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“THE EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

OF FRESHMEN EDUCATION STUDENTS IN XAVIER UNIVERSITY,

CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY, SCHOOL YEAR 2008-2009”

A research proposal

Presented to:

Dr. Amphie V. Dinagsao

In Partial Fulfilment

Of the Requirements for the Subject Educ 51 & 52

Educational Research

By

Bagongon, Christian K

&

Edpalina, Connie Ryan

April 25, 2009


Table of Contents

Chapter Page

1 The Problem

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Conceptual Framework. . . . . . . . . 3

Schematic Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . 3

Statement of the Problem. . . . . . . . . 5

Null Hypothesis. . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Significance of the Study. . . . . . . . . . 6

Scope and Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . 8

Definition of Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2 Review of Related Literature and Studies. . . . . . 10

3 Research Methodology. . . . . . . . . . . 17

Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Samplings and Respondents. . . . . . . . . . 17

Research Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Data Gathering. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Instruments Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Appendices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Curriculum Vitae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM

A. Introduction

The extent of student’s learning in academics may be

determined by the grades a student earns for a period of learning has been

done. It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a

learner earns high grades it is concluded that they may also have learned a

lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and

studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the

grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades. It

has been an interplay of so many factors – gender, IQ, study habits, age, year

level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth

order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors

are a variable of academic performance. However, at this point in time, the

researchers would like to investigate the possible relationship of study habits

and the factors affecting it to the academic achievement of under graduate

education students of Xavier University- Ateneo de Cagayan. The

investigation of on this area thus becomes a real and compelling motivation

for the researchers to conduct this study.


B. Conceptual Framework

Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Time Management
Learning Skills Study Habits
Study Skills

Independent variables as it influence the dependent variable of this

research are on the bases of psychological and educational theories,

principles and concepts.

Many studies say that learning are better acquired and mastered as

soon as the learner attends to it. Gestalt psychology mentions the Law of

Proximity referring to the way in which he tends to form groups according to

the way they are spaced, with the nearer once being grouped together (Tria,

et. Al., 1998). As applied to learning, this refers to the closeness in space or in

time. Furthermore, it explains why it is easier to remember recent events and

hence more easily joined with the interest of the present in a common Gestalt

(tria, et. Al., 1998). In application to learning process, immediate and regular

study periods and doing school requirements tend to result in a better

performance than delayed and erratic study periods do.


Diverse study techniques, even for the improvement of memory stress the

importance of immediacy in remembering and learning.

Thorndikes Law of Exercise further supports this kind of principle

asserting that, other things being equal, the more frequent a modifiable

connection between a situation and response is used, the stronger is the

connection.

When a modifiable connection between a situation and a response is

not being use over a period of time, the strength of that connection is

weakened. A behaviour that is stimulated over regular periods will tend to be

repeated leading to habit formation. A student who has developed this kind of

behaviour, in this case, in terms of having regular and scheduled study

periods and follows certain methods in studying proves to have better

performance.

The study focuses on the factors affecting study habits, influencing the

academic performance of the student. In this view, the researchers wanted to

study the factors in which affect the study habits.

C. Statement of the Problem

This study intended to find out the factors affecting the study habits of

undergraduate XU -Education students.

It also aimed to answer the following questions:

1) What is the profile of the respondents according to:

1.1 Time management

1.2 Learning Skills

1.3 Study Skills


2) What extent of influence did the independent variables have on student

study habits?

3) Did the independent variables significantly influence students study

habits?

D. Null Hypothesis

Based on the three specific problems which are of concern of this

research, problem 1 is hypothesis-free. For problems 2 and 3 however, the

following null hypotheses were stated.

Ho1: The independent variables do not significantly influence the study

habits.

Ho2: Time management, Learning skills and study skills do not have a

significant influence on study habits

E. Significance of the Study

The researchers believes that students, particularly Xavier University

will be benefited from the findings of this study since the study provides

basis for awareness and better understanding of how their current study

habits affected their academic performance. Likewise gives them a more

focused and clear perspective on how the specific behaviours related to

their studies influenced study habits. Consequently, this awareness also

gives a much deeper understanding of their selves as students considering

that the college life is typically beset of developmental adjustment demands.


School administrators, like subject area coordinators, may also be

guided in the formulation of future modification of educational policies,

curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of learning.

Teachers will also be help in understanding better the diversity of

learning of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could develop more

effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter.

Guidance and Counselling Centre will also be help by this study

through providing a more focused and factual knowledge on the factors

affecting students study habits. This increased the understanding of the

Guidance Counsellors on the interplay of the variables studied in this

research. Such knowledge is hoped to help the Guidance and Counselling

practitioners towards the development and implementation of more effective

programs in consideration of these variables.

Students will be given information on how study affects their academic

performance. The result of the study will make them aware of the common

study habits among their co- education students.

Future Researchers, they may be able to use the result of the study in

farther research similar to what the study is.

F. Scope and Limitations

The scope of this research are the Education students here in Xavier

University of all year levels. The limitations of this research are only those

students that are currently enrolled at XU and is having the prescribe study

load for a given semester. Only those undergraduate education students are

allowed to participate in the research.


This study considered only Xavier University and the students of it.

This may have an effect on the generalizability of the study and its findings.

However, its findings, at least some portion and extent of it may still hold true

to other schools possessing the same characteristics or adhering to the same

educational vision, mission, objectives, and curricula of the studies of Xavier

University.

G. Definition of Terms

Constitutive Definition:

• Factors- one that actively contributes to an accomplishments,

results, or process

• Develop- to bring out the capabilities or possibilities of

• Study Habits- manner which you consistently use to study for

school or college or even for the next day lesson.

• Students- describe as one who directs zeal at a subject. Student is

used for anyone who is learning.

Operational Definition:

• Factors- these refers to anything that affects study habits

• Develop- refers to fast or gradual changes in a range of time

• Study Habits- refers to the ways of studying on a particular subject

• XU Students- referring to all officially enrolled students of Xavier

University
Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE & STUDIES

According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008),

they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours out

of class for every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must have

a special place to study with plenty of room to work. And students should not

be cramped. They presupposes that study time will go better if a learner take

a few minutes at the start to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backed

chair is usually best. “ Don't get too comfortable--a bed is a place to sleep, not

to study” as what they said. A student must have everything close at hand

(book, pencils, paper, coffee, dictionary, computer, calculator, tape recorder,

etc.) before starting to study. Students are not suggested to spend on time

jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggests also that distracting

noise should be minimized however they said that there are some people

need sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must finds what

works for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. consider a "do not

disturb" sign and turning on your answering machine is the way also to have

better study habits according to the PBBC..

Frank Pogue(2000) did a research project to determine why

students fail. What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that

more than 30 years ago still rings true today--students fail because they do

not know how to study .The best advice he can give is to develop sound study

skills.
He said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good study

environment, a good desk, a sturdy chair, good light, comfortable room

temperature and a quiet atmosphere. That means he/she should eliminate all

external and internal distractions. Second, get a good overview of the

assignment before starting the work. Know what skills, facts and ideas that

are expected to master and the ground that are expected to cover. Start with

most difficult subject first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive.

Professors in the developing countries said that the

undergraduate students should be fully equip with high level of analytical

skills, the capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp

and ability to learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind (Simmons

2003). Study habits are said to be improving because of the advent and wide

use of the Internet, hypertext, and multimedia resources which greatly affects

the Study Habits (Liu, 2005). Karim and Hassan (2006) also note the

exponential growth digital information, which changes the way students

perceive studying and with printed materials that are to be use in facilitating

study. Liu (2005) and Ramirez (2003) report that students print material from

the Internet in order to study and read later on. Igun (2005) also found that

Nigerians study from materials downloaded from the Internet.

Reading is an attempt to absorb the thought of the author and

know what the author is conveying (Leedy 1956). Studying is the

interpretation of reading materials. Study habits and skills are particularly

important for college students, whose needs include time management, note

taking, Internet skill, the elimination of distractions, and assigning a high

priority to study.
Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical

reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and

synthesizing. Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies

that enable students work private.

The study conducted by Hope L. Graven (2008) on the relationship

between an individual's amount of caffeine consumption during his/her study

session and the individual's study habits showed that the main effect of

drinking caffeine on exam preparation was not significant There were

participants, 20 male and 58 female college students (N=78), answered self-

ratings on their personal consumption of caffeine as well as their study habits

when preparing for a test/exam. It was hypothesized that the more caffeine a

student consumes while studying, the more accurately his or her study habits

would be labeled as 'unhealthy', as determined by the researchers. Unhealthy

study habits were operationally defined as low scores on amount of time per

study session, time(in days) when preparation began, and amount of

information the participants believed they had retained. High scores on

anxiety level were included in 'unhealthy' study habits. A Pearson correlation

indicated no relationship between amount of caffeine consumed while

studying and the individual's effectiveness of studying and preparation.

Marcus Credé and Nathan R. Kuncel (2008) in their research at the

University of Albany said that Study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and

constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as

predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity

in predicting academic performance. The meta-analysis examined the

construct validity and predictive validity of 10 study skill constructs for college
students. They found that study skill inventories and constructs are largely

independent of both high school grades and scores on standardized

admissions tests but moderately related to various personality constructs;

these results were inconsistent with previous theories. Study motivation and

study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average

and grades in individual classes. They also said that Academic specific

anxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance. In

addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown.

Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories are the most

predictive of performance, whereas scores on inventories based on the

popular depth-of-processing perspective are shown to be least predictive of

the examined criteria. Overall, study habit and skill measures improve

prediction of academic performance more than any other noncognitive

individual difference variable examined to date and should be regarded as the

third pillar of academic success.

According to the how-to-study.com (2009), students who are very

successful in their desired career have good study habits. It is stated in the

website that students apply these habits to all of their classes. The website

also recommends some tips in improving study habits. The website also

suggests that the student should try not to study all the subjects in just a

period. The website also added that if you try to do too much studying at one

time, you will tire and your studying will not be very effective. Space the work

you have to do over shorter periods of time. Taking short breaks will restore

your mental energy.


A study conducted by University of Kentucky was to determine if

the college success can be improved with the Student Attitude Inventory

(SAI). The inventory was developed in Britain and contains 47 items which

attempt to identify students in higher education on the basis of: (1) motivation,

(2) study methods, (3) examination technique, and (4) lack of distractions

toward academic work. Students in six Kentucky community colleges were

asked to express their attitudes toward study habits on the Student Attitude

Inventory. There were 996 students in the sample population (413 males and

583 females). A measure of ability (composite American College Test score)

and academic performance (cumula grade-point average) were obtained for

each student sampled. The Student Attitude Inventory did contribute a

statistically significant amount of variance beyond an ability measure for

males and females. ( Mark E. Thompson, 2005)

According to Mark Crilly (2000), Successful students are able to

balance social activities with good study habits. A diversion from studies will

alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued. He said that a

student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies

to meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with a

new acquaintance. For this way, that student will find concentration when he

do study, if he plans a social activity afterwards. He said, “To develop a

healthy social life, develop routine study habits. After supper, lug your books

and homework to the library, find a comfortable and quiet niche, and study for

two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or

so.” Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a
table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing study

habits as what Mark said.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methodology that will be use in the conduct

of this study and will include the discussion of research design, samplings,

respondents, data gathering and statistical instrument used.

A. The Research Design

The study will use the descriptive survey design in its attempt to

determine, describe and analyze relationships between time management,

learning skills, and study skills and the dependent variable which is the

study habits. It tries to find out if the independent variables significantly

influence the dependent variable.

B. Samplings and Respondents

Education Students who are enrolled during the recent school year at

Xavier University which is comprised 5 percent of the total population will the

sample size of the study. The sample population is 286 taken the total from

the 1000 Education students of Xavier University. The names of the

students of the total population will be arranged alphabetically and


according to year levels. Simple stratified random method, proportionate to

size will be done based on the random numbers generated by Minitab or

Excel. Names will then be picked up and these will be included in the

sample population.

C. Research Settings

The study will be conducted inside the Learning Research Center in

Xavier University Ateneo De Cagayan.

D. Data Gathering

The researchers will ask permission from the dean of school of

education to allow the education student to answer the questionnaire. The

answering of the questionnaire will be done in the Learning Research Centre

(LRC). Answered questionnaires then, will be gather, responses coded and

will be subject to the appropriate statistical computation for reliability. These

students name will then be deleted from the list of the total population so as

not to include them again in the selection of the sample population.

E. Instruments Use

Self- developed questionnaire composed of 10 items questions will be

use to measure Study Habits of Education Students.


Bibliography

Books

Tulio, D., Foundation of Education 2. Mandaluyong City: Echanis Press,


2008

Noll, J., Educational Issues, USA: Mcgraw-Hill Companies, 2006

Thomas, G., Education and Theory ( Strangers in Paradigm), New York:


Open University Press, 2007

Hargreaves, S., Study Skills for Dyslexic Students, California: SAGE


Publication Inc.,2007

Schultz, F., Annual Editions Education, USA: Mcgraw-Hill Companies,


2005

Fullan, M., and Germain, C., Learning Places, USA: Corwin Press, 2006

McGregor, D., Developing Thinking Developing Learning, England: Open


University Press, 2007

Mirasol, G.C., Extent of Influence of Study Habits, Attitude and Peer


Relationship on Students’ Academic Performance: St. Michael’s College,
Secondary Level, Philippines: 2002

Internet Links

“The Ten Study Habits of Successful Students”, February 18, 2009


(http://how-to-study.com/study-habits.htm)

“Establishing Good Study Habits”, February 16, 2009


(http://www.academictips.org/acad/literature/establishinggoodstudyhabits.html
)

“Study habits of postgraduate students in selected Nigerian universities”,


February 14, 2009: by Igun, Stella E.,Adogbeji, Oghenevwogaga Benson
(http://www.articlearchives.com/education-training/students-student-
life/1548550-1.html)
“The Prediction of Academic Achievement by The British Study Habits
Iinventory”, Mark E. Thompson,2005: February 16,
2009(http://www.springerlink.com/content/w3715h5884172656/)

“Study Habits, Skills, and Attitudes: The Third Pillar Supporting Collegiate
Academic Performance” ,February 21, 2009: by Marcus Credé and Nathan
R. Kuncel (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121531774/abstract?
CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0)

Appendix

PERMISSION LETTER TO DEAN

For the Administration of Research Questionnaire

Date___________

Lourdes Tulod, PhD


School Of Education
Xavier University

Dear Ma’am:

Praised Be Jesus & Mary!

The undersigned is currently conducting a study on the “Factors Affecting


Study Habits of XU- students”. This undertaking is part of the requirements for
the completion of the subject on Educ 50 Educational Research.

The respondents of this study are the undergraduate students of your


university. We would like to give the questionnaire to those who will be
randomly chosen to be the respondents of the research.

In connection with this, I would like to request your approval to allow us to


schedule the administration of the research .

Looking forward for your much needed approval on this request.

Sincerely,

Bagongon, Christian K
Edpalina, Connie Ryan

The researchers

Appendix

COVER LETTER TO THE QUESTIONAIRE ON STUDY HABITS

Dear_______________________,

A blessed day!

I have the honor to request your participation in the study presently

conducted by the researchers in Xavier University. The study wants to know

the factors affecting study habits and their relationships on your

academic performance. Its respondents are the undergraduate students of

this university. Such study is a requirement for the completion of the subject

Educ 50 Educational Research currently taking at Xavier University, Cagayan

de Oro City. We are therefore requesting you to give this questionnaire your

utmost attention. Rest assured that your responses here will only be used for

the study and therefore are confidential from other persons not related in any

way to the study.

Thank you very much.

Sincerely,

Bagongon, Christian K
Edpalina, Connie Ryan

The researchers

Survey Questionnaire on Study Habits

Name_______________________ Course &


Year______________
Age______Gender_______
Date________________
Direction: Please put check (√) on the space that corresponds to what you
are actually doing, thinking, and feeling regarding the statement. There are no
right and wrong answers to this questionnaire. Rest assured that your
answers will be treated in strictest and will be used only for this study.

1. What is your gender?

Male _____ Female ______

2. What year are you in college?

1st year ____ 2nd year ______ 3rd year _____ 4th year ______

3. What is your average grade?

A _____ A- ______ B______ B- ______ C______ D ______

4. How far in advance do you start studying for finals?

One month ____ Two weeks______ One week _____ Days

before_____

The night before_______

5. What time of day do you do the most studying?

Morning (6 a.m. to noon _____ Afternoon (noon to 6 p.m.) _____

Evening (6 p.m. to 9 p.m.) _____ Night (9 p.m. to 12 a.m.) _____

Late night (12 a.m. to 6 a.m.) _____

6. On average, how many hours do you study for finals?


20-24 hours ______ 15-19 hours_______10-14 hours _______ 5-9 hours

________

1-4 hours _________

7. What is your favorite way to study?

Repeating points out loud _____ Writing index/flash cards, then using

them_______

Writing outlines _______ Highlighting text ______ Studying in a

group__________

Going to review sessions ______ Other, please describe :

________________

8. Where is your favorite place to study?

Dorm room _____ Bedroom _______ Dorm common room/lounge

_______

Library ______ Coffee shop _______ Parents’ home ______ Campus

pub/bar _____

Student union _______ Other, please describe: _______________

9. What is your favorite study break?

Exercise _______ Watching TV/movie ____Surfing the Internet _______

Napping _________ Socializing ______ Playing video games ________

Praying/meditating ______ Other, please describe: _______________

10. Do you feel increased stress or anxiety leading up to exam time?

Yes ____ No _____

.
CURRICULUM VITAE

Name : Bagongon, Christian Kaki

Address : Zone 1, Lumbia, Cagayan de oro City

Birthday : September 11, 1990

Civil : Single

Religious Affiliation: Roman Catholic

Name of Parents : Irenio C. Bagongon

Sylvia S. Kaki

Educational Background
College : Bachelor of Secondary Education
Xavier University- Ateneo de Cagayan
Cagayan de Oro City

High School : Lumbia National High School, Cagayan de Oro City

Grade School : Lumbia Elementary School, Cagayan de Oro City

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name : Edpalina, Connie Ryan Valcurza

Address : Brgy. 24, Captain Vicente Roa St.

Birthday : September 12, 1990

Civil : Single

Religious Affiliation: Protestant

Name of Parents : Edpalina, Samuel Mabilin

Edpalina, Evangeline Valcurza

Educational Background

College : Bachelor of Secondary Education


Xavier University- Ateneo de Cagayan
Cagayan de Oro City
High School : Misamis Oriental General Comprehensive High
School

Grade School : City Central School