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Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar 6


th
Edition
Instructors Manual with Answer Key


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Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar
6
th
Edition

Instructors Manual with Answer Key

Regina L. Smalley
Mary K. Ruetten
Joann Rishel Kozyrev

Contents:

Introduction Page 2

Answer Key

Chapter 1 Page 2
Chapter 2 Page 3
Chapter 3 Page 8
Chapter 4 Page 11
Chapter 5 Page 17
Chapter 6 Page 23
Chapter 7 Page 27
Chapter 8 Page 32
Chapter 9 Page 40
Chapter 10 Page 45
Chapter 11 Page 52
Chapter 12 Page 59

Refining Grammar Skills Page 67

Appendix 2 Page 88
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Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar 6
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Edition
Instructors Manual with Answer Key


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Introduction

The Sixth Edition of Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar presents an
integrated program of writing for high-intermediate and advanced students of English as a second
or foreign language (ESL/EFL). It combines extensive practice in rhetorical strategies and
techniques with a review of appropriate grammatical structures and verb tenses. With its
extensive appendices, the text can further serve as a handbook for writing, grammar, and
mechanics. The primary audience is the academically oriented ESL/EFL student; however, the
text also can be useful in developmental writing courses for native speakers who could benefit
from more guidance in writing compositions.

This instructors manual contains answers to all of the questions in Chapters 112, Refining
Grammar Skills, and Appendix 2.



Chapter 1: The Writing Process

EXERCISE 1 (Page 5)
Answers will vary. Students may notice that they have a lot of the same ideas but that the
most interesting choices for writing may be in the unique ideas that they list which others
did not.

EXERCISE 2 (Page 6)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 3 (Page 7)
Answers will vary. Students should have at least one question for each question word if
possible. Some topics may not lend themselves to all questions words, but encourage
students to make a special effort to think of questions with How and Why.

EXERCISE 4 (Page 8)
Answers will vary.










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Chapter 2: Introduction to the Paragraph

EXERCISE 1 (Pages 12-13)
1. This paragraph is about the usefulness of final exams.
2. This paragraph is about a reason why I like the beach.
3. This paragraph is about fad diets.
4. This paragraph is about internal and external causes of behavior.

EXERCISE 2 (Pages 15-16)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
2. Cigarettes, Cigarette Smokers, Types of Cigarette Smokers, Nervous Smokers
3. Technology, Computers, Three Uses of Computers, Using Computers for Teaching
English
4. Entertainment, Movies, Why People Watch Movies, Movies and Escapism
5. My Hometown, The School District, My High School, My English Class
6. Students responses will vary.

EXERCISE 3 (Page 17)
2. Topic: A final advantage Serena Williams has on the court
Controlling idea: her constant aggressiveness
3. Topic: A properly planned science course
Controlling idea: political implications of experimentation
4. Topic: Einsteins unsuccessful attempt to get nuclear weapons banned
Controlling idea: disappointing
5. Topic: One of the biggest problems with athletic scholarships
Controlling idea: more attention is paid to sports than to education
6. Topic: words that appear to be equivalent in English and Spanish
Controlling idea: deceptive
7. Topic: air pollution
Controlling idea: hazardous
8. Topic: Savings bonds
Controlling idea: safe
9. Topic: Nicolas
Controlling idea: shy
10. Topic: finding a part-time job
Controlling idea: problem

EXERCISE 4 (Page 18)
1. b
2. b
3. b
4. a
5. a


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EXERCISE 5 (Pages 18-19)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. The Honda Civic is economical to maintain.
2. My hometown has excellent educational facilities.
3. The sports program at this school needs to offer more sports for girls.
4. Playing tennis is an excellent aerobic workout.
5. Driving a car in a blizzard can be hazardous.
6. Hospitals use computers to keep medical and financial records organized.
7. The park offers softball, horseback riding, and tennis.
8. Watching too much television makes people lazy and overweight.

EXERCISE 6 (Pages 19-21)
Topic is underlined. Controlling idea is highlighted.
1. Ancient Egyptian society as a whole was, perhaps surprisingly, gender inclusive.
2. The most commonly discussed problem that can arise from using social networking
sites unwisely is the possibility of meeting someone who intends to do others physical,
emotional, or financial harm.
3. Anyone who saw him once never forgot his nose and his body.
4. We write because we want to understand our lives.
5. Wild tigers will probably soon become extinct. (Topic sentence is implied.)
6. The most important reason for a concerned citizen to learn more about marine biology
is to be able to make intelligent decisions about the ocean and the environment. (Topic
sentence is implied.)

EXERCISE 7 (Page 23)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 8 (Page 25)
Controlling idea is highlighted.
Topic sentence: Smoking cigarettes is hazardous to your health.
Support:
1. Studies have linked the intake of tar and nicotine to cancer.
2. Smoking increases the discomfort for people with asthma and emphysema.
3. Smoking can give one a smokers cough and contribute to bronchitis.
4. Studies show that cigarette smokers are more susceptible to common colds and flu.
Conclusion: Whether you get an insignificant cold or the major killer, cancer, smoking
cigarettes is hazardous.

EXERCISE 9 (Page 26)
Answers will vary.





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Instructors Manual with Answer Key


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EXERCISE 10 (Pages 26-27)
1. Topic Sentence: One of the most acclaimed and beloved of Japanese animators is
Hayao Miyazaki . . .
Irrelevant: This surprises some people who think animation is only for children.
2. Topic Sentence: The most obvious problem with being unemployed is not having the
money you need for daily life.
Irrelevant: And even though buying clothes may not be a necessity, it is still important.
3. Topic Sentence: I would not want to live to be 500 years old if I was the only really old
person, and if everyone else died at the normal time.
Irrelevant: I think now sometimes old people do not like being bothered.
Irrelevant: I would be like a freak.
4. Topic Sentence: After many years of working toward eliminating poverty, Dr.
Mohammad Yunas does not consider himself a charity worker, but a social business
entrepreneur.
Irrelevant: Nine borrowers/owners of Grameen Bank were elected to accept the prize
with him.

EXERCISE 11 (Page 30)
1. Sentence order: 4, 1, 2, 5, 6, 3

The hotel business is just one type of enterprise that has profited by the invention of
computers. In the hotel business, computers ease the load at the front desk. With a
computer, a clerk can make a reservation easily and quickly, without the use of cards,
racks, or registration books. And with a computer, the clerk can get an instant update of
the room status. This tells the clerk which rooms are available to guests. So when guests
come in to register, their reservations can be checked, and they can be given available
rooms without much fuss or bother.

2. Sentence order: 1, 3, 4, 8, 5, 6, 7, 2, 9

Political conventions in America attract all kinds of people besides delegates. Groups
who wish to attract attention to their political and social causes demonstrate outside the
convention halls. The pro-life people, the pro-choice people, the supporters of strong
defense spending, those against strong defense spending, and those for same-sex
marriage and those who oppose it are probably the most common groups. Others just like
to poke fun at the candidates. For instance, at most conventions you will find at least a
couple of people wearing masks of their favorite or least favorite candidates. Others dress
in costumes and carry signs with outrageous comments about the candidates or the
political process. You are sure to see an artist or two doing chalk portraits of the
candidates on the sidewalks. No matter who they are or what their reasons are for going
to the conventions, these people always add color to the sometimes predictable
conventions.



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Instructors Manual with Answer Key


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3. Sentence order: 1, 7, 8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

An example of this kind of prejudice happened to me when I was in the fourth grade. My
teacher treated me as if I were about two grade levels below my classmates. My family
had just moved here from California, and she did not think I was up with the rest of my
class. I remember one time when all of the students were being allowed to choose a book
they wanted to read. When it was my turn to choose a book, she laughed at me and said,
Oh, that one is too hard for you. Ill choose one for you. I was so embarrassed. I
thought that she should not embarrass me in front of the class like that.

EXERCISE 12 (Page 31)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Young people want to buy clothes, and they want to save money to buy a car or a
stereo or a television. For example, my cousin Celia works at a clothing store and buys all
her own clothes. And one of my friends bought himself a used car just from the money he
made after school. Young people want to make money for their future. An example of
this is saving money for an education after high school. My cousin Robert is doing this
for his future.

2. The driving lesson I got from my fianc was a very distressing one. I started off very
well until my fianc started getting bossy. I did one wrong thing, so he started shouting at
me. The little incident occurred when he wanted me to make a U-turn in the middle of the
street. As I was trying to do that, I turned the wheels too hard, and the wheels hit the end
of the curb. The car stopped right in the middle of the street. Cars were coming in both
directions. My fianc started yelling at me as if he were crazy. So I calmly put the car in
park and started to get out to let him drive since I obviously wasnt doing it the way he
wanted. But he grabbed my arm and told me to finish getting the car out of the middle of
the street. I decided after this incident that my fianc was not the right person to teach me
to drive.

3. The way women are shown in TV commercials today has changed compared with
twenty years ago. Twenty years ago, commercials mostly showed women as brainless
housewives. In those commercials, women were concerned about getting the best laundry
detergents, the softest toilet paper, or the tastiest soup. They were portrayed as sort of
dumb and silly, as if the most important thing in the world were getting hamburger on
sale. In commercials today, women are shown as housewives, but they are not portrayed
as so dumb. For example, the woman in the commercial I saw last night seemed like a
normal, intelligent person. Women in commercials today are not just housewives. They
are shown as professional working people, too. For example, in one telephone
commercial, a woman with a briefcase is saying goodbye to her child and husband as she
is about to catch a plane.




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Instructors Manual with Answer Key


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EXERCISE 13 (Page 33)
1. IC Some athletes like the adrenaline rush of competition.
2. IC Team sports help to improve ones ability to cooperate.
3. DC
4. DC
5. IC She is nervous about jumping out of a plane with a parachute.
6. P
7. DC
8. P

EXERCISE 14 (Page 34)
The fragments are:
While dogs and cats are still the most popular pets in the United States.
If you like reptiles.
Maybe because of their undeserved reputation for being slimy.
Which can be disturbing to some owners.

Answers will vary. Possible response:
Corrections are in bold.
When choosing an animal companion, people have many more choices than ever before.
While dogs and cats are still the most popular pets in the United States, fish and birds are
becoming more prevalent. Turtles and lizards can make good pets, too, if you like
reptiles. Snakes are a little less well-liked; this may be because of their undeserved
reputation for being slimy. Ferrets are becoming much more common. They are playful
and easy to care for, but ferrets do have a strong odor, which can be disturbing to some
owners.

EXERCISE 15 (Page 35) -Editing
The run on sentences are:
Adults have greater success when they pick an instrument they really like not just one
they think they should learn to play. / Play with a friend it is more fun.

The comma splices are:
In fact, adults can be good learners, they often have better concentration than younger
people. / You can even start a band, you can encourage each other and learn together.

Answers will vary. Possible response:
Corrections are in bold.
Most adults think that they are too old to learn to play a new instrument. In fact, adults
can be good learners as they often have better concentration than younger people. The
difficulty for most adults is finding the time to practice. Adults have greater success
when they pick an instrument they really like, not just one they think they should learn to
play. Keeping the instrument in a place where you see it every day helps you to make
time to practice. Play with a friend; it is more fun. You can even start a band. You can
encourage each other and learn together.
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Chapter 3: The Narrative Paragraph

From My American Journey
by Colin Powell

Comprehension (Page 39)
1. They visited Top Hill because General Powells father was born there.
2. They traveled a long way, first by jeep, then by foot. They were met by government
officials and many townspeople. Schoolchildren played music for them. Then General
Powell met many members of his family.
3. It is a long trip. Details to support this are: road dwindled to a path; Handsome
homes gave way to humble cottages; [Walked] on foot for about fifteen minutes.
4. They met government officials, 200 people, a school band, and Powells family. The
first three groups made him feel welcome. Meeting his family made him feel emotional
and connected.
5. He had met some before and observed a family resemblance in others.

Discussion (Page 39)
1. Answers will vary, but students may comment that he may have wanted to make this
trip for a very long time or he may be thinking of his own parents.
2. Answers will vary. Students may find it easier to respond if they have written about
this in their journals before it is discussed in class.


The Best Part
by Mary Kay Mackin

Comprehension (Page 40)
1. The best part of Christmas is the fact that her family members traditionally spend the
day together preparing for the Christmas dinner.
2. She describes the family together at breakfast, her conversation with her brother, the
arrival of the oldest sister and her family, and the activities leading up to the dinner.
3. When I think about it, this fellowship is really the best part of Christmas Day for me.
The best part (of Christmas Day) is the controlling idea.

Discussion (Page 40)
1. Answers will vary. Students may find it easier to respond if they have written about
this in their journals before it is discussed in class.
2. Answers will vary, but students may comment on being with large groups of family
that do not always spend time together, peoples expectations that a holiday be perfect, or
the amount of planning and preparation required. Ways to relieve the stress may involve
planning differently or changing ones attitude.

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The Struggle to Be an All-American Girl
by Elizabeth Wong

Comprehension (Page 43)
1. Wong and her brother had to go to Chinese school.
2. They didnt want to go. They kicked and screamed and pleaded not to go.
3. Their mother wanted them to go because she wanted them to learn Chinese.
4. At the Chinese school, she learned politeness, reading, and writing in Chinese.
In public school she learned to name the satellites of Mars, do the multiplication tables,
and write reports on Black Beauty and Little Women.
5. Wongs grandmother was a fragile woman in her seventies with a loud, nagging voice.
Wong was embarrassed by her. Her grandmother represented everything that Wong
didnt want to be.
6. Her brother was fanatical about speaking English correctly. He treated his mother
critically for speaking pidgin English. He was embarrassed by her foreignness.
7. In this sentence, you means Americans; them means Chinese.


Discussion (Page 43)
1. Wong preferred tacos to egg rolls; she enjoyed Cinco de Mayo more than Chinese New
Year. Other answers will vary.
2. Answers will vary. She may feel that she threw away her heritage, never appreciating
it as a child. As an adult, she may have a greater appreciation for what she learned;
adults often are better able to see the connection between effort and reward than children
are.
3. Answers will vary, although given that the students using this book are working to
learn English, they might be expected to support Wongs mothers efforts. Encourage
them to play devils advocate and suggest what might have been other useful ways for the
children to spend their time.
4. Answers will vary.


EXERCISE 1 (Page 43)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 2 (Page 44)
2. getting
3. enormous
4. rate
5. main
6. papers
7. accomplish
8. difficult / complex / important
9. settlement
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10. lawyers
11. court

EXERCISE 3 (Page 46)
Changes are underlined.
When people here talk of Mardi Gras, they use the expression Mardi Gras Madness.
For many people, this delightful madness begins on St. Charles Avenue with the Rex
Parade. By nine oclock, the avenue is lined with people of all ages in colorful costumes,
from cavemen to Supermen. They stroll among the crowd and chat with friends and
strangers alike. Some dance and some drink. At around ten oclock, the excitement
mounts as the parade begins. First, there is the welcome sound of sirens. The police on
motorcycles always lead the parade to make a path through the jubilant crowd. Then a
band usually marches by, playing a popular tune such as the theme from a recent movie.
At this time people start clapping and dancing to the music. Next come the masked men
on horseback. They wave and the crowd waves back. Sometimes a girl goes up and kisses
one of the riders! Finally, someone usually shouts, There it is! It is the first float
carrying men in costumes and masks. Immediately, everyone rushes toward the float.
They wave their hands and yell, Throw me something, Mister! The men throw beads
and souvenir coins to the excited crowd. Usually, they catch the coins, but sometimes one
hits the ground. Then several people rush to retrieve it, pushing and shoving if necessary.
Then the float passes, but soon another one comes, and the madness continues. After
about an hour, the parade passes by, and the first part of Mardi Gras day ends.


EXERCISE 4 (Page 47)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Fumiki happily jumps out of bed.
Nobutaka wearily drags himself out of bed.
2. Fumiki selects his clothes with care.
Nobutaka throws on his clothes.
3. Fumiki cheerfully opens the curtains to let the sunlight in.
Nobutaka doesnt open the curtains because the glare of the sun hurts his eyes.
4. Fumiki sips some tea and savors the flavor.
Nobutaka gulps the tea down.
5. Fumiki happily says Good morning to his neighbor.
Nobutaka grumbles Good morning to his neighbor.

EXERCISE 5 (Page 47)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 6 (Page 48)
Answers will vary. If students have trouble thinking of a parade, suggest independence
day parades around the world, childrens parades, or considering showing a short video
of a parade such as the Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City. The assignment
could also be broadened to include any kind of outdoor or street festival.
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EXERCISE 7 (Page 48)
1. The topic sentence is located at the end of the paragraph. The author placed it there for
emphasis.
2. The controlling idea is healthy fear.
3. It is coherent and unified. Ideas are in order of occurrence.

EXERCISE 8 (Page 49)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 9 (Page 50) - Editing
Corrections are in bold.
1. When they are convincing young people of the value of education, teachers often tell
the story of Frederick Douglasss life and many accomplishments.
OR
When convincing young people of the value of education, teachers often tell the story of
Frederick Douglasss life and many accomplishments. (Adverbial clauses/participial
phrases)
2. Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) was a famous African-American speaker, editor, and
statesman who started out life as a slave. (Capitalization)
3. The woman he served started to teach him the alphabet, but her husband insisted that
she stop because teaching a slave to read was against the law. (Punctuation)
4. Having ceased teaching him, she worked hard to make sure he didnt learn anything
more. (Adverbial Clauses/participial phrases)
5. Fredrick Douglass, however, already desperately wanted to learn to read. (Verb tense)
6. He made friends with the poor white boys who lived in the neighborhood. (Verb tense)
7. While he was running errands, he traded some food for a quick reading lesson and still
made it home in time to avoid suspicion. (Prepositions)
8. Douglass did not tell these boys names in his autobiography because he did not want
to cause them trouble. (Punctuation)
9. Douglass taught over forty slaves to read, until their masters found out and violently
broke up the lessons. (Punctuation with adverbial clauses)
10. Frederick Douglas has become one of the most well-known Americans of the Civil
War era. (Capitalization)

Chapter 4: The Descriptive Paragraph

Uncle Kwok
by Jade Snow Wong

Comprehension (Page 55)
1. The main point is that Uncle Kwok is very strange. The first sentence clearly
establishes this.
2. She calls him large-framed, awkward, and unshaven.
3. He dresses shabbily. His clothes are worn and do not fit well.
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4. He ambles, drags his feet, saunters, is slow-moving, and strides.
5. First, he enters and hangs up his hat and coat. Then he replaces the soles of his shoes,
puts his apron on, and washes his hands and cleans his fingernails.

Discussion (Page 56)
1. Answers will vary. Students may need to be reminded that this story is told from the
perspective of a child.
2. He hopes that someday his meticulous and consistent behavior will make him
prosperous. We understand that he is aware of his behavior and that he has human
feelings.
3. His behavior and appearance make him strange, but what makes him especially strange
is the fact that he is different from the other workers and different from the people Jade
Snow knows. Answers about what makes any person appear strange will vary. The
discussion may focus around people students knew and who they would describe as
strange, or the more abstract discussion of what makes someone appear to be strange. To
direct the discussion one way or the other, you may want to have students write about one
question or the other in their journals before the discussion.

From Beyond the Sun
by Tom Huth

Comprehension (Page 57)
1. Finnish Lapland is a quiet, peaceful, beautiful place to ski.
2. Answers will vary. Possible responses: quiet, peaceful, beautiful.
3. He begins to ski in a rhythmic, repetitive way.
4. The scene he views seems magical with only beautiful, snow-covered trees.
Nothing but spruce trees mounded with snow; the snow . . . doesnt melt or blow
away; there are no shadows . . ., lines, [or] sharp distinctions.
5. Answers will vary.

Discussion (Page 57)
1. Answers will vary. Possible responses: The lack of direct sunlight and the snow
covered trees.
2. It makes him feel calm and peaceful. Answers to second question will vary.
3. Answers will vary. Encourage students to think about what he is wearing, the
temperature, how ones nose feels in cold air, what sounds there might be (birds, sounds
of skiing), and whether they are muffled or strong and clear.

EXERCISE 1 (Page 58)
(Paragraph 2 similes)
1. . . . like so many nuns with their heads bowed in prayer.
2. . . . that look like bobbing human heads, . . .
3. . . . like drunks falling asleep at a bar,
4. like legions of friendly ghosts nodding off to dreamland.
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5. And the smallest trees of all are but stubby white thumbs lost entirely beneath the
snow. (Metaphor)
6. The daylight lies as a graying caress . . . (Paragraph 3 simile)

EXERCISE 2 (Page 58)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Bill's outfit is quite colorful. He looks like a bowl of brightly colored candies.
Bill's outfit is quite colorful. He looks like a brightly colored bird.
2. What beautiful hair you have! Your hair looks like a black silk curtain.
What beautiful hair you have! Your hair looks like a braided crown.
3. It's raining very hard. It sounds like someone is dancing on our roof.
It's raining very hard. It sounds like rocks are falling instead of rain.
4. Can you smell the orange blossoms on the trees in the garden?
The scent is as powerful as too much cheap perfume.
Can you smell the orange blossoms on the trees in the garden?
The scent is as powerful as a strong wind.
5. Holding the baby bird in her hands, the soft down felt like a whisper.
Holding the baby bird in her hands, the soft down felt like a tuft of cotton.

EXERCISE 3 (Page 59)
1. difficult
2. begin
3. ancestry/roots/origin
4. long /whole/ difficult
5. complete
6. roots
7. learning
8. history
9. accent
10. complete
11. origins/ ancestry/ roots


EXERCISE 4 (Page 61)
Answers will vary. Possible response:
My dormitory room, on the second floor of Bienville Hall, is small but
comfortable. The dark green walls and white ceiling make me feel as though I live in
a cool, private forest. My small but cozy bed, which fills half of the room, is the
dominant piece of furniture. The bed has a soft, white down comforter, and my
oversized jewel-colored velveteen pillows are an invitation to sit or lounge on the
bed while studying or reading. The two large windows over the bed are covered by
heavy dark gold drapes, so I can choose to let in the light to brighten the room or
close it all out when I want privacy and solitude. Against the wall on your left,
behind the head of the bed, is a large bookcase that I have filled with papers, books,
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and knickknacks that remind me of home. There is just enough room remaining for a
small gray metal desk just large enough to hold my computer. The sturdy brown
wooden chair next to the desk is perfect for studying. I have decorated the wall
above the bookcase and desk with a poster of my favorite painting and of my
favorite singer. On the right-hand side of the room is a closet with sliding doors
where I stash clothes, shoes, my tennis racket, and other things to keep the rest of
my room tidy. Every time I walk into my room, I think, Its good to be home.

EXERCISE 5 (Page 61)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 6 (Page 62)
1. The topic sentence is The kitchen held our lives together.
2. His mother worked in the kitchen, he did homework and even slept there, his father
whitewashed the walls, they washed their selves and their clothes there, the family
business was conducted there, as evidenced by the receipts, etc.
3. The kitchen table, the mirror on the wall over the table, the white walls, the electric
bulb hanging from the ceiling, the gas ring on the wall. The corner where the toilet, sink,
and washing tub were located, the shelf above the tub, the things on the shelf.

EXERCISE 7 (Page 63)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 8 (Page 64)
Answers will vary. Possible response:
Marie can only be described as plain. Her oval face is unremarkable except that
her chin seems a bit too long, and her long, thin nose adds to this impression. Her long,
thick eyebrows draw attention to themselves and her high forehead. This effect is
heightened by how she frequently wears her long black hair pulled back into a severe
ponytail as though her hair bothers her but she is too busy to get a more stylish cut. Her
lips are rather thin and pale, and she rarely troubles with lipstick. Unfortunately, when
she does, the bright pink that she chooses draws attention to itself and makes the rest of
her face look pale. Her eyes are a pretty blue, but because she is shy, one only catches
their sparkle on the rare occasions when she lets her guard down and laughs.

EXERCISE 9 (Page 65)
1. Answers will vary but should generally suggest that Wallace is a mischievous boy.
2. The topic sentence is the first one. The controlling idea (impressive) is stated.


EXERCISE 10 (Page 65)
Answers will vary.


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EXERCISE 11 (Page 66)
Adverbs of place are underlined.
So this was to be our home for the summer. My husband and I had rented a cabin on a
ranch in Colorado, and here we were. As we opened the front door of Spruce Tree Lodge,
my first impression was of a dim, cool place inviting us to relax. With some lights on, I
was relieved to notice on the wall in front of me the traditional white cabinets, small
electric stove, and humming refrigerator that marked a functional kitchen. At least we
werent going to be doing all our cooking over a campfire! Against the paneled wall to
my left, there was a small sofa made of tan Naugahyde. Even though it was not chic, it
spoke of years of comfort and service. Beside it, on a table in the corner, perched a funky
old lamp made from a piece of unfinished pine. Both table and lamp were straight out of
Salvation Army, but the mood they created was just right for long afternoons of reading
novels. On the wall to my right were two big windows with a view of the trees and
mountains outside. How glorious! We could sit on the sofa and drink in the timelessness
of the mountains while the fir and spruce trees moved in the gentle lull of the wind. In the
middle of the room, straight ahead, stood a sturdy oak table with heavy, massive legs and
a smooth, worn top. It would serve as a desk, table, and catchall. My husband was
already trying out the padded chairs, made of dark brown Naugahyde, that were pulled up
around the table ready for use. We smiled. Yes, the cabin would do very nicely.

EXERCISE 12 (Page 67)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. car
a small car
a small car parked next to a fire hydrant
a small car with a broken window parked next to a fire hydrant
a small blue car with a broken window parked next to a fire hydrant
2. tree
a young tree
a young leafless tree
a young leafless tree surrounded by snow
3. house
a large house
a large white house
the large white farmhouse in which I grew up
4. Answers will vary.









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EXERCISE 13 (Page 69)
Changes are underlined.
One of the ugliest creatures in literature is the monster in the novel Frankenstein, The
Modern Prometheus, which was written by Mary Shelley in the nineteenth century. The
monster, which was created by Victor Frankenstein when he was a student at a university,
has flowing lustrous black hair. The monster has pearly white teeth. These fine features
form a horrid contrast with his other features. He has yellow skin that barely covers his
facial muscles. His complexion is shriveled. He has hideous, watery, almost colorless
eyes that seem to be almost the same color as the sockets that they are set in. Even uglier,
perhaps, are his lips, which are straight and black.

EXERCISE 14 (Page 70) - Editing
Corrections are in bold.
1. Most people think there is nothing to see in the Mohave Desert, so they drive through
without stopping. (Subject-verb agreement)
2. They want to spend as little time as possible in this vast flat colorless place. (Order of
adjectives)
3. The dry brown earth and the tough plants growing low to the ground seem to repeat
for miles. (Order of adjectives)
4. If there are any clouds in the pale blue sky, they are often thin and barely visible.
(Subject-verb agreement)
5. However, if you get out of your car and walk around, you will see that the desert is a
kaleidoscope whose secret colors and patterns are delightful. (Incorrect subordinator)
6. You will start to notice that all the leaves, which are thick and tough to protect the
plant from water loss, come in many shades and textures. (punctuation with non
restrictive clause)
7. You can find dark reddish, pocked and angular pieces of lava rock which were
discarded by an ancient volcano when it was active. (Incorrect subordinator)
8. Desert plants, which work so hard to produce their tiny flowers, favor the color
yellow, but with a little patience you can find purples, whites, pinks, and even reds.
(Incorrect subordinator)
9. If you pause and look around, you will start to notice the patterns on the pretty little
lichen-covered rocks. (Order of adjectives)
10. Slowly, you will start to notice the different stripes, speckles, and spots on the lizards,
the birds, and the other animals who make their home in this place of quiet but striking
beauty. (Incorrect subordinator)







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Chapter 5: The Expository Paragraph

Jackie Chan
by Lee Server

Comprehension (Pages 75-76)
1. Chan means that his films are different because he is different. No other actor could
play the main character in his films and create the same effect.
2. Some people didnt like Chans films because they thought kung fu movies should be
serious and mysterious or respectful. Long-time fans of kung fu films were most likely to
feel irritated.
3. Influences and their effect on Chan:
Impoverished childhoodlearned indomitability
Peking Opera Academylearned acting and agility
Stuntwork and small roles in filmsplayed opposite other actors, including Bruce
Lee
Snake in the Eagles Shadowfirst starring role; began to develop his own style
Later hit filmschanged emphasis from fighting to stunts
Silent film stars Buster Keaton and Harold Lloydathletic but funny acting style
4. The main idea is stated in the last sentence: Jackie never forgot the human factor
his own charismatic presence, front and center, risking life and limb.
5. The writer tells a story about how Jackie Chan was seriously injured on one movie set.
He also explains how Chans acting style developed and describes the elements of a
typical Jackie Chan movie.
6. The story that starts the excerpt raises the readers interest and shows why Chan is a
different kind of kung fu actor.


Discussion (Page 76)
1. Answers will vary. If students language skills are strong enough, encourage them to
tell each other about admirable actors from other countries so that they are telling each
other new information. For students with weaker skills, you may want to stick to
internationally known people, as it may be easier for them to discuss people about whom
most students have at least some knowledge.
2. Answers will vary. Some students may argue that knowing about an artists life is not
only interesting, it provides insight into why and how they perform or create, while others
could argue that the work should be able to stand on its own. A third argument is that we
tend to become interested in someones life only after we are drawn into their work.
3. Answers will vary, and will depend on what is happening in culture at any given time.
Contemporary music offers many examples of musicians mixing in music from existing
music, and there are many artists who take their cue from those who came before (For
example, popular musician Lady Gaga is often compared to Madonna).


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No Funny Business at Newbury Comics
by William M. Pride, Robert J. Hughes, Jack R. Kapoor

Comprehension (Page 78)
1. When the business first opened, it sold only comic books in a small upstairs apartment.
Now, there are 26 stores and six trucks, and they do business all over New England.
2. The four reasons the business has been successful are that the owners:
focused on a need that they knew how to fill
didnt just stick to what they wanted to do, but stocked other things that their
customers wanted to buy
were good about delegating responsibility to experts
paid careful attention to finances and paid suppliers quickly to maintain good
relationships with them.
3. Answers will vary, but students may comment that they probably arent selling as
much music as they used to since that has become digital. The stores are probably selling
more clothing, novelty items, graphic novels, and other items popular with college-aged
students.
4. They delegated legal responsibilities like negotiating leases, buying decisions like
merchandise assortment, and technology design. This helped keep them organized.
5. Because they deal in fashions and fads, paying suppliers protects their relationships
with suppliers so that they always get new orders without delay.
6. Fads and fashions change quickly, and the sales that are lost when a popular items is
out of stock may never be recovered, as the fad may end before their new stock arrives.

Discussion (Page 78)
1. Answers will vary, but students may discuss the ways that people buy music has
changed. They may also discuss how people are doing more shopping online, so
Newbury Comics may need to pay careful attention to their online presence or find new
ways to attract customers into the stores. (Students may want to visit the stores Web site
to see if they are right.)
2. Answers will vary, but it stands to reason that since Newbury Comics specializes in
music, comic books, and novelty items, their typical customer is interested in these things
and is probably a high school student or young adult who has a reasonable amount of
disposable income.
3. Answers will vary. Students may tell stories of local businesses from their home
country or city. Others may know about businesses like Ben and Jerrys ice cream or
Walmart.
4. Answers will vary, but typical answers will include creativity, willingness to work long
hours, flexibility, etc.
5. Answers will vary.




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EXERCISE 1 (Page 79)

Verb Noun Adjective Adverb
identify 1. identity
or identification
1. identifiable
2. identical
1. identifiably
1. finance


1. finances
2. financing
financial 1. financially
1. expert
2. expertise

1. expert 1. expertly

locate 1. location

1. located
respond 1. response
2. responsiveness

1. responsive

EXERCISE 2 (Page 80)
1. identity
2. identifiable
3. identify
4. identifiably (or: identified as)
5. identity
6. finance
7. financially
8. finance
9. financing
10. financial

EXERCISE 3 (Pages 80-81)
1. concentration
2. pressure
3. problems
4. careers
5. scrutiny
6. competition
7. debate
8. difference






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EXERCISE 4 (Pages 82-83)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Antarctica is a forbidding, dangerous place.
2. The American public has become very concerned with the management of cholesterol
levels in the blood.
3. Many people want to work for Google because it is a great place to work.
4. Poor health in a population of frogs can indicate environmental problems.
5. Scientists are developing robots that have human-like qualities.

EXERCISE 5 (Page 84)
Topic Sentence: Going to college can be expensive.
Ineffective Support Effective Support
Tuition and room and board aren't
cheap.
Tuition and room and board can cost
anywhere from $7,500 to $15,000 per
term.
For instance, the cost of books and
supplies is high.
For instance, books typically cost
between $400 and $800 each term.
Supplies, too, are not cheap, for as any
student knows, paper, notebooks,
writing utensils, and the many other
supplies needed usually cost more at the
college bookstore than at a local
discount department store. For instance,
a package of notepaper costing $3 at a
discount store might cost $5 at a college
bookstore.
In addition, there are all kinds of special
fees tacked onto the bill at registration
time.
In addition, there are all kinds of special
fees tacked onto the bill at registration
time. A student might have to pay a
$300 insurance fee, a $65 activity fee, a
$25 fee to the student government
association, and anywhere from $100 to
$350 for parking.
Students usually have to pay for parking
and even for adding and dropping
courses after registration.
If a student decides to add or drop a
course after registration, there is yet
another fee.

EXERCISE 6 (Page 85)
Answers will vary. Students should be reminded that the information given is in the
present tense; students need to change the tense.





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EXERCISE 7 (Pages 86-87)
1. d
2. d
3. c
4. e

EXERCISE 8 (Page 87)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 9 (Page 88)
1. The average one-bedroom apartment goes for $1250 a month, whereas only two years
ago, it went for $875.
2. The cost of regular gasoline has increased from $3.25 a gallon to $3.85 a gallon in only
six months.
3. In addition, my water bill has increased $2 in three months, even though my water
consumption has not gone up.
4. Finally, my cable television bill has just jumped up another $4.35 per month for basic
service.

EXERCISE 10 (Page 89)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
Controlling ideas are listed below.
1. kindness
a. When he is on the bus, he talks to people who look sad. He tells them funny stories that
invariably make them smile.
b. Last week, when he heard that his neighbor was sick, he made some soup and
delivered it to her, along with a bouquet of flowers.
2. reduce pollution
a. Plan trips in your car to limit miles driven or use public transportation.
b. Purchase products made of recycled materials.
3. need to be changed
a. New parking options must be created so that students do not have to arrive for class an
hour early to find parking before class.
b. More general education classes must be offered so that students can take the required
classes they need in order to graduate on time.
4. a lot about (English)
a. I have learned ten new vocabulary words each week.
b. I am able to use slang and informal vocabulary much more easily than a year ago.
5. unusual items
a. There is a shaver to trim fuzz balls off your sweaters.
b. They have glow-in-the-dark sunglasses.

EXERCISE 11 (Page 89)
Answers will vary.

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EXERCISE 12 (Page 91)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 13 (Page 94)
Answers may vary. Possible responses:
1. Order of time: b, c, d, a, e, f
2. Order of time: d, b, e, c, g, f, a
3. Order of familiarity: b, d, c, e, a, f

EXERCISE 14 (Page 96)
1. For example, For instance, First, To begin with
2. In addition, Moreover, Also, Next
3. In addition, Moreover, Also

EXERCISE 15 (Pages 96-97)
1. In the past several years, we have become much more aware of hazardous conditions
in the environment. (For example, For instance,) scientists recently reported that ozone,
the natural shield protecting us from the suns ultraviolet rays, has declined significantly.
They noted that a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica has developed and blamed the
widespread use of certain chemicals for the ozone decrease. (In addition, Also,) scientists
have warned us about the greenhouse effect, the gradual warming of the earth because the
heat from the suns rays is prevented from radiating back into space by a blanket of
artificial gases. The chief gas in the greenhouse effect is carbon dioxide, a byproduct of
burning fossil fuels in cars and factories. (Finally,) waste disposal has become a
significant problem. We not only have tons and tons and tons of household garbage to get
rid of, but we also have hazardous waste from nuclear facilities and plants. While all of
these are significant problems that must be solved in the near future, at least we are now
more aware of them.

2. When surnames began appearing in Europe 800 years ago, a persons identity and
occupation were often intertwined. A surname was a direct link between who a person
was and what the person did. (For example, For instance,) Taylor is the Old English
spelling of tailor, and Clark is derived from clerk, an occupation of considerable status
during the Middle Ages because it required literacy. (In addition,) the names Walker,
Wright, Carter, Stewart, and Turner (also) indicate occupations. A walker was someone
who cleaned cloth; a wright was a carpenter or metalworker; a carter was someone who
drove a cart; a steward was a person in charge of a farm or estate; and a turner worked a
lathe. One of the few occupational surnames reflecting the work of women is Webster,
which refers to a female weaver.






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EXERCISE 16 (Page 97) Editing
Corrections are in bold.
1. Wellness implies more than eating balanced meals, avoiding harmful substances, and
practicing good grooming; it also means making time for sleep, rest, relaxation, and
exercise.
2. Sleep is a time for the body to replenish its energy reserves and to heal itself.
3. The amount of time needed may vary with the individual or even with the day.
4. An infant, of course, needs more sleep than does a young adult.
5. Rest, meaning conscious freedom from activity and worry, is just as important as
sleep.
6. Only when a person is relaxed and at inner peace can that person rest.
7. Relaxation means doing something for the fun of it.
8. Examples of relaxation activities include reading a novel (or novels), reading to
children, playing cards and other games, fishing, painting, or sewing or other handwork.
9. Many experts agree that the best rest follows planned exercises.
10. During exercise, heart rate and breathing increase, circulation improves, and muscles
stretch.
11. Exercise is also a time to free the mind of anxiety-producing thoughts.
12. Whichever form of exercise, rest, and relaxation is best for you, make time for it in
each day.

Chapter 6: Introduction to the Essay

EXERCISE 1 (Page 103)
1. No
2. No
3. Yes
4. No
5. No
6. No
7. Yes
8. Yes
9. No
10. No

EXERCISE 2 (Page 104)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Choosing to go to college was a difficult decision.
2. There are three major hazards in storing chemical wastes.
3. Life in the country is better than life in the city.
4. New York City is the most interesting city in the United States.
5. Universities in the United States should require more humanities courses.



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EXERCISE 3 (Pages 106-107)
1. computers
2. parents; wrong/mistakes
3. television; pastime/waste of time
4. todays children; future
5. blind person; help

EXERCISE 4 (Pages 107-108)
1. Thesis Statement (It does not indicate how the thesis will be developed.)
2. No missing elements (This is a good introductory paragraph.)
3. It does not contain a thesis statement.
4. No missing elements (This is a good introductory paragraph.)

EXERCISE 5 (Page 108)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 6 (Pages 110-111)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Why is the city the place for me to live?
c. I like the entertainment facilities.
2. What are some other ways to improve your circulation?
c. A third good exercise for your heart is cross-country skiing.
3. What skills do teenagers gain from afterschool jobs?
c. Interpersonal skills, such as customer service, are also important in all aspects of
ones life.
4. What difficulties present themselves to such a student?
b. American class expectations often differ from those in foreign classrooms.
c. Classes given in English can create problems.
5. Why should foreign language study be required?
a. Learning a foreign language helps with the study of ones own language.
b. It also allows people to explore books and other resources from a different country.
c. Knowing a foreign language is useful in jobs and travel.

EXERCISE 7 (Page 111)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. The learner must spend a great deal of time memorizing the irregular spelling of many
English words.
2. Nearly everyone who sees the Grand Canyon for the first time reports having felt a bit
stunned by the size and majesty of this sight.
3. Because computers are everywhere, many people now respond to work e-mail even
when they are on vacation.
4. In the afternoons, teenagers who have places to go after school lets out are common on
the buses.
5. The first step is to choose the publishing tool you wish to use for your blog.
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6. Another problem is that they may be used to different cultural rules about how to
interact with professors and other students.
7. The most obvious reason for going shopping is to get something that one needs.
8. Prospective students overall impression of a university can be positively influenced by
news about a winning sports team.

EXERCISE 8 (Pages 112-113)
1. sights of Quebec; interesting
2. Old Quebec City (Controlling idea: living witness of our history); the Saint
Lawrence River (Controlling idea: majestic); the Montmorency Falls (Controlling
idea: beautiful)
3. The paragraphs are primarily descriptive and expository.

EXERCISE 9 (Pages 114-115)
1. three reasons why people save books
2. security
3. reference materials (convenient); to make a good impression (reveal interests);
the magic of books (secure)
4. Paragraph 1: I know a family whose library has shelves reaching up to their ceiling;
they keep a ladder for climbing up to the high books.
Paragraph 2: A doctors Grays Anatomy; A teachers British Literature anthology;
lawyers case books; a cooks recipes, etc.
Paragraph 3: Some think that a library full of the literary classics, dictionaries, and books
about art, science, and history make them look well read.
They can subtly reveal their interests in Peruvian art, Indian music, philosophy, or
animals without saying a word.
Paragraph 4: Each book, whether it's The Treasury of Houseplants or Murder on the
Orient Express, has transported the reader to another place.
The Standard First Aid and Personal Safety manual, in addition to providing information,
reminds me of the first-aid course I took and how assured I felt as a result. Bulfinch's
Mythology brings the oral history of Western civilization to my fingertips, reminding me
of my link with other times and people.

EXERCISE 10 (Page 116)
1. No
2.Yes, because it concludes logically and it does not introduce any new
topics.


EXERCISE 11 (Pages 116-117)
1. Logical
2. Weakthe conclusion introduces another topic.
3. Weakthe conclusion introduces another topic.
4. Weakthe conclusion introduces another topic.
5. Logical
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EXERCISE 12 (Page 119)
Thesis Statement: Why do people save their books? There may be several reasons, but
three stand out.

I. One reason people save their books is to use them as reference materials.
A. People whose job training included studying a lot of textbook material may
save some of those books for future reference.
1. a doctorGrays Anatomy and pharmacology books
2. an English teacherThe Norton Anthology of British Literature
3. a lawyercase books
B. But it isnt only the professionals who save their books.
1. those who like to cookrecipe books
2. those who like electronic equipment

II. Another reason some people save books is to make a good impression.
A. Some think that a library full of the literary classics, dictionaries, and books
about art, science, and history make them look well read and, therefore, sophisticated.
1. This impression may be inaccurate.
2. Some have never bothered to read the majority of those books.
B. Also, some people like to reveal to visitors their wide range of tastes and
interests.
1. subtly reveal an interest in Peruvian art, Indian music, etc.

III. People who enjoy reading have discovered the magic of books.
A. Each book has transported the reader to another place.
1. The Treasury of Houseplants
2. Murder on the Orient Express
B. Each book really represents an experience from which the reader may have
grown or learned something.
1. The Standard First Aid and Personal Safety manualreminds me of
first-aid course, feeling more assured
2. Bulfinchs Mythologyprovides oral history of Western civilization

Conclusion








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Chapter 7: The Example Essay

How Unwritten Rules Circumscribe Our Lives
by Bob Greene

Comprehension (Page 125)
1. The customs that govern us are what make a civilization; there would be chaos without
them, and yet for some reason we obey them.
2. The thesis is first stated in paragraph 6. It is restated in paragraph 14.
3. waiting at a red light when theres no one around; thousands of sports fans behaving
themselves at a game; paying the check at a restaurant
4. All of the examples are from everyday experience.
5. Answers will vary, but generally they come from a broad range of experiences, so are
relatively effective.

Discussion (Pages 125-126)
1. Unwritten laws represent the collective social conscience. This is stronger than written
law. Answers will vary.
2. Answers will vary. International students are likely to point out that some of the
unwritten laws (stopping at a red light when no one is around, fans behaving at a game)
are not always followed in their countries or not even always followed here.
3. Answers will vary, but they may include things like giving up a seat on public
transportation or always carrying flowers upside down.
4. Answers will vary. Laws that have to do with safety and decency toward others are
likely to get placed into the civilized column, and others are more likely to be identified
as more minor matters.
5. Examples of people not following the rules are most striking whereas examples of
people following the rules are very everyday and dont have as much impact on the
reader.

Americanization Is Tough on Macho
by Rose Del Castillo Guilbault

Comprehension (Page 128)
1. The word macho has a different meaning to Hispanics from the meaning it has when
used by English-speaking people.
2. Macho to Hispanics means manly, responsible, hard-working, a man in charge, a
patriarch. Macho to Americans means a chauvinist, a brute, uncouth, selfish, loud,
abrasive, capable of inflicting pain, and sexually promiscuous.
3. Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and Charles Bronson are given as
examples because the characters they play in their movies exude the characteristics that
form the American definition of macho.
4. The examples given of the Hispanic definition of macho are Jimmy Stewart, Sean
Connery, and Lawrence Olivier. The characters they play in films tend to be reliable,
diligent, and strong, more like the Hispanic meaning of the word.
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5. The darker side of macho places men in a traditionally patriarchal position, limiting
womens ability to question their lot in life and providing excuses for those who do not
live up to the true macho standard. Guilbault cites her uncles as examples.
6. Including the idea of the darker side strengthens her main point by showing where
the definition as Americans understand it has its roots.

Discussion (Page 128)
1. Answers will vary, but most students will be able to think of examples from cultures
they are familiar with which value different behaviors: modesty and submission (for men
and women) in Muslim countries, emphasis on the collective in Asian cultures, respect
for silence in other countries, etc.
2. Answers will vary. Most students will be able to think of these from their native
languages. Some examples are babushkain Russian, this is grandma, but it is a scarf in
English. Guru comes from Sanskrit and is often misused in English to refer to any person
who is good at doing something and not just a spiritual leader.
3. Answers will vary based on students experience. If the class has many Latino
students, it might be helpful to have them write on this topic in their journals before
discussing this in class.
4. Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 1 (Page 129)
1. hard-drinking: negative
Definition: drinks a lot of alcohol
2. hardworking: positive
Definition: works diligently and energetically
3. loud: negative
Definition: producing a lot of noise
4. abrasive: negative
Definition: unkind and rude
5. sullenness: negative
Definition: not speaking because of a bad temper
6. translated: denotation
Definition: said or written again in another language
7. stoically: positive
Definition: without complaining
8. accepting: positive
Definition: agreeing
9. quiet: denotation
Definition: making a small amount of noise
10. nonassertive: negative
Definition: does not state their needs or opinions clearly
11. womanized: negative
Definition: has many short sexual relationships with women


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EXERCISE 2 (Page 130)
1. have
2. make/have
3. peace
4. important
5. clear
6. made/had

EXERCISE 3 (Pages 131-132)
1. Americans are friendly to strangers. Friendliness.
2. He gives two examples and explains them well.
3. There are enough for a short essay, but more would be better.
4. Yes
5. Yes

EXERCISE 4 (Pages 134-135)
1. These items are just superfluous, absurd trifles.
Central idea: superfluous
2. Topic Sentence: Unfortunately, some of these clever items that claim to save time
might actually end up making us waste time.
Controlling Idea: waste time
Topic Sentence: . . . some of the items for the bathroom border on the absurd.
Controlling Idea: absurd
Topic Sentence: Comfort and convenience are carried to extremes in the area of personal
care.
Controlling Idea: extremes
3. Yes
4. Yes; Yes
5. Yes
6. Thesis Statement: These items are just superfluous, absurd trifles.

I. Some of these clever items that claim to save time might actually end up making us
waste time.
A. Devices to save time cutting
1. pie slicer
2. apple slicer and corer
3. corn-on-the-cob cutter
B. Devices that need batteries
1. electric drink mixer

II. Items for the bathroom border on the absurd.
A. For the bathtub
1. inflatable pillow
2. foam rubber pad

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B. For the toilet
1. plush toilet seat
2. toilet paper container that plays music

III. Comfort and convenience are carried to extremes in the area of personal care.
A. To feel better
1. a vibrating bed
2. a wedge-shaped pillow
B. To look better
1. pills to lose weight
2. a cap to protect your hairstyle
3. a band to keep your chin from sagging
4. a water-filled face mask to protect your eyes
Conclusion

EXERCISE 5 (Pages 135-136)
1. Complete
2. Complete
3. Incomplete (Though the example does talk about recycling, it does not clearly show
how this is good for the economy.)
4. Incomplete
5. Not an example
6. Incomplete (Though the example does talk about recycling, it does not clearly show
how this is good for the economy.)
7. Incomplete (Though the example does talk about recycling, it does not clearly show
how this is good for the economy.)
8. Not an example

EXERCISE 6 (Page 137)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 7 (Pages 138-140)
1. It is important to choose words carefully, for words can suggest meanings not intended
at all; words can also be used to deceive.
2. The paragraphs are organized from the least interesting to the most interesting point.
3. The author gives three examples. Yes.
4. Thesis Statement: It is important to choose words carefully, for words can suggest
meanings not intended at all; words can also be used to deceive.

I. Take, for instance, the language of advertising.
A. Advertisers obviously want to emphasize the virtues of their products and
detract from their faults.
1. virtually trouble free


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B. Another misleading expression is up to.
1. up to 25% reduction at a car dealership
2. up to 40% off on athletic shoes

II. A second example of words that camouflage meaning is euphemisms.
A. People use all kinds of euphemisms for death.
1. She passed away.
2. He has gone to meet his maker.
3. She is no longer with us.
B. To make certain jobs sound less unappealing, people use euphemisms.
1. janitor = custodial worker
2. trash man = sanitation engineer
C. Sometimes euphemisms can be used to camouflage potentially controversial or
objectionable actions.
1. politician calls taxes revenue enhancement measures
2. psychologist calls killing animals sacrificing them
3. doctors say terminate a pregnancy instead of abort the fetus

III. A final example of language that conveys unintended impressions is sexist language.
A. When someone refers to a grown woman as a girl, the implication is that she
is still a child.
1. Ill have my girl type that.
B. Other offensive expressions include young thing.
1. Shes a cute young thing.
C. The names of many jobs suggest women should not fill these positions.
1. use chair or chairperson, not chairman
2. use supervisor, not foreman

Conclusion. We must always be careful to choose the words that convey what we really
mean.
A. If we not want to give offense, then we should always be on guard against
sexist (as well as racist) language.
B. If we do not want to be misled by advertisements, we must keep our ears open
for weasel words.
C. When we use a euphemism, we should be aware that we are trying to make an
idea more acceptable.

EXERCISE 8 (Pages 140-141)
1. Contradiction: While some people may keep books for practical reference and for
conveying an impression, I suspect that there is a deeper reason.
2. Geographical relationship: On the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River, five miles
from Quebec, the famous Montmorency Falls are located.
3. Similarity: Comfort and convenience are carried to extremes in the area of personal
care.

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EXERCISE 9 (Pages 141-143)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Another thing I do to improve my English is work the crossword puzzles in the daily
newspaper.
2. Another mythical character that children love is the Easter Bunny.
3. Another of my favorite neighborhoods is Andersonville, just north of Wrigleyville.

EXERCISE 10 (Page 143) - Editing
Can you guess how Ethan Nicholas made (verb form) $35,000 in a day? He did
it by selling (gerund) thousands of downloads of a game he developed for the Apple
iPhone. Ethan Nicholas worked for Sun Microsystems when he started programming his
iShoot game for the iPhone. Within six weeks he was ready to submit (infinitive) the
finished product to Apple for its approval. That approval was quickly received. (noun
clauses) Nicholas priced his game at $4.99 per download, and Apple listed it on its App
Store. (For every game sold, Apple receives (subject-verb agreement) 30 percent of the
selling price.) The game drew some buyers, but Nicholas believed that (noun clause)
even more people would buy it if they could play before they paid. After he submitted a
stripped-down version of the game as a free download, 2 million people downloaded it.
Do you think the customers enjoyed (verb form) the game so much that they were
willing to pay $4.99 for the full-featured version? Yesmore than 10,000 downloaded
the game in a single day, putting $35,000 in Nicholass pocket. The experience
convinced him to quit (infinitive vs. gerund) his day job to become (infinitive vs.
gerund) a full-time app developer.

Chapter 8: The Comparison and Contrast Essay

Conversational Ballgames
By Nancy Masterson Sakamoto

Comprehension (Page 150)
1. When Sakamoto first began participating in Japanese conversations, she startled and
confused the other participants because she was conversing with American English
conversational expectations.
2. She compares a Western-style conversation to a game of tennis. A Western-style
conversation is like a game of tennis in that people are expected to lob the topic back and
forth, generate excitement, and not necessarily take turns.
3. She compares a Japanese-style conversation to bowling. The participants take turns,
start from the same position, and generate an atmosphere of calm expectation.
4. a. In Western-style conversation, turns are not necessary, but they are expected in
Japanese-style conversation.
b. In Western-style conversations, participants pick up the topic from the position in
which it is left by the previous speaker, while in Japanese-style conversations, everyone
starts from the same conversational position.
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c. In Japanese-style conversations, there are pauses between the contributions of the
participants, but Western-style conversations contain multiple interruptions and rapid-fire
commentary.
d. In Western-style conversations, everyone is expected to keep the conversation going
and not speak for long periods. In Japanese-style conversations, everyone waits while the
speaker finishes commenting and pauses to evaluate what has been said.
e. A Western-style conversationalist scores poorly if the conversation lulls or fails to
develop excitement. A Japanese-style conversationalist is scored on the value of the
comments made.
5. The thesis is that differences in conversational styles contribute as much confusion to
cross-linguistic communication as do differences in language. The thesis isnt overtly
stated, but it is implied in paragraph 3.

Discussion (Page 151)
1. Answers will vary, but in addition to different cultural rules, where people have
different tolerance for pauses and interruptions, students might want to consider
conversations with people from different age groups or social backgrounds.
2. Answers will vary, but they will be somewhat predictable based on students
backgrounds.
3. Answers will vary.

Home Ground, Schoolyard: a Double Life
by Daria Muse

Comprehension (Page 152)
1. The topic of the essay is her own behavior. She contrasts the way she behaved at
school and on the bus with the way she behaved in her own neighborhood when she was
at home. The essay focuses primarily on contrasts.
2. The teachers explained from the very first day that if Darias school behavior did not
conform to their expectations, she could lose the privilege of attending this school.
Neighborhood girls confronted her and accused her of looking white, leaving her alone
only when she showed that she knew how to be tough.
3. Answers will vary. Possible response:

School behavior Neighborhood behavior
Dress School girl dresses Jeans and T-shirts, black
jacket to cover the dresses
Way of talking Polite requests and standard
English compliments
More forceful demands and
clever, but rougher, using
slang
Body language More submissive Harder face



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Discussion (Page 153)
1. Answers will vary, but it is clear that Daria feared that school behavior would have
made her a target for victimization in her tough neighborhood. Had she used
neighborhood behavior consistently at school, various kinds of punishment would have
undoubtedly followed.
2. Answers will vary. Students should consider the different roles they play in life, such
as employee, student, leader, parent, child, grandchild, and how they may act different
and choose different behavior, language, and dress in these roles. If they have trouble
answering, ask how they dress, speak, and carry themselves when visiting their
grandparents as opposed to at work or school. Ask if there are words that they use in
some situations but would never use in others.
3. Answers will vary. Students may discover that the flexibility to be successful and
wear different masks in different situations is a sign of intelligence and breadth of
experience.


EXERCISE 1 (Page 153)
Synonyms Antonyms
display 1. reveal
2. make apparent
1. obscure -
2. conceal -
emerge 1.materialize
2. appear
1. become invisible
2. disappear
objectively 1. impersonally
2. dispassionately
1. with bias -
2. emotionally -
adapt 1. evolve +
2. adjust +
1. remain constant +
2. resist change -
previous 1. prior
2. preceding
1. successive
2. subsequent


EXERCISE 2 (Page 154)
1. rise
2. immediate
3. accept/rise to
4. negative
5. enthusiastic
6. positive
7. biggest
8. presented
9. correct
10. new



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EXERCISE 3 (Page 156)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. d. You can still turn to the instructor for help if you are lost or confused.
2. c. I can read or do work during my commute.
d. Public transportation costs less than insurance, registration, gasoline, and parking.
3. b. The number of assignments and opportunities to improve a poor grade
c. The degree of independence that students must show in remembering to complete
assignments
d. The amount of writing that is required

EXERCISE 4 (Page 158)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 5 (Pages 159-161)
1. The thesis is their considerable differences in looks, personality, and attitude toward
life reflect the differences between Eastern and Western cultures. The points of
comparison are looks, personality, and attitude toward life.
2. It focuses on contrast.
3. It follows Pattern A. Answers will vary. Possible answers include that the writer felt
that Pattern A emphasizes the contrast for the reader or that it treats the brothers more
equally rather than making one first and one second.
4. The topic sentences: In contrast to Nhan, Hung, who is his younger brother by ten
years, looks more like an American boxer.
Nhan and Hung also differ in personality. Concerning their attitudes toward life, they are
as different as the moon and the sun.
5. The conclusion is logical.
6. Thesis Statement: Even though they have the same parents, their considerable
differences in looks, personality, and attitude toward life reflect the differences between
Eastern and Western culture.

I. They differ greatly in appearance.
A. Nhan is short, small, and has a moon-shaped face. His manner of dress is
traditional.
B. Hung is muscular and large. He prefers to wear sports clothes and casual
clothes.

II. They differ in personality.
A. Nhan is patient and quiet.
B. Hung is self-centered and independent.

III. They differ in their attitudes toward life.
A. Nhan is concerned with spiritual values.
B. Hung puts his trust in science and technology.

Conclusion
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EXERCISE 6 (Page 161)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 7 (Pages 161-163)
1. However, what I saw and what I remembered were not the same. I sadly realized that
the best memories are those left undisturbed. It is stated at the end of the introduction.
2. Pattern B. This pattern creates a more coherent picture of the past and the more recent
past, twenty years later. Yes.
3. It was bright and alive.
4. It was rundown and in disrepair.
5. The branch was a romantic place for exploration.
6. No longer romantic, the branch was now polluted.
7. This paragraph functions as a transition between the past and the present.
8. Thesis Statement: However, what I saw and what I remembered were not the same. I
sadly realized that the best memories are those left undisturbed.

I. As I remember my old apartment building, it was bright and alive.
A. It was a medieval castle, a pirates den, space station.
B. I would steal away with my friends and play in the basement.
C. Our favorite place to play was the coal bin; we used it as a rocket ship.

II. The branch near our apartment was a place for adventure.
A. We enjoyed the honeysuckles there.
B. Our biggest thrill was the day the police caught an alligator there.

III. Unlike before, the apartment building was now rundown and in disrepair.
A. The court was dirty and broken up, and the windows were broken.
B. The once-clean walls were covered with graffiti and other stains.
C. Instead of medieval knights, etc., there were tough-looking adolescents.

IV. The area where I used to play was hardly recognizable.
A. The branch was polluted and the honeysuckles had died.
B. The branch was filled with old bicycles, broken bottles, and garbage.
C. Now one would expect to find rats instead of alligators.
D. The once sweet-smelling area now smelled horrible.

Conclusion

This essay could also be outlined more briefly this way:
Thesis Statement: However, what I saw and what I remembered were not the same.
I sadly realized that the best memories are those left undisturbed.

I. My old neighborhood in the past was a romantic place.
A. My old apartment building was bright and alive.
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B. The area outside the building was a place of adventure.

II. My old neighborhood twenty years later was decayed.
A. My apartment building was now rundown and in disrepair.
B. The area outside the building was rundown and polluted.

Conclusion

EXERCISE 8 (Page 163)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 9 (Page 165)
1. New Orleans does not have a harsh winter. On the contrary, it is quite mild.
2. New Orleans does not have a harsh winter. On the other hand, its summers are terrible.
3. New Orleans does not have a large population. On the other hand, it is not a village.
4. Many people think that New Orleans is a large city. On the contrary, it has quite a
small population.
5. New Orleans was not originally settled by the Spanish. On the contrary, its first
European settlers were French.
6. New Orleans is a big seaport. On the other hand, its manufacturing industry is quite
small.

EXERCISE 10 (Pages 165167)
1. Like Borges, Mishima is considered one of the greatest modern writers.
Borges is a great modern writer. Mishima is also considered a great modern writer.
Borges is a great modern writer. Similarly, Mishima is considered to be a great modern
writer.
2. Unlike Borges, Mishima was educated in his native country of Japan.
Borges was educated in Europe, but Mishima was educated in Japan.
3. In his early days, Borges worked as a librarian, in contrast to Mishima who worked for
the Finance Ministry.
Borges served as a librarian, whereas Mishima worked for the Finance Ministry.
4. Similar to Borges, Mishima was a prolific writer, authoring short stories, poems, plays,
essays, and novels.
Borges wrote many novels and short stories; likewise, Mishima was a prolific writer.
5. In the same way that Borges was at odds with the policies of the Pern government in
Argentina in the 1940s and 1950s, Mishima was critical of the Japanese military policies.
Mishima was critical of the Japanese military policies. Similarly, Borges was at odds with
the policies of the Pern government in Argentina in the 1940s and 1950s.
6. Mishima performed as an actor; however, Borges did not.
Mishima performed as an actor. In contrast, Borges became a professor of literature.
7. Like Borgess works, many of Mishimas works have been translated into English and
other languages.
In comparison to the works of Borges, many of Mishimas works have been translated
into English and other languages.
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EXERCISE 11 (Pages 167-168)
Answers will vary. Possible replacements for the italicized sentences in the passage
follow.
2. Whereas/While/Although the left hemisphere may be dominant in these types of
reasoning, the right hemisphere also reasons.
Just as/In the same way that the left hemisphere is dominant in recognizing abstract
differences, the right hemisphere tends to recognize sameness.
3. The right brain can interpret tone of voice and facial expressions; however, whenever
we use language, both sides of the brain process information.
4. However, that is not so.
It is true that the right brain recognizes chords and melodies and seems to mediate pure
and slow tones, but the left hemisphere is also involved in music.

EXERCISE 12 (Pages 168-169)
Answers will vary. Suggested answers follow.

Students should be encouraged to write an introduction and conclusion for each essay.
The examples below are possible body paragraphs that represent each pattern of
organization.

Here are example body paragraphs using Pattern A (Point-by-Point):
The Roman Empire ruled the Mediterranean world from about 500 B.C. to about
500 A.D. The Chinese Empire ruled much of Asia from 221 B.C. to 1911 A.D. There are
some interesting parallels between these two empires even though they ended differently.
The first parallel is the time at which both empires began and the way in which
they spread. Interestingly, both empires began at about the same time in history. The
Roman Empire began in 500 B.C., and the Chinese Empire began a bit later, in 221 B.C.
Both empires also began around a small geographical base and then spread out farther
and farther to include more territory. For example, the Roman Empire started with Rome
as its geographic base and spread to include North Africa, the Middle East, and Northern
Europe. Similarly, the Chinese Empire started around the Yellow River and then spread
northward to Peking, west to the Central Plain, and south to Canton.
Second, both empires developed higher levels of civilization than the areas
surrounding them. The Roman Empire, for example, developed a complex governmental
structure and bureaucracy, while the people surrounding it were barbarians and nomads.
In the same way, the Chinese Empire became a center for art and philosophy while in the
midst of barbarians called Huns and Mongols.
Perhaps the most interesting parallel is the ways that both empires dealt with
intruders. Because the barbarians surrounding the Roman and Chinese Empires
constantly threatened them, the leaders of both empires devised three ways of handling
them. First, they conquered territory whose outer boundaries were natural barriers. For
example, the Roman leaders conquered the land in Europe up to the Rhine and Danube
Rivers and then used these rivers as barriers against invasion. Likewise, the Chinese
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leaders conquered territory in order to use the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers as the outer
boundaries of their empire.
Second, the leaders of both empires built fortifications to keep out invaders. In the
Roman Empire, huge walls were built between the Rhine and Danube and between
Scotland and England. Similarly, the Chinese erected the Great Wall to keep invaders
out.
The third method of dealing with invaders was to colonize countries on the
borders of the empires and use them as buffer states. Many times these countries were
midway between barbarism and civilization. As colonies and buffer states, these
countries became more and more civilized and thus more likely to protect the empires.
Both the Roman and Chinese Empires used these buffer states to help protect their outer
boundaries.

Here are example body paragraphs using Pattern B (All of One/ All of the Other):

There are some interesting parallels between the Roman and Chinese empires
even though these empires ended differently. The Roman Empire ruled the Mediterranean
world from about 500 B.C. to about 500 A.D. From a geographic base around Rome, it
spread out to include North Africa, the Middle East, and northern Europe. It developed a
higher level of civilization than the areas surrounding it. It had a complex governmental
structure and bureaucracy, while the people surrounding it were barbarians and nomads.
These barbarians were a constant threat to the Roman Empire. Therefore, the
leaders of the empire devised three ways to protect it. First, they conquered territory
whose outer boundaries were natural barriers. Examples of these are the Rhine and
Danube Rivers. They also built fortifications to keep out invaders. They built some, for
example, between the Rhine and the Danube and between Scotland and England. Third,
they used precautionary buffer states, like colonies, which were midway between
barbarism and civilization. These all helped to protect the base of the Empire, Rome
itself. However, toward the end of the Empires rule, some of the buffer states revolted.
The final collapse occurred when the German and Slavic barbarians broke through the
fortifications. In a short two hundred years, the Roman Empire fell to the power of the
Germans.
The Chinese Empire shares many similar characteristics with the rise of the
Roman Empire. The Chinese Empire began around 221 B.C., a short time after the
Roman Empire. Just as the Roman Empire started from a small geographic base and
spread out, so did the Chinese Empire. Starting from a geographic base around the
Yellow River, it spread northward to Peking, west to the Central Plain, and south to
Canton.
Another similarity between the Chinese Empire and the Roman Empire was the
high level of civilization both obtained. Just as Rome had a complex governmental
structure and bureaucracy, the Chinese Empire became a center for art and philosophy in
Asia. Furthermore, the Chinese Empire was surrounded by less civilized people and
barbarians in the same way the Roman Empire was.
Perhaps the most interesting parallel is the fact that the Chinese Empire dealt with
invading barbarians in the same three ways as the Romans did. First, like the Romans, the
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Chinese conquered territory whose outer boundaries would serve as natural barriers. For
example, just as the Romans used the Rhine and Danube Rivers for this purpose, the
Chinese used the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers to serve as natural boundaries. Second, the
Chinese built imposing fortifications, for example, the Great Wall, to keep out invaders
just as the Romans built walls between England and Scotland to protect their territory.
Third, the Chinese colonized buffer states, states midway between barbarism and
civilization, to protect their outer boundaries. As colonies, these countries learned much
from China, becoming civilized in the process. This technique parallels the actions of the
Romans as well.

EXERCISE 13 (Page 170) - Editing
The differences between a classical music performance and a rock concert are
immediately apparent, even to a first time attendee. The expected dress at each kind of
concert, for example, couldnt be more different. (comparison) The attire at a classical
music concert is as formal as (comparison) the clothing at a rock concert is informal.
The behavior of the attendees is (subject-verb agreement) also not very similar. At the
classical performance, the audience sits quietly and expectantly. They do not dance or
talk (verb form) and may even close their eyes so they can be better (comparisons)
listeners. At a rock concert, the crowd dances and sways. Shouting, pushing, and
jumping are (subject-verb agreement) common as well. At a classical music concert, it
would be very surprising indeed if an audience member began (irregular verb form) to
sing along with the performers. On the contrary, rock musicians sometimes point
(subject verb agreement) the microphone toward the crowd to encourage them to sing
along with favorite lyrics. However, classical concerts were not always so dignified. In
the 18
th
century, the audience clapped, yelled, and sometimes even threw (irregular verb
form) food. Even though the manners at these concerts are (subject-verb agreement) not
very similar, neither audience is less passionate (comparison) about the music, and their
appreciation for the talent and effort of the musicians is similar. (comparison) They
simply show (subject-verb agreement) it in completely different ways.

Chapter 9: The Classification Essay

The Marketing Mix
by William Pride and O.C. Ferrell

Comprehension (Page 177)
1. The marketing mix consists of the four activities that marketers engage in. The four
variables are product, pricing, distribution, and promotion.
2. The result of successful marketing is a product that meets customers needs.
3. A good, a service, or an idea can be a product.
4. A high price can give a product a reputation of luxury and status if the product is worth
the premium price.
5. Because of the Internet, marketers can more easily reach customers all over the world.
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6. Three purposes for promoting a product include increasing awareness of a product or
company, educating people about a product or issue, or maintaining customers interest in
well-known products.

Discussion (Page 177)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Services include www.etsy.com, which provides a marketplace for handmade
products, or www.rememberthemilk.com, which sends you reminders about things you
would otherwise forget. Ideas include a librarys summer reading program for children
or a towns recycling program.
2. Some may report that they are skeptical of low prices as indicators of low quality;
others may report that they sometimes buy something they do not need because it was
cheap.
3. The Subway restaurants are indirectly given as an example of convenience and
reaching as may customers as possible.
4. Recent uses of viral marketing are usually good options for discussion.
5. It may depend on what is being marketed. It is usually important that the product be
properly developed for the market, but for a name brand with a long history, promotion
may be most important.

Motivation
by Charles Lamb, Jr., Joseph Hair, Jr., and Carl McDaniel

Comprehension (Page 180)
1. People buy products to fulfill a need.
2. A motive is the feeling that creates a specific need. Hunger (motive) creates the need
for food.
3. Physiological: things the body needs for survival (food, water)
Safety: things we need to keep us comfortable and out of danger (protection)
Social: the need to belong to a group (acceptance, love)
Esteem: the need to be respected by others for what we do (prestige, recognition)
Self-actualization: the need to feel we are living up to our potential (self development)
4. The most commonly experienced needs are physiological, but social needs are the
most commonly targeted. Answers may vary, but one possibility is that in societies
developed enough to have advertising, physiological and safety needs are somewhat
easily met.

Discussion (Page 180)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Some psychologists have identified the need for beauty (aesthetic needs), the need for
knowledge and learning (cognitive needs), as well as the need to help others.
2. The authors attitude is neutral. They do not express positive or negative judgments
about advertising. This makes sense for a textbook, especially one on marketing.
Examples of advertising that fits with each kind of need are given without being critical
of their effects or praising their success.
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3. Marketers and advertisers study consumer motivation in order to understand why
people buy products. Thus they can design marketing plans and advertisements to appeal
to these motivations.
4. The pyramid shows that those needs lower on the pyramid are more commonly
experienced and met than those higher on the pyramid.

EXERCISE 1 (Page 181)
1. Intangible
2. Dissatisfaction
3. Unrelated
4. Unacceptable
5. Insignificant
6. Unavailable
7. Inconvenient
8. Nontraditional
9. Uninformed
10. Disinterested,
11. Uncontrollable
12. Infrequently
13. Inexpensive
14. Insufficiently
15. Unimportant
16. Illegal
17. Nonessential
18. Nonexclusive
19. Ineffective.

Bonus: The first is dissatisfied (meaning that you are unhappy with the situation, such as
dissatisfied with the customer service in the store). The second is unsatisfied which, in
addition to meaning unhappy, can also mean that you have a need that is not yet met. (He
forgot his water bottle, so his thirst remained unsatisfied.)

EXERCISE 2 (Page 182)
1. help
2. financing
3. history
4. difficult
5. unable
6. letter
7. insurance
8. provide
9. deserve



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EXERCISE 3 (Page 184)
1. economy
2. detectives
3. by train
4. dangerous
5. illegal
6. swimming
7. fruit
8. animated movies
9. well-prepared
10. white clouds

EXERCISE 4 (Pages 184-185)
1. the way they dress
2. the degrees they hold
3. their biological classes
4. degree of severity
5. how they kill their prey
6. their preferred reading medium
7. how carefully they drive
8. how frequently they listen to music

EXERCISE 5 (Page 185)
Answers will vary, but some categories for programs and channels might be similar.
Possible Responses:
1. national channels, local channels, cable/satellite only channels
2. channels that appeal to a broad audience, channels that appeal to a specific age group,
channels that appeal to a specific gender, channels that appeal to a specific economic
class, channels that appeal to people from a specific culture, etc.
3. entertainment (movies, sitcoms), informational (news, business, talk), competitive
shows (sports, game shows), how-to shows (cooking, gardening, home improvement)

EXERCISE 6 (Page 186)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 7 (Pages 187-189)
1. The thesis is Shoppers can be divided into four categories based on their attitudes
toward shopping.
2. The principle of classification is peoples attitudes toward shopping.
3. True Shoppers love to shop and enjoy the whole process and get a feeling of a
satisfaction when they buy something.
4. The Buyer considers the purchase carefully and probably does a lot of research.
5. Price and getting a good deal are the main motivations for the Bargain Hunter.
6. The other three groups either like shopping or dont mind it. The Anti-Shopper hates it
and avoids it.
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7. Answers will vary. Students will probably be able to think of other kinds of shoppers
but should be asked to make sure that they are naming a different attitude toward
shopping and not introducing a new principle of classification.

EXERCISE 8 Writing (Page 189)
Answers will vary.


EXERCISE 9 (Page 191)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 10 (Pages 192-193)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
Hotels are found in every country and city of the world and even in communities
with few inhabitants. Thats why the hotel industry ranks high among the largest
worldwide industries. Today, the lodging industry offers many new alternatives for the
traveling public. Some properties offer luxury accommodations; others offer budget
accommodations; still others accommodate the need of travelers to be away from home.
Whatever the reason, there are many different kinds of hotels, and they can be classified
according to their size, facility type, price, or service. Generally, we can classify these
hotels into three large groups based on location.
First, airport hotels accommodate the air traveler. Because air travel has become
more common, this kind of hotel has become more popular. The principal distinction is
that it is located near airports. Therefore, it is very convenient to the traveler. Airport
hotel guests include passengers with short stay-overs or cancelled flights and travelers
who are on business. The length of stay is between one to three days for the guests. These
kinds of hotels provide a limited level of service, and the rates are usually between low
and medium. The Hilton, the Marriott, and the Holiday Inn are large chains that have
hotels near airports. Best Western and the Travelodge are among the smaller hotel chains.
Next, downtown hotels, also called commercial hotels, are located near large
office complexes and retail stores in the major metropolitan areas. Because their primary
markets are in the business industry, the downtown hotels are near business destinations
for daytime activities and are close to the citys entertainment centers for nighttime
activities. This combination is attractive to people attending meetings and conventions.
Although the primary market for these hotels is the business traveler, many tourists use
them as well. The length of stay for the guests is between three and five days and rates
can run between medium and high, depending on the hotel. Moreover, the downtown
hotels have a variety of services such as room service, a coffee shop, a formal dining
room, laundry services, a gift shop, and a swimming pool. The downtown Hyatt-Regency
is a well-known hotel in this category.
Finally, there are also the resort hotels located near beaches, mountains, or spas.
Since resort hotels are destinations or parts of a destination complex, their primary clients
are vacationers and recreation-minded people. Guests in these resorts can visit anywhere
for one week up to an entire season. Therefore, the resort hotel must provide guest
entertainment. Because the resort guests expect to be entertained right on the premises,
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they are willing to pay higher rates. Moreover, the level of service is much higher than
what an airport or downtown hotel offers. These complexes are designed with the family
and children in mind. The most famous of these is the Walt Disney World Resort, which
includes not only the theme parks but also all varieties of water sports, campgrounds, and
golf courses.
In conclusion, there may be a few other general areas where hotels are located,
such as along interstate highways, but most of them are located near airports, in the
downtown areas, and in resort areas.

EXERCISE 11 (Page 193) - Editing
How does something new go from being brand new and unheard of to being a household
item? (punctuation) Think about how people came to adopt things like cars, computers,
bell-bottom jeans, or even the idea that the world is round. It is hard to believe now,
(punctuation) but there was a time when neither iPods nor (correlative conjunction) GPS
devices existed! In 1962, Everett Rogers explained how new things become accepted
things in his book Diffusion of Innovations. Rogers explained that there are five types of
consumers. The first group is the innovators, anxious to try new things. These are
people who (adjective clause incorrectly reduced to a participial phrase) always want
the best technology and the most fashionable products. After the innovators come the
early adopters, who are usually popular, (punctuation) educated, and leaders in their
communities. When the product becomes mainstream, (punctuation) the early majority
start to buy in. At this point in the process, more than half of the target market has
adopted the product, style, or idea. The skeptical late majority only start to buy in when
the new product or idea is not only widely accepted but also costs less. (correlative
conjunctions) The final group is the laggards, who (adjective clause incorrectly reduced
to a participial phrase) adopt new things only when they are no longer new. For people
who want to market a new product or spread a new idea, both the innovators and
(correlative conjunctions) early adopters are a very important target audience.

Chapter 10: The Process Analysis Essay

Ways to Change a Habit
by Dave Ellis

Comprehension (Page 200)
1. The author believes that habits are more easily changed than our nature, so if we
identify which habits are causing us trouble, it will seem more possible to make the
changes.
2. These stages are: contemplation, determination, taking action, and maintenance of the
new behavior. The authors stages match up pretty well, but Ellis breaks them down into
more than four steps.
3. We have to tell the truth about the problem in order to know what behavior needs
changed. We are also more willing to ask for help once we have identified the problem.
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4. Specify exactly what you want to achieve, observe yourself and keep track of the
action you take, and make sure that there is a small consequence if you dont make the
change.
5. It is easy to slip after the first few days, but if others are supporting you, they will help
to remind you.
6. Dont blame yourself. Pick a new behavior and start the process again.

Discussion (Page 200)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. The authors purpose is to motivate the reader to improve their lives by changing
habits.
2. Some students may feel very proud and comfortable talking about success dealing with
very serious problems, and others may not. Students may want to address this question in
a journal entry before it is discussed in class.
3. Some are procrastination, cheating, being a poor listener, being easily distracted, etc.
4. A rehearsal for trying to drink less coffee could involve by-passing the coffee aisle in
the store, entering a coffee shop and ordering a fruit drink instead of coffee, or filling a
water bottle in the morning instead of a thermos.

The Environmental Transformation of Chattanooga, Tennessee
G. Tyler Miller and Scott E. Spoolman

Comprehension (Pages 202-203)
1. air pollution, water pollution, urban decay
2. The community meetings of Vision 2000 in 1984 were the first step.
3. They achieved their goals ahead of schedule. They were aiming for 2000 but met most
goals five years earlier.
4. Air pollution has decreased. An incinerator project was replaced with a recycling
program. Low-income housing has been renovated, and downtown is a destination with
an aquarium and a riverfront park.
5. They suggest that Chattanooga was successful because its people worked together to
achieve their goals.
6. The first piece of good news is that only five to ten percent of a population needs to
work for change to make it happen. The second piece of good news is that change can
happen more quickly than we expect.
7. 1960sChattanooga has the dirtiest air in the U.S.
1984Start of Vision 2000 goal setting and brainstorming process begins
1989The seven major air pollutants in Chattanooga were below federal standards
1993Start of ReVision 2000
1995Most of Vision 2000s goals are met: zero-emission busses, recycling program
underway, downtown renewal realized



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Discussion (Page 203)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. The authors primary purpose is to inform the reader about the process of change in
Chattanooga, TN. However, the conclusion also suggests a purpose of inspiring the
reader to participate in change in their own communities.
2. Various kinds of pollution, endangered species, or specific problems such as the oil
spill in the Gulf of Mexico, etc.
3. The inclusion of the Margaret Mead quote was likely to inspire the reader to action.

EXERCISE 1 (Page 204)
1. C
2. B
3. A
4. C
5. A
6. B
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. B
11. C
12. A

EXERCISE 2 (Page 205)
1. suffer the
2. research
3. start (launch is also acceptable, but less commonly used for small projects)
4. involved
5. of
6. unfortunate
7. new
8. complete
9. disastrous

EXERCISE 3 (Pages 208-209)
Answers will vary. Possible answers include:

1. Plan to fly on a Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday, when airfares tend to be lower.
Use a travel Web site to look at the airfares from many airlines at once.
Consider using a discount, no-frills airline.
Book hotel and airfare together to qualify for package deals.
Dont travel around the holiday season unless you have to. Consider traveling on
Thanksgiving Day or Christmas Day to save money in these seasons.

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2. The new root begins to absorb water and nutrients to fuel the rest of the growth and
beings to anchor the plant in the ground.
Next, the stem starts to grow, and more leaves are added.
The leaves start to photosynthesize sunlight, producing energy for more growth.
Eventually, the plant produces one or more buds.
The seeds are carried to a new location by animals, water, the wind, or other methods,
and the cycle begins again.

3. Add salt, black pepper, hot peppers, cheese, or any other flavorings that you like.
Adding a little milk can help make eggs moister. If you like dryer eggs, leave out the
milk.
Add some cooking oil or butter to the pan in which you will cook the eggs and heat it.
Dont let it get too hot. If a drop of water dances in the hot oil, it is hot enough.
Turn down the heat to medium high.
Pour the eggs in the pan.
Serve!


EXERCISE 4 (Page 209)
Terms that are defined include:
fare finder tools (defined by example)
seed coat
cotyledon (the plants first leaves)
wire whisk

Additional terms that could be defined might include:
fare sales
spatula


EXERCISE 5 (Page 209)
Readers are warned to:
1.
Make sure to purchase your tickets at least two weeks in advance, as fares almost
always go up if you buy tickets fewer than fourteen days before you plan to fly.

Consider whether driving to a more distant airport for a cheaper fare is worth it. It can
save you lots of money, but make sure you consider the cost of gas and a hotel room
when calculating your travel costs.

2.
No warnings in How a Seed Grows into a Plant



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3.
Start with the freshest eggs you can get.
Be careful that no pieces of eggshell fall into the bowl.

Answers regarding other warnings will vary but might include: making sure the eggs
dont burn , making sure that the soil around the new seed stays moist until the plant is
established.

EXERCISE 6 (Page 210)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 7 (Page 211)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
Thesis Statement: Getting a drivers license in a foreign country can be a frightening
experience, but following these steps will make the process easier.

Preparatory steps:
First, obtain a pamphlet.
Study the pamphlet carefully.
Find your birth certificate or passport.
Get $100 in cash.
Be sure your car is in working order.
Make an appointment for your test.
Arrange to have a friend drive you.
Steps before taking the test:
Taking the test: Go to the Motor Vehicle Department.
Fill out the information card.
Get in the line marked Drivers License.
Test steps (these could be broken down further):
Take the vision test.
If you pass that, take the written test.
If you pass that, take the driving test.
If you pass that, pay $100.

EXERCISE 8 (Page 211)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 9 (Pages 211-212)
1. The thesis is The study of math needs lots of concentration and practice, but it isnt
really hard . . .
2. He divides up the steps into a logical progression: concentrate, read, work problems
that he can do, go back to the problems he cant do.
3. The controlling idea is the first thing.
4. No, but the topics are implied in each case.
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5. Yes, the steps are clearly explained.
6. Students who have trouble with math compose the audience.
7. This is a directional essay.
8. In the third paragraph, the writer suggests that the student not do all the problems at
once, although he acknowledges that this is the typical pattern. It isnt a complete
warning, but it does suggest that students do something differently than what their
instincts may tell them.
9. There are no definitions, and it is likely that none are required for most readers. The
truly math phobic may be comforted by a definition for magnitude or formula.

10. Thesis Statement: The study of math needs lots of concentration and practice.

I. Concentration is the first thing that a student should acquire.
A. It is needed to study math.
B. A student should be completely rested to help concentration.

II. It is necessary to read all sections completely.
A. Analyze each section.
B. Write down all the formulas and memorize them.
C. Take a break in order to be relaxed.
D. Work the problems in the section that he can.
E. Go to the next section.

III. Look again at the tough problems.
A. Dont spend much time on these problems.
B. Take these problems to the professor for help if you dont get them.

IV. Do all of the problems in the review sections.
A. Work with a friend.

Conclusion: If a student follows some of my guidelines, Im sure that he or she will do
well and will like the material.


EXERCISE 10 (Page 212)
Answers will vary.


EXERCISE 11 (Pages 212-214)
1. The process of cognitive development in children is informational.
2. The central idea is that childrens cognitive development emerges as they grow.
3. The topic of paragraph 2 is the sensorimotor period.
4. Object permanence means that the child understands that because an object is not
visible does not necessarily mean that the object is gone.
5. Much progress is made during the concrete operational period.
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6. The purpose is to inform the reader.
7. Yes, it does.
8. Most of the verbs are in present tense, active voice.
9. Thesis Statement: Just as all children grow and mature physically in the same basic
sequence, they also develop cognitively in a process that is the same for all children,
regardless of cultural upbringing.

I. The first stage is the sensorimotor period, from birth to age two.
A. The child develops a sense of objects through physical interaction.
1. For example, newborns learn about objects through their reflexes.
B. By the end of this stage, the infant recognizes that an object continues to exist
even when she cannot see it or touch it.
1. For instance, a person who walks behind a screen is still there even
though the infant cannot see her.

II. The second stage is the preoperational period, from two to seven years.
A. During this stage, the child perceives and interprets the world in terms of self.
1. He cannot understand that another person sees things differently.
a. Example: Three-year-old niece nodded her head to indicate
yes because she assumed listener could see her.
B. Toward the end of this period, the child is developing representational
thoughtthinking about objects in a new way.
1. For instance, the child begins to understand that water poured from the
bowl into the tall jar is the same water, that an object can change its shape
and still be the same basic object.

III. The third stage is the concrete operational period, from seven to eleven years.
A. The child develops the ability to make mental transformations with regard to
concrete objects.
1. If you pour the water back from the tall jar to the bowl, the child can
understand that this is the same amount of water.

IV. The next stage is the formal operational period, from eleven to fifteen years.
A. The child develops more sophisticated reasoning abilities.
1. The child can see logical relationships between objects.
B. During this stage of development a child can learn not only rules but also
strategies.
1. For example, during this stage a child can learn to play chess.

Conclusion: Children are not miniature adults who reason as adults do; they understand
and interpret their environment in terms of their cognitive development.

EXERCISE 12 (Page 216)
Answers will vary.

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EXERCISE 13 (Page 217) - Editing
The water cycle, which meteorologists call the hydrologic cycle, is the process
through which water changes from being a liquid, into water vapor, and back to a liquid
again. It is one of the most important processes (plural) in nature, as it is responsible for
changing salty ocean water into the rain that brings fresh water to life all around our
planet. Salt water oceans cover seventy percent of the surface of the earth, (punctuation)
and most of the water cycle takes place over the oceans. In the simplest form of this
cycle, energy (plural) from the sun heats the water and causes it to change into water
vapor, which rises. After (adverbial clause reduced to participial phrase) rising to the
sky, the vapor cools, forms clouds, and turns back into liquid water. When the liquid
water gets heavy enough, it falls to the earth as precipitation (plural), either as rain, or if
the liquid freezes, it can become hail, snow, or sleet. If the precipitation falls back into
the ocean, as 85 percent of the earths water vapor does, the cycle starts (conditional)
again. However, if the precipitation falls onto the land, the process is (conditional) more
complex. Some (capitalization) of the water may drip deep into the ground where it
becomes ground water or is absorbed into the roots of plants. Drawing the water up into
their leaves, the plants give off moisture (plural) which evaporates into the air. The rest
of the water that falls as precipitation collects in puddles, ponds, lakes, and rivers,
eventually running back to the ocean or evaporating into the atmosphere so that
(adverbial clause of purpose) it can continue its journey through the cycle again.

Chapter 11: The Cause-and-Effect Essay

Surfing's Up and Grades Are Down
by Rene Sanchez

Comprehension (Page 224)
1. Colleges have responded in several ways. Some are limiting or monitoring the time
students spend on computers. Others are educating students about the problem through
workshops and orientation programs.
2. For some students it is difficult to make social connections on campus. Forming
relationships on the Internet helps these students feel less isolated.
3. Some college officials believe that students use the Internet to relieve stress and escape
academic pressures.
4. Some students report that they have dropped or failed classes because of too much
computer use; some earn lower grades than they might otherwise have gotten. Some
schools have found that students who use computers excessively are more likely to drop
out of school after the first semester.
5. The thesis statement is stated. It is A growing number of students are letting
computers overwhelm their lives.




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Discussion (Page 224)
1. The authors purpose is to analyze the effects of computers on students lives.
2. The author probably expects readers to react by becoming more aware of the problem
and to think about whether or not they believe excessive computer use is a problem for
students. She includes opinions on both sides of the issue so that readers may decide for
themselves. Maybe she expects readers to be more sensitive to whether or not a student
they know (or the readers themselves) have a problem with Internet addiction.
3. Bouher means that college students like to waste time and that using computers to
waste time is not a problem. He thinks that if students didnt have computers, they would
find some other way to waste time.
4. Answers will vary. Obvious answers may include sports, watching TV, spending time
with friends, etc.

The Growth of Early Childhood Education
by Eva L. Essa

Comprehension (Page 227)
1. Economic need and both parents wish for professional development are the main
reasons that both parents work.
2. The main cause of single-parent families is divorce; teenage parents and parents who
do not marry are other causes.
3. When families move, they often live far away from grandparents and other relatives
who might have cared for young children if they lived closer.
4. The other reason is that research shows that early childhood education can give
children an educational advantage later in life.
5. She claims that the cost of early childhood education is offset by reductions in other
costs to society, such as welfare, special education, and policing costs.
6. The stated thesis is Fundamental changes in the economy, family life, public
awareness, and public support have had a profound effect on early childhood education.

Discussion (Page 228)
1. Answers will vary. Students may respond more willingly if they have had a chance to
write about this topic in a journal before discussing it in class.
2. Answers will vary.
3. The authors purpose is to inform the reader about the causes for the increased
attention paid to early childhood education. To some degree, the author is trying to
persuade the reader that this attention is warranted.
4. The author maintains a mostly neutral tone but displays a bit of a positive bias toward
early childhood education, which she bases on the research described in paragraphs two
and seven. If the author had a bias against early childhood education, research showing
the importance of parent-child bonding might have been cited.




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EXERCISE 1 (Pages 228-229)
1. e
2. b
3. a
4. f
5. d
6. c
7. j
8. h
9. i
10. g

EXERCISE 2 (Pages 229-230)
1. risk
2. key / crucial
3. contributing / deciding
4. direct
5. established / found
6. crucial / key
7. deciding
8. find
9. possible
10. click

EXERCISE 3 (Page 232)
1. Topic sentence: A lack of exercise is one of the major factors contributing to obesity.
Controlling idea: one of the major factors contributing to obesity.
2. The writer uses specific details (facts) and examples.


EXERCISE 4 (Pages 232-233)
1. not successfula series of loosely related details about the importance of English are
given, but they lack coherence. The paragraph also veers toward a second topic, which is
the usefulness of English in careers, and the writer does not make it clear whether this is a
second topic or is meant to be continued support for the (hyperbolic) assertion that
English is the most important language in the world.
2. successful
3. not successfulthe information is vague and doesnt even identify the non-economic
reasons why a father might stay at home with children.
4. successful


EXERCISE 5 (Page 233)
Answers will vary.

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EXERCISE 6 (Page 234)
A. Causes for My Fear of the Water:
1. Immediate
2. Remote
3. Immediate
4. Remote
5. Immediate
6. Immediate
7. Remote

B. Causes for Air Pollution in this City:
1. Immediate
2. Immediate
3. Remote
4. Immediate
5. Remote
6. Remote
7. Remote

EXERCISE 7 (Pages 235-237)
1. However, there are a number of mostly economic reasons why the energy efficiency of
cars and trucks has not improved in this country over the years.
2. The causes are: the perception that gasoline is inexpensive, the size of cars that people
drive, and people have not demanded that the government make it a priority.
3. The perception that gasoline is inexpensive and the size of cars is immediate. The lack
of pressure for the government to act is more remote.
4. The writer organized the causes more or less by familiarity. Answers may vary
regarding whether the organization is effective.

EXERCISE 8 (Pages 237-238)
1. Time
2. C/E
3. C/E
4. Time
5. C/E
6. Time
7. C/E
8. C/E
9. Time
10. Time

EXERCISE 9 Writing (Page 238)
Answers will vary.


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EXERCISE 10 (Page 239)
1. One of the major effects of eating too much sugar is a high incidence of tooth decay.
2. Yes, it very clearly explains the cause-result relationship.

EXERCISE 11 Writing (Page 240)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 12 (Page 240)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
The Effects of Watching Television
1. I More people get eyestrain.
2. R There is more violent crime in our cities
3. I People get fat.
4. R There are more divorces.
5. I Husbands and wives do not talk to each other anymore.
6. I People do not enjoy reading anymore.
7. R People are more afraid of each other.
8. R People are lonely.

Outlines will vary. Be sure that students have placed the effects in order of importance by
focusing on the more immediate effects first and then shifting to the remote effects.


EXERCISE 13 (Page 241)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
Effects of Legislation to Lower Property Taxes.
Negative:
1. Many city employees will lose their jobs. (immediate)
2. Police patrols in the suburbs and downtown area will be reduced. (immediate)
3. The garbage will be picked up only once a week instead of twice a week. (immediate)
4. There will not be money for street repairs. (immediate)
5. The park service will not be able to plant new trees along the highways. (immediate)
6. The school budget will be reduced. (immediate)
7. The local high schools will no longer have football teams. (remote)
Positive:
1. Citizens will have more money to spend on consumer items. (immediate)
2. New business will be attracted to the city. (remote)
3. More jobs will open up. (remote)


EXERCISE 14 (Pages 241-242)
1. The benefits of regular aerobic exercise are so great that its a wonder everybody
doesnt start on a program today.
2. The author begins with the effect of improved cardiovascular and pulmonary functions.
3. It is the least familiar.
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4. Yes. The writer indicates that improved cardiopulmonary function can be achieved in
a relatively short period of time, while preventing osteoporosis takes longer to
achieve.
5. Thesis Statement: The benefits of regular aerobic exercise are so great that its a
wonder everybody doesnt start on a program today.

I. Probably the most well-known effect of aerobic exercise can be achieved in a relatively
short period of time, and that is improved cardiovascular and pulmonary functions.
A. The heart pumps faster, and blood is circulated well throughout the body.
B. The heart and lungs get stronger.

II. Exercise can help prevent osteoporosis.
A. This disease can be halted by regular exercise.

III. Exercise can improve emotional fitness.
A. Makes a person more capable of handling stress.
B. Helps the body produce beta-endorphins.
C. Can help alleviate depression.

Conclusion: People would be better off cycling or walking.

EXERCISE 15 (Page 242)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 16 (Page 243)
Causal chain explaining the formation of a dead zone:
Nitrogen-containing chemicals reach the ocean and promote the growth of algae.
The algae die, and as they decompose, they use up oxygen in the water.
The lack of oxygen causes some species to swim away; those that cannot swim
away die from the lack of oxygen.
As these new dead bodies decompose, even less oxygen is available in the water.
Finally, there is so little oxygen that few life forms can survive, and the area
becomes a dead zone.

EXERCISE 17 (Pages 244-245)
1. The topic is the result of upsetting the balance of nature.
Central idea: Upsetting the balance of nature results in an entire chain reaction of
unforeseen and unwanted effects.
2. The incident in the Antilles is an example of unforeseen and unwanted effects of
upsetting the balance of nature.
3. Yes.
4. Yes.


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5. Thesis Statement: The balance of nature becomes unbalanced and results in an entire
chain reaction of unforeseen and unwanted effects.

I. In the Antilles, rats were eating the sugar cane.
A. The mongoose was imported.
1. The mongoose reduced the rat population.
a. Damage to cane fields was greatly reduced.

II. The influence of the mongoose did not stop there.
A. As the rat population decreased and the mongoose increased, it sought other
food.
1. It attacked pigs, goats, game, and poultry.
2. It destroyed bananas, maize, and pineapples.
B. The mongoose increased in number.
C. It learned to enjoy the native birds, snakes, lizards, and turtles and their eggs.
1. These animals kept the local insect population in check.
2. The insect population began to increase, damaging the cane fields.

Conclusion: A single change in an ecosystem can cause a chain reaction that results in
completely unforeseen and sometimes unwanted effects.

EXERCISE 18 (Page 246)
Paragraphs will vary. Possible topic sentences are:
A: Southern Californias very dry fall weather followed by very wet spring weather leads
to a cycle of natural disasters.
B: Reliance on credit can cause a downward spiral into poverty and debt.

EXERCISE 19 (Page 246)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 20 (Page 248)
Answers will vary.


EXERCISE 21 (Page 250) - Editing

When they were first discovered, antibiotics were true wonder drugs. Because
(Adverbial Clauses of cause) they easily cured nearly any bacterial infection, antibiotics
eliminated much pain and misery and saved countless lives. Antibiotics are still an
important type of drug, but today antibiotic resistance is a major public health problem.
The list of drug-resistant bacteria includes (subject-verb agreement) strains that cause
some cases of tuberculosis, strep throat, urinary tract infections, childhood middle-ear
infections, and even infections of surgical wounds. Several factors have spurred the
development of antibiotic resistance. Over the (articles) years, some doctors have
(subject-verb agreement) felt pressured to prescribe antibiotics for patients who had viral
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illnesses. Also, antibiotics are not (article) prescription drugs in some nations, so people
buy and take the drugs whenever they dont feel well. Some patients stop taking an
(article) antibiotic when they start to feel better, without finishing the full recommended
course of treatment. Antibiotics have also been added to (articles) soaps, kitchen wipes,
and many other consumer products. All these factors have contributed to the emergence
of bacteria that are genetically resistant to antibiotics that might otherwise have destroyed
them. If humans had better understood the power of bacteria to evolve, perhaps this
problem could have been (conditional) avoided. Now, however, we face the possibility
that our wonder drugs will lose their effectiveness, unless we (conditional) reduce the
overuse of antibiotics.

Chapter 12: The Argumentative Essay

The Excellent Inevitability of Online Courses
by Margaret Brooks

Comprehension (Page 258)
1. She wants to prove that online education is not inferior to traditional classroom
education, but is as good and should be enthusiastically embraced by most colleges and
universities.
2. Opponents of online learning believe that it is always inferior to traditional classrooms.
Pragmatic opponents accept online learning but think that it is not ideal.
Outright supporters believe that online learning can be as good as other kinds of
education. Brooks is an outright supporter of online learning.
3. Here are eight reasons that colleges should proudlyand without apologyoffer
online courses
4. 8 Reasons that support the thesis:
Online learning is interactive and engaging.
Online learning can reach diverse learning styles.
Online learning can provide rich learning experiences outside of the classroom.
Online learning helps teach students to become better independent researchers and
improves their technological literacy.
Online learning is accessible to students for whom regular attendance in a
physical classroom is challenging.
Online learning makes college more affordable by allowing students who must
work to have flexible schedules.
Online learning gives college instructors the opportunity to teach students about
the ethical use of technology.
Online learning is becoming as accepted by employers as other kinds of learning,
and colleges should support this trend.
5. She uses the phrase We want to introduce each reason.



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Discussion (Page 259)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Students may discuss things like the greater responsibility that students must take
online and the fact that reading and writing assignments are harder to ignore online, or
that equal participation is easier for professors to enforce online. They may also discuss
the importance of personal connections with the instructor and comment on whether or
not they believe it is possible for this to develop online.
3. In paragraph 17, for example, she anticipates the argument that cheating may be easier
in online courses and indicates that students in all sorts of courses find ways to cheat. In
paragraph 19, she refutes the argument that online courses put students at a disadvantage
with employers. Other arguments against online learning which she does not refute might
include the argument that professors may be less likely to identify and help a struggling
or troubled student early in the course or that it is more difficult to develop a sense of
community between online students.

Let's Put the Excellence Back in the A
by Elliott Miles

Comprehension (Page 261)
1. Grade inflation refers to the trend for professors to give higher grades to student work
than they would have given in the past. Also, now students in classes are likely to receive
only the grades of A, B, and F. Lower grades like C and D are rarely used.
2. It is called grade inflation because the work is given a higher grade than it deserves.
He compares grade inflation to economic inflationfor example, paying $20 for a loaf of
bread.
3. Miles feels that this trend began in the 1960s, when there were periods of student
protest and faculty began to identify more closely with students.
4. Grade inflation is a problem because (a) student accomplishments are misrepresented,
(b) excellent student work is unfairly undervalued, and (c) those who must evaluate
student records are unable to do so accurately.

Discussion (Page 261)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Miles explanations are convincing. He relates his arguments to other circumstances in
which the same behavior would be considered grossly unfair.
2. One purpose of grades is to evaluate student work and give students feedback.
(Students may generate other answers as well.)
3. Some students will report that it is a problem because they feel that their peers dont
perform as well as they do, but they receive the same grades. Others might admit that it
helps them and say that reversing the trend would mean more work for students.
4. Miles recommends that instructors only assign a grade of A to students who do truly
excellent work.



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EXERCISE 1 (Page 262)
1. b
2. c
3. a
4. c
5. b
6. a
7. a
8. c
9. b
10. a
11. c
12. b

EXERCISE 2 (Page 263)
1. domestic
2. foreign
3. government
4. peace
5. defense
6. trade
7. stability
8. educational
9. understanding
10. immigration

EXERCISE 3 (Page 264)
1. No, belief
2. Yes
3. Yes
4. No, fact
5. Yes
6. No, fact
7. Yes
8. No, preference.

EXERCISE 4 (Page 265)
1. Yes
2. Yes
3. Yes
4. No
5. Yes
6. Yes
7. Yes
8. No
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9. Yes
10. Yes

EXERCISE 5 (Page 265)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
4. Overcrowding at this university negatively affects many students education.
8. Taxes should be increased in order to improve the time in which our police force
responds to alarms.

EXERCISE 6 (Page 266)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
Students will likely identify different points as the heart of the issue. Use this as an
opportunity to emphasize the importance of analyzing your audience.

1. The production of genetically modified fruits and vegetables should be encouraged.
Pro
These plants are more resistant to disease.
The food produced from such plants is slower to spoil.
The food industry can make higher profits and feed people more efficiently if the
production of these foods is encouraged.
People have been breeding better plants for thousands of years; this is just a faster
way to do the same thing.
Con
It is not proven that these foods are safe, as harmful side effects could appear in
the future.
These modified plants could evolve or mutate into problematic varieties that we
cant control.
Promoting production of these fruits and vegetables encourages an unsustainable
approach to farming and agriculture.
Promoting genetically modified plants makes it more difficult for small-scale
farmers from poor countries to compete in the agriculture business.

2. A basic core curriculum of liberal arts courses should be required for all students
graduating from college.
Pro
There is certain basic knowledge which all educated people should have.
A core curriculum ensures that students dont avoid subjects which they dislike.
Con
Diversity of knowledge in society is important.
Core curriculum classes can distract students from their major studies
Core curriculum classes cost money and drive up the cost of education.



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3. College students should have the freedom to choose their own courses.
Pro
By the time they reach college, students are adults and can be responsible for their
actions and for taking courses that will leave them well educated.
If students select courses freely, the number of students who are just getting by
in a course that they dislike will dramatically drop, improving the classroom
experience for everyone.
Con
University faculty are experienced educators and know what basic knowledge is
required in a field.
Complete freedom of choice in classes will dramatically increase the number of
easy classes and dramatically decrease the number of difficult classes.

4. A student convicted of cheating on an exam should automatically be expelled from
college.
Pro
Higher stakes will serve as a better deterrent.
Colleges should do all they can to graduate only the most ethical students.
Con
Failing the class in which one cheats is sufficient deterrent.
People need to be given second chances.

5. A year of national service should be required for all 18-year-olds in this country.
Pro
Requiring some sort of service would be good for the country and allow many
social goals to be more easily and quickly met.
Young people would learn important skills from the experience.
Con
Service is more meaningful when people volunteer to do it.
Some poor families need the income from their 18-year-olds to survive and
cannot afford to have them earn less while doing national service.

6. A university education should be free to all high school students with a B grade
average.
Pro
The cost of the free education would be more than covered by increased
productivity and taxes on these students increased income.
State supported education would be more equitable than education that must be
paid for privately.
Con
Students are less invested in free education than in education they pay for, and
they wont learn as much if it is free to them.
Having such high stakes will encourage grade inflation in high schools.

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7. Physicians should be allowed to assist people who want to die.
Pro
People should have autonomy in their decisions, even at the end of life.
Physicians are bound to try to relieve suffering when they can. In terminal cases,
the best way to relieve suffering might be to speed death.
Con
If physicians could assist patients in dying, the very ill may feel financial or
family pressures to end their lives.
A physicians job is to preserve life, not to end it.

8. This country should more tightly control immigration.
Pro
Immigration restrictions help to ensure that immigrants are not exploited and that
only the number which can be effectively assimilated are allowed to enter.
Immigration restrictions help to ensure that the economy is regulated, protecting
the wage levels of people who already live here.
Con
This country has more often benefited from the arrival of immigrants than been
harmed by it.
The laws of supply and demand will regulate immigration better than any laws
will. If there is no work, immigrants will not come. If there is work, they will.


EXERCISE 7 (Page 267)
1. The author believes pesticides should be restricted because they kill beneficial insects
such as honeybees and ladybugs.
2. The author cites facts about how pesticides have damaged honeybees to support this
reason.


EXERCISE 8 (Page 268)
1. The author argues that since the two legal drugs, nicotine and alcohol, are used at
much higher rates than illegal drugs, if other drugs were made legal, usage of these
currently illegal drugs would increase as well.
2. Dr. Herbert Kleber from the Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia
University and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) are cited. Information from
these sources are introduced using the phrases According to and Drug Enforcement
Agency figures indicate


EXERCISE 9 (Page 269)
1. The topic sentence is Giving football scholarships is really just a wise investment on
the part of the university. It is the first sentence in the paragraph.
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2. According to the author, the reason the university spends money on football
scholarships is to get money back from ticket sales and contributions from alumni.
3. This pattern of development is an example of a causal chain.
4. The details are sufficient for a paragraph; however, this topic is broad enough to be
expanded into a short essay. Statistics and dollar amounts from specific schools, sports,
and activities could be introduced as further support.

EXERCISE 10 (Pages 269-270)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Analyze effects using examples.
2. Effect analysis, supported with factual details and examples of ways morale is boosted
by football
3. Effect analysis, perhaps supported with narrative anecdotes about how students and
staff are currently inconvenienced without a day care center.
4. Process showing how their education will be broadened; categorization of the ways
education is broadened by foreign language study
5. Effect analysis or Example essay
6. Compare and Contrast bars and restaurants that do and do not allow smoking; or
analyze effects
7. Effect; process of how unrestricted handguns can get into the hands of children
8. Examples and details

EXERCISE 11 Writing (Page 271)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 12 (Pages 272-274)
1. The thesis is stated at the end of the first paragraph: I oppose the measure because
natural science courses provide us with a crucial part of our education. It is restated at
the end of the essay: Although these courses are difficult for the non-science majors,
they are a necessary part of a university education.
2. The authors main arguments include (a) that science is part of the universal
knowledge that someone with a university education should have, (b) students must
understand science well enough to think critically and discuss it intelligently, and (c)
science is a necessary part of daily life that is used to understand the issues encountered
daily.
3. The refutation starts in the second paragraph. The first point that is refuted is that
science courses are irrelevant to humanities majors.
4. The author concedes the point that science courses are difficult for humanities majors
and that their grade point averages may suffer because of the science requirement.
5. The argument is convincing because so many of the points against it have been refuted.
6. Yes, it follows logically.



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7. Thesis Statement: I oppose the measure because natural science courses provide us
with a crucial part of our education.

I. A university educates and not merely trains.
A. A university is a place to obtain a general knowledge base.

II. A university education implies more than just exposure.
A. Students must be critical thinkers in the various disciplines.
B. They should know enough to be able to discuss the issues.
C. They must learn to approach problems logically and learn to reason over time.

III. An understanding of science is vital in our highly technological society.
A. We are confronted by issues like nuclear waste.
B. We must know the issues and not be puppets to professionals.

Conclusion: Although these courses are difficult for the non-science majors, they are well
worth the effort.

EXERCISE 13 (Page 274)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 14 (Page 276)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 15 (Page 278)
Answers will vary. Possible response:
Corrections are in bold.

One of the main reasons that women should not be drafted for combat duty
is that it is not practical. The army needs to set up two facilities for everything,
including two sleeping quarters, two sets of showers, and two latrines. As a result,
the actual amount of work and supplies involved in setting up camp is doubled.
More supplies and equipment in the field slows down troop movement considerably,
so our troops would lose any advantage they would have for surprise attack. We
need an incredible amount of backup support for men; it is not practical to double
that in wartime.
A second reason to exclude women from combat duty is that they are not
strong enough emotionally, or physically. It takes a lot of strength and courage to be
in actual physical combat. You need to be strong enough to kill people without any
pangs of regret. Women could be strong, but they are sheltered, so they are not
taught to be strong. Men are taught to be strong. Women are not strong enough to
handle killing and dying, and could not stand to see their best friend get hit by a
shell and die in front of their eyes. Although one could argue convincingly that
women could be taught to be strong enough emotionally, they still would not be
strong enough physically. Most women could not throw ninety-pound ammunition
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cases into a truck all day, or win in close hand-to-hand combat against a man. Thus,
while there may be much that women can contribute to their national defense,
they should not participate in combat, as they do not have the strength for combat
duty.

EXERCISE 16 (Pages 278-279) - Editing
John Kenneth Galbraith once famously said that economics (capitalization) is extremely
useful as a form of employment for economists. (indirect speech) There are,
(punctuation) however, many reasons for people who do not intend to become
economists to study this fascinating subject. Perhaps the best reason is that so many of
the things of concern in the world around us are (verb tense) at least partly economic in
character. A quick look at newspaper headlines reveals the vast range of problems that
are related to economics: global warming, health care, education, and many others. The
study of economics improves (subject-verb agreement) your understanding of these
concerns. As a student of economics, I became (irregular verb forms) aware that, at a
basic level, much of economic life involves choosing among alternative possible courses
of action and making choices between our conflicting wants and desires in a world of
scarcity. The basic tools of economics are (subject-verb agreement) valuable to people
in all walks of life and in all career paths. Newspaper reporters benefit from economics
because the problem-solving perspective it teaches trains them to ask intelligent questions
whose answers will better inform their readers. Designers in many industries (plural)
face economic problems because costs are a constraint in both creating and marketing a
new product. When making a dress, a clothing designer must decide whether the added
costs of more expensive fabrics will be outweighed by (passive form) the added sales that
are expected to result. An economist can poses (verb tense/form) these questions and
provide criteria that clothing designers can use in evaluating the appropriateness of one
fabric as compared to another. The point is that the economic way of thinking causes
those in many types of fields (plural) to ask the right kind of questions.

Refining Grammar Skills (Unit 3)

EXERCISE 1 (Pages 284-285)
When I am unhappy, my favorite place to go is the lake, where I like to sit under a (1) tall
old oak tree overlooking the shoreline. On a (2) clear summer day, the (3) crystal blue
water looks peaceful and calm. The (4) foamy white waves gently caress the (5) white
sandy shore, leaving (6) thin wavy lines on the sand among the (7) little multicolored
shells. While listening to the reassuring whispers of the waves, I also watch the (8)
graceful white seagulls hovering above the water as they look for tasty fish for their
meals. I usually remain under that tree for several hours. When the (9) oval apricot sun
begins its slow, languorous descent into the horizon, I know that it is time to go home,
and I reluctantly leave. But before I go, I take one more look at the (10) beautiful serene
scene, and I feel refreshed and at peace.



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EXERCISE 2 (Pages 285-286)
1. John is sitting nervously at the racetrack watching his horse. He wants to see the
beginning of the race. He is excited. He thinks the race will be exciting.
2. Steve just learned that he got a D on his chemistry test. He is depressed. He thinks he
got a D because he is not interested in chemistry.
3. Today is Monday. Janet just got home from work. Mondays at work are always tiring,
so Janet is exhausted.
4. The movie on television last night showed new discoveries about cancer. The show
was interesting.
5. My history teacher always talks in a monotone and never looks at the students. He is
the most boring teacher I have. All of the students are bored.
6. Marys mother has always wanted Mary to finish college. She was disappointed when
Mary told her that she had quit school. Marys mother sobbed when she heard the
disappointing news.
7. John went to the doctor because he had a pain in his chest. The doctor gave some
reassuring news to John. Before the doctor told him that the pain was just heartburn, John
had been frightened.
8. I didnt understand the confusing income tax forms that I got from the government. I
was so worried about them that I asked my neighbor to help me. However, he gave me a
lot of misleading information, and I became even more confused. Finally, I went to a tax
consultant, who had a depressing office. He helped me fill out the forms correctly.

EXERCISE 3 (Page 286)
1. Last Friday, my friend Jack and I spent an interesting day at the natural history
museum.
2. First, we toured the mounted displays of prehistoric animals.
3. In that section, we saw a huge stuffed replica of a brontosaurus.
4. As we went on, we encountered the displays of developing Homo sapiens.
5. The Neanderthal man was short and had a shrunken head.
6. The Cro-Magnon man was taller and more advanced physically than the Neanderthal
man.
7. Finally, we watched a planetarium show in which countless wandering stars and
planets filled the sky.
8. After we emerged from the darkened planetarium, we went to the crowded restaurant
to talk over everything wed seen.

EXERCISE 4 (Page 287)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:

1. There is a terrible mess in Xias room.
or In Xias room, there is a terrible mess.
2. There are dirty clothes all over the floor.
or All over the floor, there are dirty clothes.
3. Next to the bookcase, there are stacks of books that need to be shelved.
or There are stacks of books that need to be shelved next to the bookcase.
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4. There is too much trash overflowing from the wastebasket.
5. There are a dirty plate and fork sitting on a chair near the bed.
or On the chair near the bed, there are a dirty plate and fork.
6. There are several bottles and cans that should be recycled lying around.
7. Under the bed, there are several mismatched shoes.
or There are several mismatched shoes under the bed.
8. There are posters on the wall, but some of them are starting to fall down.
or On the wall, there are posters, but some of them are starting to fall down.


EXERCISE 5 (Page 288)
My friend, Thuy, who has a private nursing business, has a demanding schedule. She
does not work for a hospital or a doctor; instead, she nurses patients in their own homes.
Every morning, Thuy gets up (1) at/around 6:00 A.M. and fixes breakfast for her family.
(2) Next, she takes her son to school and then goes to her office where she arrives (3)
by/at/before 8:00 A.M. She stays there for about an hour. (4) During that time, she checks
to see if there are any phone messages on the answering machine. She also prepares
some coffee or tea. While she drinks her beverage, Thuy reads the mail, studies the files
of her patients, and prepares the work assignments for her other nurses. (5) After that, she
is ready to visit her patients. (6) First, she sees Mr. West and gives him an injection. Thuy
goes to Mrs. Garcias house to take her blood pressure. After seeing two more patients,
she returns to the office, where she eats her lunch. (7) During/At that time, she does
clerical work, such as filling out forms for Medicare. She also studies recent medical
reports and, if necessary, consults with the doctors of her patients. (8) After about two
hours, Thuy is ready to visit four or five more patients (9) during the afternoon. (10)
Next, she returns to the office and checks the reports of her other nurses. (11) Finally,
after a long day, Thuy gets in her car and heads home.

EXERCISE 6 (Page 290)
Although we live in New York City now, every year (1) in August, my wife and I go
back to Hong Kong to visit my wifes family. We usually leave (2) on a Thursday or
Friday and fly to San Francisco. (3) During the weekend, we visit our favorite places in
San Francisco: Golden Gate Park, Fishermans Wharf, and Chinatown. Then we leave (4)
on Monday morning for Hong Kong. (5) During the flight, I usually read a book or sleep,
but my wife plans the details of our stay. We usually arrive in Hong Kong late Monday
night, but sometimes, we do not arrive (6) until Tuesday. I like to arrive at the airport
just (7) in time to see the sunrise on Tuesday morning. If our flight is (8) on time, my
wifes uncle and family are generally at the airport to meet us. We greet each other
warmly and then drive to my wifes parents house. (9) By the time we get there, we are
chattering with anticipation. Whether it is (10) in the morning, noon, or (11) at night, the
old couple is always waiting quietly to welcome us.



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At this college, Homecoming week occurs (1) during/in the first week of October.
Events for alumni and current students are planned throughout the week, but most of the
events are usually (2) on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday and throughout the weekend.
(3) On Wednesday night (4) at 8:00 PM, a rally is held in the campus gymnasium. (5)
During the rally, each class presents a skit, and distinguished alumni speak. Thursday is
usually the day alumni arrive to take tours of campus and visit classes, but alumni should
be sure to arrive (6) by Friday morning to take part in the most interesting activities. All
classes (7) after 1:00 PM on Friday are cancelled for the Homecoming Parade. The
homecoming dance, where the Homecoming King and Queen will be crowned, is held (8)
in the evening. The dance doesnt end (9) until several hours after midnight. Saturday is
devoted to the homecoming football game. (10) Before the game, alumni and students
have tailgating picnics around their cars and trucks outside the football stadium. The big
game starts exactly (11) at 2:00 PM.

EXERCISE 7 (Page 291)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 8 (Page 292)
1. I used to play soccer for my high school team.
2. He gave me good advice.
3. This is a difficult situation.
4. Superman is an example of a fictional hero.
5. I like Indian food because its spicy.
6. We had bad weather last week.
7. An anecdote is a type of illustration.
8. We kept a blog during our travels in Guatemala.

EXERCISE 9 (Pages 293-294)
1.
2. The
3. The
4. a,
5. A
6. the, the, the
7. a, the
8. a, a, the, The, the, The, the, the, the

EXERCISE 10 (Pages 294)
The usual answer to an obstreperous (1) streamone that erodes or floods out its
banksis to build (2) a dam. But (3) dams cost up to (4) $100,000 apiece, even for
very small streams. Now, (5) the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is cutting (6)
costs by using local labor: beavers. For three years, three beavers have been at work on
Wyomings Current Creek, whose spring runoff had yearly gouged out its banks and
flooded neighboring farms. There were no trees left for (7) the beavers to use, so the
BLM helped by dragging (8) aspens from (9) a distant forest. It also wired (10) truck
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tires together and laid them across (11) the stream, making (12) sturdy foundations for
(13) the beavers dams. It worked. (14) The beavers restored (15) the creeks ecological
balance and saved its banks from erosion. (16) The dams slowed (17) the stream, and
nutrient-rich silt has settled behind them. (18) Rye grass and (19) willows are
coming back along (20) the banks, and spring flooding has been regulated; (21) the creek
now has been widened by about 50 feet. (22) The cost to (23) the federal government?
Less than $3,000.

EXERCISE 11 (Page 296)
1. Many Americans have started to buy small cars.
2. Most of the Americans on the trip were from California.
3. On our trip, we visited ten cities. Several of the cities were using solar power in
government buildings.
4. All people are created equal.
5. Some professional athletes receive critical injuries while playing.
6. It was an eight hour trip, so some of the time the children watched a movie on the
computer.
7. Neither university offers an MBA program.
8. Neither of the universities we visited offers an MBA program.

EXERCISE 12 (Pages 296)
1. One of the trees is dead because of the drought.
2. None of the books on the second floor of the library have been stolen.
3. Each of the members of Congress contacts the president every day.
4. Each of the basketball players is sick.
5. Neither of the singers plays the piano.

EXERCISE 13 (Page 297)
Added articles are underlined and in bold.
1. I think that high schools and universities should require their students to study a
foreign language for educational purposes. In my case, for example, I started to study and
learn English at age 13. Even though my mother spoke only English at home and I
understood most of it, it was not until I changed to a bilingual school that I started to
learn more and speak it more fluently.
2. Learning another language offers a lot of opportunities, too. Many jobs now require
that a person know another language. Jobs related to travel, hotels, and airlines are a few
examples. There are others, such as working with the government and in business. One
example of this is a friend of mine who recently changed jobs. She used to work in a
travel agency; she said her knowledge of English made a lot of things easier for her. Just
a few weeks ago, I received a letter from her saying that she is now working with the
U.S. Embassy in Honduras. She said that if she had not learned the English language, she
wouldnt be working there.
3. As we can see, students should learn a second language. There are many advantages,
especially when finishing school and job opportunities are great. For me its a great
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experience. Without knowing English, I wouldnt be working and studying in this
university.

EXERCISE 14 (Pages 297-298)
Added articles are underlined and in bold.
There are three types of honeybees: queens, workers, and drones. Each has its
own role in the life of the hive, and to perform its functions properly, each must be able
to communicate with the (optional) other individuals and to respond correctly to their
communications. There is only one queen in the colony. She is larger than the other bees
and is the only fertile female. Her sole function is laying eggs. Except for a brief period
in her early adult life, when she leaves the hive on a few brief nuptial flights and mates
with several males, she remains permanently within the hive.
Workers are also female, but they are sterile and are smaller than the queen. As
their name implies, they perform everyday chores around the hivegathering food,
feeding the larvae and the queen, storing surplus food, building the hive and adding to it
as more cells are needed for new eggs or more food, keeping the hive and its inhabitants
clean, and defending it against bees from other colonies.
The third type of honeybee is the male bee, or drone. Drones have only one
function: to mate with the queen. They do little else, and except for their participation in
the mating flight, they lead an idle life. During spring and summer, when drones still
have some potential use, the workers tolerate them, but as autumn approaches, the
workers drag them out of the colony and leave them to die. No new drones are produced
until the following spring.
Three types of honeybee ensure perpetuation of the species. The queen and the
drones attend to reproduction, and the workers do the housekeeping and care for the
eggs, larvae, pupae, queen, and drones. For all this to work properly, each bee must
know what is needed from it. Some information comes to the bee in its heredity
whether it is male or femaleand this information is already present in the egg. Other
information comes from the bees environment. What it sees, smells, tastes, hears, or
feels determines how it will act at any given moment.

EXERCISE 15 (Page 298)
1.
2. an
3. an
4.
5. a
6.
7.
8. a





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EXERCISE 16 (Page 299)
1. an
2. The
3. The
4. a
5. The
6. a
7. a
8. The

EXERCISE 17 (Pages 302-303)
1. The human eye, which consists of very specialized structures, is a remarkable optical
instrument.
2. On the outside of the eye is the conjunctiva, which is a membrane that lines the inner
surface of the eyelid and the outer surface of the front of the eyeball.
3. Behind the conjunctiva is the cornea, which forms the image of the object.
4. The cornea is provided nutriment by the aqueous humor, which is located behind the
cornea.
5. The colorful part of the eye is the iris, which helps control the amount of incoming
light.
6. In the middle of the iris is the pupil, which is really a hole that light passes through to
the lens.
7. The crystalline lens, which helps the cornea bend the image, is elliptical in shape.
8. On the sides of the lens are the ciliary muscle and the zonula, which make the lens
change shape so that the image changes in size.
9. Behind the lens is a big cavity that contains the vitreous humor, which is a clear,
colorless jelly.
10. At the back of the cavity is the retina, which is a thin layer of interconnected nerve
cells that convert light to electrical pulses.

EXERCISE 18 (Page 304)
1. My mother, whom I love very much, has decided to return to college.
2. One of the reporters who was assigned to South America was not able to go.
3. The cars that were parked along one block of Wilshire Boulevard were ticketed for
illegal parking.
4. The man who played Frankensteins monster in several movies was Boris Karloff.
5. Olaus Romer, who was Danish, was responsible for the first measurement of the
velocity of light in 1676.
6. I dont know whose car is blocking our garage.
7. Alfred, whose history paper got an A, has promised to tutor me.
8. April is the month when the cherry trees bloom in Washington, D.C.




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EXERCISE 19 (Page 305)
1. Scientists working in the field of genetic engineering are very excited about its future.
2. The young hikers, tired and worn out, decided to take a rest.
3. Robots run by computers are being used in most automobile factories.
4. The convict, planning his escape, requested to work in the fields.
5. The Chinese New Year, celebrated by millions of Asians all over the world, is a grand
event.

EXERCISE 20 (Pages 305-308)
1. Here are some tips for a person who is learning to snowboard.
Here are some tips for a person learning to snowboard.
2. Wear clothes that will keep you warm and dry, even if they are not cool.
Not possible
3. Make sure you choose boots and a snowboard that are sized properly for you.
Make sure you choose boots and a snowboard sized properly for you.
4. If you are not sure what size you need, there are professionals who can help you.
Not possible
5. You probably want to learn the snowboarding tricks that are shown on TV.
You probably want to learn the snowboarding tricks shown on TV.
6. However, first you must master the basics, which are standing and balancing.
However, first you must master the basics, standing and balancing.
7. Dont forget to learn another important skill, which is falling down safely.
Dont forget to learn another important skill, falling down safely.
8. Beginning snowboarders and dancers make the same mistake, which is looking at their
feet instead of looking where they are going.
Beginning snowboarders and dancers make the same mistake, looking at their feet instead
of looking where they are going.

EXERCISE 21 (Page 306)
Rewritten paragraph using participial phrases:

In order to be healthy, we all need a daily balanced diet. A balanced diet includes
eating some foods each day from each of the four major food groups, including dairy
foods, meats, vegetables and fruits, and breads and cereals. The first group, which is
dairy foods, obviously includes milk. Other dairy foods that are able to supplement milk
to fulfill our daily needs are cheese and ice cream. Although dairy foods are high in
animal fat, which is a substance to be avoided, they are widely available in low-fat forms
such as skim milk and ice milk. The second major group needed for good health is meats,
used by our bodies to provide protein. Meat can be obtained in a variety of ways,
including beef, pork, fowl, and fish. In recent years, we have been warned to avoid beef
and pork meats, and to concentrate on eating the leaner fish and fowl. Some people avoid
all or some of these meats for religious reasons or environmental reasons. These people
must obtain their protein in other ways.


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EXERCISE 22 (Page 306)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 23 (Page 309)
When the night is clear, you can see shadows on the moon. According to an old Chinese
folktale, they are the shadows of the cinnamon tree in the moon. This tree came to be
because of the laziness of an immortal, Wu Kang.
Wu Kang was in charge of guarding the dragon. However, he was lazy. Whenever he
drank wine, he allowed the dragon to run away. One day, he went to Mount Kun Lun.
While he was there, he met some of his friends. They began to drink wine, compose
poems, and throw dice. He continued to drink, even after night came. He drank some
more until he became completely tipsy. When he saw some fellows playing chess, he
asked to join them. They advised him to go home because they knew he was being
negligent, but Wu Kang offered to wager the dragons pearl. After they played a few
moves of the game, Wu Kang lost the pearl. As soon as he had wagered and lost the
dragon pearl, he wagered and lost the mighty dragon. When the immortals learned of the
loss, they were furious. They immediately sowed a pearl in the ground and a tall
cinnamon tree grew from it. When the tree reached a great height, they gave Wu Kang
an axe and told him to cut off the branches. As soon as he had cut off all the branches,
bigger ones sprouted and grew. Wu Kang had to cut them off, too. Wu Kang is still there
to this day cutting off branches. Whenever you see shadows on the moon, you know that
they are the branches of the cinnamon tree falling down.

EXERCISE 24 (Pages 311-312)
1. Unlike in high school, in college, students have a lot of homework.
While students have very little homework in high school, they have quite a lot in college.
2. Different from high school, in college, nobody watches the students.
In high school, students are constantly watched by the teachers and school officials. In
college, on the other hand, nobody watches the students.
Whereas in high school students are constantly watched by the teachers and school
officials, in college nobody watches the students.
3. Unlike in high school, in college students do not need permission to go to the restroom.
In order to go to the restroom, high school students must get permission, but college
students do not need permission to go to the restroom.
While high school students need permission to go to the restroom, college students do
not.
4. If high school students do not attend classes, the principal will call their parents to
check on them. In contrast, if students do not attend class in college, no one calls the
parents.
In contrast to high school, no one calls the parents if students do not attend class in
college.
Whereas the principal will call the parents of students who do not attend class in high
school, no one calls the parents if students do not attend in college.
5. In high school, basically, students are treated as if they were children; however, in
college, students are basically treated as adults.
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Whereas high school students are basically treated as children, college students are
treated as adults.
Different from high school students, college students are basically treated as adults.
6. Just as students had to study hard in high school, they have to study hard in college.
7. Just as students enjoyed going to high school football and basketball games, college
students enjoy going to college football and basketball games.
8. Just as students enjoyed talking with their classmates in high school, college students
enjoy talking with their classmates.
9. Although high school students have very little homework, they learn a lot during their
classes.
10. Even though there are many rules in high school, they are meant to protect the
students.

EXERCISE 25 (Pages 312-313)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. You should think about your intended major in order to choose a university that is well
qualified and staffed in your major.
You should think about your intended major so that you can choose the best university
with that major.
2. You should visit different universities Web sites in order to become familiar with their
programs.
You should visit different universities Web sites so that you can become familiar with
their programs.
3. You should think about your financial situation in order to determine which college
you should go to.
You should think about your financial situation so that you can determine which college
you should go to.
4. You should find out about financial aid in order to plan your budget.
You should find out about financial aid so that you can plan your budget.
5. You should find out about part-time jobs in order to earn some extra money.
You should find out about part-time jobs so that you can earn some extra money.


EXERCISE 26 (Page 314)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. I like biology because of its systematic classification of living things.
Biology systematically classifies living things, so I like it.
Biology systematically classifies living things; thus, I enjoy it.
2. Because of the explanations that biology gives for the characteristics of living things, I
like it.
I like biology for its explanations of the characteristics of living things.
Biology explains the characteristics of living things; therefore, I enjoy it.
3. Biology explains the interdependence of living things, so I like it.
Biology explains the interdependence of living things; as a result, it is enjoyable to me.
Since biology explains the interdependence of living things, I enjoy it.
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4. Biology encourages curiosity and research; consequently, I enjoy it.
Biology encourages curiosity and research; for this reason, I plan to study it.
Because biology encourages curiosity and research, I like it.

EXERCISE 27 (Page 315)
1. The snowstorm was so terrible that none of the planes could take off.
2. There were so many people trapped at the airport that some of them slept on the floor.
3. Some of the people were having such a good time that they did not care about the
snowstorm.
4. However, some of the people were so angry that they demanded their money back.
5. They said that the airlines were giving such bad service that they would never fly
again.
6. The airline officials explained that it was snowing so hard that the pilots could not see.

EXERCISE 28 (Pages 317-318)
1. Before laying her eggs, the female monarch butterfly finds a milkweed plant.
2. After being hatched, the young monarch caterpillar eats the milkweed.
3. While eating the plant, the caterpillar continues to grow.
4. Growing constantly, the caterpillar sheds its skin several times.
5. Having been nourished by the milkweed for about three weeks, the caterpillar forms a
chrysalis.
6. Having been spun, the green chrysalis is attached to a green leaf.
7. Having spent a week inside the chrysalis, the caterpillar undergoes an exciting
transformation. (After spending a week . . .)
Note: In order for this sentence to be transformed, the students must make some changes.
The subject in the adverbial clause is not the same as the subject in the main clause.
8. Emerging from the chrysalis, the caterpillar is no longer a caterpillar, but a beautiful
monarch butterfly.
9. Having been born, the butterfly begins to search for flowers in order to sip their nectar.
(After being born . . .)
10. Having been completed, the life cycle of the monarch butterfly will begin again.
(After being completed . . .)

EXERCISE 29 (Page 318)
You are about to graduate from college, and you want to get a job. How do you go about
finding the right job for you? Here is one way to begin your job hunt. First, you need to
prepare a rsum, a one- or two-page document that lists brief personal information, the
type of job you are looking for, your educational background, your job experience, your
interests and hobbies, and your references. You can do your rsum yourself on a
computer or have it done professionally. Now, having done your rsum, you need to
decide which prospective employers you are going to send it to. Of course, this depends
on your particular job interests. If you are a business major, for example, and want to
work in a bank, you will want to make a list of the banks for which you would like to
work. After making your list, you will need to draft a generic cover letter to send with
your rsum to the banks on your list. The cover letter should point out your strongest
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qualities and present you in a favorable light. It and your rsum are your representatives
to the prospective employers on your list.

EXERCISE 30 (Page 319)
The reporter wanted to know who was on strike.
The reporter asked him how long they had been on strike.
The reporter inquired if any of the civil service employees were on strike.
The reporter asked Foster why the student workers were on strike.
The reporter asked how much money they made and how much they were asking for.
The reporter wanted to find out how the strike had affected the people who ate in the
cafeteria.
The reporter inquired how long they expected to continue the strike.

EXERCISE 31 (Page 321)
Answers will vary. Possible response:
A student worker strike is underway in Harding Cafeteria on campus. The
Campus Herald spoke with Ben Foster, the student organizer leading the strike. When
asked who was on strike, Mr. Foster replied that all of the student workers were and
that they had been striking for four days. According to Mr. Foster, the strike does not
extend to the civil service employees. He indicated that they were not on strike
because they already had a satisfactory contract. Foster explained that the student
workers reason for striking was simple: they need higher wages. Foster reported that
student workers now get only $7.00 an hour, which is below minimum wage. He
stated that the student workers are demanding they be paid minimum wage. Mr. Foster
said that the service was slower because there were no student workers to carry the
trays or wash the dishes and that now the cooks had to do their jobs. Slow service
could continue for some time as Foster insisted that the student workers would not go
back to work until the administration was willing to negotiate.

EXERCISE 32 (Pages 322-323)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. I urge Sandra to make a checklist of household chores that she must attend to every
day to keep the room neat.
2. I urge Lucy to try to find out why studying is so important to Sandra in order to
understand her better.
3. I suggest that the girls make a schedule and take turns cleaning the room.
4. It is advisable for the girls to discuss their feelings openly without speaking angrily.
5. I propose that the girls agree on a quiet hour until Lucy can have friends over and play
music.
6. It is important that each one try to understand the other.



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EXERCISE 33 (Pages 326-327)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. The chimpanzees biological classification is the same as the gorillas classification.
The classification of the chimpanzee and the gorilla is the same.
The chimpanzee has the same classification as the gorilla.
2. The chimpanzees range is different from that of the gorilla.
3. The height of adult chimpanzees and gorillas is the same.
4. The weight of the adult chimpanzee and the adult gorilla is different.
5. The sleeping habits of the female and young chimpanzees and gorillas are similar.
6. The sleeping habits of male chimpanzees and gorillas are different.
7. The chimpanzees thumb is similar to the gorillas big toe.
8. The diets of chimpanzees and gorillas are similar.

EXERCISE 34 (Page 327)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 35 (Pages 328-329)
Answers may vary. Possible responses:
1. If you dont follow state law about how close you must park to the curb, you may get a
ticket or block passing traffic.
2. Unless the space you choose is several feet longer than your car, you wont have
enough room to parallel park.
3. Check your rearview mirror. Otherwise, a car behind you might accidentally hit you
when you stop.
4. If you dont use your turn signal, other drivers might not know to go around you and
will block your parking space.
5. Unless you line your back bumper up with the back bumper of the car in front of your
chosen space, you will not be able to pull into the space.
6. Shift into reverse and check your rear view mirror. Otherwise, you may accidentally
hit someone.
7. If you dont look over your other shoulder while backing into the space, you might hit
the fender of the car in front of you. OR If you reverse too quickly into the space, you
may lose control of the car and hit something.
8. Turn your head to check the front of your car and the back of your car often.
Otherwise, you might accidentally hit the car in front of you or the curb.
9. If you dont turn the steering wheel to the left and continue carefully in reverse before
your back tires hit the curb, you wont be able to continue to back into the space.
10. If you can, center your vehicle in the space by driving slowly forward and steering to
the right. Otherwise, you will have to pull out of the space and try again.






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EXERCISE 36 (Page 330)
1. If television programs were not violent, they would not result in increased violence
among some viewers.
2. If we did not have the international Olympic Games, we would have more international
violence.
3. If we had not allowed the oil company to build this refinery, we would not have oil
pollution now.
4. If we didnt pay taxes, our schools would be closed.
5. If this university had more student housing, it would attract more international
students.
6. If we did not have to deal with a computer when we pay our bills, our business
transactions would not have become (would not be) impersonal.
7. If cigarette smoking were against the law, many people would not get sick from it.
8. If the government had dealt with the crisis properly, inflation would not have
continued at high levels.

EXERCISE 37 (Page 331)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. If Adalberto had not stolen her money, she would not have had to move into the slum.
2. If Maria Paula had not recognized Ferrao in the news report, she could not have made
a scene at the engagement party.
3. If Maria Paula had not forgiven Ferrao, their family would not have been reunited.

EXERCISE 38 (Pages 332-333)
1. Both physics and chemistry are classified as physical sciences.
2. We classify neither mathematics nor psychology as a biological science.
3. Not only are botany and zoology normally considered biological sciences but they are
also generally requirements for a B.S. degree.
4. All liberal arts majors could take either two physical science courses or two biological
science courses.
5. In order to graduate, all students in college must take not only certain required courses
but also some electives.

EXERCISE 39 (Page 334)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Taking a math course every semester is difficult.
To take a math course every semester is difficult.
It is difficult to take a math course every semester.
2. Going to class every day during the semester is a good idea.
To go to class every day during the semester is a good idea.
It is a good idea to go to class every day during the semester.
3. Taking notes as the professor does the sample problems on the board is useful.
To take notes as the professor does the sample problems on the board is useful.
It is useful to take notes as the professor does the sample problems on the board.
4. Doing the homework problems regularly takes time.
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To do the homework problems regularly takes time.
It takes time to do the homework problems regularly.
5. Turning in the homework every day gives her a sense of satisfaction.
To turn in the homework every day gives her a sense of satisfaction.
It gives her a sense of satisfaction to turn in the homework every day.
6. Getting good grades is the best reward.
To get good grades is the best reward.
It is the best reward to get good grades.

EXERCISE 40 (Page 336)
1. to help
2. to come
3. to patrol
4. to report/reporting
5. searching
6. to raise/raising
7. to give
8. to offer/offering
9. to file
10. to learn
11. to organize
12. to raise
13. to provide
14. choosing
15. feeding
16. feeding

EXERCISE 41 (Pages 337-338)
Most college students go to college in order to be trained for a particular
profession. Many look forward (1) to working as competent engineers, teachers, or
chemists. Before they can begin (2) working (to work), however, they must find a job.
Usually, they are interested (3) in finding a job that offers a good salary and a chance for
promotion. The first hurdle for them (4) to jump is the job interview. Even though they
may be well qualified, getting the right job can be difficult if they are not prepared (5) to
handle the job interview. Kims experience is a good example.
While in school, Kim worked hard to learn his chosen profession, computer
science. When a program did not work properly, Kim kept (6) on trying until it did. He
never hesitated (7) to ask his professors about aspects of computer science that he did not
understand. He even managed (8) to work in the computer room on campus to get
experience. All of his professors agreed that Kim was a well-qualified graduate.
A month before Kim graduated with a B.S. degree, his advisor encouraged him
(9) to sign up for an interview with a large company. The company needed someone (10)
to be a programming supervisor. Kim thought he would be good (11) at doing that job
because he had always enjoyed (12) working with people.
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A week before the interview, Kim became nervous (13) about making a bad
impression, so he asked his advisor (14) to give him some help. His advisor told him (15)
to make a list of possible questions and (16) to practice (17) answering them. He also
urged him (18) not to be afraid (19) of saying anything too controversial. Finally, his
advisor assured him that he was capable (20) of handling the job. Kim thanked his
advisor for his encouragement and agreed (21) to practice (22) answering some possible
questions.
As Kim waited in the outer office to meet the interviewer, however, all of this
good advice seemed (23) to fly out the window. For a brief moment, Kim considered (24)
escaping out the side door. The next thing he knew, he was sitting across the desk from
the interviewer trying (25) to remember all the answers he had planned (26) on giving (to
give). Although he had practiced and was used (27) to giving the right answers, at the
moment he could only stutter and stammer. To this day, he can only remember that the
interview was very short!
You can see that a person can be well qualified for a job but fail (28) to get it
because he or she is not accustomed (29) to performing in a job interview. Perhaps for
students like Kim, how to manage a job interview should be a required course in college.

EXERCISE 42 (Page 339)
One of the most enduring symbols of New York City is the Empire State Building. This
famous structure is located on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan. Construction was begun in
1930 and was completed in 1931. This enormous building rises 1,250 feet into the air. It
has 102 stories, most of which are used for offices. The Empire State Building was once
the tallest building in the world and became especially famous as the building from which
the original King Kong fell. Many tourists who have ridden the elevators to the
observation deck have enjoyed a fascinating and unforgettable view of New York City.

The passive voice is used here when the writer wants to emphasize the building itself and
not the people who planned its location, constructed it, or who use it for offices.

EXERCISE 43 (Page 341)
1b. The counselor lectured the new students about academic honor.
2b. I sailed a sailboat around the world.
3a. The four-minute-mile record has been broken several times.
4b. Everyone will enjoy the dinner.
5b. My teacher has advised that we study every night.

EXERCISE 44 (Pages 341-342)
1. is named
2. were believed
3. is named
4. came
5. was called
6. stuck
7. was named
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8. was changed
9. changed
10. are mailed
11. was built
12. is located
13. takes
14. indicates
15. is located
16. was given
17. means
18. named

EXERCISE 45 (Page 343)
Simple present tense verbs are underlined once. Present progressive verbs are underlined
twice.
Much of David's life is centered around his future career. He wants to be a
sports announcer, so he is attending the University of California and is majoring in
communications. This semester, he is taking his first course in broadcasting. Next
week, he is giving his first demonstration broadcast, and he is planning to
demonstrate his skills in sports announcing. He does not know how he will do; in
fact, he worries about it all the time. He does not want to fail, so each night he
practices in front of the television while a basketball game is going on. He always
records his practice session on a tape recorder. A typical practice broadcast begins
like this:
Good evening, Ladies and Gentlemen, this is David Swenson reporting live
tonight from the press booth at the new sports arena in downtown Pleasantville. The
arena is filled to capacity tonight, and the fans are anxiously waiting for the game to
begin. As you know, the Pleasantville Bears are playing the Hope City Colts. There
appears to be a good deal of excitement in the arena tonight! Here they come! The
fans are cheering wildly! Yes, folks, this crowd loves its team. The game is about to
begin as the players assume their positions on the court for the tip-off. The referee
tosses the ball in the air, and Lawrence Jones, wearing jersey number twenty-two,
tips it to his teammate Tommy Evans. Evans races down the court and slips the ball
to Raoul Gomez. Gomez breaks through the defensive line, shoots, and he misses!
Robinson is there. He catches the rebound and lays that ball in. The crowd is going
wild! Pleasantville takes the lead. . . .
After he finishes the practice broadcast, David plays it back on his recorder and
takes notes. Each time, he improves his performance.





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EXERCISE 46 (Page 345)
Some answers in this exercise may vary, depending on whether students choose to use
simple present or present progressive as the dominant tense that frames the paragraph.
It is wise to discuss the meaning that students had in mind when choosing any answer not
represented here, as they may have discovered yet another correct answer.

Preferring the simple present emphasizes the repetition of the dream each semester.
Choosing to use the present progressive more frequently makes the reader feel as though
the dream is happening right now and emphasizes the urgency that the narrator feels
during the dream.
At the end of each semester as final exams (1) approach (are approaching), I (2) have the
same scary dream. I (3) dream that I have forgotten to drop a class I have not attended
since the first week of school. I (4) rush (am rushing) to the administration building
where there (5) is always a long line. After nervously waiting in line, I (6) get up to the
window and (7) inquire (am inquiring) about dropping the class. The clerk always (8)
tells me that I (9) cannot drop the course because it (10) is too late. I then (11) realize that
I (12) have to take the final exam. In the next scene, I (13) am sitting in a room in a very
old library, which (14) smells like dusty books. There (15) are several other students who
(16) are waiting (wait) at tables all around me. Everyone (17) looks very serious. All of
the other students (18) are wearing (wear) formal clothes. Suddenly, I (19) realize that I
(20) am wearing my pajamas. Since I (21) feel (am feeling) embarrassed and humiliated,
I (22) try to conceal my pajamas by sliding down in my chair. As I (23) sit (am sitting)
there at the table, I (24) look (am looking) around for a way to escape, but it (25) is
impossible. I cannot do anything because the instructor (26) is starting (starts) to pass out
the exams. When I (27) get my exam and (28) read the questions, my heart suddenly (29)
sinks, for I (30) find that I (31) do not know any of the answers. In fact, I (32) do not
even recognize any of the material on the exam. Nevertheless, I (33) try (am trying) to
take the exam. Just as I (34) start (am starting) to write, the bell (35) rings. While the bell
(36) is ringing, I (37) cry out, No, no! Please, I need more time! Then I (38) wake up
and (39) realize that it is my alarm clock going off. Im always (40) glad it is just a
dream!

EXERCISE 47 (Page 346)
Past tense verbs are underlined.
It started out as a nice enough day. The weather was unusually warm for the
third week in November, so I was in a good mood when my mother dropped me off
at school. Everything went as usual that morning: the classes were boring, and
nothing exciting was happening. At noon, I went to the cafeteria for lunch. While I
was standing in line with my friends, I noticed that some of the other students were
excited about something. Then a girl in line asked me if I had heard that someone
had shot the president. I was surprised at this news; however, I figured that it was
probably just a minor wound. Suddenly, a voice came over the loudspeaker
announcing that the president was dead. There was a hush in the cafeteria. Students
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Instructors Manual with Answer Key


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stopped eating. No one was moving; it was as if we were all frozen. That afternoon,
the teachers did not conduct the classes as usual; in fact, most of the teachers
allowed the students to express their feelings about what had happened. Even my old
stodgy English teacher did not conduct class as usual. She did not give us the exam
that she had planned for that day. After school, I went home. Fortunately, no one
was home, for I wanted to be alone. Finally, after three hours of containing my
emotions, I began to cry. I was still crying when my mother arrived home. She came
into my room, put her arms around me, and said, This is a sad day for our country.
Yes, November 22, 1963, was a sad day, a tragic day that was the beginning of a
long, difficult period in American history.


Simple Past Verbs
started
was
dropped
went
were
noticed
asked
figured
came
stopped
did not conduct
allowed
did not give
wanted
began
arrived
put
said



Past Progressive Verbs
was happening
was standing
was moving


was crying

Past Perfect Verbs
had heard
had shot
had happened
had planned

EXERCISE 48 (Pages 348-349)
Albert Einstein was one of the greatest scientists of the twentieth century. His
theories have affected all of modern science. However, as a child, this great man (1) was
often considered dull and (2) was misunderstood by his teachers.
Albert Einstein (3) was born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, 1879. As a child, he
(4) was taciturn and slow in learning to talk. Very often, while other children (5) were
playing (played), he (6) was daydreaming (daydreamed) and (7) thinking (thought).
Although he (8) enjoyed learning, he (9) had problems in school. By the time
Einstein (10) was twelve, his family (11) had moved to a suburb of Munich, and he (12)
attended the Leopold Gymnasium there for two years. He did not enjoy learning Latin
and Greek grammar or mathematics at school because the standard methods of solving
problems (13) did not arouse his imagination. However, he (14) liked solving algebra
problems in his own way at home. Also, by the time he (15) was fifteen, he (16) had read
a number of books on natural science and (17) had developed an enthusiasm for it. Later
in 1895, when Albert (18) wanted a discharge from the gymnasium to join his parents,
who previously (19) had moved to Milan, his teacher (20) helped him get one, telling
Albert that he (21) had been a disruptive influence in the class.
His problems with school (22) followed him to Milan. In 1895, he (23) decided to
go to the famous Polytechnic Institute in Zurich, Switzerland. However, because (24) he
had not received a gymnasium diploma from his school in Munich, the Institute (25)
refused to admit him. He (26) went to a gymnasium in Aarau to obtain his diploma.
After Einstein (27) received it, the Institute finally (28) admitted him at the age of
seventeen.
While Einstein (29) was studying at the Polytechnic Institute, he again (30)
clashed with the educational system. He often (31) cut classes to study more interesting
subjects on his own. This (32) angered his professors. By the time he (33) got his diploma
in 1900, he (34) had angered his theoretical physics professor so much that this professor
(35) prevented Albert from becoming an assistant at the Institute.
Finally, in 1910, Einstein (36) began to publish his revolutionary ideas.
Eventually, the whole world (37) recognized his genius.


EXERCISE 49 (Page 350)
Present perfect tense verbs are underlined. Simple past tense verbs are underlined twice.
Before I came to the United States to study, I was afraid. I heard from my
friends about widespread crime in the United States and about the unfriendliness of
Americans. Since my arrival here six months ago, I can say I have been pleasantly
surprised. I have not found crime everywhere, and, while not all Americans have
been friendly, many of them have been very kind. In fact, I have found this country
to be as safe and almost as friendly as the one I left. Let me give you an example.
One night two weeks ago, I had to walk back to the dorm from a friend's house. It
was quite late, and the streets were lonely and deserted. As I walked along, I saw a
man walking toward me. I said to myself, Oh no, this is it. But when the stranger
finally got close to me, he just said hey, man and kept walking. I realized then that
America is not as dangerous as I thought.
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rd
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EXERCISE 50 (Page 351)
Although people (1) have not stopped shopping at the local mall, because of the
wide availability of the Internet, a whole new way of doing business, called e-commerce,
(2) has developed. When people (3) began to get Internet access in their homes, they (4)
started to shop online. One well-known Internet site, amazon.com, quickly (5) became
the number one online bookseller, largely because it (6) was the first major bookseller
online. Since that time, amazon.com (7) has begun to sell almost anything a person might
want to buy. Another Internet shopping service, buy.com, (8) made a name for itself by
offering a best price guarantee. This strategy (9) has been successful so far. Even in their
first year of business, buy.com (10) had sales of 86 million dollars.
Many other companies (11) have turned to e-commerce as a way to boost sales.
Not all companies make the transition from stores to cyberspace successfully, but many
(12) have profited from e-commerce. Successful cybercompanies (13) have done several
things right. First, they (14) made (have made) sure their prices were low enough to
attract customers. They (15) designed (have designed) easy-to-use Web sites, and they
(16) acquired (have acquired) the newest, fastest, and most secure Internet technology.
E-commerce (17) has allowed retailers to reach a global audience without the cost of
maintaining stores. It is just one of the many ways the Internet (18) has changed our
lives.

EXERCISE 51 (Page 352)
Answers will vary.

EXERCISE 52 (Page 353)
1. was touring
2. noticed
3. was approaching/approached
4. wondered
5. deliver
6. had walked
7. saw
8. was carrying
9. had rented
10. have been
11. see
12. is doing
13. live
14. come
15. live
16. has finished
17. returns
18. work
19. is
20. established
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88
21. has been
22. opened
23. have worked

Appendix II: Using Sources for Support in Your Writing

EXERCISE 1 (Pages 359-360)
1. Pin spite of the citation, the writer has only substituted a few synonyms into Coon
and Mitterers words.
2. Cquotations mark the authors actual words and the source is properly cited.
3. PThe writer has expressed an opinion that Coon and Mitterer have expressed
without giving them credit. A number of phrases are also significantly similar to the
original.
4. PThis is the most blatant case of plagiarism, the writer has copied words from the
original and inserted them into her own text without quotations.
5. CThis information is considered common knowledge and can be found in many
sources.
6. Cthis is good paraphrasing. The writer has changed phrases like change little over
time to stay the same over the years
followers to those who believe in them
seek evidence to pay attention only to information
that appears to confirm their beliefs to that supports the things they already believe to
be true.

EXERCISE 2 (Pages 363-364)
Answers will vary. Possible responses:
1. Labeling foods as good or bad actually oversimplifies nutrition; it is more
important to ensure that peoples diets include both the correct amount of calories for
their energy needs as well as the necessary nutrients (Brown 18-19).
2. It is possible for a diet to consist of foods that most people think are healthy and yet be
deficient in some important nutrients such as fatty acids or a specific vitamin or mineral
(Brown 18-19).
3. Judith Brown claims Ice cream can be a good food for physically active, normal
weight individuals with high calorie need who have otherwise met their nutrient
requirements by consuming nutrient-dense foods (Brown 18-19).








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Answer Key



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89
EXERCISE 3 (Pages 367-369)
Internal citations will vary somewhat but should resemble what follows.

1. Craig Wright asserts that music affects human beings both emotionally and
physically, yet we dont really have a complete understanding of how or why music
has these effects on us (2).

Wright, Craig. Listening to Music. 5
th
ed. Boston: Schirmer. 2010. Print.

2. Charles S. Cockell argues that the larger an endangered organism, the more likely that
it will attract the attention of environmentalists (23+).


Cockell, Charles S. Environmental Ethics and Size. Ethics & the Environment 13: 1
(2008): 23+. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural
Resources. Web (students should insert todays date here in day month year
format).

3. According to the National Womens Health Information Center, a person who wishes
to be an organ donor should sign a donor card and speak with family members about
this intention (n. pag.).

National Women's Health Information Center. Organ Donation. Medline. 19 Aug 2010.
Web (students should insert todays date here in day month year format).