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Organizational Behavior, page 1

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
Test Bank
o!!"ni#ation
1$ %o" have &een approa#he' &( a )rien' *ho *ants to kno* ho* to
give an' re#eive )ee'&a#k !ore e))e#tivel($ +irst, s"ggest
ho* to give an' re#eive )ee'&a#k$ ,e#on'l(, 'evelop a
progra! o) a#tion )or her to #arr( o"t s"#h that the
s"ggestions *ill &e#o!e part o) her &ehavior$
ANSWER. (check)
Particularly when seeking long term reolution though
confrontation is to train the friend on effective communication
skills to develo trust and oenness in their relationshi.A
owerful techni!ue to accomlish this is the "oharis window.#t
essentially involves using self disclosure and feed $ack to
increase articiants knowledge of them sselves and each other.
#n this model the goal is to increase the area reffered to as the
%oen arena&' the area of mutual understanding and knowledge.(o
initiate this the friend should $e willing to $e more oen and
sharing a$out themselves'there $y decreasing the % hidden
self&.#n addition they must $e more resonsive to feed$ack and to
e)erimentation in their own $ehavior to decrease the %$lind
self&.
As arties learn more a$ut each other' the area of mtual
knowledge and oen trust called &oen arena& increases.(his
allows for further self disclosure and addional feed $ack and
leads to self reinforcing cycle of growing trust and oenness
until $oth arties understand the osition of other and
eventually use that understanding to reach a mutually acceta$le
agreement covering immediate issue in conflict. As well
underlying conditions that caused it.
on)li#t - on)li#t Resol"tion
.$ a$ I'enti)( the !o'el o) #on)li#t resol"tion strategies an'
the )ive strategies as 'is#"sse' in #lass an' in (o"r
arti#les$
ANSWER.
* +R#(#+A, #SS-ES ./ 0.1E, (a) RES-,( /.R .-(+.0E W2EN
+.N/,#( #S RES.,3E1 AN1 ($) +.N+ERN /.R (2E RE,A#.NS2#P W#(2
.(2ER PERS.N
4 S(RA(E5#ES ARE AS
W#(21RAWA,6 ,.W +.N+ERN /.R .-(+.0E AN1 RE,A(#.NS2#P
Organizational Behavior, page .
+.0PR.0#SE6#N(ER0E1#A(E +.N+ERN /.R .-(+.0E AN1 REA,(#.NS2#P
+.N/R.N(A(#.N6 2#52 +.N+ERN /.R .-(+.0E AN1 RE,A(#.NS2#P
/.R+#N56 2#52 +.N+ERN /.R .-(+.0E AN1 ,.W +.N+ERN /.R R,(S2P
+.N+#,,A(#.N7S0..(2#N56 2#52 /.R RE,A(#.NS2#P AN1 ,.W /.R
.-(+.0E
&$ I'enti)( #on'itions *here ea#h strateg( !a( &e
appropriate an' *hi#h strateg( 'o (o" re#o!!en'$
ANSWER.
SA0E AS A8.3E .N,9 -SE (2E PAR( 8
/$ The )ollo*ing !etho's o) #on)li#t resol"tion are o)ten
'is#"sse' in the literat"re0 )or#ing, *ith'ra*al,
s!oothing, #o!pro!ise, an' #on)rontation$ Given that all o)
the !etho's are appropriate "n'er #ertain #on'itions, "n'er
*hat #on'itions *o"l' ea#h !etho' &e appropriate1 In
essen#e, i'enti)( varia&les asso#iate' *ith ea#h !etho'2s
appropriateness$
ANSWER.
SA0E AS A8.3E. -SE E:A0P,ES /R.0 (2E AR(#+,E ( 0A#N )
/.R+#N56 S2.R( (ER0 8ENE/#(S. (2.SE W2. -SE (2#S 8E,#3E
A5REE0EN( #S #00P.SS#8,E AN1 RES.,-(#.N #S 8ASE1 .N P.WER.
S0..(2#N56#( RES-,(S #N (E0P S#(-A(#.N.+2AN5E .R RES.,-(#.N
0A9 N.( 8E NE+ESSAR9 (2E #SS-E #,, /#: #(SE,/. A,S. (. A3.#1
R#S; ./ 2.S(#,#(9.
W#221RAW,6W2EN .NE PAR(9 #S A((E0P(#N5 (. 1EN9 (2E
#N(ER1EPEN1A+E AN1 #0P ./ RE,A(#.NS2. #N .R1ER (. A3.#1
E:PE+(E1 2.S(#,#( .R 1#/#+-,(9 #N RES.,3#N5 (2E +.N/,#+(.
+.0PRA0#SE6 2#52 /.R0A,#<E1 8AR5A#N#5 S#(-A(#.N S-+2 AS
NE5.(#A(#.N /.R ,A8.-R 0ANA5E0EN(A N1 #N ,E5#S,A(#3E
PR.+ESS' #( #N2#8#(S /,E:#8-,#(9 #N (2#N;#N5 ./ 8.(2 PAR(#ES
AN1 8,.+;S P.(EN(#A, SEAR+2 /.R S.,-(#.N (2A( 0#52( PR.3#1E
/-,, SA(#S/A+(#.N .-(+.0E.
+.N/R.N(A(#.N68ES( (. A+2#3E .3ER A,, S-++ESS
3$ a$ 4is#"ss the role o) #on)li#t *ithin an organization an'
ho* *o"l' (o" #hara#terize it 55 goo', &a', or *hat1
ANSWER.+.N/,#+( #S A 0A".R #SS-E W#(2#N AN .R5AN#<A(#.N AN1
0.1ERN 1A9 0ANA5E0N( 2A3E RE+.5. #( AS A 89 PR.1-+( ./
5R.W(2 AN1 +2AN5E.(2E #SS-E #S N. ,.N5ER A3.#1AN+E ./
+.N/,+( 89( S(A(E59 89 W2#+2 +.N/,#+( #S RES.,3E1.
A++.R1#N5 (. 0E #( #S +2ARA+(ER#SE1 AS A 5..1 AS #(
,EA1S (. +.NS(-+(#3E +R(#+#S0 AN1 8ENE/#( (2E
RE,A(#.NS2#P AN1 .-(+.0E W2EN +.RNERE1 APPR.PR#A(E,9.
Organizational Behavior, page /
&$ I'enti)( )ive !etho's o) #on)li#t resol"tion as 'is#"sse'
in #lass$
ANSWER.
W#(21RAWA,6 ,.W +.N+ERN /.R .-(+.0E AN1 RE,A(#.NS2#P
+.0PR.0#SE6#N(ER0E1#A(E +.N+ERN /.R .-(+.0E AN1 REA,(#.NS2#P
+.N/R.N(A(#.N6 2#52 +.N+ERN /.R .-(+.0E AN1 RE,A(#.NS2#P
/.R+#N56 2#52 +.N+ERN /.R .-(+.0E AN1 ,.W +.N+ERN /.R R,(S2P
+.N+#,,A(#.N7S0..(2#N56 2#52 /.R RE,A(#.NS2#P AN1 ,.W /.R
.-(+.0E
#$ 6hi#h o) the )ive !etho's o) #on)li#t resol"tion 'o (o"
re#o!!en'1 Are the other )o"r !etho's o) #on)li#t
resol"tion ever appropriate1 I) so, "n'er *hat
#on'itions1
ANSWER. +.N/R.N(A(#.N #S (2E 8ES( AS #( 5#3ES #0P (. .-(+.0E AN1
RE,A(#.NS2#P.
9ES (2E9 ARE APPR.PR#(E
/.R+#N56 PAR(#+-,AR #SS-E #S 3ER #0P AN1 RE=#RES +.NS#S(EN+9
A+R.SS .R5AN#<A(#.N .R #S (.. -R5EN( (. PER0#( +.N/R.N(A(#.N
S0..(2#N56#N .R1ER (. P.S(P.NE 1EA,#N5 W#(2 +.N/,#+( -N(#, A
,A(ER (#0E E5. W2RE (E0PERS ARE /,9#N5 2.S(#,#(9 #S PRESEN('
A,S. W2EN RE,A(#.NSS2#P 8E(WEEN PAR(#ES #S (E0P AN1 W2ERE
+.N(#N-E1 #N(ERA+(#.N .R #N(ER1EPEN1E+NE 8E(WEEN PAR(#ES #S
-N,#;E,9.(/.R+#N5 #S A,S. APPR.PR#A(E 2ERE)
W#221RAW,6+.N/,#+( 8E(WEEN * PAR(#ES W#(2 N. S#5N#/#+AN+E
#N(ER1EPEN1E+E .R N. REA, NEE1 /.R +.N(#NE1 RE,A(#.NS2#P'
2ERE W2ERE RES.,#(#.N ./ +.N/,#+( #S N.( NE+ESSAR9 W#(21RWA,
.R EEN #S.,A(#.N ./ PAR(#ES +AN 8E A++EP(A8,E S(A(E59.
+.0PRA0#SE6 #(S =-#(E -SE/-, #N ,A8.-R 0ANA5E0E( NE5.(#A(#.N
AN1 ,E5#S,A(#3E PR.+ESSES. A,S. #N .R5AN#<A(#.N W2EN SE((#N
P.,A+#ES (. APP,9 (. 0AN9 0E08ERS. 2.WE3ER (2#S S2.-,1 8E
(2E ,AS( RES.R( A/(ER +.NS#1ERA8,E E//.R(S (. #1EN(#/9 A
0.RE SA(#S/A+(.R9 RES.,-(#.N 2A3E /A#,E1.
+.N/R.N(A(#.N6(2#S #S (2E 8ES( -SE1 (. RES.,3E 0A".R #SS-ES
AN1 A+2#3E PER0 RES-,(S AN1 A,, .(2ERS ARE SE+.N1AR9 W2#+2
S.,3ES (E0P #SS-ES.
7$ 4is#"ss the i!pa#t o) #on)li#t on organizational e))e#tiveness
*ithin the organization$ In (o"r ans*er in#l"'e a &rie)
'is#"ssion o) the vario"s te#hni8"es o) #on)li#t resol"tion
an' their i!pa#t on organizational e))e#tiveness$
Organizational Behavior, page 3
ANSWER. .R5AN#<A(#.N E//E+(#3ENESS #N+REASES W#(2 +.N/,#+(S AS
(2E9 ARE 89 PR.1-+( ./ 5R.W(2 AN1 +2AN5E W2#+2 ARE 5..1.
E:0AP,ES AS S(A(E1 A8.3E AN1 #N+,-1E 2.W (2E9 8R#N5 #N
A//E+(#3ENSS.
Organizational Behavior, page 7
9$ A$ 4is#"ss the role o) #on)li#t *ithin an organization,
relate to str"#t"re, gro*th, an' #li!ate$
ANSWER. +.N/,#+( #S 89 PR.1-+( ./ 5R.W(2 AN1 +2AN5E ( W2#+2 #S
(2E +,#0A(E ) S(-+(-RE A,S. +2AN5ES 8E+A-SE ./ +.N/,#+(
B$ I'enti)( )ive !etho's o) #on)li#t resol"tion an' the
!o'el as 'is#"sse' in #lass$
ANSWER.SA0E AS A8.3E.
$ 4evelop a #ontingen#( !o'el o) #on)li#t resol"tion
'is#"ssing "n'er *hat #on'itions ea#h o) the )ive st(les
!a( &e appropriate$
ANSWER. >+
'$ 4evelop an organizational intervention strateg( "sing
:oHari2s 6in'o* to in#rease the "se o) #on)rontation as a
!eans o) resolving #on)li#t an enhan#ing organizational
e))e#tiveness$
ANSWER.N-RSE AR(#+,E +.00-N#+A(#.N ANSWR.
;$ 4is#"ss the a'vantages an' 'isa'vantages o) interpersonal
#on)li#t *ithin the organization an' 'is#"ss the !etho's o)
#on)li#t resol"tion$
ANSWER.
A13AN(A5E. 8R#N5S #N .PENESS W2EN A11RESSES PR.PER,9 8ASE1 .N
,.N5(ER0 .R S2.((ER0 5.A,.
1#S. WAS(E ./ (#0E ANA,9<#N5 AN5 8R#N5S #N A((EN(#.N ./ .(2ER
PAR(#ES
"ohari Window
<$ Brie)l( s"!!arize the )o"r =sel)s= in :ohari 6in'o*$ 6hat
i!pli#ations 'oes ea#h have )or interpersonal #on)li#t1
ANSWER. A8.-( 0E
ARENA6(2#N5S # ;N.W ? (2#N5S (2E9 ;N.W' 8R#N5S .PENESS #N A
5RP.
8,#N1SP.( @ (2#N5S # 1.NA( ;NW ? (2#N5S (2E9 ;N.' (2E9 +AN
8E((ER "-15E 9.-R RESP.NSE.
/ABA1E(2#11EN AREA) @ (2#N5S # ;N.W ? (2#N5S (2E9 1.NA(
;N.W'+A-SES /R-S(RA(#.N A0.N5 5RP
-N;N.WN @ (2#N5S # 1.NA( ;NW ? (2E9 1.NA( ;N.W. N. .NE ;NWS
AN9(2#N5 +REA(ES /R-S(RA(#.N AN1 AN5ER.
>$ 6hat is :ohari2s 6in'o*, an' *hat is its relevan#e to
Organizational Behavior, page 9
!anage!ent1
ANSWER.
#(AS A 0.1E, W2#+2 #,,-S(RA(ES (2E PR.+ESS ./ 5#3#N5 AN1
RE+E#3N5 /EE18A+; AN1 +AN 8E ,..;E1-P -P.N AS A
+.00-N#+A(#.N W#N1.W (2.-52 W2#+2 9.- 5#3E7RE+E#3E #N/. A8(
-RSE,/ AN1 .(2ERS.
3#(A, R.,E AS #( NE5A(ES S(9,E ./ 0ANA5E0EN( (. .PERA(E AS A
/-N+(#.NA, AN1 S-++ES//-, 5R.-P W2ERE #1EAS ARE S2ARE1
.PEN,9 AN1 E3ER9 0E08ER 2AS ;N.W,E15E ./ .(2ER PP,S REA+(#.N
AN1 8E2A3#.RS.
1?$ I'enti)( the !a@or #o!ponents o) the +IRO5B instr"!ent an'
ho* the( relate to gro"p pro#ess an' gro"p e))e#tiveness$
ANSWER. (+2E+; A5A#N A8( /#R.68)
#N+,-S#.N @ 1. 9.- #N+,-1E .(2ERS7 WAN(S .(2ER * #N+,-1E 9.-
+.N(R.,6 1. 9.- WAN( * +.N(R., .(2ERS79.- WAN( .(2ERS *
+.N(R., 9.-
A//E+(#.N6 9.- WAN( A//E+(#.N /R.0 .(2ERS79.- 5#3E A//E+(#.N
(E:PRESSE1 8E2A3#.R (.WAR1S .(2ER ? WAN(E1 8E2A3#.R )
#( 2E,PS #N #1EN(#/9#N5 (2E ;#N1 ./ 8E2A3#.RA,
+2ARA+(ER#SS(#+S 9.- 0A9 E:PRESS AN1 .NE +AN W.R; .N #(
#N+REASE (2E .3ER A,, A//E+(#/NESS ./ (2E 5R.-P
11$ 4is#"ss the i!pa#t on (o" o) (o"r taking the +IRO5B
instr"!ent "sing the :ohari 6in'o* as the !o'el$ I'enti)(
the :ohari 6in'o* in (o"r ans*er$
ANSWER.
#N(#A,,9 S2E,, +2ARA+(ER#S(#+S AN1 E:2#8#(E1 WAN(#N5
A//E+(#.N (EN1ENS#ES 8-( ,A(ER .N 1E3E,.PE1 #N(ER3#EW
+2ARA+(ER#S(#+S W2EN # WAS W.R;#N5 WAS AS;#N5 =-ES(#.NS S.
(2A( ,#((,E#S ;N.W A8( 09SE,/ W2#+2 RES-,(E1 #N 1E3E,.P#N5
/R-S(RA(#.N 8E+ASE (2E 0ANA5ER E:2#8#(E1 8-,, #N +2#NA S2.P
+2ARA+(ER#S(#+S.
1.$ A$ I'enti)( an' 'is#"ss :ohari2s *in'o*$ In (o"r ans*er
relate :ohari2s *in'o* to #on)li#t resol"tion$
ANSWER. ".2ARS W#N1.W C PAR( A AN1 D A,,. +.N/,#( RES.,-(#.N #S
2.W (. 0ANA5E /EE18A+; AN1 5E( /EE1 8A+; #N A 5RP (. SA(#S/9
.-(+.0E AN1 RE,A(#.NS2#P
B$ I'enti)( at least )o"r eAer#ises that *e have "se' in
#lass an' 'is#"ss ho* the( i!pa#te' on (o"r :ohari2s
*in'o*$
ANSWER.
Organizational Behavior, page ;
S+.R#N5 (2E /#R.68 S+.RE +2AR(
ANSWER#N5 SER#ES ./ =-ES(#.NS
ANA,9S#N5 (2E PR./ESS.RS S+.RES
ANA,9S#N5 (2E S#1E PERS.NS S+.RES
#N(ERA+(#N5 W#(2 (2E S#1E PERS.N 2A1 #N+REASE1 09 ARENA AN1
,E3E, ./ +.00-N#+A(#.N.
$ %o" have &een aske' to 'evelop an intervention strateg(
)or an organization that is ine))e#tive in 'ealing *ith
#on)li#t$ 4evelop an intervention strateg( "sing :ohari2s
*in'o*$ Be spe#i)i# an' 'etaile'$
ANSWER.
".2AR W#N1.W E #1EN(#/9 #SS-E'+.N/R.N( #SS-E'8E E//E+(#3E
,#S(ERN'A3.#1 1#/ENS#3ENESS'A3.#1 S#1E (RA+;'E:PRESS #0P ./
RE,A(#.NS2. E(+.
1/$ 4evelop a list o) g"i'elines )or giving an' re#eiving
)ee'&a#k an' eAplain ho* the( relate to :ohari2s 6in'o*$
ANSWER.
+.N/R.N(A(#.N AN1 #N+REASE ARENA S#<E (. 1#S+-SS .PENE,9 AN1
0A;E PP, +.N/.R(A8,E (. S2ARE (2E#R #1EAS AN1 (R9
#0P,0EN(#N5 #(.
Organizational Behavior, page <
Bo*er an' A"thorit(
13$ %o" have &een approa#he' &( a #o5*orker *ho *ants to kno* the
=ke(s= to &eing an e))e#tive 'elegator$ Blease provi'e the
insi'e kno*le'ge o) 'elegating$
ANSWER.
RESSP.NS#8#,#(9F PERS.NA, P.WERG A-(2.R#(9
1E5E5A,(#N5 A-(2.R#(9 1.ESNA( RE,#N=-#S2 .NSE,/ ./ (2E
RES.NS#8#,#(9 8-( #(S ./(EN SEENS AS A 0EAS-RE ./ ,.WER#N5
.NSE,/.
1E,#5A(#.N #S AN AR( AN1 N.( A S++#+EN+E. #( S2.-,1 8E S-+2
(2A( (2E W2EN 1E,E5A(#N5 #( S2.-,1 2E,P #N 1E3E,.P#N5
PERS.NA, P.WER ./ (2E #N1#3#1-A, W2. #S 5#3#N5 AN1 1
#N1#3#1-A, W2. #S A++EP(#N5. (2#S 2E,PS #N 1E3E,.P#N5 5..1
+.00-N#+A(#.N S;#,,S AN1 A,S. #/ ./(EN A++.0APNA#E1 89
+2AR#S20A AN1 .8,#5A(#.NA AN1 PERS-AS#.N
17$ Canage!ent theor( s"ggests that the a!o"nt o) a"thorit( that
is 'elegate' to a )ollo*er sho"l' &e e8"al to
responsi&ilit($ In realit(, the a!o"nt o) a"thorit( that is
'elegate' ten's to &e less than the responsi&ilit($ Dsing
the arti#les that (o" have rea' ans*er the )ollo*ing0
A$ 6h( 'oes a"thorit( ten' to &e less than
responsi&ilit(1
ANSWER. 9ES #(S 5ENERA,,9H
RESP.NS#8#,#(9F PERS.NA, P.WERG A-(2.R#(9
B$ 6h( is it a'vantageo"s to have responsi&ilit( eA#ee'
a"thorit(1 E6hat are the a'vantages o) this
pheno!enon1F
ANSWER.#( 2E,PS 1E3E,.P PERS.NA, P.WER W2#+2 0A9 8E
#N(ER0S ./
+2AR#S0A'P-RS-AS#3ENESS'.8,#5A(#.NS'+.00-N#+A(#.N
0E0E8ERS2#PS E:PER(EASE.
$ 4evelop a list o) so"r#es o) po*er that an
in'ivi'"al #an 'evelop$
ANSWER. SA0E AS A8.3E.
19$ Canage!ent theor( s"ggests that the a!o"nt o) a"thorit( that
is 'elegate' to a )ollo*er sho"l' &e e8"al to
responsi&ilit($ In realit(, the a!o"nt o) a"thorit( that is
Organizational Behavior, page >
'elegate' ten's to &e less than the responsi&ilit($ In
#lass *e 'is#"sse' *h( this ten's to &e tr"e an' s"ggeste'
that it !a( &( a'vantageo"s to have responsi&ilit( eA#ee'
a"thorit($ 4is#"ss an' eAplain *h( it is a'vantageo"s$
ANSWER.SA0E AS A8.3E.
1;$ Brie)l( i'enti)( the =A##eptan#e Theor( o) A"thorit(= &(
hester Barnar'$ o!pare an' #ontrast a##eptan#e a"thorit(
*ith position a"thorit($
ANSWER. defined as managers only have as much authority as employees allow them to have
a. if the employee thinks that the task that the manager is attempting to complete is
ridiculous then he/she might not accept the authority and the task will not get completed
1<$ o!pare an' #ontrast )or!al a"thorit( an' in)or!al a"thorit($
ANSWER.
Formal authority is not gained, and the person does not have to work in order
to earn it. Formal authority is granted based on the person's position
and according to the organizational hierarchy followed. For example, in
typical functional organizations, the IT manager has formal authority on
all the resources in the IT department, who report directly to him, and
must prioritize his tasks over anyone else's.
perfect example of an informal authority is that of the pro!ect
manager. In non"pro!ectized organizations, #ro!ect $anagers do not
have direct authority over the resources, and thus have to gain this
authority by gaining the resources' respect through their %the pro!ect
managers'& proven skills and leadership. Informal authority is hard to
earn, as most resources know that the #ro!ect $anager do not have any
authority over them, and sometimes their direct functional manager
does not help in that area. Functional managers do not like the idea of
someone else having authority over their resources.
Formal and informal authority apply across all organizational types
%functional'matrix'pro!ectized&, although in the latter one, the #ro!ect
$anager does possess some formal authority over the resources.
To conclude, here are, in short, the differences(
Formaluthorityis(
" )ranted by the hierarchy of the company to the position
" Is easy to earn %provided the person has the position&
" *an be easily enforced
" Is protected by the company's culture, and thus very hard %sometimes
impossible& to break %this is why everyone tells you to avoid having
conflicts with your manager&
Informaluthority is(
Organizational Behavior, page 1?
")ained
"Is hard to earn
"*an be easily taken away
"+oes not enforce itself, instead, employees choose to respect that
authority because they respect the person
1>$ %o" have &een approa#he' &( a (o"ng !anager *ho #o!plains
that he has responsi&ilit( *itho"t )or!al a"thorit( in his
@o&$ ,"ggest )ive so"r#es o) po*er o"tsi'e o) )or!al
a"thorit( that he #an 'evelop to get the @o& 'one$
ANSWER.
PERS-AS#3ENESS
+2AR#0A
.8,#5A(#.N
0E0E8RS2#P
+.00-N#+A(#.N
E:PER(EASE
Organizational Boliti#s - ,"##ess Theor(
.?$ A$ 4is#"ss the role o) !entors in a#hieving #areer s"##ess$
ANSWER.
3#(A, R.,E AS (2E R#52( 0EN(.R 2AS (2E #N/,-EN+E NEE1E1 (.
P-S2 (2E +AREER
PR.3#1ES W#S1.0E (. ,..; PASS (2E #00E1#A(E S#(-A(#.N
PR.3#1E AN1 ARRAN5E A PR."E+(#.N ./ +ARRER /.R IJ 9RS
P.SSESS PERS.NA, AN1 PR./ESS#.NA, P.WER AN1 #N/,-EN+E NEE1 *
P-S2
AN1 2A1 9.-R +.N/#1AN+E
B$ 4is#"ss the pro&le!s *hi#h are likel( to o##"r )or a
(o"ng protGgG in a !entoring relationship$
ANSWER.
#/ +2..SEN WR.N5 0#52( (A;E ,.( ./ (#0E (RRA#N#N5 AN1 ,.SS
./ (#0E 89 (R#A, AN1 ERR.R
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$ 4is#"ss spe#i)i# *a(s o) 'ealing *ith ea#h o) the
pro&le!s i'enti)ie' in part B$
ANSWER.
+2..SE A 0EN(.R W#(2 A (RA+; RE+.1 ./ S-++ESS
Organizational Behavior, page 11
W#(2 E:PER#EN+E W2. ;NWS W2( #( (A;ES
1RESS WE,, AN1 5ES(-RE (. S2.W #(S .N,9 0EN(.R#N5
SPREA1 A +,EAR #1EA (2A( 9.- ARE 1.#N5 .N,9 /.R 5-#1AN+E AN1
N.( /.R AN9(2#N5 E,SE.
4$ Ver( &rie)l( eAplain the #on#ept o) so#io5&iolog($
ANSWER.
5..5,E
.1$ A#hieving s"##ess is a goal )or !an( in'ivi'"als$ =,"##ess
theor(= is not "s"all( 'is#"sse' in an a#a'e!i# setting$
Blease 'is#"ss the )ollo*ing 8"estions in 'epth$
A$ 6hat is the !eaning o) s"##ess1 4is#"ss this in the
#onteAt o) so#iet( as *ell as in the #onteAt o) (o"r
personal li)e$
ANSWER.
#(S -N1ERS(AN1#N5 (2E S.+#A, +.N(E:( W#(2#N
.R5AN#SA(#.N AN1 2A3#N5 A W#,,#NESS (. 1E3E,.P
AN1 E:E+-(E S(RA(E5#ES (2A( A+(#3E,9 PR.0.(E .NES
+AREER A13AN+E0EN(.
B$ 4is#"ss the role o) !entors in a#hieving #areer s"##ess$
In#l"'e a 'is#"ssion o) pro&le!s that are likel( to
o##"r )or a (o"ng protGgG or take the prospe#tive o) a
!entor$
ANSWER.
SA0E AS *J8
N. +,EAR 1#RE+(#.N' S-PP.R(' AN1 (RA#, AN1
ERR.ER (A;ES (#0E (. 0.3E -P (2E ,A11ER.
N. #N/,-EN+E AN1 3#S#8#,(9 #S RES(R#+(E1.
RESEAR+2 S2.WS 0.S( ./ (2E S-++ESS/-, PP, .N (.P
./ (2E ,A11ER 2AS E:PER#EN+E1 0EN(.RS
$ 4evelop a list o) strategies that one #an "se to enhan#e
their #areer s"##ess$ A long list is &etter than a short
list$
ANSWER.
ES(A8,#S2 S.+#A, NE(W.R;
,..; 8.(2 WA9S
#N+REASE 3#S#8#,#(9
S.+#A,#<#N5
#0PR.3#N5 S.+#A, S;#,,S
Organizational Behavior, page 1.
8E+.0E WE,, #N/.R0E1 AN1 R.-N1ER1
SEE;#N5 0EN(.R
A1"-S(#N5 PERS.NA, #0A5E
ASSESS#N5 AN1 #0PR.3#N5 PERS.NA, (RA#(S
0ANA5E (#0E
..$ The tea#hing o) =,"##ess Theor(= is a relativel( ne* #on#ept
in a#a'e!ia$ 6hat is =,"##ess Theor(1= an it &e ta"ght
an' learne' in an a#a'e!i# environ!ent1 ,ho"l' it &e ta"ght
in a#a'e!ia1 Blease eAplain (o"r ans*er &( s"pporting (o"r
position *ith so"n' reasoning$
ANSWER.
1. W2A( #S R#52( AN1 N.( W2A( #S E:PE1#EN(.
Success is defined as obtaining a desired goal.
./$ I'enti)( the #hara#ter o) Heating an' the #entral the!e in
the ="nning Nat"re o) Can$= Basi#all( (o" sho"l' &e s"re
to rea' this arti#le as I ten' to ask so!e trivial 8"estion
to as#ertain i) (o" rea' it$
ANSWER. ;EA(#N5S +2ARA+(ER #S ./ (. SEE; 5R.W(2 AN1 R#SE -P (2E
,A11ER N. 0A((ER W2A(. 2e layed it cunning and acted right
on time to removed tim davis 'Stengel and finally heyers who
were all convinced kete did something for them.2e had few
rincles and he let no emotions come in his way to move u.
2e had used eole and $ut showed them he was doing them
good.'
+entral theme is every man is for himself.
he *as sel)ishI ever(&o'( *as sel)ishI it *as not a prett( thing, to
&e sel)ish, &"t he *as not alone in itI he ha' !erel( &een
l"#kier than !ost, he ha' &een, &e#a"se he *as &etter than !ostI
he )elt )ineI he hope' the "seless 8"estions *o"l' never #o!e
&a#k to hi! againI ever( !an )or hi!sel), he !"ttere', )alling
asleep on the ta&le
.3$ I'enti)( )ive *a(s to i!prove (o"r position o) po*er$
ES(A8,#S2 S.+#A, NE(W.R;
,..; 8.(2 WA9S
#N+REASE 3#S#8#,#(9
S.+#A,#<#N5
#0PR.3#N5 S.+#A, S;#,,S
8E+.0E WE,, #N/.R0E1 AN1 R.-N1ER1
SEE;#N5 0EN(.R
Organizational Behavior, page 1/
A1"-S(#N5 PERS.NA, #0A5E
ASSESS#N5 AN1 #0PR.3#N5 PERS.NA, (RA#(S
0ANA5E (#0E
Cis#ellaneo"s
.7$ 6hat have (o" learne' a&o"t (o"rsel) in this #o"rse that (o"
*ere "na*are o) &e)ore taking this #o"rse1
ANSWER.
2.W (. 0.1E, 9.-RSE,/
REA,#<E 0.RE A8.-( 09 SE,/ AN1 E:PER#0EN( (. SEE RES-,(S
2.W (. 2AN1,E W.R; W2EN N.( 5#3EN EN.-52 A-(2.R#(9 3#A
PWER.SAN, P.WER
ANA,9SE 8E2A3#.RS ./ .(2ERS AN1 A+( A++.1R#N5,9
SE,/ REA,#<A(#.NA N1 1E3E,.PE0N(
.9$ Her&ert ,i!on #oine' the ter!s =&o"n'e' rationalit(= an'
=satis)i#ing$= EAplain the !eaning o) these #on#epts an'
their relevan#e to !anage!ent$
ANSWER.
$ Bounded rationality is the idea that in decision-making, rationality
of individuals is limited by the information they have, the
cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount
of time they have to make a decision. It was proposed by
Herbert A. Simon as an alternative basis for the
mathematical modeling of decision-making, as used in
economics and related disciplines. Bounded rationality
complements rationality as optimiation, which views
decision-making as a fully rational process of finding an
optimal choice given the information available
,ounded -ationality. In response to this recognition of the complexity of most real-world problems and the impossibility
of actually implementing the classical theory approach to rational decision making, Simon and his colleagues developed the
notion of bounded rationality (Trist, 1!1"#
The principle of bounded rationality posits that the human mind lacks the capacity for formulating and solving complex
problems whose solution is re$uired for ob%ectively rational behavior in the real world# Thus, bounded rationality implies the
following (&rnold, 1!'"(
Organizational Behavior, page 13
1# )ecisions will always be based upon an incomplete and to some degree inade$uate comprehension of the true nature of
the situation#
*# )ecision makers will never be able to generate all possible alternatives#
+# &lternatives are always be evaluated incompletely since it is impossible to foresee and predict all outcomes associated
with each alternative#
,# The ultimate decision regarding which alternative to choose must be based on some criterion other than maximi-ation or
optimi-ation, since it is impossible ever to determine which alternative is the optimal one#
Satisficing# If everyone in every organi-ation were completely rational, individuals and organi-ations would always make
the best possible decisions# &s a result, problems of organi-ing and managing organi-ations effectively would not exist#
.owever, people are not always completely rational# /urthermore, people are not capable of gathering and making decisions
on the basis of all of the detailed and exhaustive analyses assumed by classical theory# 0iven this real-world situation, how
then can they go about determining which alternative to choose when faced with a decision1
Simon (12'" has suggested that the key to understanding how people actually go about simplifying complicated decisions
lies in the concept of satisficing# 3hile the assumptions of classical theory suggest that a decision maker must continue to
generate and evaluate alternatives until the best alternative has been identified, the principle of satisficing suggests that a
decision maker continues to generate and evaluate alternatives until one alternative that is good enough to be acceptable is
identified#
The advantages of satisficing as a basis for decision making are apparent (&rnold, 1!'"(
1# It does not re$uire a decision maker to generate a potentially infinite list of alternatives#
*# It recogni-es the bounded rationality of human beings#
+# It seems to provide a realistic description of how people go about making decisions#
0iven the time, effort, and expense that must go into the process of generating and evaluating alternatives, satisficing
keeps the decision-making process within manageable bounds and stops the process when an acceptable solution has been
identified#
The behavioral model is based on the following assumptions (.iggins, 11"(
1# 4b%ectives are often vague and not agreed upon#
*# 5anagers may not recogni-e that a problem exists#
+# 5anagers may not go through the identification process and therefore solve the wrong problem#
,# )ecision makers and problem solvers solve models of their world# These models never encompass all the variables, facts,
or relationships involved in the actual problem# Therefore, if and when rationality is applied, it is applied only to a part of
the total problem#
6esearch at the 7enter for )ecision 6esearch at the 8niversity of 7hicago reveals several biases in the construction of such
models(
#oor framing. & 9uropean manager working in the 8nited States may have received bids to refurbish the club:s clay
courts# .e recommends a /rench red clay product, when the courts are actually constructed with a .ar-tru granular product
; an entirely different composition#
vailable evidence. & club manager from 3ashington working in 5iami may make a decision to move an outdoor event
indoors based on rain at 1(<< p#m# ; the most current available evidence# 3hile expedient, such a decision may not be
made on the best evidence, especially to the disappointed guests arriving at 2(<< p#m# to a beautiful evening with no sign
of showers for over five hours#
nchoring on a piece of information. & manager moving from a young, progressive, developer-owned club in Southern
7alifornia to rural =orth 7arolina may make a huge mistake advising the board that instituting a club-wide no-smoking
policy will go smoothly#
ssociation of a solution with a past success. & private club board:s decision to maintain the %acket and tie re$uirement
in the dining room based on tradition leads to serving only a handful of dining patrons on Saturday evenings#
># 4nly a few of the possible alternatives are considered# The decision maker:s knowledge of the situation is usually limited#
Organizational Behavior, page 17
'# &s a core part of bounded rationality, few managers search to find the best possible alternative# 5ost will settle for the
first alternative that minimally satisfies minimally considered ob%ectives, what Simon calls ?satisficing? criteria# 5anagers
often do not seek the best decision, but only the decision that improves, or satisfies their situation, and one that the time
constraints will allow them to make#
2# 5anagers base decisions on rules of thumb and fre$uently will not even evaluate alternatives according to criteria# @ast
experience is often the basis for making decisions#
!# The decision-making process, especially in the higher levels of the organi-ation, is greatly affected by social
relationships# 7oalitions of decision makers are formed, which vie for power# @roblem solvers must gain the support of
powerful individuals and various coalitions to ensure that their solutions are chosen and implemented#
# )ecisions often occur in a series of small steps# There are few great leaps, especially in large organi-ations#
3hile the rational economic model is certainly one basis for decision making in organi-ations, the process is often anything
but rational# It is also political, social, and satisficing (good enough to be accepted", not maximi-ing (&rnold, 1!'"# 3hat
makes for the best decision is not always apparent# &ll decision makers must anticipate their own limitations and the
constraints of the situation# They must also anticipate the political and social realities of not only the decision process but
the implementation and control processes as well# This often re$uires participation, or selling their decision to those of
importance# 5anagers must recogni-e these constraints and work within them# They should also seek to improve the
decision process, to reduce its limitations#