a"li'ada d! h!'h& a s"!$2'i!s "lanas, s!
'&nsid!$a+a n& &+stant! '&nv!n'i&nalm!nt! '&m&
n ti"& d! $!"$!s!nta'i(n s(lida, "!d! a"&,a$s!
'&n !vid!n'ias lit!$a$ias adi'i&nal!s. 7&$ !8!m"l&,
!n Kina,a, IK.D>, n m&n8! /l!vanta0 @vutth peti A
na "int$a @cittamA s&+$! na t!la- , !n +amyutta
5ik ya , C&m., II.C, n "int&$ /!$ig!0
@samutth peti A na 2g$a @r pam _ A s&+$! la
s"!$2'i! d! n m$& "&$ m!di& d! ss "in'!l!s ,
'&l&$!s. En !l Mah y na + trlamk ra _ d!
Asanga, SIII.>L t!n!m&s citre nat9nnatam nsti
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
ca" dr yate atha ca , /n& ha, ning9n $!li!v!
v!$dad!$& !n na "int$a, , sin !m+a$g& l& v!m&s
all)0, , d! m&d& s!m!8ant! !n !l :ankvat ra
+ tra _ , !d. d! Nan8i&., ". R>, s! di'! .! na
s"!$2'i! "intada @citrakrta-prade a A s! v! !n
$!li!v! @nimn9nnataA an.! d! h!'h& s!a llana
@animn9nnataA. En m#s d! n lga$ t!n!m&s la
m!t#f&$a d! l&s &8&s .! t$&"i!5an @skhalatiA s&+$!
las !l!va'i&n!s , d!"$!si&n!s @nimn9nnataA
$!"$!s!ntadas !n na "int$a, si!nd& !stas '&linas
, vall!s l&s d! las f&$mas !%h+!$ant!s d!
m8!$!s, & las d!l "aisa8! d! f&nd& @ akuntal ,
KI.>31>B, , .i5#s Trisasti al k purusacaritra ,
I.>.3DIA. Y !n !l v!$s& Ca, t$ad'id& a$$i+a, !s
!s"!'ialm!nt! dign& d! s!<ala$ !l a'!$d& d!
nimn9nnate '&n pate , bhittau, "!s !l li!n5& &
m$& s! di'!n '&m& /!n $!li!v!0, an.! !s
'&m"l!tam!nt! 'i!$t& .! a l& .! s! ha'!
$!f!$!n'ia !s a na s"!$2'i! "lana "intada.
5at9nnata , nimn9nnata n&s "$&"&$'i&nan as)
l&s t*$min&s !%a't&s "a$a !l $!li!v!, !l m&d!lad&
"l#sti'&, & !l m&d!lad& !n l5 a+st$a'ta
L
.! s! v!
!f!'tivam!nt! !n las "int$as d! A8ant , mi!nt$as
.! "a$a !l "$&'!s& d! /s&m+$!a$0 "&$ !l .! s!
'$!a+a !l !f!'t& d! $!li!v! , s! '&mni'a+a !l
s!ntid& d!l v&lm!n, t!n!m&s !l t*$min& vartan,
, l&s '&$$!s"&ndi!nt!s "ali vattana , ujjotana,
/s&m+$!a$0 , /ag$!ga$ l'!s altas0, !n n "asa8!
d!l %tthas lin ,
Q
. 7&$ s"!st&, tal $!li!v! n& d!+!
'&nfndi$s! '&n nada d! la nat$al!5a d!l /!f!'t&
d! l50, !l 'la$&s'$&, ch ytapa
R
, /s&m+$a ,
+$ill&0. El $!li!v! , !l 'la$&s'$& s&n, 'i!$tam!nt!,
n& s(l& n&'i&n!s ind!"!ndi!nt!s, sin&
!f!'tivam!nt! '&nt$adi't&$ias, '&m& s! !nt!nd)a
!n E$&"a !n na *"&'a tan ta$d)a '&m& la d!
6!&na$d&, .!, an.! '&m& nat$alista ha+)a
!stdiad& d$ant! m'h& ti!m"& l&s !f!'t&s
abril, 97
174
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"$&d'id&s "&$ la l5 d!l s&l di$!'ta , las s&m+$as
"$&,!'tadas, mant!n)a a'!$tadam!nt! .! !st&s
!f!'t&s d!st$)an la $!"$!s!nta'i(n d!l v!$dad!$&
$!li!v! & v&lm!n.
6a '!sti(n d!l $!li!v! im"li'a !n 'i!$t& g$ad&
la d! la "!$s"!'tiva. 6&s $!'i!nt!s !stdi&s d! l&s
"$&+l!mas d! la $!"$!s!nta'i(n !s"a'ial !n !l a$t!
!%t$!m&1&$i!ntal ! indi&
>I
dan la im"$!si(n d! .!
l&s at&$!s !st#n d!di'and& m'h& t$a+a8& a l&
.! !s $!alm!nt! n "$&+l!ma m#s +i!n a$ti2'ial,
"lant!ad& a !ll&s "&$ s falta d! familia$idad '&n
las a$t!s !n '!sti(n, , .! !sta falta d!
familia$idad "!$sist! a "!sa$ d! s +!n
'&n&'imi!nt& d! las a$t!s mismas tal '&m& s! dan
!n in'&nta+l!s !8!m"l&s !%ist!nt!s , a''!si+l!s. Es
dif)'il '$!!$ .! l&s "$&+l!mas d! la $!"$!s!nta'i(n
!s"a'ial s! a'&m!ti!$an '&m& tal!s algna v!5 !n
Asia, !n !l s!ntid& !n .! s! a'&m!ti!$&n !n la
Italia d!l Matt$&'!nt&, !s d!'i$, d!sd! n "nt& d!
vista 'i!nt)2'& , visalista m#s +i!n .! !st*ti'&.
Es 'i!$tam!nt! im"&si+l! '$!!$ .! h+i!$a algna
v!5 n ti!m"& !n .! !l a$t! !$a inint!ligi+l! "a$a
a.!ll&s "a$a .i!n!s s! ha')a, "!s !n tal 'as&
d!+)a ha+!$ sid& inint!ligi+l! tam+i*n "a$a
a.!ll&s .! l& hi'i!$&n : "!s /a$tista0 n& !$a
!nt&n'!s, '&m& l& !s !n !l ti!m"& "$!s!nt!, na
"!$s&na aislada , "!'lia$. S"&n!$ .! !l a$t! !$a
inint!ligi+l!, , .! l&s a$tistas, !n la +&ndad d! ss
'&$a5&n!s, int!nta+an ha'!$l& '&m"$!nsi+l! a s)
mism&s & a &t$&s, !.ival! a s"&n!$ .! l&s
&$ad&$!s ha')an s&nid&s '&n mi$as a la f&$ma'i(n
s+s!'!nt! d! n m!di& d! '&mni'a'i(n v#lid&,
& .! l&s 'a$"int!$&s '&m!n5a$&n a '&nst$i$ 'asas
'&n mi$as a la a"a$i'i(n d! la a$.it!'t$a, 'and&,
d! h!'h&, !l l!nga8! !s si!m"$! ad!'ad& a la
'&sa .! ha d! !%"$!sa$s!, , n& "!d! ha+!$ m#s
abril, 97
175
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"$&g$!s& !n a$t! .! !n m!taf)si'a, sin& s(l& n
d!sa$$&ll& va$ia+l! d! dif!$!nt!s as"!'t&s.
4&d&s l&s h&m+$!s, ! in'ls& l&s animal!s, s&n
'&ns'i!nt!s d! .! l&s &+8!t&s !st#n a"a$tad&s
n&s d! &t$&s !n !l !s"a'i&, a$$i+a , a+a8&, a l&s
lad&s, , ha'ia at$#s- , si l&s animal!s n& ti!n!n
na "ala+$a "a$a /t$!s dim!nsi&n!s0, sa+!n n&
&+stant! '(m& m&v!$s! !n las dif!$!nt!s
di$!''i&n!s, , ti!n!n n s!ntid& d!l l!8&s , d!l
'!$'a. El !s"a'i&, "!s, ha d! da$s! "&$ s"!st&
'&m& n dat& "$ima$i& d! la int!lig!n'ia, , !s
!vid!nt! .! tan "$&nt& '&m& d!vin& "&si+l!
ha'!$ $!"$!s!nta'i&n!s int!ligi+l!s d! &+8!t&s,
d!+! ha+!$s! dad& "&$ s"!st&, "&$ a.!ll&s .!
las '&m"$!nd)an, .! *stas !$an $!"$!s!nta'i&n!s
d! &+8!t&s !%ist!nt!s !n !l !s"a'i&. 6a '!sti(n d!
la "!$s"!'tiva d!vi!n! as) n "$&+l!ma "$am!nt!
hist($i'& , d!s'$i"tiv&- la d!2ni'i(n d! la
"!$s"!'tiva s! $!d'! a l&s /m!di&s !m"l!ad&s
"a$a indi'a$ la !%ist!n'ia & la dist$i+'i(n d! l&s
&+8!t&s !n !l !s"a'i&0. D!sd! !l "nt& d! vista
!st*ti'&, ningna va$i!dad d! "!$s"!'tiva "!d!
'&nsid!$a$s! '&m& s"!$i&$ a 'al.i!$ &t$a, ,
an.! n&s&t$&s "$!f!$im&s nat$alm!nt! !s! ti"&
d! "!$s"!'tiva .! '&$$!s"&nd! m!8&$ a n!st$&s
"$&"i&s h#+it&s d! visi(n , .!, "&$ l& tant&,
$!.i!$! !l m!n&$ !sf!$5& d! '&m"$!nsi(n, t&d&
l& .! s! $!.i!$! $!alm!nt! !s int!ligi+ilidad. D!
h!'h&, !s "!$f!'tam!nt! "&si+l! a"$!nd!$ a l!!$ la
"!$s"!'tiva d! n a$t! infamilia$ tan ?idam!nt!
'&m& l!!m&s la d! n!st$&s "$&"i&s ti!m"&s ,, d!
la misma man!$a, sin s!$ a'tivam!nt! '&ns'i!nt!s
d!l s& d! ning9n m&d& d! "!$s"!'tiva "a$ti'la$.
7&$ l& tant& la '!sti(n d! "lasi+ilidad ("ti'a n&
s! "lant!a, "!st& .! !s si!m"$! inh!$!nt! al ti"&
d! "!$s"!'tiva a la .! !stam&s a'&stm+$ad&s &
n&s h!m&s a'&stm+$ad&- si "&$ "lasi+ilidad
abril, 97
176
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
("ti'a !nt!nd!m&s alg& m#s .! !st&, !ll& s(l&
"!d! s!$ !n $!la'i(n '&n na visi(n d!l a$t!
ing!nam!nt! ilsi&nista, '&m& si .isi*$am&s
"inta$ na "int$a d!l d!<& .! "di!$a s!$
$!'&n&'ida "&$ !l "!$$&.
Pn !%am!n d! la hist&$ia d! la "!$s"!'tiva !n
la India, , d!l "$&+l!ma '&n!%& d! la
$!"$!s!nta'i(n '&ntina, n&s ll!va$)a d!masiad&
l!8&s- "!$& "!d! &+s!$va$s! .! an.! las
n!'!sidad!s d! la i'&n&g$af)a, !n la m!dida !n .!
af!'ta a las $!"$!s!nta'i&n!s s ttvika , d!t!$minan
!l "$!d&mini& d! la f$&ntalidad !n t&das las
*"&'as, ha, n $!"$!s!nta'i(n d!l m&vimi!nt&
li+$! d!sd! las *"&'as m#s antigas, !n
M&h!n8&da$&, !n las t!$$a'&tas Ma$,a, ! in'ls&
!n Uh $ht
>>
. Si '&nsid!$am&s las f!nt!s
lit!$a$ias d!sd! !l "!$)&d& J"ta !n ad!lant!
!n'&nt$am&s n !s.!ma d! "&si'i&n!s @sth na A
ta+lad& .! van d!sd! la vista f$&ntal @rjuA
"asand& las !ta"as d!l pro!l perdu hasta !l "!$2l
!st$i't& @bhitti-gata, /!nt$ad& !n !l m$&0A , vistas
m!5'ladas, al igal .! na s!$i! d! t*$min&s .!
d!n&tan dif!$!nt!s g$ad&s d! '$vat$a , t&$si(n
d!l '!$"&
>2
. 6as dif!$!nt!s "&si'i&n!s s! d!2n!n
"&$ $!f!$!n'ia a hil&s, !f!'tiva & id!alm!nt!
ss"!ndid&s, !n t*$min&s d! la distan'ia !nt$! l&s
"nt&s dad&s d!l '!$"& , l&s hil&s mism&s, ,
tam+i*n !n t*$min&s d! ksaya-vrddhi, /"*$dida ,
ganan'ia0, !s d!'i$, !n t*$min&s d! !s'&$5&
!f!'tiv&, si!nd& d!s'$itas las "a$t!s .! !n na
"&si'i(n dada n& s! v!n '&m& ch y -gata ,
/!nt$adas !n la s&m+$a0. 4&das *stas '!sti&n!s
"!$t!n!'!n m#s a la hist&$ia d! la t*'ni'a .! a la
d!l "$in'i"i&.
En 'ant& al d!sa$$&ll&, "!d! ag$!ga$s! .!
mi!nt$as la !s'lt$a "$imitiva '&m"l!ta !%hi+! !l
m#s f!$t! s!ntid& "&si+l! d!l v&lm!n "l#sti'&,
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
l&s $!li!v!s "$imitiv&s @ardha-citraA s! a"$&%ima
m#s a la "int$a @citrbh sa A .! a la !s'lt$a
s(lida @citraA- "&$ !8!m"l&, !n Uh $ht, !st#n
!st$!'ham!nt! '&m"$imid&s !nt$! l&s d&s "lan&s
d! la s"!$2'i! t$a+a8ada, an.! ha, ,a
!%'!"'i&n!s a !st& !n Uh 8
>3
. 7&st!$i&$m!nt!,
!n S <' !l $!li!v! s! $!al5a, , !l !f!'t& s! ,
m!v! !n la di$!''i(n &"!sta d! la d! la "int$a a
la d! la !s'lt$a '&m"l!ta- !sta t!nd!n'ia
'&ntin9a a t$av*s d! l&s "!$)&d&s Ks na ,
"&st!$i&$m!nt! ndh$a, , al'an5a s d!sa$$&ll& `
m#s '&m"l!t& !n !l "!$)&d& J"ta, , "!$sist!
s+s!'!nt!m!nt!, a "!sa$ d! .! la 'alidad
int$)ns!'a d!l v&lm!n $!"$!s!ntad& ,a n& !s la
misma. N& !s n!'!sa$i& d!'i$ .! !l /$!li!v!0
"$imitiv& 'hin& !s a9n m#s s!m!8ant! a la "int$a
.! !l $!li!v! "$imitiv& indi&, "!s d! h!'h& !s
s(l& n g$a+ad& !n "i!d$a, .! !m"l!a m*t&d&s
d! "!$s"!'tiva m#s +i!n dif)'il!s d! !nt!nd!$,
"!$&, !n 'al.i!$ 'as&, n& d! la nat$al!5a d!l
!s'&$5& '&m& !n la !s'lt$a- "&st!$i&$m!nt!, !l
$!al'! d!l $!li!v! !n la !s'lt$a 'hina !n "i!d$a !s
n $!?!8& d! l&s m*t&d&s indi&s.
7!$& !l $!li!v! "$imitiv& indi&, a "!sa$ d! s
'&m"$!si(n, ti!n! si!m"$! la int!n'i(n d! s&lid!5,
, la "int$a "$imitiva india, "&$ s m&d!lad&
!nf#ti'&, d!m!st$a s !st$!'ha $!la'i(n '&n la
!s'lt$a '&m"l!ta d! s *"&'a, '&n s v&lm!n ,
masa im"$!si&nant!s. Pn v&lm!n s!m!8ant!
!n'&nt$( !%"$!si(n !n l&s $!li!v!s s(l&
g$adalm!nt!, l& .! .i5#s "&d$)a '&nsid!$a$s!
'&m& indi'ativ& d! n &$ig!n m#s $!'i!nt! "a$a la
t*'ni'a d!l $!li!v!, , la "$!'!d!n'ia hist($i'a d! la
!s'lt$a '&m"l!ta , d! la "int$a. S!a '&m&
f!$!, !n la *"&'a m!di!val las d&s t!nd!n'ias s!
'$5a$&n '&m& si f!$an !n di$!''i&n!s &"!stas,
"!s mi!nt$as na mant!n)a d! h!'h& n $!li!v!
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
alt&, la &t$a $!"$!s!nta+a n a"lanami!nt& d! la
imag!n m!ntal. Cand& la !s'lt$a "!$di(
g$adalm!nt! s s!ntid& d!l v&lm!n "l#sti'&, la
"int$a s! a"lan( tam+i*n d! h!'h&- "&$ !8!m"l&,
la f$as! nimn9nnata-pata dif)'ilm!nt! "&d$)a
a"li'a$s! a ningna "int$a d! las !s'!las d!
J8a$ t & Ra8"t, d&nd! s(l& s&+$!viv!n ,
v!stigi&s d!l antig& s&m+$!ad& "l#sti'&. El
a"lanami!nt& d!l '&n'!"t& visal d!+!
$!la'i&na$s! '&n na m&di2'a'i(n "si'&l(gi'a
'&$$!s"&ndi!nt!, , n& 'i!$tam!nt!, '&n ning9n
'am+i& !n !l "$&'!dimi!nt& t*'ni'& ll!vad& a 'a+&
"&$ s) s&l&- "!s !l "!nsami!nt& "$!'!d! a la
!%"$!si(n !stil)sti'a !n la &+$a, , +s'a$ las 'asas
d! l&s 'am+i&s !n l&s 'am+i&s mism&s s!$)a na
reductio ad absurdum d! la hist&$ia
>B
.
6&s 'am+i&s "si'&l(gi'&s, manif!stad&s !n la
at!na'i(n d! la f&$ma, s(l& "!d!n '&nsid!$a$s!
'&m& $!"$!s!ntativ&s d! n d!'aimi!nt& d! la
!n!$g)a, na '&n'!nt$a'i(n m#s $!la8ada, ithila-
sam dhi . Cand& n& '&nsid!$a l&s
im"$!si&nant!s v&l9m!n!s d!l a$t! m#s "$imitiv&,
!n !l .! la f&$ma "a$!'! '&m& si f!$a "$!si&nada
ha'ia af!$a d!sd! d!nt$& "&$ na v&lntad
ind&ma+l!, n& "i!nsa tam+i*n !n !s&s nm!$&s&s
"asa8!s !n la lit!$at$a !n .! s! di'! .! !l h*$&!
s! hin'ha d! '(l!$a, & !n l&s '!$"&s d! las
m8!$!s .! s! !%"and!n !n la ad&l!s'!n'ia & !n
la "asi(n, & !n !s&s #$+&l!s "$!<ad&s ',& ?&$!'!$
$!t!nid& d!+! li+!$a$s! "&$ !l t&.! d! n +!ll&
"i!. C&n !l "as& d!l ti!m"& t&das !stas !n!$g)as
f!$&n , d!+i!$&n s!$ ll!vadas +a8& n ma,&$
'&nt$&l, savi5ad& , $!2nad& !n la !%"$!si(n,
d&nd! la v&lntad ,a n& a2$ma+a, sin& .! ah&$a
m#s +i!n s! $!ali5a+a !n na .i!s'!n'ia a'tiva.
S!ntim&s !st& ,a !n la $!lativa s!$!nidad d! la
!s'lt$a J"ta , !n la s&2sti'ada "&!s)a d!l
abril, 97
179
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d$ama 'l#si'&- n& "&d$)am&s imagina$ !n !l sigl&
d&'! f&$mas h!$&i'as tal!s '&m& las d! las 2g$as
d! l&s d&nant!s !n K $l , & la d!l /U&dhisattva0 ,
d!l M&n8! Uala !n S $n th. El h!$&)sm& im"lsiv&
! im"la'a+l! d!l "asad& s&+$!viv! s(l& !n la
t$adi'i(n d! la 'a+all!$)a Ra8"t. En g!n!$al, la
t!nd!n'ia !s ha'ia na '&n'!"'i(n d! la
!%"!$i!n'ia m#s "$am!nt! int!l!'tal. Es .i5#s
dign& d! &+s!$va$ .! n d!sa$$&ll& s!m!8ant!
!sta+a t!ni!nd& !n la E$&"a m!di!val d! la
misma *"&'a, '&m& s! !vid!n'ia$# si "&$ !8!m"l&
'&m"a$am&s a St&. 4&m#s '&n an3a$O' $,a- !n
ningn& d! am+&s 'as&s "!d! d!'i$s! .! n
d!s&$d!n !%t!$i&$ 'al.i!$a "d& int!$f!$i$ !n la
s"$!ma')a d!l int!l!'t&.
S!$)a m, f#'il !%ag!$a$ la nat$al!5a d!l
'am+i&, , m, !.iv&'ad& !vala$l& s(l& !n
t*$min&s d! d!'ad!n'ia. 6as s!'!n'ias !stil)sti'as
!n !l "!nsami!nt& , !n !l a$t! n& s&n !n s) mismas
"$a "*$dida & "$a ganan'ia, d!'ad!n'ia &
"$&g$!s&, sin& d!sa$$&ll&s d! as"!'t&s !s"!'ial!s
n!'!sa$i&s , "&$ tant& a'!"ta+l!s. Cand& la
v&lntad s! ha a"la'ad&, d! algna m!dida !l
int!l!'t& "!d! !8!$'!$ s "&d!$ tant& m!8&$. Si
!st! 'am+i& d! di$!''i(n im"li'a al '&mi!n5& na
"*$dida d! la "!$f!''i(n animal @inm!diat!5 d!
a''i(nA, n& &+stant! !s n d!v!ni$ ha'ia na
!s"&ntan!idad m#s alta, !n la .! la nidad d! la
vida int!$i&$ , !%t!$i&$ ha d! $!sta$a$s!, , ha,
in'ls& m&m!nt&s !n la 'm+$! d! n d!sa$$&ll& ,
!n las vidas d! l&s individ&s !n .! !l !.ili+$i&
"a$!'! $!sta$a$s! , !l a$t! t$as'i!nd! !l !stil&.
A"a$t! d! !stas '!sti&n!s d! "!$f!''i(n, "&d$)a
a$gm!nta$s! .! !l a"lanami!nt& d!l a$t!, al
im"li'a$ '&m& l& ha'! n sim+&lism& m#s
'&nv!n'i&nal a9n .! !l d!l m&d!lad& !n la l5
a+st$a'ta, $!?!8a n m&d& d! '&m"$!nsi(n m#s
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
int!l!'tal, .! ni si.i!$a $!.i!$! na sg!sti(n
d! m&d!lad& '&m& a,da a la $!"$&d''i(n- '&m&
!n !l 'as& d! l&s #ng!l!s .! ti!n!n m!n&s id!as ,
san m!n&s m!di&s .! l&s h&m+$!s.
En 'al.i!$ 'as&, n& n& "&d$)a, an.!
.isi!$a, v&lv!$ ha'ia at$#s !l m&vimi!nt& d!l
ti!m"&. S!$ &t$&s distint&s d! .i!n!s s&m&s s!$)a
"a$a n&s&t$&s l& mism& .! n& s!$- .!$!$ .! !l
a$t! d! n "!$)&d& h+i!$a sid& &t$& .! !l .! f!
!s l& mism& .! .!$!$ .! nn'a h+i!$a sid&.
4&d& !stil& !s '&m"l!t& !n s) mism&, , ha d!
8sti2'a$s! '&nsigi!nt!m!nt!, n& 85ga$s! "&$ l&s
"at$&n!s d! na !dad ant!$i&$ & d! 'al!s.i!$a
&t$a.
C&n na v&5 .! !s "&$t!nt&sa
Di& !%"$!si(n a innm!$a+l!s
"!nsami!nt&s,
M! s&n $!'i+id&s "&$ adi!n'ias d!
t&das 'las!s
Cada na '&m"$!ndi*nd&l&s !n s
"$&"i& m&d&
>C
.
CAPTULO VI. " SA. NOTAS
>
Pna +!ll)sima d!s'$i"'i(n d! la '$!a'i(n '&m&
$!?!8& s! !n'!nt$a !n /acavim a Br hmana ,
KII.Q.>, '&m& sig!; /Estand& las Agas @.!
$!"$!s!ntan !l "$in'i"i& d! la s+stan'iaA mad$as
"a$a la '&n'!"'i(n @lit. F!n s !sta'i(nHA, K , @!s
d!'i$, !l Ki!nt&, n s)m+&l& f)si'& d! la !s"i$a'i(n,
prnaA s! m&vi( s&+$! s s"!$2'i!. D! d&nd! vin&
al s!$ na '&sa @!s d!'i$, la "int$a1d!l1mnd&A
+!lla @v ma A- all), !n las Agas, Mit$a1Ka$na s!
'&nt!m"la$&n1a s) mism&s1$!?!8ad&s
@paryapa yat A0. As) tam+i*n !l J*n!sis, I.2, El
Es")$it d! Di&s s! m&v)a s&+$! las agas, , St&.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
4&m#s, +um, Theol,, I.LB, /El Es")$it d!l S!<&$
signi2'a !l Es")$it Sant&, d! Mi!n s! di'! .! se
mueve sobre el agua : !s d!'i$, s&+$! l& .! San
Agst)n !nti!nd! .! signi2'a la mat!$ia
inf&$mal] !st# ad!'adam!nt! im"l)'it& .! !l
Es")$it s! m&v)a s&+$! l& .! !$a in'&m"l!t& !
ina'a+ad&, "!st& .! !s! m&vimi!nt& n& !s d!
lga$, sin& d! "&d!$ "$!!min!nt!0.
6as /agas0 a.) , !n t&das "a$t!s !n la
t$adi'i(n $!"$!s!ntan la t&talidad d! las
posibilidades d!l s!$, .! d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista
d! la e?istencia s&n !n s) mismas nada @'a&sA- ,
!sta /nada0 !s /sin limita'i(n0 !n la Casa
7$im!$a, '&m& s! !%"li'a !n la n&ta 3 d!l 'a")tl& I.
D! a.) /!s nihil& 2t0. 7a$a las agas !n la
$!"$!s!nta'i(n sim+(li'a v!$ mi 8aksas, II, , !n
signi2'ad&, J*n&n, +ymbolisme de la roi?, Ca".
SSIK.
2
C&n $!f!$!n'ia, "&$ s"!st&, a las t$!s ti"&s
d! i'&n&s, @>\A dhruva & yoga bera & mula vigraha,
!sta+l!'id&s "!$man!nt!m!nt! !n n alta$, @2\A
bhoga m rti _ & utsava vigraha, ll!vad&s !n
"$&'!si&n!s, , @3\A dhy na bera , im#g!n!s
m!ntal!s sadas !n d!v&'i&n!s "$ivadas.
3
El +uprabhedgama d!s'$i+! citra '&m&
sarvvayava-samp rna-dr yam _ , , ardha-citra
'&m& ardhavyava-samdr yam , $!s"!'tivam!nt!
/'&m"l!tam!nt! visi+l! !n t&das ss "a$t!s0 ,
/visi+l! !n 'ant& a la mitad d! ss "a$t!s0.
B
A.) !vid!nt!m!nt! dh tu-r ga , '&l&$
min!$al, '&m& !n Meghad ta _ , ". >I2, d&nd! !l
C&m!nta$i& ti!n! sind rdi _ , /+!$m!ll(n, !t'.0, n&
dh tu , !n !l v!$s& 2 a$$i+a, '&m& n min!$al &
alg9n m!tal distint& d! loha, n& dh tu , m!tal, !n
ukran tis ra , , IK.B.L2 , >C3.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
C
A'ha$,a, 6ictionary o- &indu %rchitecture, "".
D3, DC, it!m C @f!$a d! siti&A- Mnasra, "". BQ,
BR.
D
En'&nt$am&s tam+i*n prmanbhsa,
/"$!+a fala50, hetvbhsa, /fala'ia l(gi'a0,
pratyaksbhsa, /a"a$i!n'ia !nga<&sa0,
paroksbhsa, /"s!d&1sim+&lism&0- ,
pratibhsa, /$!?!8& m!ntal0 @St'h!$+ats3,,
Buddhist :ogic, II.D, n. 2, id!nti2'a pratibhsa '&n
nirbhsa, bhsa, , pratibimbanaA.
L
K!$ n&ta 23 d!l 'a")tl& I, , 3 d!l 'a")tl& III.
Q
K!$ Aastern %rt, III @>R3>A, 2>Q, 2>R.
R
/S&m+$a , 'la$idad0, ch ytapa , !st# t&mad&
d! la 0atha Upanisad, III.>, , KI.C, d&nd! n& ha,
$!f!$!n'ia a ningna &+$a d! a$t!- a"a$!'!
tam+i*n !n !l %tthas lin ,, ". 3>L, !n $!la'i(n '&n
!l !%am!n d! r pyatana _ , /lga$ d! la f&$ma0
d!2nid& '&m& /a"a$i!n'ia '&l&$!ada0- /!ll& +$illa
@nibbh ti A, d! ah) la a"a$i!n'ia0.
h ytapa a"a$!'! tam+i*n !n Kas+andh,
%bhidharmako a , III.3R. En t&d&s !st&s "asa8!s !l
t*$min& ti!n! !l signi2'ad& g!n!$al d! /"a$!s d!
&"!st&s0 m#s +i!n .! !l signi2'ad& lit!$al d!
/l5 , s&m+$a0- sin !m+a$g&, !s !n $!alidad !l
!.ival!nt! inm!diat& d! /'la$&s'$&0.
>I
U. Ma$'h, /6in!a$ 7!$s"!'tiv! in Chin!s!
7ainting0, Aastern %rt, III @>R3>A- 6. Ua'hh&f!$m
/D!$ Ramda$st!llng in d!$ 'hin!sis'h!n Mal!$!i,
!t'.0 M2nchner Bahrbuch -2r Bildenden 0unst, KIII
@>R3>A- 6. Ua'hh&f!$, /W$Vhindis'h!
Nist&$i!n$!li!fs0, 3stasiatische 4eitscher. N. W., KIII
@>R32A, >Q- A. I""!l, .ndische 0unst und
Trimphalbild @6!i"5ig, >R2RA. El d!+at! m#s
!stima+l! d! !st! g*n!$& !s !l d! N. bimm!$,
/S&m! As"!'ts &f 4im! in Indian A$t0, Bourn, .ndian
+ociety o- 3riental %rt, I @>R33A, 3I1C>.
abril, 97
183
A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
>>
Si$ =. N. Ma$shall, Mohenjodaro @6&nd$!s,
>R3>A, l#m. SI- %+., %;, @>R>L1>R>QA, "a$t! I, l#m.
SKI- ! .llustrated :ondon 5e's @2B Ma$5& d! >R2QA-
Cnningham, The +tupa o- Bharhut, >QLR, , M, K,
%. Bulletin >LC. Cf. J. J&m+a5, /6a 6&i d! W$&ntalit*
dans la S'l"t$! Indi!nn!0, ;evue des %rts
%siati*ues, KII, >IC.
>2
6&s sth nas s! d!2n!n !n !l
(isnudharmottara, III.3R- ilparatna Ca". 6SIK-
Uasava Ra8a, iva Tattva ;atn kara , KI.2.CC sigs..
K!$ tam+i*n la lit!$at$a g!n!$al s&+$! la
i'&n&g$af)a india, "&$ !8!m"l&, 4. A. C. Ra&,
Alements o- &indu .conography @Mad$as, >R>B1
>R>CA. 6&s 'in'& "$im!$&s sth nas van d!sd! @>\A
la 'a$a f$&ntal & "l!na hasta @C\A !l "!$2l !%a't&,
!stand& $!"$!s!ntadas las "&si'i&n!s int!$m!dias
"&$ !l 2\, 3\ , B\. Sig! na lista d! l&s t*$min&s
s!g9n vi!n!n dad&s !n las t$!s f!nt!s 'itadas;
(isnudharmottara ilparatna
iva-Tattva-;atn kara
1. ;ju" ;jv gata ;ju
;ju" +ammukha
2. %nrju" Tiryak %rdharju
%rdharju
3. + cikrta + cika"
+ cigata + ci
4. %rdhavilocana" 6vyardhksi
5yardharju %dhyardhksa
5. / r vagata" h y gata" / r vagata"
Bittika" Bhittika Bhittika
Bhittigata
6. /arvrtta" $andaparvrtta
7. /rst gata
8. /arivrtta
9. +amnata
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
>3
K!$ mi &istory o- .ndian and .ndonesian %rt
@>R2LA, "". 2C12L , 2g. 2L
>B
El !stil& !s a.) !l dat&, la a"a$i!n'ia, & la
at&$idad a inv!stiga$. /A.!ll&s .! t$a+a8an "&$
m!di& d! na at&$idad @dadaA @!s d!'i$, "&$
!vid!n'ia int!$naA "a$a '&m"$!nd!$ la '&ns'i!n'ia
@bodhamA .! @!lla mismaA "$&d8& la at&$idad
@prabodhayantam m nam A s&n s!$!s tan g$and!s
.! .!ma$)an !l f!g& mism& "&$ m!di& d!l
'&m+sti+l!0, an3a$O' $,a, +vtmanir pana _ ,
BD.
>C
D!l +arvadharma-pravrtti-nirde a + tra _ ,
'itad& "&$ S53i, 3utlines o- Mahayana Buddhism,
7. 3Q>.
CAPTULO VII
EL ORI#EN $ USO DE IM%#ENES
EN LA INDIA
/uede decirse *ue las im>genes son
para el hindN *ue les rinde culto lo *ue los
diagramas son para el geCmetra.
Ra&. Alementos
de .conogra-=a hindN, II.2Q.
7&'&s d! a.!ll&s .! '&nd!nan la id&lat$)a, &
ha'!n d! s s"$!si(n n "$&"(sit& d! a'tividad
misi&n!$a, han '&nsid!$ad& algna v!5 s!$iam!nt!
!l s& !f!'tiv& d! las im#g!n!s, !n las "!$s"!'tiva
hist($i'a , "si'&l(gi'a, & s&s"!'had& na "&si+l!
signi2'a'i(n !n !l h!'h& d! .! la vasta ma,&$)a
d! l&s h&m+$!s d! t&das las $a5as, , !n t&das las
!dad!s, in'l,!nd& la "$!s!nt!, !n la .! s
"$in'i"al !%'!"'i(n s&n l&s "$&t!stant!s, h!+$!&s ,
mslman!s, han h!'h& s& d! im#g!n!s m#s &
m!n&s ant$&"&m($2'as '&m& a,das a la
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d!v&'i(n. 7&$ !stas $a5&n!s, "!d! n& 'a$!'!$ d!
val&$ &f$!'!$ na d!s'$i"'i(n d!l s& d! las
im#g!n!s !n la India, hasta d&nd! !s "&si+l! !n
l&s t*$min&s d!l "!nsami!nt& nat$al, a a.!ll&s
.! d! h!'h& ha'!n s& d! tal!s im#g!n!s. Est&
"!d! al m!n&s '&nd'i$ a na '&m"$!nsi(n d! la
v!$dad !nn'iada "&$ na d!idad india !n'a$nada,
K$sna, d! .! /!l 'amin& .! l&s h&m+$!s t&man
d!sd! 'ada lad& !s M)&0.
Al !%"li'a$ !l s& d! las im#g!n!s !n la India,
d&nd! !l m*t&d& s! '&nsid!$a '&m& !di2'ant!, n&
d!+! inf!$i$s! .! l&s hind9!s & +distas han d!
$!"$!s!nta$s!, en masse, '&m& m!n&s
s"!$sti'i&s&s .! &t$&s "!+l&s. N&s !n'&nt$am&s
'&n t&d& ti"& d! hist&$ias a'!$'a d! im#g!n!s .!
ha+lan, & s! in'linan, & ll&$an- las im#g!n!s
$!'i+!n &f$!ndas , s!$vi'i&s mat!$ial!s, .! s!
di'! .! /disf$tan0- sa+!m&s .! la "$!s!n'ia
$!al d! la d!idad !s invitada !n !llas '&n !l
"$&"(sit& d! $!'i+i$ 'lt&- 'and& s! a'a+a na
imag!n, ss &8&s s&n /a+i!$t&s0 '&n na
'!$!m&nia !s"!'ial , !la+&$ada
>
. As), s! indi'a
'la$am!nt! .! la imag!n ha d! '&nsid!$a$s!
'&m& si !stvi!$a animada "&$ la d!idad
2
.
Es !vid!nt!, sin !m+a$g&, .! n& ha, nada
"!'lia$m!nt! indi& a.). Milag$&s s!m!8ant!s s!
han $!latad& d! im#g!n!s '$istianas- in'ls& la
igl!sia '$istiana, '&m& n t!m"l& indi&, !s na
'asa ha+itada "&$ Di&s !n n s!ntid& !s"!'ial,
an.! n& s! la '&nsid!$a '&m& s "$isi(n, ni ss
m$&s '&n2nan s &mni"$!s!n'ia, l& mism& !n la
India .! !n E$&"a.
M#s a9n, la s"!$sti'i(n, & !l $!alism&, !s
ins!"a$a+l! d! la nat$al!5a hmana, , s!$)a f#'il
m&st$a$ .! *st! !s !l 'as& si!m"$! , "&$ t&das
"a$t!s. 6a m!$a !%ist!n'ia d! la 'i!n'ia n& n&s
d!2!nd! d! !ll&- la ma,&$)a si!m"$! '&n'!+i$# l&s
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
#t&m&s , !l!'t$&n!s '&m& '&sas $!al!s, .! s!$)an
tangi+l!s si n& f!$an tan "!.!<&s, , si!m"$!
'$!!$# .! la tangi+ilidad !s na "$!+a d!
!%ist!n'ia- , !st#n "l!nam!nt! '&nv!n'id&s d!
.! n s!$, .! s! &$igina !n n m&m!nt& d!
ti!m"& dad&, "!d!, n& &+stant!, '&m& !s! mism&
s!$, s&+$!vivi$ !t!$nam!nt! !n !l ti!m"&. El .!
'$!! .! l&s f!n(m!n&s $!"$!s!ntan
n!'!sa$iam!nt! $!alidad!s s(lidas !%ist!nt!s, &
.! "!d! !%isti$ na '&ns'i!n'ia & individalidad
!m")$i'a sin na +as! mat!$ial @s+stan'ialA, & .!
alg& .! ha v!nid& a la !%ist!n'ia "!d! d$a$
'&m& tal si!m"$!, !s n id(lat$a, n f!ti'hista. A9n
si a'!"t#$am&s !l "nt& d! vista "&"la$
&''id!ntal s&+$! !l hindism& '&m& n sist!ma
"&lit!)sta, n& "&d$)a mant!n!$s! .! !l i'&n& indi&
!s !n ning9n s!ntid& n f!ti'h!. C&m& ha sid&
s!<alad& "&$ J*n&n, /En la India, !n "a$ti'la$,
na imag!n sim+(li'a, .! $!"$!s!nta n& &t$&
d! l&s Fat$i+t&s divin&sH, , .! s! llama pratJka,
n& !s n F)d&l&H, "!s 8am#s ha sid& t&mada "&$
&t$a '&sa .! l& .! !lla !s $!alm!nt!, n s&"&$t!
d! m!dita'i(n , n m!di& a%ilia$ d! $!ali5a'i(n0
@.ntroducciCn gHnerale < l)Htude des doctrines
hindoues, ". 2IRA. Pna +!na ilst$a'i(n d! !st&
"!d! !n'&nt$a$s! !n !l 6ivyvad na Ca". SSKI,
d&nd! P"ag"ta &+liga a M $a, .!, '&m& na
yaksa, ti!n! !l "&d!$ d! asmi$ 2g$as a v&lntad,
a !%hi+i$s! !n la 2g$a d!l Uddha. P"ag"ta s!
in'lina, , M $a, s&$"$!ndid& "&$ !st! a"a$!nt!
'lt& d! s) mism&, "$&t!sta. P"ag"ta !%"li'a .!
*l n& !st# $indi!nd& 'lt& a M $a, sin& a la
"!$s&na $!"$!s!ntada :/d! la misma man!$a .!
las g!nt!s .! v!n!$an im#g!n!s d! a$'illa d! l&s
#ng!l!s inm&$tal!s, n& $!v!$!n'ian la a$'illa '&m&
tal, sin& a l&s inm&$tal!s $!"$!s!ntad&s !n !lla0
3
.
A.) t!n!m&s !l 'as& d! n individ& .! ha
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"asad& m#s all# d! la individalidad, "!$& .! !s
$!"$!s!ntad&, s!g9n las n!'!sidad!s hmanas, "&$
na imag!n. El "$in'i"i& !s a9n m#s 'la$& !n !l
'as& d! las im#g!n!s d! l&s #ng!l!s- la imag!n
per se n& !s ni Di&s ni n #ng!l, sin& m!$am!nt!
n as"!'t& & hi"(stasis @avasthA d! Di&s, .! !n
9ltim& an#lisis !s sin s!m!8an5a @am rta _ A, n&
d!t!$minad& "&$ la f&$ma @ar pa _ A, t$ans1f&$mal
@para-r pa _ A. Ss dif!$!nt!s f&$mas & !mana'i&n!s
s! '&n'i+!n "&$ n "$&'!s& d! 2lia'i(n sim+(li'a.
C&n'!+i$ !l hindism& '&m& n sist!ma "&lit!)sta
!s !n s) mism& na ing!nidad d! la .! s(l& n
!stdiant! &''id!ntal, h!$!d!$& d! l&s '&n'!"t&s
g$!'&1$&man&s d!l /"aganism&0, "&d$)a s!$ 'a"a5-
!l "nt& d! vista mhamm!dian& d! la '$istiandad
'&m& "&lit!)sm& "&d$)a !sta$ m!8&$ 8sti2'ad& .!
!st&.
D! h!'h&, si '&nsid!$am&s la 2l&s&f)a $!ligi&sa
india '&m& n t&d&, , !%aminam&s la !%t!nsi(n !n
.! ss '&n'!"'i&n!s m#s altas han "asad& '&m&
d&gmas a la 'i$'la'i(n d! la vida dia$ia,
t!nd$!m&s .! d!2ni$ la 'ivili5a'i(n hind9 '&m&
na d! las m!n&s s"!$sti'i&sas .! !l mnd& ha
'&n&'id&. M y n& !s "$&"iam!nt! ilusiCn, sin&
!st$i'tam!nt! ha+land& "&d!$ '$!ativ&, akti , !l
"$in'i"i& d! manif!sta'i(n- ilusiCn, moha, !s
'&n'!+i$ las a"a$i!n'ias '&m& '&sas !n s) mismas,
, a"!ga$s! a !llas '&m& tal!s sin '&nsid!$a$ s
"$&'!si(n.
En la Bhagavad $ t , , m!8&$ '&n&'id& !n la
India .! !l N!v& 4!stam!nt& !n E$&"a, s! n&s
!ns!<a d! l& R!al, .! /Est& ni m!$! ni na'!- !l
.! '&nsid!$a Est& '&m& n matad&$, !l .!
'&nsid!$a Est& '&m& matad&, am+&s s&n
igalm!nt! n& '&n&'!d&$!s0. Pna , &t$a v!5,
d!sd! las P"anisads hasta l&s himn&s t!)stas m#s
d!v&'i&nal!s, d! la Divinidad, d! la $!alidad
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
9ltima, s! ha+la '&m& ilimitada "&$ ningna f&$ma,
n& d!s'$i"ti+l! "&$ ning9n "$!di'ad&,
in'&gn&s'i+l!. As), !n las P"anisads, /Gl !s, "&$
!s& s(l& ha d! s!$ Gl a"$!h!ndid&0 @'f. /Y& s&, !l
.! s&,0A- !n las "ala+$as d!l himnista aiva,
M ni33a K 'aga$, /Gl !s m#s all# d! la
d!s'$i"'i(n d! las "ala+$as, n& '&m"$!nsi+l! "&$ la
m!nt!, n& visi+l! "a$a !l &8& & l&s d!m#s
s!ntid&s0. Simila$m!nt! !n !l +dism& "&st!$i&$,
!n !l sist!ma Ka8$a, na @ n,av daA, _
!n'&nt$am&s a2$mad& 'at!g($i'am!nt! .! las
divinidad!s, !s d!'i$, !l Di&s "!$s&nal & !l "$im!$
#ng!l !n t&das Ss f&$mas, /s&n manif!sta'i&n!s
d! la nat$al!5a !s!n'ial d!l n&1s!$0- la d&'t$ina
d! la 9ni'a $!alidad d!l Ka')& @!l /A+ism&0 d!
U!hm!nA s! ll!va hasta !l "nt& d! na n!ga'i(n
!%"l)'ita d! la !%ist!n'ia d! ning9n Uddha &
ningna d&'t$ina +dista.
7&$ &t$a "a$t!, mi!nt$as n&s&t$&s n&s
in'linam&s a s"&n!$ .! la signi2'a'i(n $!ligi&sa
d!l '$istianism& s! s&sti!n! & s! vi!n! a+a8& '&n la
hist&$i'idad !f!'tiva d! =!s9s, !n'&nt$am&s a n
'&m!ntad&$ indi& @N la3anthaA di'i!nd& d!l K$sna ,
6 l , '$!)d& hist($i'& "&$ la ma,&$)a d! l&s ,
hind9!s, .! la na$$a'i(n n& !s !l "nt&
v!$dad!$am!nt! im"&$tant!, .! !st& n& !s n
a'&nt!'imi!nt& hist($i'&, sin& .! s! +asa !n
v!$dad!s !t!$nas, !n la $!la'i(n !f!'tiva d!l alma
'&n Di&s, , .! l&s a'&nt!'imi!nt&s @d! la hist&$iaA
ti!n!n lga$, n& !n !l mnd& !%t!$i&$, sin& !n !l
'&$a5(n d!l h&m+$!. Estam&s a.) !n n mnd&
ina''!si+l! a la '$)ti'a m#s alta, n mnd& ni d!
s"!$sti'i(n "&$ na "a$t!, ni d! 'inism& "&$ &t$a.
S! ha s!<alad& m#s d! na v!5 .! la "&si'i(n d!l
'$istianism& "&d$)a $!f&$5a$s! "&$ na
!man'i"a'i(n simila$ d!l "nt& d! vista hist($i'&,
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'&m& f! !n na g$an m!dida, !f!'tivam!nt!, !l
'as& d! l&s Es'&l#sti'&s.
En 'ant& a la India, !s "$!'isam!nt! !n n
mnd& d&minad& "&$ n '&n'!"t& id!alista d! la
$!alidad, , '&n la a"$&+a'i(n, "&$ &t$a "a$t!, d! l&s
m#s "$&fnd&s "!nsad&$!s, d&nd! ?&$!'i( l& .!
n&s '&m"la'! llama$ id&lat$)a. M ni33a K 'aga$,
'itad& a$$i+a, ha+la '&nstant!m!nt! d! l&s
at$i+t&s d! Di&s, ha'! $!f!$!n'ia a l&s $!lat&s
l!g!nda$i&s d! Ss a''i&n!s, , da "&$ s"!st& !l
s& , s!$vi'i& d! las im#g!n!s. En !l +dism&
Ka8$a, na, a m!nd&, an.! n& m,
'&$$!'tam!nt!, d!signad& '&m& nihilista, !l
d!sa$$&ll& d! n !la+&$ad& "ant!(n, "l!nam!nt!
$!ali5ad& !n imagin!$)a mat!$ial, al'an5a s 5!nit.
an3a$O' $,a mism&, n& d! l&s m#s +$illant!s
int!l!'t&s .! !l mnd& ha '&n&'id&, int*$"$!t! d!
las P"anisads , '$!ad&$ d!l sist!ma d!l K!dOnta,
d! m&nism& "$& a'!"tad& "&$ na ma,&$)a d!
t&d&s l&s hind9!s , an#l&g& al id!alism& d! Kant,
f! n d!v&t& v!n!$ad&$ d! im#g!n!s, n visitad&$
d! alta$!s, , n 'ant&$ d! himn&s d!v&'i&nal!s.
Ci!$tam!nt!, !n na fam&sa "l!ga$ia, s!
dis'l"a "&$ visali5a$ !n la '&nt!m"la'i(n a Mi!n
n& !st# limitad& "&$ ningna f&$ma, "&$ ala+a$ !n
himn&s a Mi!n !st# m#s all# d!l al'an'! d! las
"ala+$as, , "&$ visita$ !n alta$!s sag$ad&s, a Mi!n
!s &mni"$!s!nt!. D! h!'h&, tam+i*n, !%ist!n
algn&s g$"&s !n !l hindism& @l&s si3hs, "&$
!8!m"l&A .! n& ha'!n s& d! las im#g!n!s. 7!$&
si a9n *l, .! '&n&')a, n& "d& $!sisti$ !l im"ls&
d! ama$, :, !l am&$ $!.i!$! n &+8!t& d!
ad&$a'i(n, , n &+8!t& d!+! '&n'!+i$s! !n "ala+$a
& f&$ma:, '#nt& ma,&$ d!+! s!$ la n!'!sidad d!
!sa ma,&$)a "a$a .i!n!s !s m'h& m#s f#'il
ad&$a$ .! '&n&'!$. As) !l 2l(s&f& "!$'i+! la
in!vita+ilidad d!l s& d! la imagin!$)a, v!$+al ,
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
visal, , $ati2'a !l s!$vi'i& d! las im#g!n!s. Di&s
mism& ama ha'!$ '&n'!si&n!s a n!st$a
nat$al!5a m&$tal, /t&mand& las f&$mas
imaginadas "&$ Ss ad&$ad&$!s0, ha'i*nd&s! a S)
mism& '&m& n&s&t$&s s&m&s "a$a .! n&s&t$&s
"&dam&s s!$ '&m& Gl !s.
El va$a hind9 @!l Di&s S"$!m&A n& !s n -
Di&s '!l&s&, "&$.! t&d&s l&s di&s!s s&n as"!'t&s
d! Gl, imaginad&s "&$ S ad&$ad&$!s- !n "ala+$as
d! K$sna; /Cand& n d!v&t& +s'a ad&$a$ n
as"!'t& '&n f!, n& !s ning9n &t$& .! M) mism&
.i!n &t&$ga !sa f! 2$m!, , 'and& "&$ la
ad&$a'i(n d! n as"!'t& &+ti!n! l& .! d!s!a, n&
!s &t$& .! M) mism& .i!n '&n'!d! a ss
"l!ga$ias. D! 'al.i!$ m&d& .! l&s h&m+$!s s!
a'!$.!n a M), as) Y& l!s a'&8&, "!s !l 'amin& .!
l&s h&m+$!s t&man d!sd! 'ada lad& !s M)&0.
A.!ll&s ',& id!al !s m!n&s alt& al'an5an,
n!'!sa$iam!nt!, alt$as m!n&$!s- "!$& ning9n
h&m+$! "!d! as"i$a$ sin $i!sg& a id!al!s m#s
alt&s d! l&s .! s&n "!$tin!nt!s a s !dad
!s"i$ital. En t&d& 'as&, s '$!'imi!nt& !s"i$ital
n& "!d! s!$ a,dad& "&$ na d!sa'$ali5a'i(n d!
ss id!al!s- s(l& "!d! s!$ a,dad& "&$ !l m#s
'&m"l!t& $!'&n&'imi!nt& d! !st&s id!al!s, l&s
'al!s han d! $!t!n!$ s valid!5 !n 'al.i!$
!s.!ma, "&$ m, "$&fnd& .! s!a. Est! !s !l
m*t&d& hind9- la $!ligi(n india s! ada"ta '&n
in2nita g$a'ia a 'ada n!'!sidad hmana. El g!ni&
'&l!'tiv& .! hi5& d!l hindism& na '&ntinidad
.! va d!sd! la '&nt!m"la'i(n d! l& A+s&lt&
hasta !l s!$vi'i& f)si'& d! na imag!n h!'ha d!
a$'illa, n& $!t$&'!d! ant! na 9ltima a'!"ta'i(n d!
t&d& as"!'t& d! Di&s '&n'!+id& "&$ !l h&m+$!, ,
d! t&d& $ital dis"!st& "&$ s d!v&'i(n.
Ya h!m&s sg!$id& .! la mlti"li'idad d! las
f&$mas d! las im#g!n!s, '&in'id!nt! '&n !l
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
d!sa$$&ll& d!l hindism& m&n&t!)sta, s$g! d!
va$ias 'asas, t&das $!f!$i+l!s 2nalm!nt! a la
div!$sidad d! las n!'!sidad!s d! l&s individ&s ,
l&s g$"&s. En "a$ti'la$, !sta mlti"li'idad s!
d!+! hist($i'am!nt! a la in'lsi(n d! t&das las
f&$mas "$!1!%ist!nt!s, t&das las f&$mas l&'al!s, !n
na s)nt!sis t!&l(gi'a ma,&$, d&nd! s! int!$"$!tan
'&m& m&d&s & !mana'i&n!s @vy ha _ A d!l s"$!m&
va$a- , s+s!'!nt!m!nt!, al ma,&$ -
'$!'imi!nt& d! la !s"!'la'i(n t!&l(gi'a. En
"ala+$as d! Y s3a; /K!m&s, !n !f!'t&, .! "&$ la
g$and!5a d! Di&s, !l 9ni'& "$in'i"i& d! la vida !s
ala+ad& d! dif!$!nt!s man!$as. 6&s d!m#s #ng!l!s
s&n l&s mi!m+$&s individal!s d! n 9ni'& S)
mism&0 @5irukta, KII.BA; 'f. R,s+$&!'3,
%dornment, Ca". SSK, /"&$ S in'&m"$!nsi+l!
n&+l!5a , s+limidad, .! n& "&d!m&s n&m+$a$
a'!$tadam!nt! ni !%"$!sa$ !nt!$am!nt!, 6! dam&s
t&d&s !st&s n&m+$!s0.
Sin !m+a$g&, la i'&n&lat$)a n& s! $!d8& a s!$
'&nsid!$ada '&m& na "$#'ti'a ign&$ant! & in9til
a"$&"iada s(l& "a$a ni<&s !s"i$ital!s- a9n l&s m#s
g$and!s, '&m& h!m&s vist&, visita$&n t!m"l&s, ,
$indi!$&n 'lt& a im#g!n!s, , 'i!$tam!nt! !st&s
g$and!s "!nsad&$!s n& l& ha')an tan 'i!ga !
in'&ns'i!nt!m!nt!. S! $!'&n&'i( na n!'!sidad
hmana, s! '&m"$!ndi( la nat$al!5a d! la
n!'!sidad, s! anali5( sist!m#ti'am!nt! s
"si'&l&g)a, s! d!2ni!$&n las dif!$!nt!s fas!s d!l
'lt& d! la imag!n, m!ntal , mat!$ial, , s! !%"li'(
la va$i!dad d! las f&$mas "&$ las d&'t$inas d! la
!mana'i(n , d! la '&nd!s'!nsi(n '&m& g$a'ia.
En "$im!$ lga$, "!s, las f&$mas d! las
im#g!n!s n& s&n a$+it$a$ias. Ss !l!m!nt&s
9ltim&s "!d!n s!$ d! &$ig!n "&"la$ m#s +i!n
.! d! inv!n'i(n sa'!$d&tal, "!$& !l m*t&d& s!
ad&"ta "&st!$i&$m!nt! , s! d!sa$$&lla d!nt$& d! la
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
!sf!$a d! la &$t&d&%ia int!l!'tal. Cada '&n'!"'i(n
!s d! &$ig!n hman&, a "!sa$ d! .! la t!nd!n'ia
nat$al d!l h&m+$! ha'ia !l $!alism& '&nd'! a
na '$!!n'ia !n 'i!l&s !f!'tivam!nt! !%ist!nt!s
d&nd! !l Eng!l a"a$!'! '&m& s! l! $!"$!s!nta. En
"ala+$as d! 3$O' $,a, /las 'a$a't!$)sti'as d!
las im#g!n!s !st#n d!t!$minadas "&$ la $!la'i(n
.! s+sist! !nt$! !l ad&$ad&$ , l& ad&$ad&0- !n
las 'itadas "&$ J&" la+hatta d! na f!nt!
d!s'&n&'ida, la a'tividad !s"i$ital "$!s!nt! d!l
.! $ind! 'lt&, , la !%ist!n'ia !f!'tiva d! na
i'&n&g$af)a t$adi'i&nal, s! $!'&n'ilian '&m& sig!
:/An.! !s la d!v&'i(n @bhaktiA d!l d!v&t& l&
.! 'asa la manif!sta'i(n d! la imag!n d!l
Ui!nav!nt$ad& @UhagavataA, !n !sta '!sti(n @d!
la i'&n&g$af)aA d!+! s!gi$s! !l "$&'!dimi!nt& d!
l&s antig&s sa+i&s0
B
.
4&d& !l "$&+l!ma d!l sim+&lism& @prat ka , ,
/s)m+&l&0A l& t$ata an3a$O' $,a !n !l
C&m!nta$i& s&+$! l&s K!dOnta S t$as, I.>.2I. _
Rati2'and& la a2$ma'i(n d! .! /t&d& !l .!
'anta a.) al a$"a, l! 'anta a Gl0, s!<ala .! !st!
/Gl0 s! $!2!$! al S!<&$ alt)sim& s(l&, .! !s !l
t!ma 9ltim& in'ls& d! l&s 'ant&s mndan&s. Y !n
'ant& a las !%"$!si&n!s ant$&"&m($2'as !n la
!s'$it$a, /$!s"&nd!m&s .! !l S!<&$ alt)sim&
"!d!, 'and& .i!$!, asmi$ na 2g$a '&$"&$al
f&$mada d! M , , "a$a g$atifi'a$ a ss d!v&t&s
ad&$ad&$!s0- "!$& t&d& !st& !s m!$am!nt!
anal(gi'&, '&m& 'and& d!'im&s .! !l U$ahman
m&$a a.) & all), "!st& .!, !n $!alidad, m&$a s(l&
!n S "$&"ia gl&$ia @'f. =dem., I.2.2RA. 6a
$!"$!s!nta'i(n d! l& invisi+l! "&$ l& visi+l! la t$ata
tam+i*n D!ss!n, /hilosophy o- the Upanishads,
"". RR1>I>. Cf. tam+i*n !l !%am!n d! paroksa !n
!l Ca". K.
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
Ent$! "a$*nt!sis, "&d!m&s &+s!$va$ .! las
s!'!n'ias !stil)sti'as @'am+i& d! f&$ma !st*ti'a
sin 'am+i& d! 2g$a +#si'aA s&n n $!gist$&
$!v!lad&$ d! l&s 'am+i&s !n la nat$al!5a d! la
!%"!$i!n'ia $!ligi&sa- !n E$&"a, "&$ !8!m"l&, la
dif!$!n'ia !nt$! na Mad&nna d!l sigl& t$!'! , na
Mad&nna m&d!$na $!v!la !l "as& d! la '&nvi''i(n
a"asi&nada a la s!ntim!ntalidad f#'il. D! !st&, sin
!m+a$g&, !l ad&$ad&$ !s '&m"l!tam!nt!
in'&ns'i!nt!- d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista d! la
!di2'a'i(n, !l val&$ d! na imag!n n& d!"!nd! d!
ss 'alidad!s !st*ti'as. Pn $!'&n&'imi!nt& d!l
signi2'ad& d! l&s 'am+i&s !stil)sti'&s, !n "!$)&d&s
s'!siv&s, "&$ im"&$tant! .! "!da s!$ "a$a
n&s&t$&s '&m& !stdiant!s d!l a$t!, !n $!alidad
s(l& s! ha'! !vid!nt! !n na $!t$&s"!''i(n
d!sint!$!sada- !l t!(l&g&, al "$&"&n!$ m!di&s d!
!di2'a'i(n, s! ha &'"ad& s(l& d! las f&$mas d!
las im#g!n!s. 6&s 'am+i&s !stil)sti'&s s!
'&$$!s"&nd!n '&n l&s 'am+i&s lingV)sti'&s; t&d&s
ha+lam&s !l l!nga8! d! n!st$& "$&"i& ti!m"& sin
'!sti(n ni an#lisis.
C&nsid!$!m&s ah&$a !l "$&'!s& !f!'tivam!nt!
im"li'ad& !n la h!'h$a d! im#g!n!s. C&n m'ha
ant!$i&$idad a las im#g!n!s m#s antigas
s"!$vivi!nt!s d! las d!idad!s s"$!mas n&s
!n'&nt$am&s '&n d!s'$i"'i&n!s d! l&s di&s!s !n
las 'al!s ti!n!n mi!m+$&s, v!stid$as, a$mas
&t$&s at$i+t&s- tal!s d!s'$i"'i&n!s s! !n'!nt$an
in'ls& !n l&s lad!s , mit&s v*di'&s. Ah&$a +i!n,
!n !l hindism& t!)sta, d&nd! s! !m"l!a !l m*t&d&
d!l Y&ga, !s d!'i$, d&nd! la at!n'i(n !nf&'ada
'&nd'! a la $!ali5a'i(n d! la id!ntidad d! la
'&ns'i!n'ia '&n !l &+8!t& '&nsid!$ad&, s!a & n&
!st! &+8!t& Di&s, !stas d!s'$i"'i&n!s, llamadas
dhy na mantrams & f($mlas d! t$an'!, &
alt!$nativam!nt! s dhan s , m!di&s,
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"$&"&$'i&nan !l g!$m!n d!sd! !l 'al ha d!
visali5a$s! la f&$ma d! la d!idad. 7&$ !8!m"l&,
/Y& ad&$& a n!st$a dl'! s!<&$a Uhvan! va$ , ,
'&m& !l s&l l!vant!, +!lla, vi't&$i&sa, d!st$,!nd&
l&s d!f!'t&s !n la "l!ga$ia, '&n na '&$&na
$!s"land!'i!nt! s&+$! s 'a+!5a, '&n t$!s &8&s ,
"!ndi!nt!s '&lgant!s ad&$nad&s '&n div!$sas
g!mas, '&m& na s!<&$a d!l l&t&, a+ndant! !n
t!s&$&s, ha'i!nd& g!st&s d! 'a$idad , dand&
'&n2an5a. 4al !s la dhy nam d! Uhvan! va$i0
@na f&$ma d! D!v A. A la f&$ma as) '&n'!+ida ,
han d! &f$!nd#$s!l! ?&$!s , &t$as &f$!ndas
imaginadas. 4al ad&$a'i(n int!$i&$ d! n '!$"&
h!'h& d! mant$a & d! la f&$ma imaginada
'&$$!s"&ndi!nt! s! llama stil @s ksma _ A, a
dif!$!n'ia d! la ad&$a'i(n !%t!$i&$ d! na imag!n
mat!$ial, .! s! d!n&mina g$&s!$& @sth la _ A,
an.! !n n s!ntid& sim"l!m!nt! d!s'$i"tiv&, n&
d!s"$!'iativ&.
En ma,&$ '&nt$ast! '&n am+&s m&d&s d! 'lt&
!st# !l llamad& para-r pa _ , /t$ans1f&$mal0, !n !l
.! la ad&$a'i(n s! $ind! di$!'tam!nt! a la d!idad
'&m& *l !s !n s) mism&. Est! 9ltim& m&d&
'&$$!s"&nd! sin dda a la am+i'i(n d!l
i'&n&'lasta, "!$& tal gn&sis s&l& !s "&si+l!
$!alm!nt!, , "&$ l& tant& s(l& "!$misi+l!, al Y&gin ,
v!$dad!$& j vanmukta , "!$f!''i&nad&, .! !n l&
.! a *l mism& '&n'i!$n! !st# li+!$ad& d! t&d&
n&m+$! , as"!'t&, s!a 'al f!$! la a"a$i!n'ia
!%t!$i&$ .! "$!s!nt!. Si !l i'&n&'lasta h+i!$a
al'an5ad& d! h!'h& tal "!$f!''i(n '&m& *sta, n&
"&d$)a ha+!$ sid& n i'&n&'lasta.
En 'al.i!$ 'as& d!+! '&m"$!nd!$s!, !n
$!la'i(n '&n l&s m&d&s g$&s!$&s & stil!s d!l 'lt&,
.! !l 2n s(l& "!d! al'an5a$s! "&$ na
id!nti2'a'i(n d! la '&ns'i!n'ia d!l ad&$ad&$ '&n la
f&$ma +a8& la 'al s! '&n'i+! a la d!idad; n devo
abril, 97
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
devam yajet, /s(l& '&m& !l #ng!l "!d! n&
ad&$a$ al #ng!l0, , as) devo bh tv devam yajet _ ,
/"a$a ad&$a$ al Eng!l d!v*n !l Eng!l0. S(l&
'and& !l dhy nam la /'&nt!m"la'i(n0 s! $!ali5a
as) !n "l!n& sam dhi @la '&nsma'i(n d!l Y&ga,
.! '&mi!n5a '&n la at!n'i(n !nf&'adaA s! 'm"l!
la ad&$a'i(n. As), "&$ !8!m"l&, '&n $!s"!'t& a la
f&$ma d! Nata$ 8a, .! $!"$!s!nta la dan5a
'(smi'a d! iva, !n las "ala+$as d! 4i$m la$, _
El "i! .! dan5a, !l s&nid& d! las
'am"anillas tintin!ant!s,
6&s 'ant&s .! s! 'antan, , l&s dif!$!nt!s
"as&s,
6as f&$mas asmidas "&$ m!st$& Ma!st$&
'and& dan5a,
D!s'9+$!las !n t '&$a5(n mism&, as) s!
$&m"!$#n ts atad$as.
7&$ &t$a "a$t!, 'and& s! ha d! ha'!$ na
imag!n mat!$ial '&n 2n!s d! 'lt& !n n t!m"l&
&t$& lga$, !st&, '&m& "$&'!dimi!nt& t*'ni'&, d!+!
ll!va$s! a 'a+& "&$ n a$t!san& "$&f!si&nal, .!
"!d! llama$s! dif!$!nt!m!nt! '&m& ilpin ,
/a$t!san&0, yogin, /,&gi0, s dhaka , /ad!"t&0, &
sim"l!m!nt! r pak ra _ , & pratim k ra ,
/imagin!$&0. 4al a$t!san& "asa "&$ t&d& !l "$&'!s&
d! at&1"$i2'a'i(n , 'lt&, d! visali5a'i(n
m!ntal ! id!nti2'a'i(n d! la '&ns'i!n'ia '&n la
f&$ma !v&'ada, , s(l& !nt&n'!s t$aslada la f&$ma a
la "i!d$a & !l m!tal. As) las f($mlas d! *%tasis
d!vi!n!n las "$!s'$i"'i&n!s "&$ las .! !l a$t!san&
t$a+a8a, , '&m& tal!s s! in'l,!n '&m9nm!nt! !n
l&s ilpa stras , la lit!$at$a t*'ni'a d!l
a$t!sanad&. Est&s li+$&s a s v!5 "$&"&$'i&nan
dat&s in!stima+l!s "a$a !l m&d!$n& !stdiant! d!
la i'&n&g$af)a.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
6a "$&d''i(n t*'ni'a !st# "!s ligada al
m*t&d& "si'&l(gi'& '&n&'id& '&m& yoga. En &t$as
"ala+$as, !l a$tista n& $!'$$! a m&d!l&s sin& .!
sa na '&nst$''i(n m!ntal, , !sta '&ndi'i(n
!%"li'a s2'i!nt!m!nt! !l 'a$#'t!$ '!$!+$al d!l
a$t!, .! 'ada n& ha+$# &+s!$vad& "&$ s) mism&.
En "ala+$as d!l !n'i'l&"!dista 3$O' $,a, /Pn&
d!+! !$igi$ !n l&s t!m"l&s las im#g!n!s d! l&s
#ng!l!s .! s&n l&s &+8!t&s d! s d!v&'i(n, "&$
visi(n m!ntal d! ss at$i+t&s- l&s lin!ami!nt&s
"$&"i&s d! las im#g!n!s, s! "$!s'$i+!n a 2n d! .!
s! &+t!nga !l "l!n& 'm"limi!nt& d! !sta visi(n
d! ,&ga- "&$ l& tant& !l imagin!$& m&$tal d!+!
$!'$$i$ a la visi(n !%t#ti'a, "!s as) , n& d! &t$&
m&d&, , 'i!$tam!nt! n& "&$ la "!$'!"'i(n di$!'ta,
ha d! al'an5a$s! !l 2n0 @t$ad'id& tam+i*n a$$i+a,
"#g. RC, !n "ala+$as lig!$am!nt! dif!$!nt!sA.
6as 'a$a't!$)sti'as "$&"ias d! las im#g!n!s s!
!l'idan ad!m#s !n l&s ilpa stras "&$ na
s!$i! d! '#n&n!s '&n&'id&s '&m& t lam na &
pram na , !n l&s .! s! "$!s'$i+!n las
"$&"&$'i&n!s id!al!s "$&"ias a las dif!$!nt!s
d!idad!s, ,a s! l!s '&n'i+a '&m& R!,!s d!l
Mnd&, & d! &t$& m&d&. Estas "$&"&$'i&n!s s!
!%"$!san !n l&s t*$min&s d! na nidad +#si'a, d!
la misma man!$a .! n&s&t$&s ha+lam&s d! na
2g$a '&m& d! tantas /'a+!5as0- "!$& la m!dida
india '&$$!s"&ndi!nt! !s la d! la /'a$a0, d!sd! !l
"!l& !n la f$!nt! hasta la +a$+illa, , l&s dif!$!nt!s
'#n&n!s s! d!signan "&$ l& tant& '&m& d! Di!5
'a$as, d! N!v! 'a$as, , d!s'!ndi!nd& as) hasta !l
'an&n d! Cin'& 'a$as '&nv!ni!nt! "a$a las
d!idad!s m!n&$!s d!l ti"& d! l&s !nan&s. Estas
"$&"&$'i&n!s id!al!s '&$$!s"&nd!n al 'a$#'t!$ d!l
as"!'t& d!l #ng!l .! ha d! $!"$!s!nta$s!, ,
'&m"l!tan la !%"&si'i(n d! !st! 'a$#'t!$
manif!stad& ad!m#s "&$ m!di& d! la !%"$!si(n
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
fa'ial, l&s at$i+t&s, !l v!stid& & !l g!st&. Y '&m&
di'! tam+i*n 3$O' $,a @v!$ tam+i*n v!$si&n!s
m#s lit!$al!s a$$i+a, Ca". IKA. /S(l& na imag!n
h!'ha d! a'!$d& '&n !l 'an&n "!d! llama$s!
+!lla- algn&s "!d!n "!nsa$ .! !s +!ll& a.!ll&
.! '&$$!s"&nd! a s "$&"ia fantas)a, "!$& l& .!
n& !st# d! a'!$d& '&n !l 'an&n n& !s +!ll& "a$a !l
&8& .! dis'i!$n!0. Y n!vam!nt!, /In'ls& la
imag!n d!s2g$ada d! n #ng!l ha d! s!$
"$!f!$ida a la d! n h&m+$!, "&$ m, at$a'tiva .!
s!a !sta 9ltima0- "&$.! las $!"$!s!nta'i&n!s d!
l&s #ng!l!s s&n m!di&s "a$a 2n!s !s"i$ital!s, n&
as) las .! s(l& s&n s!m!8an5as d! individ&s
hman&s. /Cand& la '&ns'i!n'ia s! avi!n! al
$!"&s& !n la f&$ma @nama, /n&m+$!0, /id!a0A , v!
s(l& la f&$ma, !nt&n'!s, mi!nt$as $!"&sa !n la
f&$ma, la "!$'!"'i(n as"!'tal !st# ss"!ndida ,
s(l& .!da la $!f!$!n'ia- n& al'an5a !nt&n'!s !l
mnd&1sin1"!$'!"'i(n1as"!'tal, , '&n na
"$#'ti'a '&ntinada al'an5a la li+!$a'i(n d! t&d&s
l&s &+st#'l&s, d!vini!nd& ad!"t&0
C
. A.), '&n n
l!nga8! distint& al n!st$&, s! '&nt$astan !l a$t!
id!al , !l a$t! $!alista; n& !s n m!di& "a$a la
'&ns!''i(n d! na '&ns'i!n'ia m#s "l!na, !l &t$&
!s m!$am!nt! n m!di& "a$a !l "la'!$. As)
tam+i*n "&d$)an d!f!nd!$s! las limita'i&n!s
anat(mi'as d! Ji&tt& '&nt$a !l !n'ant& hman& d!
Rafa!l.
D!+! '&m"$!nd!$s! ad!m#s .! las im#g!n!s
di2!$!n g$and!m!nt! !n !l g$ad& d! s
ant$&"&m&$2sm&. Algnas s&n m!$am!nt!
s)m+&l&s, '&m& 'and& !l #$+&l U&dhi s! sa "a$a
$!"$!s!nta$ al Uda !n !l ti!m"& d! la Ilmina'i(n,
& 'and& s(l& s! $!"$!s!ntan l&s "i!s d!l S!<&$
'&m& &+8!t&s d! 'lt&. Pn ti"& i'&n&g$#2'& m,
im"&$tant! !s !l d!l yantra, sad& !s"!'ialm!nt!
!n l&s sist!mas 3ta- a.) n&s v!m&s '&n na
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
f&$ma "$am!nt! g!&m*t$i'a, a m!nd&, "&$
!8!m"l&, '&m"!sta d! t$i#ngl&s !nt$!la5ad&s,
.! $!"$!s!ntan l&s as"!'t&s mas'lin& ,
f!m!nin&, !st#ti'& , 'in*ti'& d!l D&s1!n1Pn&.
Ad!m#s, las im#g!n!s '&m"l!tas "!d!n s!$
avyakta, n& mani2!stas, '&m& n lingamO &
vyaktvyakta, "a$'ialm!nt! mani2!stas, '&m& !n
!l 'as& d! n mukha-lingamO, & vyakta,
"l!nam!nt! mani2!stas, '&m& !n l&s ti"&s
/ant$&"&m($2'&s0 & "a$'ialm!nt! t!$i&m($2'&s
D
.
En 9ltim& an#lisis, t&das *stas s&n f&$mas
igalm!nt! id!al!s , sim+(li'as.
En !l s& !f!'tiv& d! na imag!n mat!$ial,
d!+! $!'&$da$s! si!m"$! .! *sta d!+! s!$
"$!"a$ada "a$a !l 'lt& '&n na '!$!m&nia d!
inv&'a'i(n @ vahana A , si s! d!stina$a s(l& a n
s& t!m"&$al, s+s!'!nt!m!nt! d!+! s!$
d!sa'$ali5ada '&n na f($mla d! d!s"!dida
@visarjanaA. Cand& n& !st# !n p j _, !s d!'i$,
ant!s d! la '&nsag$a'i(n & d!s"*s d! la
d!sa'$ali5a'i(n, la imag!n n& ti!n! m#s 'a$#'t!$
sa'$&sant& .! 'al.i!$ &t$& &+8!t& mat!$ial. N&
d!+! s"&n!$s! .! '&n la inv&'a'i(n , la
d!s"!dida, s! ha'! v!ni$ & "a$ti$ a la d!idad, "!s
la &mni"$!s!n'ia n& s! m!v!- !stas '!$!m&nias
s&n !n $!alidad "$&,!''i&n!s d! la "$&"ia a'titd
m!ntal d!l ad&$ad&$ ha'ia la imag!n. C&n la
inv&'a'i(n s! ann'ia a s) mism& s int!n'i(n d!
sa$ la imag!n '&m& n m!di& d! '&mni(n '&n !l
Eng!l- '&n la d!s"!dida ann'ia .! s s!$vi'i& s!
ha '&m"l!tad&, , .! ,a n& '&nsid!$a a la imag!n
'&m& n la5& !nt$! *l mism& , la d!idad.
S(l& "&$ n 'am+i& d! "nt& d! vista,
!.ival!nt! "si'&l(gi'am!nt! a na tal
d!sa'$ali5a'i(n f&$mal, !l ad&$ad&$, .!
nat$alm!nt! '&nsid!$a !l i'&n& '&m& na tilidad
d!v&'i&nal, ll!ga a '&nsid!$a$l! '&m& na m!$a
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
&+$a d! a$t! .!, '&m& tal, ha d! s!$ !stimada
s&l& d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista d! la s!nsa'i(n.
Inv!$sam!nt!, !l !st*ti'& , Knsthist&$i3!$
m&d!$n&, .! s! int!$!sa s(l& !n las s"!$2'i!s ,
s!nsa'i&n!s !st*ti'as, !s in'a"a5 d! '&n'!+i$ la
&+$a '&m& !l "$&d't& n!'!sa$i& d! na
d!t!$mina'i(n dada, !s d!'i$, '&m& d&tada d! n
"$&"(sit& , na tilidad. D! !st&s d&s, !l ad&$ad&$,
"a$a .i!n s! hi5& !l &+8!t&, !st# m#s '!$'a d! la
$a)5 d! la '!sti(n .! !l !st!ta .! s! !sf!$5a !n
aisla$ la +!ll!5a d! la fn'i(n
L
.
CAPTULO VII. EL ORI#EN $ USO DE
IM%#ENES EN LA INDIA. NOTAS
>
K!$ mi Mediaeval +inhalese %rt @>RIQA, "".
LI1LC.
2
Cf. 7&"!, J. P., The Tiruvcagam @O%f&$d,
>RIIA, ". SSSK.
3
Cf. la &ermeneia d! Ath&s, l BBC, 'itad& "&$
Wi'htn!$, Mandmalerein der %thosklGster @>R3>A, ".
>C; /4&d& !l h&n&$ .! $!ndim&s a la imag!n, l&
$!f!$im&s al A$.!ti"&, !s d!'i$, a A.*l d! Mi!n
!lla !s la imag!n] D! ningna man!$a h&n$am&s
l&s '&l&$!s & !l a$t!, sin& al a$.!ti"& !n C$ist&,
.! !st# !n l&s Ci!l&s. 7!s '&m& di'! Uasili&, la
h&n$a d! na imag!n "asa a s "$&t&ti"&0. Cf. n&ta
B3 d!l 'a")tl&. I.
B
/Es "a$a !l +!n!2'i& @arthaA d! l&s ad&$ad&$!s
@up saka A @, n& "&$ ningna n!'!sidad int$)ns!'aA
"&$ l& .! !l U$ahman :',a nat$al!5a !s
int!lig!n'ia @cin-mayaA, a"a$t! d! .i!n n& ha,
ning9n &t$&, .! !s indivis& ! in'&$"&$al: !s
'&n'!+id& as"!'talm!nt! @r pa-kalpan _ A0,
; m9panisad , t!%t& 'itad& "&$ Uatta'ha$,a,
.ndian .mages, ". SKII. Es d!'i$, la imag!n, '&m&
!n !l 'as& d! 'al.i!$ &t$a /dis"&si'i(n d! Di&s0,
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
ti!n! na valid!5 m!$am!nt! l(gi'a, n& a+s&lta.
6a /ad&$a'i(n0 @up sana A s! ha d!2nid& '&m&
na /&"!$a'i(n int!l!'tal @m nasa-vy para A '&n
$!s"!'t& al U$ahm#n '&n 'alidad!s1at$i+)das
@sagunaA0.
C
K!$s&s 'itad&s !n !l Trim ik d!
Kas+andh- v!$ BibliothQ*ue de l)Rcole des
&autes Rtudes, fas'. 2BC, >R2C, , 6*vi, /Mat*$ia%
"&$ l[Gtd! d S,tmm! Ki8<a"tim t$a0, =dem., fas'.
2DI @7a$)s, >R32A, ". >>R.
D
6a !ta"a d! la manif!sta'i(n "a$'ial s!
'&m"a$a a la d!l /?&$!'imi!nt&0 d! na "int$a. El
t*$min& /?&$!'!$0 @unm l , A s! sa "a$a d!s'$i+i$ !l
/s$gimi!nt&0 d! na "int$a s!g9n s! van
a"li'and& g$adalm!nt! l&s '&l&$!s
@Mah! va$Onanda, Mahrthamajar,, ". BB, , mi
/W$th!$ R!f!$!n'!s t& Indian 7ainting0, %rtibus
%siae, ". >2L, >R3I1>R32, it!m >I2A.
L
Cf. mi /Nind S'l"t$!0, !n the league, v&l.
K, n\ 3 @N!X Y&$3, >R33A.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
#LOSARIO S%NSCRITO
bh sa , /+$ill& $!?!8ad&0, a"a$i!n'ia, $!?!8&-
m&dalidad @'al.i!$ '&sa '&nsid!$ada '&m&
n m&d& & "a$t! d! n t&d&, '&m& la "int$a
d! la !s'lt$aA- &+8!tividad- t!&fan)a.
abhid, d!n&ta'i(n- $!f!$!n'ia.
abhinaya, a"a$at& !st*ti'&, m!di&s d! /$!gist$a$0
@s can _ A- !s"!'ialm!nt! g!st&s
'&nv!n'i&nal!s !m"l!ad&s !n la dan5a
d$am#ti'a @nrtyaA.
abhi-sambhava, $!1d!v!ni$, t$ansf&$ma'i(n.
abhy sa , "$#'ti'a, inst$''i(n.
c rya , n ma!st$&, n !%"!$t& !n s a$t!.
adhidaivata, d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista ang*li'&-
paroksa,
adhy tma , d!sd! !l "nt& d! vista individalO
pratyaksa,
adhyavas na , intss'!"tiv&, imagin!$&.
gama , !s'$it$a @ ruti A.
gama-artha-avisamv di , .! n& '&nt$adi'! !l
s!ntid& d! la !s'$it$a, &$t&d&%&, 'an(ni'&.
h rya , '&ns!gid&, ad.i$id&, a<adid&,
adv!nti'i&, n& innat&. h rya-abhinaya ` ,
v!stid& '&m& "a$t! d!l a"a$at& d!l a$t!-
obha , +!ll!5a .! $!slta d!l ad&$n&.
karsana , at$a'tiv&, "$&d't&$- inti'i(n- d! krs .
k a , *t!$, 2$mam!nt&- !s"a'i& inman!nt!, d!
dim!nsi&n!s ind!2nidas, !s"a'i& s+8!tiv&.
-krti , imag!n, s!m!8an5a, a"a$i!n'ia !%t!$i&$.
alamk ra , &$nam!nt&s, 2g$as, t$&"&s, id!as &
im#g!n!s as&'iadas- $!t($i'a.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
a-laukika, .! n& "!$t!n!'! a l&s mnd&s
'&nting!nt!s, s"!$s!nsal. 6& mism& .!
lok9ttara.
lekhya , "int$a.
a-m tra , d! m!dida ind!2nida, ind!t!$minad&.
nanda-cin-maya , '&m"!st& d! d!l!'ta'i(n ,
$a5(n @'a$a't!$)sti'& d! rassv dana , la
!%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'aA.
antar-jeya, '&n&'id& s+8!tivam!nt!.
anu-bh va , m!di&s d! $!gist$& @s can _ A !n na
&+$a d! a$t!- "a$t!s & !l!m!nt&s d! la &+$a
d! a$t! !f!'tiva- l&s !st)ml&s f)si'&s "a$a la
$!"$&d''i(n !st*ti'a. Cf. abhinaya.
anu-k ra , l& mism& .! anu-karana.
anu-karana, /ha'!$ s!g9n0, /ha'!$ d! a'!$d&
'&n0, imita'i(n- anukrti, anuk ra,
anu-k rya , !l t!ma /imitad&0, !l m&d!l&.
anu-krti, h!'h& d! a'!$d& '&n, /imita'i(n0.
anu-m na , inf!$!n'ia, d!d''i(n, s"&si'i(n,
im"ta'i(n.
anu-r pa _ , '&m& !l m&d!l&, 2!l a la nat$al!5a-
an#l&g&.
anu- la , , a"li'a'i(n d!v&ta, &+!di!n'ia.
anvita, /'&gid&0, t$ansmitid&, t$asladad& a na
&+$a d! a$t!- !n '&nt$ast! '&n anyath,
/!s'a"ad&0 & /"asad& "&$ alt&0.
anyath, /"!$did&0, /!s'a"ad&0, fals& @!n na
&+$a d! a$t!A.
a-paroksa, n& indi$!'t&, n& sim+(li'&- inm!diat&.
ardha-citra, /m!di&1a$t!0, $!li!v! @!n tant& .!
distingid& d! la !s'lt$a '&m"l!ta "&$ na
"a$t! , d! la "int$a "&$ &t$aA.
ardha-likhita, /m!di& "intad&0, ina'a+ad& @distint&
d! anyath, im"!$f!'t&, n& l&g$ad&A.
artha, signi2'ad&, 2n, int!$*s, s&, v!nta8a, m&tiv&,
"$&"(sit&, val&$, d!t!$mina'i(n- sim"l!m!nt!
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
'asa & raison d)1tre d! na &+$a- /int!n5i&n
d!ll[a$t!0. Cf. purusrtha.
arhatva, '&ndi'i(n d! "&s!!$ signi2'ad&, !t'.
sv da , sa+&$!& @d! rasaA- !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a.
tman , s) mism&, S) Mism&- N&m+$! Pniv!$sal,
U$ahman.
aupade ika , ad.i$id& "&$ inst$''i(n- n& .! ha
ad.i$id& la a"a$i!n'ia d! la imagina'i(n "&$
la inst$''i(n.
ava-sth na , '&ndi'i(n, sita'i(n !m&'i&nal.
avayava, las "a$t!s s!"a$adas d! n &$ganism&.
avayava- nata , at!nt& a las 2g$as !f!'tivas d!
n &+8!t&- $!alista- /2!l a la Nat$al!5a0.
a-vidy, n& '&n&'imi!nt&, $!lativ&, !m")$i'&,
'&n&'imi!nt& s!nsi+l! , $a'i&nal d! la
"l$alidad.
b hya , !%t!$n&, &+8!tiv&, !m")$i'&.
bh, +$illa$, a"a$!'!$- !n prati-bh ,
bhakti, d!v&'i(n, a+and&n& d! s) mism& !n !l
am&$- sad& tam+i*n '&m& !.ival!nt! d!
laksan, '&nn&ta'i(n- , '&m& sin(nim& d!
dhvani, '&nt!nid&.
bh s , +$illa$- !n bh sa , !t'.
bh va , nat$al!5a- !m&'i(n, s!ntimi!nt& & hm&$,
s!g9n s! $!"$!s!nta !n na &+$a d! a$t!- !l
v!h)'l& d! rasa.
bhavana, /l& .! ha v!nid& a s!$0, 2g$a,
a"a$i!n'ia, Nat$al!5a.
bh van , &$igina'i(n, "$&d''i(n, imagina'i(n-
imag!n "!$sist!nt!, im"$!si(n !m&'i&nal
s"!$vivi!nt! !n la m!m&$ia '&ns'i!nt! &
in'&ns'i!nt!.
bhoga, f$i'i(n, a"$!'ia'i(n !st*ti'a- sv da .
bh_, s!$, d!v!ni$- !n bh va , bh ta _ , !t'.
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bh ta-m tr _ , !l!m!nt&s d!l s!$ f!n&m*ni'&,
2g$a- fa't&$ "i't($i'& @citraA !n !l a$t!.
bimba, m&d!l&, t!ma @"$!s!nta'i(n, s!m!8an5a, !n
'&nt$ast! '&n prati-bimba, $!1"$!s!nta'i(n,
$!1s!m!8an5aA.
buddhi, int!l!'t& "$&, /!l h#+it& d! l&s "$im!$&s
"$in'i"i&s0, praj.
camat-k ra , admi$a'i(n, "asm&.
c ru , +!ll&.
cetan, s!n'i!n'ia, vida.
chandas, $itm&.
ch ytapa , s&m+$a , l5, 'la$&s'$&- "a$!s d!
&"!st&s.
cit @cid-, cin-A, m!nt!, int!lig!n'ia, $a5(n.
citra, a$t! $!"$!s!ntativ& @!s'lt$a, $!li!v!,
"int$aA- &+$a "i't($i'a, "i't($i'&.
citrbh sa , /s!m!8an5a d! a$t!0, /$!?!8& d! la
!s'lt$a0, "int$a- bh sa , lekhya .
citra-gata, $!"$!s!ntad& @!n na &+$a d! a$t!A.
citra-k vya , "&!s)a "i't($i'a & ilst$ativa, !l ti"&
m#s +a8&, & n& "&!s)a !n a+s&lt&- 'f. /v!$s&s
"a$a "int$as0.
citrrdha, l& mism& .! ardha-citra.
citta-vrtti, ?'ta'i&n!s d! la m!nt!, /!m&'i&n!s
fgitivas ! im#g!n!s d! las '$iat$as0.
damsana, 'a"ta'i(n @la a"$!h!nsi(n d!l t!ma "&$
!l a$tistaA.
dar n ya , , dign& d! mi$a$, +!n&, *uod visum
placetO l& .! drsti-pr tim vidhatte, ,
dar ita , m&st$ad&, !%hi+id&, d!s"l!gad&.
de i , @!stil&A f&l3l($i'&, "&"la$- !n '&nt$ast! '&n
m rga , /!l!vad&0.
deva, devat, #ng!l.
dharana, at!n'i(n !%'lsiva a na id!a
"$!s!ntada.
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dharma, '&nd'ta, m&$alidad, l!,, vi$td, fn'i(n,
'a$#'t!$, "$in'i"i&, h#+it&, '&sa.
dh tu , ganga min!$al- '&l&$.
dhvanana, ha'!$ !'&, sin(nim& d! vyajan O 'f.
dhvani.
dhvani, s&nid&, s&na$- s&+$!t&n& d!l signi2'ad&,
$!s&nan'ia d!l s!ntid&, '&nt!nid& @!n
'&nt$ast! d! a+s&$+id&A- !l 'hin& y2n
@>3QB3A.
dhyai, m!dita$ s&+$!, !sta$ at!nt& a, "$a'ti'a$ la
'&nt!m"la'i(n a+st$a'ta, visali5a$.
C&$$!s"&nd! al v*di'& dh,.
dhy na , at!n'i(n sin dist$a''i(n, "$im!$a !ta"a
!n la "$#'ti'a d!l Y&ga- visali5a'i(n,
'&nt!m"la'i(n d! na imag!n m!ntal- !l
'hin& ch)an, !l 8a"&n*s 7en.
dhy na-yoga , ni(n '&nt!m"lativa visal,
$!ali5a'i(n d! la id!ntidad f&$mal '&n na
imag!n '&n&'ida int!$i&$m!nt!.
divya, daivata, ang*li'&.
dosa, 'al.i!$ falta !s"!')2'a !n na &+$a d!
a$t!.
dr, v!$, mi$a$, '&nsid!$a$, v!$ intitivam!nt!- !n
dr ya , s dr ya , sadr,, drastr, !t'.
drstdvaita, !l .! v! sin dalidad, !l .! v! !n
id!ntidad.
drsti-pr ti , , d!l!'ta'i(n d! l&s &8&s.
dr ya , visi+l!, !l niv!$s& f!n&m*ni'&.
gamana, m&'i(n, m&vimi!nt&.
graha, aga$$ad&$, a"$!h!ns&$, inst$m!nt& d!l
s!ntid&.
grahana, /!l a't& d! aga$$a$0, '&m"$!h!nsi(n,
'&m"$!nsi(n d! alg&.
gr hya , aga$$a+l!, a"t& "a$a s!$ '&m"$!h!ndid&.
guha, gupta, guhya, !s'&ndid&, &'lt&, invisi+l!-
t$ans'!nd!ntal.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
guna, 'al.i!$ m*$it& !s"!')2'& !n na &+$a d!
a$t!. 4am+i*n fa't&$, 'alidad & 'ali2'a'i(n
!n !l niv!$s& f!n&m*ni'&, a sa+!$, sattva-
guna, "$!5a, rajo-guna, a''i(n, !%"ansi(n,
'&ntina'i(n, , tamo-guna, in!$'ia,
$!sist!n'ia.
harana, "lagi&.
harsa, d!l!'ta'i(n.
hrd, hrdaya, '&$a5(n, !l s!$ !nt!$& @s!nsi+l! !
int!lig!nt!A- alma- S) Mism&, U$ahm#n.
itih sa , na$$ativa, hist&$ia.
jagac-citra, "int$a d!l mnd&, visi(n d!l Pniv!$s&
a"a$t! d!l ti!m"&.
j va , , j vtman , , individ&, s) mism&, alma.
j van-mukta , , !l .! ha al'an5ad& la li+!$a'i(n
!s"i$ital, "!$& .! !st# t&dav)a manif!stad&
!n f&$ma hmana.
kail sa-bh van , h!'h& s!g9n !l m&d!l&
'!l!stial.
kal, a$t!, 'al.i!$ a$t! & !8!''i(n .! d!"!nda
d! la "!$i'ia. El a$t! '&m& av&'a'i(n. 6&s
b hya-kal s @a$t!s !%t!$nas, & a$t!s
"$#'ti'asA s! !nm!$an g!n!$alm!nt! '&m&
s!s!nta , 'at$&, si!nd& algnas id*nti'as
'&n l&s ilpas v&'a'i&nal!s- ha, tam+i*n
s!s!nta , 'at$& k ma- & abhyantara, /a$t!s
d!l am&$0, & /a$t!s )ntimas0.
k ma , "la'!$ d! 'al.i!$ ti"&, "la'!$ !s"!')2'& &
nat$al, !s"!'ialm!nt! !n !l am&$.
k nti , +!ll!5a @d!l t!ma, !s"!'ialm!nt! !n n
$!t$at&A.
k raka , ha'!d&$, '$!ad&$.
k rana , a't&, a''i(n 'asa- g!st& & "&si'i(n
f&$mal !n la dan5a.
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karma, a''i(n @'&n $!f!$!n'ia a la &+$a manal d!l
h&m+$!, -actibileA- tam+i*n '&nd'ta @'&n
$!f!$!n'ia a l&s a't&s d!l h&m+$!, agibileA-
&2'i&, '!l!+$a'i(n, $ital.
k rayitr , '$!ativ&.
kau ala , ha+ilidad, "!$i'ia, vi$t&sidad, fa'ilidad-
'and&, '&m& !n !l s& +dista, ha, n tint!
m&$al, !st# tam+i*n "$!s!nt! la id!a d!
/'&nv!ni!n'ia0.
kaut hala _ , int!$*s !n, a"$!'ia'i(n d!, na &+$a d!
a$t!.
kavi, !n l&s K!das, J!ni& 7&*ti'& @"!$s&ni2'ad&A,
na d!signa'i(n d!l S&l, '&m& /$!v!lad&$0-
"&st!$i&$m!nt!, /"&!ta0, a$tista.
kavitva, ha+ilidad a$t)sti'a- 1d yin , a$t)sti'&.
k vya , "&!s)a @"$&sa & v!$s&A- /lit!$at$a0 '&m&
distinta d! ruti , itih sa , stras , !t'. 7&$
!%t!nsi(n, !l /a$t!0 '&m& n '&n'!"t&
a+st$a't&. 0avitva-d yin , /a$t)sti'&0.
k vya- ar ra , , !l '!$"& d! la "&!s)a @'&nsist!nt!
!n s&nid&, s!ntid& , &$nam!nt&sA- la &+$a d!
a$t! '&m& na !ntidad f)si'a, !n distin'i(n d!
s alma, & '&nt!nid&, tman .
kr, ha'!$, &+$a$- !n karma, karana, k rya , !t'.
krs, at$a!$, di+8a$, d!lin!a$, d!s"l!ga$- !n
karsana , !t'.
krta, h!'h&, h!'h& +i!n , v!$dad!$am!nt!.
krtrtha, "$&"(sit& & 2n d! la &+$a .! ha d!
ha'!$s!.
kha, !s"a'i&- k a .
kratv-artha, !l +i!n d! la &+$a .! ha d! ha'!$s!.
laksana, lin!ami!nt& 'a$a't!$)sti'&, $!.!$imi!nt&
i'&n&g$#2'&, sign&, s)m+&l&, at$i+t&.
laksan, '&nn&ta'i(n.
l vanya , /sal0, !n'ant&, /!ll&0 @!n n t!ma
f!m!nin&A.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
laya, $!"&s&, '!sa'i(n, $!s&l'i(n.
likh, di+8a$, "inta$- !n lekhya , !t'.
l l ,, 8!g&, manif!sta'i(n inm&tivada.
loka, mnd&, !sf!$a, niv!$s&- !l mnd&
'&ndi'i&nad&, in'lid&, !n "a$t! !l 'i!l&.
loka-vrtta, /m&'i&n!s l&'al!s0, f!n(m!n&s-
/Nat$al!5a0 @ens naturataA.
lok9ttara, s"!$s!nsal @m#s +i!n .!
/s&+$!nat$al0A.
m, m!di$- !n m na @>A, pram na , nirmana,
pratim, nirm, m tr .
m dhurya , dl5$a, !'animidad, g$a'ia, fa'ilidad.
m na @>A, @d! la $a)5 mA, m!dida, 'an&n d!
"$&"&$'i(n.
m na @2A, @d! la $a)5 manA, &$gll&, !g&)sm&,
id!&l&g)a. Cf. /m!ntal0 @$a'i&nalA s!g9n l&
sa Ula3!.
manas, int!l!'t&, m!nt!, $a5(n- divyacaksu
@h ndogya Up ., KIII.>2.CA.
manohara, .! d!l!ita la m!nt! & !l '&$a5(n-
af!'tiv&, s!d't&$.
mantra, !n'anta'i(n, !n'ant& @"&$ !8!m"l&, v!$s&s
d!l ;g (eda, , "$!s'$i"'i&n!s 'an(ni'as d!
l&s ilpa stras , '&n&'id&s '&m& dhy na
mantrasA.
m nusa , hman&.
m rga , !l!vad& @!stil&A- l& mism& .! r ti , . C&m&
/!stil)sti'&0 & /s&2sti'ad&0 !n '&nt$ast! '&n
de,, /f&l3l($i'&0, /nanv!0.
m tr , m!dida, dim!nsi(n, "$in'i"i&.
m y , "&d!$ '$!ativ&- magia- natura naturans.
moksa, li+!$a'i(n, li+!$tad !s"i$ital, $!ali5a'i(n
@n& /ad.isi'i(n0A d! la "!$f!''i(n.
m rta _ , f&$mal, !n na s!m!8an5a- !n '&nt$ast!
'&n a-m rta _ , sin imag!n, .! t$as'i!nd! la
f&$ma.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
m rti _ , f&$ma, imag!n, s!m!8an5a.
naisargika, innat&, nat$al- sahaja.
n ma , n&m+$!, id!a, f&$ma- m!di&s d!
dis'$imina'i(n '&nv!n'i&nal.
n ma-r pa _ , n&m+$! , as"!'t&, "ala+$as !
im#g!n!s, l&s m!di&s d! dis'$imina'i(n
'&nv!n'i&nal, a.!ll& "&$ l& .! s! '&n&'! !l
niv!$s& '&nting!nt!.
nat9nnata, $!li!v!, s!ntid& d!l $!li!v! !n na
"int$a.
n ya , at&$idad t$adi'i&nal, "$!s'$i"'i(n.
netrmrta, !li%i$ d! l&s &8&s, l& .! d!l!ita al &8&.
nimn9nnata, l& mism& .! nat9nnata.
nirm, '&n citram, "inta$- '&n ko am , '&m"&n!$,
!s'$i+i$.
nirm na , ha'!$, '$!a$, manif!sta'i(n.
nirm na-k raka , ha'!d&$, '$!ad&$- Di&s.
nirv ha , sim"l! d!'la$a'i(n d! h!'h&, na$$a'i(n.
niyama, $!gla v!$i2'ada.
nrtya, dan5a d$am#ti'a, dan5a d! a$t!, dan5a
"$&"ia d! la India- la dan5a dand& !%"$!si(n
a rasa , bh va .
padmin,, /s!<&$a d!l l&t&0, n& d! l&s 'at$&
ti"&s d! m8!$!s.
paramrtha, signi2'a'i(n 9ltima- !s!n'ia,
U$ahm#n, tman .
paramrthika, '&n $!s"!'t& a la signi2'a'i(n
9ltima, t$as'!nd!ntal, a+s&lt&.
par vrtti , t$ansf&$ma'i(n, t$ans+stan'ia'i(n,
anag&g)a.
pari-, "$!28& h per.
pari-drstar, &mnivid!nt!, "$!s!n'iad&$, Di&s.
pari-harana, "lagi& ?ag$ant!.
pata, li!n5&, "int$a.
prade a , "aisa8!, #$!a.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
pra-harsa, g$an d!l!'ta'i(n.
pra-hrsta, d!l!itad& @"&$ na &+$a d! a$t!A.
praj, dis'$imina'i(n, sa+id$)a, int!l!'t& "$&,
7$im!$ 7$in'i"i&, U$ahm#n.
praj -m tr , !l!m!nt&s d! int!lig!n'ia &
dis'$imina'i(n- !l!m!nt&s f&$mal!s !n !l
a$t!.
praj na-ghana , '&m"$!nsi(n !8!m"la$ia.
pram na , '&m& "$in'i"i&, sim!t$)a id!al,
'&ns'i!n'ia !st*ti'a, /'&$$!'ti&n d sav&i$
fai$!0- '&m& 'an&n, l& mism& .! m na .
pram tr , 8!5, '$)ti'&, !l "&s!)d& d! n '$it!$i&
s+8!tiv&, & n&$ma !st*ti'a @pram na A.
pra-muda, d!l!'ta'i(n, g$an d!l!'ta'i(n- l& mism&
.! praharsa.
prna, !s"i$a'i(n, s&"l& d! vida, pneuma- !n 'hin&
ch)iO la vida '&m& "$&'!si(n, !mana'i(n. En
"l$al, l&s dif!$!nt!s s&"l&s d! vida !n las
!s"!'i!s individal!s.
prati-, n "$!28&- ha'ia, '&nt$a, !n '&nt$a.
prati-bh, visi(n, imagina'i(n, fa'ltad "&*ti'a.
prati-bimba, $!"$!s!nta'i(n- 1vat,
*u_$!"$!s!nta'i(n.
prat ka , , s)m+&l&.
prati-krti, $!t$at&- krti , kara .
pratim, imag!n, s!m!8an5a- 1k raka , imagin!$&.
pratJti, at&1int!ligi+ilidad" inti'i(n &
manif!sta'i(n 'la$a @d! rasaA.
prati-vihita, d!t!$minad& @-_dhA.
pratyaksa, /ant! !l &8&0, !vid!nt!, &+8!tiv&,
"!$'!"ti+l!- &+s!$va'i(n !m")$i'a- '&m& !l
m&d!l&, 2!l a la Nat$al!5a- s!mi(ti'&. Cf.
paroksa.
prayojana, s&, a"li'a'i(n, "$&"(sit&, int!n'i(n,
t!ma- 'f. artha.
p j _, &2'i&, $ital- p jya _ , .! ha d! $!nd)$s!l!
'lt&.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
purusa, "!$s&na, "!$s&nalidad. Distingid& d!
j va , , individ&.
purusrtha, val&$, !l signi2'ad& & "$&"(sit& d! la
vida- l&s Cat$& Win!s d! la Kida, a sa+!$,
dharma, artha, k ma , moksa. 6a v!nta8a .!
s! d!$iva d!l t$a+a8& $!ali5ad&, !n distin'i(n
d! kratvartha, !l +i!n d! la &+$a .! ha d!
ha'!$s!.
raman yat , , +!ll!5a !n na &+$a d! a$t!,
!s"!'ialm!nt! '&m& s! v! !n la
'&nt!m"la'i(n d!sint!$!sada.
ramya, +!ll&, v!$dad!$am!nt! +!ll&.
ranga, '&l&$.
rasa, gst&, sa+&$, .inta!s!n'ia- la s+stan'ia d!
la !%"!$i!n'ia !st*ti'a, '&gn&s'i+l! s(l& !n !l
a't& d! sa+&$!a$, rassv dana .
rassv dana , !l sa+&$!& d! rasa, !%"!$i!n'ia
!st*ti'a.
rasatmaka, .! ti!n! rasa '&m& s alma.
rasavat, .! "&s!! rasa, di'h& d! na &+$a d!
a$t!, "&$ im"ta'i(n & "$&,!''i(n.
rasyana, !li%i$ "a$a l&s &8&s, di'h& d! na &+$a d!
a$t! '&m& +!na d! v!$.
rasika, !l '&m"!t!nt! !n !l sa+&$!& d! rasa, '$)ti'&
v!$dad!$&.
rekh, l)n!a, "!$2l, di+8&.
rekh - uddhi , "$!5a d! l)n!a.
r ti , , !stil&, di''i(n, '&m"&si'i(n, man!$a.
ruci, gst&, "$!f!$!n'ia @n& s! ha d! '&nfndi$ '&n
rasaA.
r pa _ , 2g$a, 2g$a nat$al, s!m!8an5a, '&l&$,
h!$m&s$a- imag!n, !2gi!, a"a$i!n'ia-
s)m+&l&, f&$ma id!al- m!di&s d!
dis'$imina'i(n '&nv!n'i&nal @v!$ n ma-
r pa _ A. @Cf. vi-r pa _ , .! ti!n! d&s f&$mas,
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
va$i&, alt!$ad&, d!f&$mad&, f!&- , a-r pa _ , n&
f&$mad&, t$ans'!nd!ntalA.
r pa-k ra _ , imagin!$& @ha'!d&$ d! im#g!n!sA.
r pa-sobh _ , +!ll!5a $!"$!s!ntada.
r pya _ , +!ll&, +i!n "$&"&$'i&nad&- f&$mal.
rutrtha, s&nid& , s!ntid&.
abda , s&nid&, "ala+$a; 6&g&s.
abdrtha , l& mism& .! rutrtha.
s dhana , t&d& m!di& !m"l!ad& !n !l 'lt&- na
"$!s'$i"'i(n 'an(ni'a, dhy na mantra .
s -dh ranya , /.! ti!n! n s&"&$t! '&m9n0-
sim"at)a id!al, d!sint!$!sada, Ain- &
Mit-2hlung.
s dhu , l& .! !s +!n& & '&$$!'t& !n na &+$a d!
a$t! @&"!st& a anyathA- '&m& na
!%'lama'i(n, /Ui!n h!'h&0.
sa-dr a , sa-dr i , '&m& !n a"a$i!n'ia,
"a$!'i*nd&s! s!nsi+l!m!nt!.
s-dr ya , '&n'&mitan'ia d! !l!m!nt&s f&$mal!s ,
"i't($i'&s, '&nf&$midad, consonantia; !n
'hin& ch)ou @2CIQA, /.! $!s"&nd! a0, /!n
$!s"!sta0.
sahaja, innat&, '&nnat$al- !s"&nt#n!&,
!s"&ntan!idad- /v&lnta$iam!nt! "!$& n& d!
la v&lntad, nat$alm!nt! "!$& n& d! la
nat$al!5a0. En '&nt$ast! '&n aupade ika , ,
h rya .
s -hitya , '&n'&mitan'ia d! s&nid& , s!ntid&,
"ala+$a , signi2'ad&; consonantia.
sa-hrdaya, /.! ti!n! '&$a5(n0, d&tad&
imaginativa & !s"i$italm!nt!- rasika.
sks t , "$!s!nt! al &8&, pratyaksa.
akti , "&d!$ g!ni&.
s laksya , .! ti!n! $asg&s s!m!8ant!s, similitd,
d!n&ta'i(n '&m9n.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
samkalpa, '&n'!"t&, '&n'!"'i(n, !l a't& d!
imagina$, f&$mla'i(n m!ntal.
samketa, '&nv!n'i(n.
samketita, '&nv!n'i&nal.
samskr, '&nst$i$, int!g$a$- samskrta, !l l!nga8!
a$ti12'ial, '&nst$id&, int!g$ad&, !l s#ns'$it&.
samtosa, satisfa''i(n @d!$ivada d! na &+$a d!
a$t!A.
samv di , !n '&n'&$dan'ia '&n, '&nf&$ma+l! al
m&d!l& & "$!s'$i"'i(n.
samvyavah rika , mndanal, "$#'ti'&.
s rasvata , ins"i$ad& "&$ & dign& d! Sa$asvat . ,
ar ra , , '!$"&, s+stan'ia; !l '!$"& mat!$ial d!
na &+$a d! a$t!, !n 'ant& !st# '&m"!st&
d! s&nid&s, f&$mas tangi+l!s, !t'.- !l
$!v!stimi!nt& tangi+l! d! la inti'i(n1
!%"$!si(n.
s r pya _ , '&1as"!'talidad, '&nf&$ma'i(n,
'&&$dina'i(n, '&$$!s"&nd!n'ia- 'f. s dr ya .
stra , na !s'$it$a & t$atad& !s'$it& "&$ n
sa+i&- at&$idad t$adi'i&nal @smrtiA !n
distin'i(n d! la $!v!la'i(n @ ruti A.
stra-m na , 'an(ni'&, a'&$d! '&n la at&$idad
t$adi'i&nal.
sat @sad-A, v!$dad!$&, $!al.
sattva, "$!5a, sim"li'idad- 'alidad d! !s!n'ia,
s!$ s) mism&- !l "$im!$& d! l&s t$!s gunas.
sattva-bh va , t&da !%"$!si(n nat$al d! !m&'i(n,
'&m& s! $!"$!s!nta !n !l a$t!.
satya, v!$dad!$&, $!al, !s!n'ial- sag$ad&, hi!$#ti'&
@"int$aA.
sa-varna, d&+l!, s+stitt&.
ilpa , @"ali sippaA a$t!, t&d& a$t! &+$a d! a$t!, la
"$#'ti'a d!l a$t!, la "!$i'ia d!l a$t!, !l a$t!
'&m& v&'a'i(n, !ns!<ad& "&$ n ma!st$&
@ c rya A.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
ilpa-j vin , , !l .! viv! d! s a$t!, n "$&f!si&nal.
Cf. kal.
ithila , la%&, n& int!ns&- '&n1sam dhi ,
'&n'!nt$a'i(n im"!$f!'ta d!l a$tista @!n
m!di'ina, la%itd "&st '&itmA.
listatva , h#+it&, '&stm+$!, fa'ilidad, d!st$!5a.
smrti, /$!'&$dad&0- t$adi'i(n, at&$idad, 'f.
stra . 4am+i*n /m!m&$ia0, "!$& !n n
s!ntid& mal&, '&m& n&stalgia, &
s!ntim!ntalism&, n& /$!'&$da'i(n0.
ravan ya , , dign& d! !s''ha$, +!n& @d! la
m9si'a, !t'.A.
rng ra , !l rasa !$(ti'&, !l m#s im"&$tant! d! l&s
rasas s!"a$ad&s.
ruti , !s''had&, adi'i(n, /$!v!la'i(n0,
at&$idad inm!diata, !s'$it$a- l&s K!das.
sth na , !sta'i(n, 'am"&- "&s!.
sth yi , !sta+l!'id&, !sta+l!, "!$man!nt!. C&n
-bh va , hm&$ "!$man!nt!, m&tiv&
'&nstant! d! na &+$a d! a$t!.
sth la _ , g$&s!$&, @mat!$ial, !n &"&si'i(n a m!ntalA.
s can _ , $!gist$& @'&m& !n !l ha+la d!l 'in!A.
s ksma _ , stil @m!ntal, !n &"&si'i(n a f)si'&A.
su-krta, h!'h& +i!n , v!$dad!$am!nt! @d!l mnd&,
'&m& a$t! d! Di&sA- "!$f!'t&. K!$ lista, n. >IL.
susthu, !%'!l!nt! @!n la ala+an5a d! na &+$a d!
a$t!A.
sva, s) mism&, "$&"i&.
sva-bh va , s!$ "$&"i&, nat$al!5a !s!n'ial,
int!$i&$idad.
sva-dharma, v&'a'i(n, llamada, fn'i(n !s"!')2'a.
sva-prak a , at&1ilminad&, at&1
manif!st#nd&s! @rasa, & U$ahm#nA, l)m"id&.
sva-r pa _ , f&$ma "$&"ia, la f&$ma v!$dad!$a-
as"!'t& int$)ns!'& svk ra .
tad- k rat , '&n1f&$ma'i(n, '&&$dina'i(n.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
tad-anur pa _ , d! a'!$d& '&n !l m&d!l&,
s!m!8ant!, 2!l a la nat$al!5a.
tad- tmya , .! ti!n! !l mism& s) mism& .!.
tad lagnam hrd, l& s!d't&$, l& int$igant!.
t d-r pya _ , d! f&$ma s!m!8ant!, "a$!'id&.
taks, ta8a$ @la mad!$a- &, m!taf($i'am!nt!, !l
"!nsami!nt&A.
t la , t la-m na , m!dida, 'an&n d! "$&"&$'i(n.
t tparya-artha , s!ntid& & signi2'a'i(n d! t&da la
f$as! &+$a d! a$t!, !n distin'i(n d!l d! ss
"a$t!s & !l!m!nt&s s!"a$ad&s.
unm l , , ?&$!'!$ @di'h& d! na "int$a mi!nt$as s!
l! !st# dand& '&l&$A.
upac ra , m!t#f&$a, anal&g)a.
up saka , !l .! $ind! 'lt&, ad&$ad&$.
up sana , 'lt&.
uts ha , /!sf!$5&0- la !n!$g)a !s"i$ital !8!$'ida
!n fn'i(n !n la $!"$&d''i(n !st*ti'a.
v c @v k- , v g- A, v&5 @'&m& fn'i(nA- l!nga8!
@'&m& dis'$imina'i(n, "ala+$a !%t!$i&$A-
"ala+$a int!$i&$, 6&g&s- sa+id$)a.
vaidagdhya, "!$i'ia.
v kya , "ala+$a, f$as!- !%"$!si(n.
v rana , m$&, +a$$!$a, '!$'ad&- &+st#'l& @"&$
!8!m"l&, "$!8i'i&, int!$*s, a"!tit&A.
varna, '&l&$, s&nid&- !s'ala, "al!ta.
varnan ya , , s!$ d!s'$it& & !%"$!sad&- dign& d!
!l&gi& @t!maA.
varnik -bhanga , dist$i+'i(n d!l '&l&$.
vartan, "ali vattana, s&m+$!ad&, !s d!'i$,
m&d!lad& "l#sti'&, !n la "int$a.
vartik, "in'!l.
v san , m!m&$ia lat!nt! d! la !%"!$i!n'ia
"asada, d! a.) la "&t!n'ialidad d! la
s!nsi+ilidad im"a$'ial, fantas)a, Ain-2hlung.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
En !l mal s!ntid&, as&'ia'i&n!s , a"!g&s
!m&'i&nal!s- "&d!$ d! la '&stm+$!.
vastu, t!ma, s8!t&.
vi-bh va , !stimlant! f)si'& "a$a la $!"$&d''i(n
!st*ti'a- las "a$t!s d! la &+$a d! a$t!, las
s"!$2'i!s !st*ti'as.
vicitra, a+iga$$ad& $&m#nti'&.
vidy, gn&sis, in1'&n&'imi!nt&, !l '&n&'imi!nt&
inm!diat& @$!ali5a'i(nA d! la nidad, v!$dad
a+s&lta- h praj, j na .
vikalpa, '&n&'imi!nt& $a'i&nal.
vilekhana, l& mism& .! lekhya , "int$a.
visamv di , .! n& '&n'!$da @'&n !l m&d!l& &
"$!s'$i"'i(nA.
vi esa-ja , d! '&n&'imi!nt& va$iad&, '&nn&iss!$.
viv da-nirnaya , 8i'i&, dis'$imina'i(n.
vyabhic ri , fgitiv&, t$ansit&$i& @'&n -bh va ,
hm&$ & !m&'i(n t$ansit&$i&, !n '&nt$ast!
'&n sth yi-bh va A.
vy hrti , !nn'ia'i(n, 7ala+$a Na+lada.
vyangy rtha , signi2'ad& sg!$id&, '&nt!nid&,
signi2'a'i(n @!n distin'i(n d! d!n&ta'i(n ,
'&nn&ta'i(nA.
vyajan, "&d!$ sg!stiv& d! na !%"$!si(n.
vyavah rika , mndanal, !m")$i'&, s!ns&$ial.
vyutpatti, signi2'ad& !%"l)'it&, "a$t! '&n'!"tal
d!l a$t!- !$di'i(n.
yaja, &2'i& sa'$i2'ial.
yantra, /ing!ni&0, /m#.ina0- $!"$!s!nta'i(n
g!&m*t$i'a d! na d!idad.
yoga, lit. /ni(n0, /n'imi!nt&0- "!$i'ia !n la
a''i(n @Bhagavad $ t , , II.CIA.
yogy, a"li'a'i(n, !stdi&, "$#'ti'a.
yuj @!n !l yoga, prayojana, !t'.A, n5i$, a"li'a$,
!8!$'!$, '&nt$&la$A.
yukta, n'id&, 8nt&, in'&$"&$ad&, nid&, anad&.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
yukti, "!$i'ia, '&nsma'i(n, fa'ilidad ad.i$ida.
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
LISTA DE CARACTERES
CINOS
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
LISTA DE CARACTERES CINOSo
ch)an, @Jil!s, 3BQA, s#ns'$it& dhy na , 8a"&n*s 7en,
ch1ng @Jil!s, L2IA, sad& "&$ NsVan 4sang "a$a
t$ad'i$ pram na .
ch)i, @Jil!s, RR>R, !%t$a&$dina$i&, ma$avill&s&,
s&$"$!nd!nt!.
ch)i @Jil!s, >IDBA, !s")$it, !s"i$a'i(n, s&"l&, vida.
S#ns'$it& prna, g$i!g& pneuma, #$a+! r h _ .
6a "$&'!si(n d! ch)i !s d!l Ci!l& , la 4i!$$a,
las m&dalidad!s "$ima$ias d!l 7$im!$
7$in'i"i& @4a&A, d! d&nd! .! ch)i s! !m"l!!
'&$$!'tam!nt! "a$a t$ad'i$ /Es")$it Sant&0.
ch)iao @Jil!s, >B>>A, int!lig!nt!, h#+il, ing!ni&s&.
chih, @Jil!s, >LQ3A, '&n&'!$, '&n&'imi!nt&-
'&ns'i!n'ia.
cho)ou @Jil!s, 2CIQA, $!'i"$&'idad- sad& "&$
NsVan 4sang "a$a t$ad'i$ s dr ya .
ch)uan @Jil!s, 2LBIA, !nt$!gad&, t$ansmitid&-
t$adi'i(n. /6& .! &+ti!n! '&n s m!nt!
@shinA l& t$ansmit! '&n s man&0 @di'h& d!l
"int&$A.
-u, @Jil!s, 3D32A, a"li'a$ !l '&l&$.
hsin, @Jil!s, BCD2A, '&$a5(n, m!nt!, !s")$it. Cf.
s#ns'$it& hrdaya.
hsing @Jil!s, BD>LA, 2g$a nat$al- &+8!tiv&- 2g$a
$!"$!s!ntada. S#ns'$it& r pa _ .
i @Jil!s, CC3DA, "!$f!''i(n s"!$s!nsal d!l sa+i&-
g!ni&- !s"&ntan!idad. Cf. sh1n , s#ns'$it&
akti sahaja .
i @Jil!s, C3DLA, id!a, m!nt!, inti'i(n, signi2'ad&,
2n. En '&nt$ast! '&n hsing, Cf. s#ns'$it&
artha, n ma , pram na .
i ch)2 @Jil!s, C3DL, 3>2IA &"!$a'i(n !n la m!nt!-
m&vimi!nt& d! la id!a- signi2'a'i(n,
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A. K. COOMARASWAMY, LA TRANSFORMACIN DE LA NATURALEZA EN ARTE
"!nsami!nt&. 6a /int!n5i&n d!ll[a$t!0, d!
Dant!, /aradiso, I.>2L.
liang @Jil!s, LI>CA, m!dida, n&$ma. @_S#ns'$it&
pram na `A.
miao @Jil!s, LQCQA, "$&fnd&, mist!$i&s&,
ma$avill&s&.
n1ng, @Jil!s, Q>QBA, ha+ilidad, "!$i'ia,
'&nsma'i(n, vi$t&sidad. 6& mism& .!
ch)iao.
san p)in @Jil!s, RCC2, R2L3A, las t$!s 'las!s d!
"int$a, sh1n, miao, n1ng.
sh1n @Jil!s, RQ>RA, #ng!l, ang*li'&, !s")$it divin&,
alma, Di&s- s#ns'$it& deva. /6a in!s'$ta+l!
&"!$a'i(n d!l Yin , Yang s! llama sh1n0-
/"inta$ n $!t$at& @-u sh1nA0; /da$ !%"$!si(n
@sh1nA a la "a$t! v!$dad!$a d!8ada sin
d!lin!a$0. hing @2>33A sh1n, /alma
v!$dad!$a0, /s) mism& v!$dad!$&0.
ss_ @Jil!s, >I2QRA, s!m!8an5a, similitd, imita'i(n.
'u, @Jil!s, >2LLLA, &+8!t&, Nat$al!5a- visaya-
r pat _ .
y2n @Jil!s, >3Q>LA, &"!$a'i(n, $!v&l'i(n- !l
movimenti d! 7a'i&li.
y2n @Jil!s, >3QB3A, $!s&nan'ia, $!v!$+!$a'i(n,
'&nt!nid&. Cf. s#ns'$it& dhvani.
o 1 6&s n9m!$&s d! l&s 'a$a't!$!s s&n l&s d!l
hinese-Anglish 6ictionary d! Jil!s, d&nd!
"!d!n !n'&nt$a$s! f#'ilm!nt!, ,
'&nsid!$a$s! l&s mati'!s d!l signi2'ad&.
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TA"LA DE MATERIAS
I. 6a 4!&$)a d!l A$t! !n Asia...............................
II. Kisi(n d!l A$t! !n M!ist!$ E'3ha$t
DI
III. R!a''i&n!s al A$t! !n la India......................
IK. 6a Est*ti'a d!l 3$an tis $a , ...................
K. 7a$&3sa......................................................
KI. +h sa ` .....................................................
KII El O$ig!n , Ps& d! Im#g!n!s !n la
India >3I
Jl&sa$i& s#ns'$it&......................................
6ista d! 'a$a't!$!s 'hin&s.........................
4a+la d! mat!$ias......................................
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