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CHAPTER 4: ROCKS-

Mineral Mixtures
Section 1:
Understanding Rocks
Pages 80-86
1. Rock
a. Earths crust made mostly of rock
b. Rock- a solid mixture of crystals of one
or more mineral
c. Some are made from coal- organic
material
d. Rocks come in all shapes and sizes


2. The Value of Rock
a. important natural resource for humans
i. tools- arrowheads, knives,
hammers
ii. buildings, roads, and
monuments- marble, granite,
sandstone, limestone, and slate
1. concrete-most common building material
today


Use of a rock- trebuchet
Modern day use of trebuchet
b. rocks important to scientists
i. answer questions about Earth, solar
system
ii. provided record of what Earth and
solar system were like before recorded
history
iii. fossils about organisms that lived
billions of years ago

3. The Rock Cycle
a. rocks are constantly changing shape
and composition
b. way rock forms determine type of rock
c. three main types of rocks

We will rock you- rock cycle parody
Cooking up rocks in the kitchen
c. three main types of rocks
i. igneous
ii. sedimentary
iii. metamorphic
d. rock cycle- process by which one rock type
changes into another
i. cycle- no beginning or end
e. each type of rock can become any other
type of rock



4. Nitty-Gritty on Rock Classification
a. each type of rock divided into smaller
groups based on difference on how
rocks formed
i. divided by composition and
texture

1. composition
a. minerals a rock is made of
2. texture
a. sizes, shapes, and positions of the grains
the rock is made of
i. fine-grained, medium-grained,
coarse- grained
ii. composition and texture help
understand origin of rock and how it formed



CHAPTER 4: ROCKS-
Mineral Mixtures
Section 2:
Igneous Rocks
Pages 87-90
1. Igneous
a. Igneous- latin for fire
b. Classified by texture and composition

2. Origins of Igneous Rock
a. forms when lavas cools and solidifies
(freezes)
b. three ways magma can form
i. when rock is heated, when
pressure is released, rock changes
composition

ii. temperature
1. increase in temperature causes
minerals to melt
2. different minerals melt at
different temperatures

iii. pressure
1. high pressure keeps minerals in
solid state, when normally melt
with intense heat
2. hot rock rises pressure deceases
and rock melts

iv. composition
1. water and carbon dioxide can
lower melting point of the rock

3. Composition of Igneous Rocks
a. rocks differ from what they are made
from

i. Felsic
1. light color
2. less dense
3. rich in silicon, aluminum, sodium,
and potassium

ii. Mafic
1. darker colored rocks
2. more dense
3. contains iron, magnesium, and
calcium


4. Texture of Igneous Rocks
a. how fast rock cools
b. longer it takes magma to cool the
more time crystals have to grow
c. more time to grow affects texture

1. Texture
i. coarse grain
a. bigger crystals
b. can see different minerals
ii. fine grain
a. smaller crystals
b. looks like one color


i. intrusive Igneous rock
1. intrusive-magma cools inside earths
surface
2. usually have coarse grained texture-
well insulated cools slowly
3. named for size and the way they
intrude or push on surrounding rock

ii.. extrusive igneous rocks
1. extrusive- forms on the Earths surface
2. most volcanic rock is extrusive
3. cools quickly on surface
4. little to no crystals
5. lava flow- lava erupts from a volcano
6. fissures- lava erupts from long cracks in
earths surface

5. Igneous Rock Formations
a. igneous rocks form by cooling of lava
b. lava- magma on earths surface
c. some magma cools and solidifies
deep in Earths crust
d. Classify rock by where it forms


CHAPTER 4: ROCKS-
Mineral Mixtures
Section 3:
Sedimentary Rocks
Pages 91-94
1. Sedimentary rocks
a. weather- break rock into smaller pieces
i. wind, water, ice, sunlight, and
gravity
b. sediments are transported from one place
to another
c. settle and deposited into layers
d. sediments compacted and cemented
together forming sedimentary rocks

2. Origins of sedimentary rocks
a. new layers of sediments settle on old
layers
b. dissolved minerals separate out of the
water to form a natural glue that binds
sediments together
c. Forms at or near earths surface
d. Physical features tell about rock
e. Strata-rock layers


3. Composition/ formation of sedimentary rocks
a. clastic
i. rock or mineral fragments stick
together
1. fragments called clasts
ii. size and shape of clasts influence
their names
1. coarse-grained and fine-
grained


b. chemical
i. rock forms from solutions of
minerals and water
1. water dissolves leaves
minerals behind

c. organic
i. made from shells or coral
1. made from calcium carbonate
2. over time settle to bottom of ocean
and get cemented together
3. called fossiliferous limestone
a. fossil- remains or trace of
plants or animals that have
been preserved in sedimentary rock

4. Sedimentary structures
a. stratification- layering
b. strata depends on kind, size, and color
of their sediment
c. can sometimes record the motion of
wind and water waves

CHAPTER 4: ROCKS-
Mineral Mixtures
Section 4:
Metamorphic Rocks
Pages 91-94
1. Metamorphic Rock
a. meta- meaning changed and
morphos meaning shape
b. structure, texture, or composition has
changed
i. change by heat or pressure or
both
ii. metamorphic rock can change
into another metamorphic rock

2. Origin of metamorphic rock
a. texture of mineral composition can
change when surroundings change
b. temperature or pressure changes, rock
undergoes metamorphism
i. rock changes at depths greater
than 2 km.
ii. temperature 50C -1,000C
iii. higher than 1,000 C it melts,
becomes igneous

c. Contact metamorphism
i. rock comes into contact with magma
ii. magma heats and cooks surrounding
rock
iii. greatest change occurs when magma
has direct contact with rock
iv. farther away from magma, less heat,
less change
v. only happens next to igneous intrusions

d. Regional metamorphism
i. large pieces of Earths crust collide with
each other
ii. increased pressure and temperature-
cause rock to deform and chemically
change
iii. common underneath continental rock
formations


3. Composition
a. minerals in rock may not be stable
when pressure or temperature changes
b. minerals combine to form more stable
mineral
c. many new mineral only found in
metamorphic rock
d. only form in specific temperature and
pressure range

4. Texture
a. foliated
i. minerals are aligned
ii. look like pages of in a book
iii. additional heat and pressure
mineral grains separate into bands

b. nonfoliated
i. no alignment
ii. made of one are a few minerals
iii. doesnt appear to have a regular
pattern