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Sharon Tooney

MATHS PROGRAM : STAGE TWO


YEAR THREE
WEEKLY ROUTINE
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday


Whole Number 1
Terms 1-4


Number & Algebra
Terms 1-4: Addition and Subtraction 1
Terms 1-4 : Multiplication & Division 1
Terms 1 & 3: Patterns and Algebra 1
Terms 2 & 4: Fractions and Decimals 1



Statistics & Probability
Terms 1 & 3: Data 1
Terms 2 & 4: Chance 1





Measurement & Geometry
Term 1: Length 1 / Time 1 / 2D 1 / Position 1
Term 2: Mass 1 / 3D 1 / Angles 1
Term 3: Volume and Capacity 1 / Time 1 / 2D 1 / Position 1
Term 4: Area 1 / 3D1 / Angles 1



Sharon Tooney

K-6 MATHEMATICS SCOPE AND SEQUENCE
NUMBER AND ALGEBRA MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY STATISTICS &
PROBABILITY

TERM
Whole
Number
Addition &
Subtraction
Multiplication
& Division
Fractions &
Decimals
Patterns
& Algebra
Length Area Volume &
Capacity
Mass Time 3D 2D Angles Position Data Chance
K 1
2
3
4
Yr 1 1
2
3
4
Yr 2 1
2
3
4
Yr 3 1
2
3
4
Yr 4 1
2
3
4
Yr 5 1
2
3
4
Yr 6 1
2
3
4
NB: Where a content strand has a level 1 & 2, the 1 refers to the lower grade within the stage, eg. Whole Number 1 in S1 is for Yr 1, Whole Number 2 is for Yr 2.


Sharon Tooney

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA
STAGE:
ES1 S1 S2 S3

STRAND:
NUMBER AND ALGEBRA
TERM:
1 2 3 3
WEEK:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SUBSTRAND: Whole Number 1 KEY CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW
OUTCOMES
A student:
uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to
represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM
selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies,
or technology, to solve problems MA2-2WM
checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the
reasoning used MA2-3WM
applies place value to order, read and represent numbers
of up to five digits MA2-4NA
Background Information
The place value of digits in various numerals should be
investigated. Students should understand, for example, that
the '5' in 35 represents 5 ones, but the '5' in 53 represents 50
or 5 tens.

Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following
language: number before, number after, more than, greater
than, less than, largest number, smallest number, ascending
order, descending order, digit, zero, ones, groups of ten,
tens, groups of one hundred, hundreds, groups of one
thousand, thousands, place value, round to.
The word 'and' is used between the hundreds and the tens
when reading and writing a number in words, but not in
other places, eg 3568 is read as 'three thousand, five
hundred and sixtyeight'.
The word 'round' has different meanings in different
contexts, eg 'The plate is round', 'Round 23 to the nearest
ten'.
Recognise, model, represent and order numbers to at least
10 000
represent numbers of up to four digits using objects,
words, numerals and digital displays
- make the largest and smallest number from four given
digits
identify the number before and after a given two-, three-
or four-digit number
- describe the number before as 'one less than' and the
number after as 'one more than' a given number
count forwards and backwards by tens and hundreds on
and off the decade, eg 1220, 1230, 1240, (on the decade);
423, 323, 223, (off the decade)
arrange numbers of up to four digits in ascending and
descending order
- use place value to compare and explain the relative size of
four-digit numbers
use the terms and symbols for 'is less than' and 'is greater
than' to show the relationship between two numbers
Apply place value to partition, rearrange and regroup
numbers to at least 10 000 to assist calculations and solve
problems
apply an understanding of place value and the role of zero
to read, write and order numbers of up to four digits
- interpret four-digit numbers used in everyday contexts
use place value to partition numbers of up to four digits, eg
3265 as 3 groups of one thousand, 2 groups of one hundred,
6 groups of ten and 5 ones
state the 'place value' of digits in numbers of up to four
digits, eg 'In the number 3426, the place value of the "4" is
400 or 4 hundreds'
record numbers of up to four digits using place value, eg
5429 = 5000 + 400 + 20 + 9
partition numbers of up to four digits in non-standard
forms, eg 3265 as 32 hundreds and 65 ones
round numbers to the nearest ten, hundred or thousand
Learning Across The Curriculum
Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures
Asia & Australias engagement with Asia
Sustainability

General capabilities

Critical & creative thinking
Ethical understanding
Information & communication technology capability
Intercultural understanding
Literacy
Numeracy
Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas

Civics & citizenship
Difference & diversity
Work & enterprise
Sharon Tooney


CONTENT WEEK TEACHING, LEARNING and ASSESSMENT

ADJUSTMENTS RESOURCES REG
Recognise,
model, represent
and order
numbers to at
least 10 000


Apply place
value to
partition,
rearrange and
regroup numbers
to at least 10 000
to assist
calculations and
solve problems
























1
Spin, Double and Flip
Prepare a spinner displaying numerals one to ten and a flip counter. To make the flip
counter, on one side of a counter write +1 and on the other side write -1. Provide the
students with a strip of paper to record five numbers in the range 1 21. Students take
turns to spin a number on the spinner. They then double the number to find the answer. If
the student has this number on their paper strip they may cross it off. If the doubled
number is one more or one less than a number on their paper strip, the student may
choose to toss the flip counter. The winner is the first person to cross off all five numbers.
Variations
All students in the group may cross off the answer if they have it on their paper strip.
Ask the students to write the five numerals vertically down a piece of paper.
Support: Play as two teams
before having the students
play independently.
Students record three
numbers on a paper strip
instead of five.
Extension: When the answer
has been calculated the
student records the
number sentence next to
the answer.
Spinners, counters,
paper strips, pencils


2
Addition Star
Prepare a copy of Addition star BLM for each pair of students. The students will also need a
counter and two dice. The students roll the dice and use the numbers that are rolled to
indicate the target number. Eg, if a 5 and a 3 are rolled the students may choose to make
the target number 53 or 35. Once the target number has been decided, the first player rolls
one of the dice again and places the counter on the corresponding numeral on the star. If a
six is rolled, the player may place the counter on any of the numerals. The second player
then moves the counter along any line to add another number to the tally. If a player is able
to add a number that bridges the total to the next decade, they have another turn. For
example, student A starts at five. Student B moves to one and states the total, Six!.
Player A moves the counter to four and states the total, Ten! I made it to the decade so I
have another turn! The game continues until one player reaches the target number.
Variation
Start at the target number and subtract from the tally on each move. If a player moves
down to the next decade, they have another turn.
Extension: Students record
the target number and the
additions.
Addition star BLM,
dice, counters


3
Brainy Fish
Prepare a baseboard using Brainy fish BLM and a spinner displaying the following
instructions: Double it, Double it plus one, Double it take away one, How many more
to make 10? (Brainy fish spinner). Organise the students into groups or pairs and provide
them with a fish baseboard, a die and a supply of counters. Each student will need his or
her own colour counters. Have the students take turns to firstly roll the die, then spin the
instruction spinner. After following the instructions on the spinner, the student determines
the answer and places his or her counter onto a corresponding numeral on the baseboard.
More than one counter may be placed on a numeral. The activity continues until one
student is able to place three counters in a row.
Support: use transparent
counters for students who
still need to see the
numbers.
Brainy fish BLM,
spinner, dice,
counters


4
Addition Wheel Pairs
Provide the students with a copy of the addition wheel worksheet. Ask the students to
nominate a double fact they know where the answer is bigger than ten. The students then
Support: Provide concrete
materials. Work with
doubles to ten.
Addition wheel BLM
Sharon Tooney















































write the total for the double fact on the centre of the wheel and the doubles combination
on one of the spokes. Have the students add one to one of the numbers and take away one
from the other number so that the total remains the same. The students then record the
new number sentence on the next spoke of the wheel. Continue adding and subtracting
one from the number sentence until all the spokes are filled. On the second wheel ask the
students to add ten to the centre number and determine the addition combinations using
the first wheel to help them. Discuss the similarities between the two wheels.
Variation:
Ask the students to find partners who used the same number of spokes on the addition
wheel and compare addition pairs.
Extension: increase the
difficulty of the doubles and
add-ons

5
Singles or Doubles?
Prepare two dice. one displaying numerals 1 6 and the other marked S, S, S, D, D, D. S
means the number rolled on the other dice remains as a single number. D means the
number rolled on the other dice is doubled. Each student takes a turn to roll the dice and
keeps a tally of his or her score. The first player to reach 100 is the winner.
Variation:
Start with a score of 100 and subtract the rolled number.
Support: Provide concrete
materials.

Extension: work with dice
that have values higher than
6.
Dice, paper and
pencils


6
Even Stevens
Prepare nine cardboard squares and write the number one on three cards, the number
four on three cards and the number sixteen on the remaining three cards. Place the
cards into a box with a lid. Instruct the students to write the even numbers to 62 on a piece
of paper. Have one of the students take a turn to shake the box and then turn it up so the
cards fall to the floor. The student then adds up any cards that have landed face-up and if
the sum is on his or her paper, crosses it off. The first player to cross off ten different
numerals wins.
Variations:
Have the students determine all of the numbers that can be created using the cards, prior
to playing the game.
Students construct bingo boards with some of the even numbers to fifty recorded on each
students board.
Support: Model building
numbers to 10 and 20 and
doubling .
The first player to cross off 5
different numerals wins.
Provide the students with a
100-chart. After the student
has added the cards, s/he
crosses off the number on
the 100-chart.

Cardboard squares,
box with a lid, paper
and pencils


7
Engineers Dice
Provide each group of students with five dice. To play the game a target number is selected
by the group. The students then take turns to roll the dice in the following way:
Roll all five dice. Choose two of the dice and nominate an operation (+ - x ) to carry out
with the numbers rolled. Record the result. Discard these two dice.
Roll the remaining three dice. Choose one number rolled, complete another operation (+ -
x ) with the chosen number and the first score. Discard that die.
Roll the remaining two dice. Choose one number rolled and complete the same process
as the step above using the current total.
Roll the last die and complete the same process using the current total.
After each player has had his or her turn, the students compare their totals to see who is
closest to the target score.
Support: Provide concrete
materials.

Extension: Change the
operations that can be used.
For example, doubling plus
one.
Sets of die, paper and
pencils

Sharon Tooney



























8
Fancy Dice
Provide each group with five dice. Each student takes it in turn to roll the dice and add the
total. The student continues to roll the five dice and accumulate the total unless a two or
a five is rolled. If so, any dice displaying a two or a five must be taken out for all
subsequent throws for that player. The student throws the remaining dice again and keeps
going until he or she has no dice left. If six is rolled on two of the dice, the player loses all
of the score for that turn and it is the next players turn. If six is rolled on three dice, the
player loses all of his or her score, returning to zero and it is the next players turn. The first
player to reach 200 wins.
Variation:
Each player begins with a score of 200 and the total is subtracted from 100. The first player
to reach zero is the winner.
Each student will need to
keep his or her own
accumulating total. Have
each student demonstrate
to the group how the
addition or subtraction was
calculated (support or
extension should be
provided at this point)
Sets of die, paper and
pencils


9
Counter Play
Organise the students into pairs and provide each pair with a copy of Counter play BLM,
seven counters of one colour, say red, and one counter of another colour, say blue, and
paper and pencil for scoring. Have the students lay out the counters so that the blue
counter is on the top left hand corner of the grid and the red counters are on all other
squares except the bottom right-hand corner. This corner does not begin with a counter on
it. The aim is for the students to move the blue counter to the opposite corner keeping to
the following rules:
All moves must be vertical or horizontal.
Only one counter must be on a square at any time.
Take it in turns to move a counter.
A player can only move one space at each turn.
A player cannot uncover the same number twice in a row.
Players keep score by adding the number on the square the counter was moved from to
their total. The player with the lowest score, when the blue counter is placed on the 6,
wins.
Extension: Have students
record and explain their
methods for adding.
Counter play BLM,
counters, paper and
pencils


10
Revision and Assessment



ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

Sharon Tooney

Counter Play


4


3

8

9


5

1

2


7

6

Sharon Tooney

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA
STAGE:
ES1 S1 S2 S3

STRAND:
NUMBER AND ALGEBRA
TERM:
1 2 3 3
WEEK:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SUBSTRAND: Addition and Subtraction 1 KEY CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW
OUTCOMES
A student:
uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to
represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM
selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies,
or technology, to solve problems MA2-2WM
checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the
reasoning used MA2-3WM
uses mental and written strategies for addition and
subtraction involving two-, three-, four and five-digit
numbers MA2-5NA
Background Information
An inverse operation is an operation that reverses the effect
of the original operation. Addition and subtraction are
inverse operations; multiplication and division are inverse
operations.
In Stage 2, it is important that students apply and extend
their repertoire of mental strategies for addition and
subtraction. The use of concrete materials to model the
addition and subtraction of two or more numbers, with and
without trading, is intended to provide a foundation for the
introduction of the formal algorithm in Addition and
Subtraction 2.
One-cent and two-cent coins were withdrawn by the
Australian Government in 1990. Prices can still be expressed
in one-cent increments, but the final bill is rounded to the
nearest five cents (except for electronic transactions), eg
$5.36, $5.37 round to $5.35
$5.38, $5.39, $5.41, $5.42 round to $5.40
$5.43, $5.44 round to $5.45.

Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following
language: plus, add, addition, minus, the difference
between, subtract, subtraction, equals, is equal to, is the
same as, number sentence, empty number line, strategy,
digit, estimate, round to.
Students need to understand the different uses for the =
sign, eg 4 + 1 = 5, where the = sign indicates that the right
side of the number sentence contains 'the answer' and
should be read to mean 'equals', compared to a statement of
equality such as 4 + 1 = 3 + 2, where the = sign should be
read to mean 'is the same as'.
Recall addition facts for single-digit numbers & related subtraction facts to
develop increasingly efficient mental strategies for computation
add 3 or more single-digit numbers
model & apply the associative property of add to aid mental computation,
eg 2 + 3 + 8 = 2 + 8 + 3 = 10 + 3 = 13
apply known single-digit add & sub facts to mental strategies for add &
sub of 2, 3 & 4 digit numbers, including:
the jump strategy on an empty number line, eg 823 + 56: 823 + 50 =
873, 873 + 6 = 879
the split strategy, eg 23 + 35: 20 + 30 + 3 + 5 = 58
the compensation strategy, eg 63 + 29: 63 + 30 = 93, subtract 1 to
obtain 92
using patterns to extend number facts, eg 500 200: 5 2 = 3, so 500
200 = 300
bridging the decades, eg 34 + 26: 34 + 6 = 40, 40 + 20 = 60
changing the order of addends to form multiples of 10, eg 16 + 8 + 4:
add 16 to 4 first
using place value to partition numbers, eg 2500 + 670: 2500 + 600 + 70
= 3170
partitioning numbers in non-standard forms, eg 500 + 670: 670 = 500 +
170, so 500 + 670 = 500 + 500 + 170, which is 1000 + 170 = 1170
- choose & apply efficient strategies for add & sub
- discuss & compare different methods of add & sub
use concrete materials to model add & sub of 2 or more numbers, with &
without trading, & record the method used
select, use & record a variety of mental strategies to solve add & sub
problems, including word problems, with numbers up to 4 digits
- give a reasonable estimate for a problem, explain how the estimate was
obtained, & check the solution
use the = sign to record equivalent number sentences involving add & sub
& so to mean is the same as, rather than to mean to perform an operation,
eg 32 13 = 30 11
- check given number sentences to determine if they are true/ false &
explain why, eg 'Is 39 12 = 15 + 11 true? Why/not?'
Recognise & explain connection between addition & subtraction
demonstrate how add & sub are inverse operations
explain & check solutions to problems, including using inverse operation
Represent money values in multiple ways & count the change required for
simple transactions to the nearest five cents
calculate equivalent amounts of money using different denominations
perform simple calculations with money, including finding change, &
round to the nearest 5c
calculate mentally to give change
Learning Across The Curriculum
Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures
Asia & Australias engagement with Asia
Sustainability

General capabilities

Critical & creative thinking
Ethical understanding
Information & communication technology capability
Intercultural understanding
Literacy
Numeracy
Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas

Civics & citizenship
Difference & diversity
Work & enterprise
Sharon Tooney


CONTENT WEEK TEACHING, LEARNING and ASSESSMENT

ADJUSTMENTS RESOURCES REG
Recall addition
facts for single-
digit numbers &
related
subtraction facts
to develop
increasingly
efficient mental
strategies for
computation

Recognise &
explain
connection
between
addition &
subtraction

Represent money
values in
multiple ways &
count the change
required for
simple
transactions to
the nearest five
cents











1
Base 10 Material
Students use 2, 3 or 4 dice to generate a two-, three- or four digit number and then
represent this number using Base 10 material. Students then generate a second, smaller
number by rolling one less die. Students represent this number using Base 10 material,
then add the two numbers and show the result using Base 10 material. Students repeat this
process, subtracting the second number from the first. Students record their solutions.
Increase/decrease the
number of dice used
according to ability.
Base 10 materials,
dice, paper and
pencils


2
Linking 3
Students record sixteen different numbers between 1 and 50
in a 4 4 grid eg.
19 28 17 13
2 18 41 5
16 1 38 49
15 26 40 7
Students link and add three numbers vertically or horizontally.
Possible questions include:
- can you find links that have a total of more than 50?
- can you find links that have a total of less than 50?
- how many links can you find that have a total that is a multiple of 10?
- what is the smallest/largest total you can find?
- can you find ten even/odd totals?
Increase/decrease the total
number when questioning,
according to ability.

Provide concrete materials
for those students who
need support.
4x4 grids and pencils

3
Estimating Differences
The teacher shows a card with the subtraction of a pair of two-digit numbers eg 78 32.
Students estimate whether the difference between the numbers is closer to 10, 20, 30, 40
or 50 and give reasons why. The teacher shows other cards eg 51 18, 60 29, 43 25, 33
25. Students estimate the differences and discuss their strategies. They are asked to think
about rounding numbers on purpose. For example for 51 18, students may round 51
down to 50 and 18 up to 20.
Increase/decrease the
complexity of subtraction
algorithm.
Subtraction pair
cards


4
Trading Games
The trading games Win 500 or Lose 500 can be adapted for Stage 2 by adding and
subtracting two-digit numbers using, recording and evaluating mental strategies. Students
are given a pack of playing cards with the tens and the picture cards removed. The Aces are
retained and represent 1 and the Jokers are retained and represents 0. Students flip two
cards and assign place values to the numbers turned over. Students play Win 5000/50 000
and Lose 5000/50 000 to add and subtract three-digit and four-digit numbers. Students
estimate their answer and then use formal written algorithms. Students could use a
calculator to check their answer. Students are encouraged to pose problems, including
money problems, using their numbers.

Support: provide number
expanders for students to
place cards onto and start
from a number lower than
500.

Extension: start from a
higher number and
subtract/add larger
numbers
Playing cards,
calculators, paper
and pencils.

Sharon Tooney









5
Estimating Addition of Three-Digit Numbers
The teacher briefly displays the numbers 314, 311, 310, 316, 312 on cards, then turns the
cards over so that the numbers cannot be seen. Students are asked to estimate the total
and give their reasons. The teacher reveals the numbers one at a time so that the students
can find the total. The task could be repeated with other three-digit numbers and with
four-digit numbers.
Increase/decrease the value
of the numbers shown on
cards according to ability.
This may require grouping
students.
Number cards

10
Revision and Assessment



ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW
































Sharon Tooney

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA
STAGE:
ES1 S1 S2 S3

STRAND:
NUMBER AND ALGEBRA
TERM:
1 2 3 3
WEEK:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SUBSTRAND: Multiplication and Division 1 KEY CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW
OUTCOMES
A student:
uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to
represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM
selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies,
or technology, to solve problems MA2-2WM
checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the
reasoning used MA2-3WM
uses mental and informal written strategies for
multiplication and division MA2-6NA
Background Information
In Stage 2, the emphasis in multiplication and division is on
students developing mental strategies and using their own
(informal) methods for recording their strategies. Comparing
their own method of solution with the methods of other
students will lead to the identification of efficient mental and
written strategies. One problem may have several acceptable
methods of solution.
Students could extend their recall of number facts beyond
the multiplication facts to 10 10 by also memorising
multiples of numbers such as 11, 12, 15, 20 and 25.
An inverse operation is an operation that reverses the effect
of the original operation. Addition and subtraction are
inverse operations; multiplication and division are inverse
operations.
The use of digital technologies includes the use of
calculators.

Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following
language: group, row, column, horizontal, vertical, array,
multiply, multiplied by, multiplication, multiplication facts,
double, shared between, divide, divided by, division, equals,
strategy, digit, number chart.
When beginning to build and read multiplication facts aloud,
it is best to use a language pattern of words that relates back
to concrete materials such as arrays. As students become
more confident with recalling multiplication facts, they may
use less language. For example, 'five rows (or groups) of
three' becomes 'five threes' with the 'rows of' or 'groups of'
implied. This then leads to 'one three is three', 'two threes
are six', 'three threes are nine', and so on.
Recall multiplication facts of two, three, five and ten and
related division facts
count by 2s, 3s, 5s or 10s using skip counting
use mental strategies to recall multiplication facts for
multiples of 2, 3, 5 & 10
- relate 'doubling' to multiplication facts for multiples of 2, eg
Double 3 is 6
recognise & use the symbols for multiplied by (), divided
by () & equals (=)
link multiplication & division facts using groups / arrays, eg
- explain why a rectangular array can be read as a division in
2 ways by forming vertical or horizontal groups, eg 12 3 = 4
or 12 4 = 3
model & apply the commutative property of multiplication,
eg 5 8 = 8 5
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication using
efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate
digital technologies
use mental strategies to multiply a 1-digit number by a
multiple of 10, including:
repeated addition, eg 3 20: 20 + 20 + 20 = 60
using place value concepts,eg 3 20: 3 2 tens = 6 tens =
60
factorising the multiple of 10, eg 3 20: 3 2 10 = 6 10
= 60
- apply the inverse relationship of multiplication & division to
justify answers, eg 12 3 is 4 because 4 3 = 12
select, use & record a variety of mental strategies, &
appropriate digital technologies, to solve simple
multiplication problems
- pose multiplication problems & apply appropriate
strategies to solve them
- explain how an answer was obtained & compare their own
method of solution with the methods of other students
- explain problem-solving strategies using language, actions,
materials & drawings
- describe methods used in solving multiplication problems
Learning Across The Curriculum
Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures
Asia & Australias engagement with Asia
Sustainability

General capabilities

Critical & creative thinking
Ethical understanding
Information & communication technology capability
Intercultural understanding
Literacy
Numeracy
Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas

Civics & citizenship
Difference & diversity
Work & enterprise
Sharon Tooney


CONTENT WEEK TEACHING, LEARNING and ASSESSMENT

ADJUSTMENTS RESOURCES REG
Recall
multiplication
facts of two,
three, five and
ten and related
division facts

Represent and
solve problems
involving
multiplication
using efficient
mental and
written strategies
and appropriate
digital
technologies





















5
Patterns
Students investigate patterns in the multiplication grid. Students discuss these patterns and
record their observations. For example, students compare the multiplication facts for 3 and
the multiplication facts for 6. They then investigate the multiplication facts for 9. Students
colour multiples on a hundreds chart and are encouraged to describe the patterns created.
Support: provide
multiplication tables as a
reference
Multiplication tables,
100s charts, pencils


6
Chocolate Boxes
The teacher poses the problem: Imagine you had the job of designing a chocolate box.
There are to be 48 chocolates in the box. The box can be one or two layers high. How many
ways could you arrange the chocolates in the box? Students draw or make models of their
solutions and discuss these in terms of multiplication and division facts.
Support: provide counters
for students to model
different combinations.
Extension: work with larger
numbers
Paper and pencils

7
Doubles
Students work in small groups. A student chooses a small whole number and the next
student doubles it. They take turns to keep doubling the number. A student checks the
results with a calculator. In the next round they start with a different number.
Possible questions include:
- what did you notice?
- did the pattern help you with your calculations?
Support: concrete materials

Extension: start with a larger
number
Calculators, paper
and pencils


8
Sequences of Multiples
Students record sequences of multiples and look for patterns. Students are asked if they
can find patterns in the sequences of the numbers in the ones column. Students plot
these on a circle with the points 0 to 9 marked on the circumference, joining the numbers
in order. eg the multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40 etc and so the pattern
for the digits in the ones column is 4, 8, 2, 6, 0, 4, 8, 2, 6, 0,

Support: provide prepared
circles with markers around
circumference
Paper and pencils

9
Multiples
Students take turns in throwing a die and moving a counter along a hundreds chart the
number of spaces indicated on the die. If the counter lands on a multiple of 3 they jump
forward to the next multiple of 3. If they land on a multiple of 5 they jump backwards to
the previous multiple of 5. Two counters may land on the same square. The winner is the
first player to reach or pass 100.
Possible questions include:
- which numbers are multiples of 3 and 5?
Variation: The pair of multiples could be changed, or the sum of two dice could be used to
indicate the number of squares the counter moves.

Support: tables charts to use
as a reference

Dice, hundreds
charts, counters

Sharon Tooney


10

Revision and Assessment



ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW































Sharon Tooney

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA
STAGE:
ES1 S1 S2 S3

STRAND:
NUMBER AND ALGEBRA
TERM:
1 2 3 3
WEEK:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SUBSTRAND: Fractions and Decimals 1 KEY CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW
OUTCOMES
A student:
uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to
represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM
checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the
reasoning used MA2-3WM
represents, models and compares commonly used fractions
and decimals MA2-7NA
Background Information
In Stage 2 Fractions and Decimals 1, fractions with denominators of
2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 are studied. Denominators of 6, 10 and 100 are
introduced in Stage 2 Fractions and Decimals 2.
Fractions are used in different ways: to describe equal parts of a
whole; to describe equal parts of a collection of objects; to denote
numbers (eg is midway between 0 and 1 on the number line); and
as operators related to division (eg dividing a number in half).
A unit fraction is any proper fraction in which the numerator is 1, eg
, , , ,...................
Three Models of Fractions
Continuous model, linear uses one-directional cuts or folds that
compare fractional parts based on length. Cuts or folds may be
either vertical or horizontal. This model was introduced in Stage 1.

Continuous model, area uses multi-directional cuts or folds to
compare fractional parts to the whole. This model should be
introduced once students have an understanding of the concept of
area in Stage 2.

Discrete model uses separate items in collections to represent
parts of the whole group. This model was introduced in Stage 1.

Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following
language: whole, part, equal parts, half, quarter, eighth, third, fifth,
one-third, one-fifth, fraction, denominator, numerator, mixed
numeral, whole number, fractional part, number line.
When expressing fractions in English, the numerator is said first,
followed by the denominator. However, in many Asian languages
(eg Chinese, Japanese), the opposite is the case: the denominator is
said before the numerator.
Model and represent unit fractions, including , , and
their multiples, to a complete whole (ACMNA058)
model fractions with denominators of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 of
whole objects, shapes and collections using concrete
materials and diagrams
recognise that as the number of parts that a whole is
divided into becomes larger, the size of each part
becomes smaller
recognise that fractions are used to describe one or
more parts of a whole where the parts are equal
name fractions up to one whole
interpret the denominator as the number of equal parts a
whole has been divided into
interpret the numerator as the number of equal fractional
parts
use the terms 'fraction', 'denominator' and 'numerator'
appropriately when referring to fractions
Count by quarters, halves and thirds, including with mixed
numerals; locate and represent these fractions on a number
line (ACMNA078)
identify and describe 'mixed numerals' as having a whole-
number part and a fractional part
rename , , , and as 1
count by halves, thirds and quarters
place halves, quarters, eighths and thirds on number lines
between 0 and 1
place halves, thirds and quarters on number lines that
extend beyond 1
compare unit fractions using diagrams and number lines
and by referring to the denominator
recognise and explain the relationship between the
value of a unit fraction and its denominator
Learning Across The Curriculum
Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures
Asia & Australias engagement with Asia
Sustainability

General capabilities

Critical & creative thinking
Ethical understanding
Information & communication technology capability
Intercultural understanding
Literacy
Numeracy
Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas

Civics & citizenship
Difference & diversity
Work & enterprise
Sharon Tooney


CONTENT WEEK TEACHING, LEARNING and ASSESSMENT

ADJUSTMENTS RESOURCES REG
Model and
represent unit
fractions,
including , ,
and their
multiples, to a
complete whole

Count by
quarters, halves
and thirds,
including with
mixed numerals;
locate and
represent these
fractions on a
number line























4
Fold, Open and Draw
Teacher poses the question to the students to examine as a whole class: If we wanted to
share a lamington bar fairly between Chris and Elaine, how could we do it? Draw a rectangle
on the board and invite students to draw a line to show where they would cut the
lamington to make it fair. Discuss the accuracy of the cut and emphasis that adjustments are
important in establishing equal parts.
Pose the problem for students to work on themselves: If Chris and Elaine wanted to share
the lamington equally with Fiona, can you use another piece of paper to show how this could
be done? Allow students time to engage with the problem, and reinforce that multiple
adjustments to create a fair share may be necessary. Have students draw and explain how
they shared the lamington.
Support as needed for
students experiencing
difficulty, especially with
fine motor skills of folding.

Extend activity by requiring
students to explain the
difficulties experienced in
obtaining an equal share
and how these were
overcome.
Paper rectangles to
represent
lamingtons, paper
and pencils,
whiteboard and
markers


5
A Piece Of Cake (Forming an Image of Thirds)
Have students trace a large circle to represent the top view of a cake. Tell the students that
you want them to establish where to cut the cake to share it equally between three people.
Have them use popsticks or pencils to represent cut lines, to allow for multiple adjustments.
Have students record how they went about dividing the circle (cake) equally, making links
between division as sharing and fractions.
Ensure students understand that the fractions they have created are known as thirds and
are represented numerically as .
Support: provide circle cut
outs for students
experiencing difficulty
tracing.

Paper and pencils,
popsticks, circle
cut-outs


6
How Many Pikelets? (Part-whole Models Beyond One)
In this activity the teacher wants the students to focus on forming wholes from fractional
parts.
Show the students a set of 24 quarter circles. As a class count the quarter circles and then
put them away. Ask the students to work out how many circles they can make with 24
quarter circles. Have students record how they arrived at the answer, using diagrams and
written explanations, using the term quarter and/or the numerical representation of a
quarter ( ).
Support: provide circle
quarters for students who
are unable to do task
independently.
Extension: examine whether
the size of circle quarters
impacts results
24 quarter circles
(all the same size),
paper and pencils


7
A Birthday Secret (Recreating the Whole From a Part)
In this activity, students focus on reconstructing a circle from a single piece of the circle.
Show the 3-dimensional model of a slice of birthday cake. Explain that the mark on the cake
is where a candle was and that the candles were equally spaced around the cake. How old
was the person having the birthday? How could you work it out?

Give pairs of students cardboard sectors representing slices of cake and ask them to work
out the age of the person having the birthday. From the cardboard model of a cake you can
create pieces with 2 candles, 3 candles, 4 candles, 6 candles or 8 candles depending upon
Peer tutoring, grouping
strategies.
Birthday secret
BLM, 3D model of
slice of cake,
pencils and rulers

Sharon Tooney









which multiples you wish to work with, or how many times you require students to repeat
the unit.
Provide opportunities for students to report on their solution methods. How many people
could have a piece of cake the same size as the one you have?


10

Revision and Assessment



ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

















Sharon Tooney

A Birthday Secret Template





Sharon Tooney

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA
STAGE:
ES1 S1 S2 S3

STRAND:
MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY
TERM:
1 2 3 3
WEEK:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SUBSTRAND: Mass 1 KEY CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW
OUTCOMES
A student:
uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to
represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM
checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the
reasoning used MA2-3WM
measures, records, compares and estimates the masses of
objects using kilograms and grams MA2-12MG
Background Information
In Stage 2, students should appreciate that formal units
allow for easier and more accurate communication of
measures. Students are introduced to the kilogram and
gram. They should develop an understanding of the size of
these units, and use them to measure and estimate.

Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following
language: mass, more than, less than, about the same as,
pan balance, (level) balance, measure, estimate, kilogram.
'Hefting' is testing the weight of an object by lifting and
balancing it. Where possible, students can compare the
weights of two objects by using their bodies to balance each
object, eg holding one object in each hand.
As the terms 'weigh' and 'weight' are common in everyday
usage, they can be accepted in student language should they
arise. Weight is a force that changes with gravity, while mass
remains constant.
Measure, order and compare objects using familiar metric
units of mass (ACMMG061)
recognise the need for a formal unit to measure mass
use the kilogram as a unit to measure mass, using a pan
balance
associate kilogram measures with familiar objects, eg a
standard pack of flour has a mass of 1 kg, a litre of milk
has a mass of approximately 1 kg (Reasoning)
recognise that objects with a mass of one kilogram can
be a variety of shapes and sizes (Reasoning)
record masses using the abbreviation for kilograms (kg)
use hefting to identify objects that have a mass of 'more
than', 'less than' and 'about the same as' one kilogram
discuss strategies used to estimate mass, eg by referring
to a known mass (Communicating, Problem Solving)
compare and order two or more objects by mass measured
to the nearest kilogram
estimate the number of similar objects that have a total
mass of one kilogram and check by measuring
explain why two students may obtain different
measures for the same mass (Communicating,
Reasoning)
Learning Across The Curriculum
Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures
Asia & Australias engagement with Asia
Sustainability

General capabilities

Critical & creative thinking
Ethical understanding
Information & communication technology capability
Intercultural understanding
Literacy
Numeracy
Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas

Civics & citizenship
Difference & diversity
Work & enterprise
Sharon Tooney


CONTENT WEEK TEACHING, LEARNING and ASSESSMENT

ADJUSTMENTS RESOURCES REG
Measure, order
and compare
objects using
familiar metric
units of mass




































1
On The Case
Organise students into groups and provide each group with a kilogram weight. Students
heft the weight to support their concept of a mass of 1 kilogram. Students heft their pencil
cases, and sort the cases from lightest to heaviest. Students discuss which pencil cases
would make a combined mass of about 1 kilogram. Weight the predict combinations and
record the results stating if the mass of the pencil cases was less than 1 kilogram, equal to 1
kilogram or more than 1 kilogram.
Peer tutor grouping
strategies.
Scales, 1 kilogram
weights, pencil cases,
paper and pencils


2
Make a Kilo
Students examine a number of small items and estimate how many of each item will
measure 1 kilogram. Students are given a limited range of items so that results can be
compared and checked easily. Students record their estimates and results using the
abbreviation kg.
Individual support as
required.
1kg mass, samples of
food/materials in 1kg
packages, scales or
equal arm balances,
different items to
weigh


3
Kilogram Ball
Pairs of students make a 1 kilogram ball of playdough or plasticine. As they build the ball,
the students keep weighing to make an accurate mass of 1 kilogram. Record the process.
Peer tutor grouping
strategies.
Playdough, plasticine,
scales, paper and
pencils


4
Treasure Hunt
Students find items in the classroom or playground that have a mass of about 1 kilogram.
Students record items which are estimated to be 1 kilogram, then measure and record the
mass as 1 kilogram, more than 1 kilogram, less than 1 kilogram. Ensure that a range of items
that have a mass of about 1 kilogram are available before commencing the activity.
Individual support as
required.
scales, items to
weigh, paper and
pencils


5
Make a Shot Putt
Students make a 1 kilogram shot by putting sand in a piece of fabric or old pillow case and
tying firmly with a piece of string.
Students putt the 1 kilogram shot and estimate then measure the distance thrown.
Support: Having a metre
ruler available as a visual
support may assist students
to estimate distance.
Extension: students predict
then measure, using a 2kg
shot.
Fabric, string, sand,
tape measure, 1m
rulers, scales, paper
and pencils


6
By The Cupful
Students measure and compare the mass of cupfuls of different materials. Students
estimate first by hefting, and then measure the cupfuls to find the heaviest cupful and the
lightest cupful. Students order and record their measurements to the nearest 10grams.
Peer tutor grouping
strategies.
Extension: students graph
the results
Cups, different
materials to
compare, scales,
pencils and paper


7
Make 50 Grams
Students estimate how many of each object is needed to make a mass of 50grams. Students
select objects, record their estimate, then measure and record the actual number of objects
needed to make a mass of 50grams. Materials to weigh can include, blocks, dice and
counters from the classroom, as well as small food items, and household items including
nails, bolts and batteries.
Individual support as
required.
Objects to weigh,
scales pencils and
paper.

Sharon Tooney















8
Massive Model
Students work in pairs to make a model from 1 centimetre interlocking cubes. Students
estimate the mass of their model before measuring and recording. Students combine with
another two pairs of students, to estimate measure and record the combined mass of the
models.
Peer tutor grouping
strategies.
Interlocking cubes,
scales, paper and
pencils.


9
Pass The Parcel
Students sit in a whole-class circle and pass around 4 or 5 closed containers that contain
small items to music. When the music stops, the students holding the containers write their
estimate of the mass of the container and its contents on the board. After several estimates
for different objects have been recorded, students weigh the items to determine who had
the closest estimate.
Support: Access to labelled
masses may assist students
to estimate containers, by
hefting s known mass and
container.
Items in closed
containers, music,
scales, known
masses, whiteboard
and markers.


10
Revision and Assessment



ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW























Sharon Tooney

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA
STAGE:
ES1 S1 S2 S3

STRAND:
MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY
TERM:
1 2 3 3
WEEK:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SUBSTRAND: Angles 1 KEY CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW
OUTCOMES
A student:
uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to
represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM
identifies, describes, compares and classifies angles MA2-
16MG
Background Information
In Stage 2, students need informal experiences of creating,
identifying and describing a range of angles. This will lead to
an appreciation of the need for a formal unit to measure
angles.
Paper folding is a quick and simple means of generating a
wide range of angles for comparison and copying.

The arms of the angles above are different lengths. However,
the angles are the same size, as the amount of turning
between the arms is the same. Students may mistakenly
judge one angle to be greater in size than another on the
basis of the length of the arms of the angles in the diagram.

Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following
language: angle, amount of turning, arm, vertex,
perpendicular, right angle.
Identify angles as measures of turn and compare angle sizes
in everyday situations (ACMMG064)
identify 'angles' with two arms in practical situations, eg
the angle between the arms of a clock
identify the 'arms' and 'vertex' of an angle
describe informally an angle as the 'amount of turning'
between two arms
recognise that the length of the arms does not affect the
size of the angle (Reasoning)
compare angles directly by placing one angle on top of
another and aligning one arm
identify 'perpendicular' lines in pictures, designs and the
environment
use the term 'right angle' to describe the angle formed
when perpendicular lines meet
describe examples of right angles in the environment
(Communicating, Problem Solving)
identify right angles in two-dimensional shapes and
three-dimensional objects (Communicating)
Learning Across The Curriculum
Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures
Asia & Australias engagement with Asia
Sustainability

General capabilities

Critical & creative thinking
Ethical understanding
Information & communication technology capability
Intercultural understanding
Literacy
Numeracy
Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas

Civics & citizenship
Difference & diversity
Work & enterprise
Sharon Tooney


CONTENT WEEK TEACHING, LEARNING and ASSESSMENT

ADJUSTMENTS RESOURCES REG
Identify angles
as measures of
turn and
compare angle
sizes in everyday
situations



































1
Pattern Blocks
Distribute pattern blocks so that each group has a large number. Ask the students what
they notice about the blocks, in terms of colours and shapes. Possible questions:
- What is the same about these shapes?
- What is the same about the red blocks?
- What are these different shapes called?
Have students in their groups make their own patterns with the pattern blocks, describe
their favourite pattern to the group and make a coloured drawing of their favourite pattern.
Discuss the patterns the students have made:
- How are these patterns different?
- How are the patterns similar?
- Why do we call them patterns?
- Tell us why you like this pattern?
Guide students to see that patterns always involve some regular repetition of colours
and/or shapes. Discuss the way the pattern blocks fit together. Guide students to see that
the blocks all have the same edge-length or multiples of that edge-length, and that the
corners fit together in a special way.
Extension: students work in
pairs to make and describe
patterns with pattern
blocks. Student A makes a
pattern without Student B
seeing it. Student A
describes the pattern and
Student B makes the
pattern by following their
partners directions.
Pattern blocks, paper
and pencils.


2
Windmill Patterns
Students make windmill patterns by fitting pattern blocks of the same colour around a
point. They use the patterns to compare the size of the pattern block corners.
Put a number of pattern blocks on an overhead projector. Place them together so they form
a pattern.
- How would you describe my pattern?
Make sure the students understand that the blocks fit together around a point. Separate
the blocks and point to the pattern of lines made by joins between the blocks.
- What do you notice about the lines in the middle of the pattern?
Decide on a name for such patterns
Have students work individually to make their own windmill patterns using different pattern
block corners, draw their windmill patterns, label each drawing to state the number and
type of block used (eg. 8 of the small red corners)
Discuss the different windmill patterns the students have made. Make a table summarising
the relationship between the pattern block corner used and the number of pieces needed.
From the table, identify block corners that are the same size. Check by placing one corner
on top of another. Introduce the mathematical word for corner as angle. Discuss why some
patterns use more blocks than others. Fewer blocks are needed when the angles which are
placed around the central point are larger.
Extension: explore which
corners combine to make
another pattern block
corner. For example, two
triangle corners make a
hexagon corner.
Pattern blocks,
overhead projector,
paper and pencils

Sharon Tooney



















































Hexagon (yellow) 3 corners
Square (orange) 4 corners
Triangle (green) 6 corners
Fat rhombus (blue) 6 small corners
3 large corners
Thin rhombus (brown or white) 12 corners
Trapezium (red) 6 small corners
3 large corners


3
Square Corners
Students look for right angles in their classroom. They make drawings of the angles and use
different methods to measure and compare the angle of the object and the drawn angle.
Discuss what an angle is. Use the bent straw to show that an angle has two lines and a
point. Explain that the mathematical terms are arm and vertex.
- What angles can you see in this classroom?
Introduce the term right angle or square angle. Students find examples of right angles in
the classroom.
- What does it mean to say that a corner is square?
Discuss which pattern block has right angles.
- What does it have to do with squares?
Demonstrate how to bend a straw into a right angle by folding the straw over one corner of
a square pattern block.
- How could we check if this angle really is a right angle?
Select one of the suggested examples of a right angle and use the straw to demonstrate
that the angle is the same size. If possible, check by holding the pattern block against the
angle. Draw the object and model how to use the bent straw to compare the drawn and the
actual angle.
Have your students work in pairs to:
search for objects or locations that have right angles in the classroom
make a sketch of the object and mark the angle(s) in colour
use the bent straw and the square pattern block to check that the drawn angle is the
correct size.
Discuss and list the different examples of right angles that students have measured.
- How many right angles do you think there would be in this room?
Variation: Find right angles
in the playground and check
the size using the drinking
straw angle tester or the
square pattern block.
Pattern blocks, bent
straws, coloured
pencils, pencils and
paper.


4
Acute and Obtuse Angles
Students look for acute and obtuse angles in the classroom. They make drawings of the
angles, compare the angles with the corners of pattern blocks, and classify the angles
according to size.
Revise previous work with right angles, and discuss the terminology used to describe angles.
- Find some angles in this classroom that are not right angles.
Introduce the terms acute and obtuse and discuss their relationship to the right-angle.
Extension: Look for reflex
angles (angles greater than
two right angles) in the
classroom. Find examples in
the classroom and ask
students to describe these.
Examples may include the
Pattern blocks, bent
straws, pencils and
paper.

Sharon Tooney


















































- Can you explain what acute and obtuse angles are?
Ask students to identify acute and obtuse angles in the classroom, and list several of these.
- Where can you see acute and obtuse angles in the room?
Select one example of an acute angle. Demonstrate how to use a bent straw to measure
and draw the angle on the board. Use the straw to compare the size of the drawn angle
with the angle on the object.
- How do you know the angles are the same size?
Find a pattern block that has an angle about the same size, and label the angle drawing with
the pattern block colour or shape.
- Can you suggest a pattern block angle which is about the same size as our drawn angle?
Have your students work in pairs to:
look for acute and obtuse angles in the classroom
use the bent straw to measure the angle
draw and label the angle and use the bent straw to measure the correct size
find a pattern block that has an angle about the same size as the angle drawn
order the angles from smallest to largest by numbering them.
Discuss different examples of angles that students have measured and list them under the
headings acute and obtuse. Write the size of the angle in terms of the pattern blocks, e.g.
the same as a small red corner
- What is the difference between obtuse and acute angles?
- How would you describe an acute angle to your friend?
- Which pattern blocks have obtuse angles?
angle outside the corner of
a desk or book.

5
Angles in Geometrical Patterns
Students find and label acute, obtuse and right angles in a pentagram or octagon pattern.
Students draw and measure the angles.
Revise the terms right, acute and obtuse angles.
- What types of angles have we been talking about?
- What are the differences between these angles?
Ask a student to use a bent straw to demonstrate the mathematical terms arm, vertex and
angle. Introduce the pentagram or octagon worksheet and discuss the instructions.
- What kinds of angles can you see in this pentagram? Why do you think it is called a
pentagram?
Ask your students to mark the angles on their worksheets. Remind students to copy each angle as
accurately as possible by using the bent straw to measure and compare the two angles.
Lead students in a discussion of the angles they identified. Ask several students to draw
their angles on the board, and describe the angle using the terminology arms and vertex.
- Draw one of your angles on the chalkboard.
- How do you know that it is the right size?
- What can you tell us about your angle?
Extension: Look for reflex
angles (angles larger than
two right angles) and
straight angles (180) on the
geometrical patterns.
Bent straws,
geometric pattern
activity sheets,
coloured pencils


10
Revision and Assessment



Sharon Tooney

ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW























Sharon Tooney


Pentagram

Finding angles in the pentagram
Find and label an acute angle and an obtuse angle.
Copy these angles in the space below, and label each one. Check that your angles are the
correct size.
Use coloured pencils to mark the angles that are the same size. Count and record your total
number of angles.


Sharon Tooney

Octagon

Finding angles in the octagon

Find and label an acute angle, an obtuse angle and a right angle.
Copy these angles in the space below, and label each one. Check that your angles are the
correct size.
Use coloured pencils to mark the angles that are the same size. Count and record your total
number of angles.
Sharon Tooney

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA
STAGE:
ES1 S1 S2 S3

STRAND:
MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY
TERM:
1 2 3 3
WEEK:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SUBSTRAND: 3D 1 KEY CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW
OUTCOMES
A student:
uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to
represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM
checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the
reasoning used MA2-3WM
makes, compares, sketches and names three-dimensional
objects, including prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones and
spheres, and describes their features MA2-14MG
Background Information
The formal names for particular prisms and pyramids are not
introduced in Stage 2. Prisms and pyramids are to be treated
as classes for the grouping of all prisms and all pyramids.
Names for particular prisms and pyramids are introduced in
Stage 3.

Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following
language: object, two-dimensional shape (2D shape), three-
dimensional object (3D object), cone, cube, cylinder, prism,
pyramid, sphere, surface, flat surface, curved surface, face,
edge, vertex (vertices), net.
In geometry, the term 'face' refers to a flat surface with only
straight edges, as in prisms and pyramids, eg a cube has six
faces. Curved surfaces, such as those found in cylinders,
cones and spheres, are not classified as 'faces'. Similarly, flat
surfaces with curved boundaries, such as the circular
surfaces of cylinders and cones, are not 'faces'.
The term 'shape' refers to a two-dimensional figure. The
term 'object' refers to a three dimensional figure.
Make models of three-dimensional objects and describe key
features (ACMMG063)
identify and name three-dimensional objects as prisms
(including cubes), pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres
recognise and describe the use of three-dimensional
objects in a variety of contexts, eg buildings, packaging
(Communicating)
describe and compare curved surfaces and flat surfaces of
cylinders, cones and spheres, and faces, edges and vertices
of prisms (including cubes) and pyramids
describe similarities and differences between prisms
(including cubes), pyramids, cylinders, cones and
spheres (Communicating)
use a variety of materials to make models of prisms
(including cubes), pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres,
given a three-dimensional object, picture or photograph to
view
deconstruct everyday packages that are prisms (including
cubes) to create nets, eg cut up tissue boxes
recognise that a net requires each face to be connected
to at least one other face (Reasoning)
investigate, make and identify the variety of nets that
can be used to create a particular prism, such as the
variety of nets that can be used to make a cube, eg

distinguish between (flat) nets, which are 'two-
dimensional', and objects created from nets, which are
'three-dimensional' (Communicating, Reasoning)
Learning Across The Curriculum
Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures
Asia & Australias engagement with Asia
Sustainability

General capabilities

Critical & creative thinking
Ethical understanding
Information & communication technology capability
Intercultural understanding
Literacy
Numeracy
Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas

Civics & citizenship
Difference & diversity
Work & enterprise
Sharon Tooney


CONTENT WEEK TEACHING, LEARNING and ASSESSMENT

ADJUSTMENTS RESOURCES REG
Make models of
three-
dimensional
objects and
describe key
features

2
Parts of a 3D Shape
Identify and define parts of a 3D shape:
Faces: flat surfaces or curved surfaces
Edges: ridge where two faces meet
Vertices: where three or more faces meet to form a corner
Examine the number of faces and what shape they are, number of edges and number of
vertices of: cube, rectangular prism, triangular prism, square based pyramid, triangle based
pyramid, sphere, cone and cylinder. Create a chart.
Possible questions:
- Which shapes have 8 corners?
- Which shapes have two or more faces that are the same?
- Which shapes have all their edges the same length?
Questioning techniques 3D shapes, chart
paper and textas


3
Classify 3D Shapes Into Families
3D shapes have families just like 2D shapes. Have students examine a variety of 3D shapes.
Ask students to group them together if they are similar. Students should describe and draw
the groupings they have made.
Possible questions:
- What properties did you use to group your shapes?
- Why did you choose those properties?
Extension: If you were going
to add the following shape
into your categories, where
would it go? Give reasons
for your answers.
3D shapes, paper and
pencils


4
3D Families
The following 3D shapes have been classified into families according to their properties.
Look at the groups and try to work out what properties have been used to group them.
Prisms Spheres Cylinders Cones

Pyramids

What properties have been used to group the families of shapes above?
Extension: If you were going
to add the following shape
into your categories, where
would it go? Give reasons
for your answer.

3D shapes, paper and
pencils


5
Examining Nets
Using the properties that students have assigned to 3D shapes in previous lessons, have
them examine a variety of 3D nets and predict which 3D shapes they will make. Provide
both BLM of nets and flattened out everyday items, such as, cereal boxes etc for students
to identify.
After predictions have been made, create the 3D shapes using the nets and check
predictions. Discuss what properties of 3D shapes assisted the students in accurately
identifying 3D shapes from the nets.
Questioning techniques,
individual support as
required.
3D nets both BLM
and real life
examples

Sharon Tooney


6
Planning To Build With 3D Shapes
Discuss with students the concept of building a model with 3D shapes and engage with
wooden blocks to make generalisations about the appropriateness of different solids as
building blocks. Examine aspects of stability, ability to attach to other solids and the
problem of gaps.
Using the generalisations made, have the students identify which solids they would select
to build with and give reasons why.
Have students draw a plan of an object (eg, a rocket, castle, skyscraper, etc) they could
build using 3D shapes. Their plan should include an illustration of what they are building
and the number of shapes per solid they will need to complete their construction.
Support: photograph model
and allow student to count
objects from concrete
model
Blocks, paper and
pencils


7-8
Building With 3D Shapes
Using the plan that students created in the previous lesson, instruct them that they are
going to construct the object from their plan. To do so, firstly they must identify the solids
required (size and number) and select the appropriate nets for their construction.
After creating the required number of solids using the nets provided by the teacher (a
variety of different sizes of each net should be made available), students need to construct
their object.
When complete students should write a report on the construction process, including:
- Problems encountered and how these were overcome.
- Changes that needed to be made to the original plan.
- Suitability of chosen 3D shapes.
- What would they do the same/differently next time?
Support: prepared solids for
students who have difficulty
constructing these on their
own.
Plan from previous
lesson, nets, scissors,
glue, tape, paper and
pencils


10
Revision
Assessment



ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW



















Sharon Tooney

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA
STAGE:
ES1 S1 S2 S3

STRAND:
STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
TERM:
1 2 3 3
WEEK:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SUBSTRAND: Chance 1 KEY CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW
OUTCOMES
A student:
uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to
represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM
checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the
reasoning used MA2-3WM
describes and compares chance events in social and
experimental contexts MA2-19SP
Background Information
Random generators include coins, dice and spinners.

Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following
language: chance, experiment, outcome, random, trials,
tally, expected results, actual results.
Conduct chance experiments, identify and describe possible
outcomes, and recognise variation in results (ACMSP067)
use the term 'outcome' to describe any possible result of a
chance experiment
predict and list all possible outcomes in a chance
experiment, eg list the outcomes when three pegs are
randomly selected from a bag containing an equal number of
pegs of two colours
predict and record all possible combinations in a chance
situation, eg list all possible outfits when choosing from
three different T-shirts and two different pairs of shorts
predict the number of times each outcome should occur in
a chance experiment involving a set number of trials, carry
out the experiment, and compare the predicted and actual
results
keep a tally and graph the results of a chance
experiment (Communicating)
explain any differences between expected results and
actual results in a chance experiment (Communicating,
Reasoning)
make statements that acknowledge 'randomness' in a
situation, eg 'The spinner could stop on any colour'
(Communicating, Reasoning)
repeat a chance experiment several times and discuss
why the results vary (Communicating)
Learning Across The Curriculum
Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures
Asia & Australias engagement with Asia
Sustainability

General capabilities

Critical & creative thinking
Ethical understanding
Information & communication technology capability
Intercultural understanding
Literacy
Numeracy
Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas

Civics & citizenship
Difference & diversity
Work & enterprise
Sharon Tooney


CONTENT WEEK TEACHING, LEARNING and ASSESSMENT

ADJUSTMENTS RESOURCES REG
Conduct chance
experiments,
identify and
describe possible
outcomes, and
recognise
variation in
results

1

Expected Result
Students are asked to predict the result of 10 tosses of a coin. Possible questions include:
- what outcomes can occur when the coin is tossed once?
- what is the likelihood of tossing tails on any one toss?
- how many heads and tails do you expect there to be?
- did the expected result and the actual result match?
- did tossing tails on the previous toss increase the likelihood of tossing tails on the next
toss? Why?
- which outcome, heads or tails, is more likely?
Students are encouraged to suggest how the experiment could be improved and
implement their plan. This activity could be extended to tossing two coins.
Questioning techniques Coins, paper and
pencils


2
Certain, Uncertain
The teacher writes headings Certain and Uncertain on a sheet of paper. In pairs, students
are asked to list under the headings things that they think are sure to happen (certain) at
school on the day and then things that they think are not sure to happen (uncertain) at
school on the same day. Students discuss their findings.
Variation:
Extend the activity to include other categories using the language of chance eg impossible,
uncertain, certain.
Extension: Students devise
their own rating scale using
the language of chance.
Chart paper,
markers, paper and
pencils


3
Pegs
In groups, students are given a bucket of pegs. The bucket could have 10 blue and 10
yellow pegs. Students are asked to sort and count the pegs and then return them to the
bucket. Students are asked to predict all possible combinations of pegs if two pegs are
randomly taken from the bucket. They select one possible combination and, without
looking, take two pegs out of the bucket. They see if the actual result matches their
predicted result and discuss. Students repeat the selection several times returning the pegs
to the bucket after recording their selection. They write a description of the activity
explaining their observations.
Peer tutor grouping
techniques.
Bucket of pegs, paper
and pencils


4
Fair Game?
Students play games such as Snakes and Ladders, Heads Down/Thumbs Up, or outdoor
games such as Statues. Students are asked if they think the game played is a fair game or
not. Students are encouraged to justify their answers and to associate the idea of fairness
with the idea that everyone has an equal chance to win. This activity could be extended to
playing a game designed to be obviously unfair in order to stimulate discussion.
Peer tutor grouping
techniques.
Variety of games

5
Tossed Fruit Salad
The teacher labels a large die with three faces displaying an apple, two faces displaying a
banana and one face displaying an orange, and shows the die to the class. Students are
asked to order the fruits from least likely to most likely to be rolled.
After a number of rolls, the students compare the results with their predictions. Students
Questioning techniques.

Support: visual
representations for ordering
Large dice, paper and
pencils

Sharon Tooney

discuss whether their predictions were supported by their experiment and explain the
differences between expected results and actual results in this simple chance experiment.
Possible questions include:
- how can we change the labels on the die so that the orange is most likely to be rolled?
The labels are then changed accordingly, and the die rolled a number of times to compare
the results with the students predictions. Students are encouraged to make other
suggestions about altering the labels to change the outcomes and these suggestions are
tested.

10
Revision
Assessment



ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW




















Sharon Tooney

Sharon Tooney

Sharon Tooney