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COMPUTER

ARCHITECTURE
THE PROCESSOR
(ALSO THE CPU)
Think back

What is a computer processor?

What does the computer processor do?

What parts of the computer does the computer
processor communicate with?






EXAMPLES OF CPUS
Arithmetic and
Logic Unit (ALU)
RAM (Random Access Memory)
Output
Devices
Control
Unit (CU)
Input
Devices
A SIMPLE COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
Processor
Registers
Cache
Which unit performs which functions?
Place the statements in the correct boxes to show
which unit performs which function within a
computer system
PARTS OF A PROCESSOR TASK
1. In pairs discuss the statements and decide
which part of the computer, the CU, ALU or
RAM, they best describe.

Finished?

Modern computers use different types of memory units to
store data temporarily during processing.

Can you name any of these?
1. Stores data currently in use

2. Performs logical operations

3. Synchronises actions using inbuilt clocks

4. Stores working parts of operating system

5. Manages execution of instructions using control signals

6. Performs arithmetic operations

7. Controls fetch execute cycle

8. Stores software currently in use

9. Acts as gateway between processor and input\ output devices
Sorting statements
Performs arithmetic operations

Performs logical operations

Acts as gateway between processor
and input\ output devices



Manages execution of instructions
using control signals

Synchronises actions using inbuilt clock

Controls fetch execute cycle



Stores data currently in use

Stores software currently in use

Stores working parts of operating system




Which unit performs which functions?
Place the statements in the correct boxes to show
which unit performs which function within a
computer system
TYPES OF MEMORY
A MODERN PROCESSOR
A MULTI CORE
PROCESSOR
SUMMARY
The Control Unit manages all other parts of the
processor Decides what to do and what part
should do it.

The Arithmetic Logic Unit performs all
computer calculations and acts as a gateway
to other parts of the computer.

The Memory Unit stores all data and
instructions.

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)

1. Used for temporary storage of data and programs.
2. Large number of store locations - each stores 1 binary digit .
3. Each store location is identified by a unique address.






RAM is volatile - the data is lost when power is switched off.

Example: When you are working on a spreadsheet, the program you are
using and the spreadsheet data are both stored in RAM.


READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)
1. Used for storing permanent data.
2. The data cannot be altered.






ROM is non-volatile. The data is never lost.

Example: Stores the boot-strapping program

This is the program which starts the program running

1. Stores data temporarily.
2. Improves the speed of a computer.
3. Supplies data to the CPU faster than normal RAM.
4. Used to store the most frequently used data.

E.g. when a loop in a program is executed, the data that is
repeatedly used may be placed in cache memory.

BUSES
WHAT IS A BUS
A bus is a path down which data can pass.

think of a bus as being a set of wires which is
reserved for a particular type of information.
THE FIRST BUS
ARCHITECTURE
Processor
RAM
(Memory Unit)
Input/ Output
Devices
BUS
BUSES WITHIN THE
PROCESSOR
Same same but different!
Buses perform the same job around the computer just at
a different level of processing
THREE TYPES OF
BUSES
Data bus: carries the data between parts of
the computer.

Address bus: carries the location address to
were the data is going to & come from.

Control bus: carries instructions to different
parts of the computer.
HOW THE BUSES
COMMUNICATE
Main Memory Processor
Keyboard
Input
Controller
Visual
Display
Unit
Controller
Control Bus
Data Bus
Address Bus
Magnetic
Disk
Controller
SUMMARY
A bus is a path which data can pass down

Three types:
Data bus: carries the data. (The actual thing to be
used)

Address bus: carries the address. (Were the data is
going to and from)

Control bus: carries control signals. (The
commands sent from the processor to the other
parts of the computer)
USE OF
REGISTERS


WHAT IS A
REGISTER
Small areas of computer memory
within the processor itself.

Stores a single item of data.

They keep track of instructions and
data as they move around the
processor.


Processor
Memory
Can a centimetre really make that much of a difference?
WHY HAVE
REGISTERS?
LOCATION OF
REGISTERS
Registers
Notice its
location to the
ALU

Can anyone
think why?
TYPES OF
REGISTERS
Logical order of registers:

1. Program Counter (PC)
2. Memory Address Register (MAR)
3. Memory Data Register (MDR)
4. Instruction Register (IR)
5. Accumulator (AX)
Can anyone guess what some of these might be used
for?

FUNCTION OF
DIFFERENT REGISTERS
Program Counter: Stores the memory address to the
next instruction to be executed

Memory Address Register: This register contains the
memory location of the data that is to be retrieved
next.

Memory Data Register: Contains the data that has
recently being copied from main memory.

FUNCTION OF
DIFFERENT REGISTERS

Instruction Register: Holds the current instruction
while it is being decoded and executed.

Accumulator: Used as a temporary store for the
result of the last arithmetic or logical operation.

SUMMARY
Registers are small areas of computer
memory within the processor.

They keep track of instructions and data as
they move around the processor.

Various different types performing different
roles.