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Introduction to Topic

Literature Review

Research Topic:

Reasons behind the road accidents specifically bikes and cars

Research Objectives
Following are the objectives of the research topic:

• To understand the factors that causes this accident.

• To determine the main factors those provoke fast driving?
• To understand the effect of road accidents in the public are they scared or not ?
• Do the accidents happen consciously or unconsciously?

Problem Statement:

What are the reasons behind the road accidents particularly among the car and bike

Significance of research:

This research would be beneficial for the future when the NHA construct roads and
Traffic control department conduct the test for issuance of the driving license so that they
can make their enhance their system of construction or test conducting procedure

Research Variables

• Age
• Gender
• Skilled or unskilled
• Learners
• Vehicle condition
• Mode of driving
• Attitude problem
• Intention during drive
• Seat belts use
• Side mirror
• Roads constructions
• Experience
• Behavior impact
• Profession
• Maintains
• Traffic rules
• Violation of rules
• Obedience of rules
• Driving tools
• Drive for need or drive for enjoyment

Data Need and Data Source:

The data required for the completion of the project can be gathered from the multiple
dimensions. Direct interviews, questions answers, focus group and many more techniques
are available for the data mining and collection.

For this purpose the required data should include both primary as well as secondary

Primary Data

The primary information can be gathered through

• Direct observation
• Interviews with the drivers
• Questionnaires

The researchers will go directly to the drivers to find the answers to their questions. The
researchers will design a questionnaire to find the answers of the relative questions.

Secondary Data

While the secondary data can be obtained from

• Journals
• Magazines
• Literature reviews.
• NHA survey
• RSM survey



• Population of Lahore city only

• Males and female at age levels
• Limited time frame
• Drivers of Cars and bikes


Sample Design

The data will be collected from males and female individuals (sampling elements).The
process involves the following steps:

Target Population

The target population includes people living in Lahore city; the data include people living
in specific areas i.e.

• Drivers of bikes and cars

Sample Frame

The sample includes population of Lahore city only.

Sample Size

The research includes a sample size of 150 males and females, selected randomly,
through random number generation, which can represent the target population. The
sample includes 25 males and females from each chosen locality.


The sample is a “Probability” sample, as every individual in the population has an equal
chance to be selected. In probability the research team is using “Simple Random
Sampling” technique. In simple random, we have done convenience sampling. I.e. people
conveniently available in the selected areas were taken as respondents.

Detailed Methodology:
This is a generalized research .The team is conducting “Basic Research” as the purpose
of this report is not to serve any particular organizational problem but to comprehensively
define the reasons of the road accidents among the bike and car driver
The report will be based upon “hypothetical-deductive” method

• The research team will construct a “null hypothesis” and now will “accept or do
not accept” this null hypotheses.
• After constructing the hypothesis, the first step will be to draw a simple random
sample for research. The research sample will be collected within the specific
areas of LAHORE city only.
• The next step will be to construct a questionnaire that can represent the target
• After this the team will run the questionnaire among the target group and will
collect the data.
• The data is then interpreted through SPSS.

Research Design:

• The data will be collected through Questionnaires

• The research team will use the field study method to collect the data. First the
questionnaire will be designed.
• Then through simple random sampling, a sample size of 150 males and females
will be collected.
• The members of the research team will go to the roads and public places,
restaurants parking , shopping Malls parking will gather the research answers
from customers over there.

Construct and Its Dimensions:

Reasons of Road
Among Bike and