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channel with gradual changes in its water-surface elevation.
Examples of GVF:
(a) Drawdown produced
by sudden drop in the
channel
(b) Backwater produced by
increased in bed elevation
Two basic assumptions are involved in the analysis of GVF:
1. The pressure distribution at any section is hydrostatic.
2. The resistance to flow at any depth can be assumed using uniform-
flow equation, such as the Manning's equation, with the condition that
the slope term to be used in the equation is the energy slope and not
the bed slope. Thus, if in a GVF the depth of flow at any section is y,
the energy slope S
f
is:
3
4
2 2
R
V n
S
f
=
where R is the hydraulic radius of the section at depth y.
Differential Equation of GVF
The total energy H of a gradually-varied flow in a channel of small slope is:
g
V
y E
2
2
+ =
where the specific energy
g
V
y Z H
2
2
+ + =
(4.1)
Figure 4.2 Schematic sketch of GVF
Since the water surface varies in the longitudinal x-direction, the depth of the
flow and the total energy are functions of x.
Differentiating Eq. (4.1) with respect to x,
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
g
V
x x
y
x
Z
x
H
2 d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
2
(3.20)
Energy slope,
f
S
x
H
=
d
d
Bottom slope,
o
S
x
Z
=
d
d
water-surface slope relative to
the channel bottom
x
y
gA
Q
x g
V
x d
d
2 d
d
2 d
d
2
2 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
x
y
y
A
gA
Q
d
d
d
d
3
2
=
T
y
A
=
d
d
Since
x
y
gA
T Q
g
V
x d
d
2 d
d
3
2 2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
x
y
gA
T Q
x
y
S S
o f
d
d
d
d
3
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Eq. (4.2) can now be rewritten as
Rearranging,
3
2
1
d
d
gA
T Q
S S
x
y
f o

= Dynamic equation of GVF
(3.21)
(a) If K = conveyance at any depth y and K
o
= conveyance corresponding to
the normal depth y
o
, then
Other forms of Eq. (4.3)
f
S
Q
K =
for GVF
o
S
Q
K =
for uniform flow
Similarly, if Z = section factor at depth y and Z
c
= section factor at the critical
depth y
c
,
T
A
Z
3
2
=
g
Q
T
A
Z
c
c
c
2 3
2
= = and
2
2
K
K
S
S
o
o
f
= (3.22)
Hence
2
2
3
2
Z
Z
gA
T Q
c
=
(3.23)
Using Eqs. (4.4) and (4.5), Eq. (4.3) can be written as
3
2
1
1
d
d
gA
T Q
S
S
S
x
y
o
f
o

=
(3.24)
2
2
1
1
d
d
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
Z
Z
K
K
S
x
y
c
o
o
This equation is useful in developing direct integration techniques.
(b) If Q
n
represents the normal discharge at a depth y and Q
c
denotes the
critical discharge at the same depth y,
o n
S K Q =
g Z Q
c
= and
Using these definitions, Eq. (4.3) can be rewritten as
2
2
1
1
d
d
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
c
n
o
Q
Q
Q
Q
S
x
y
(3.25)
(c) Another form of Eq. (4.2) is
This equation is called the differential-energy equation of GVF to distinguish
it from the GVF differential equations of Eqns. 4.3, 4.6 and 4.7. This energy
equation is very useful in developing numerical techniques for the GVF
profile computation.
f o
S S
x
E
=
d
d
(3.26)
Classification of Flow Profiles
In a given channel, y
o
and y
c
are two fixed depths if Q, n and S
o
are fixed.
Also, there are three possible relations between y
o
and y
c
as:
(i) y
o
> y
c
(ii) y
o
< y
c
(iii) y
o
= y
c
Further, there are two cases where y
o
does not exist, i.e. when
(a) the channel bed is horizontal
(b) when the channel has an adverse slope So is -ve.
Based on the above, the channels are classified into five categories as indicated in
Table 4.1
Table 4.1. Types of GVF profiles
Figure 4.3. Various GVF profiles
All curves in region 1 have positive slopes - backwater curves
All curves in region 2 have negative slopes - drawdown curves
Example 4.1
A rectangular channel with a bottom width of 4 m and bottom slope of 0.0008 has a
discharge of 1.5 m
3
/s. In a gradually-varied flow in this channel, the depth at a certain
location is found to be 0.30 m. Assuming n = 0.016, determine the type of GVF profile.
Solution:
Find the normal depth y
o
and the critical depth y
c
The normal depth y
o
2
1
3
2
1
o
S AR
n
Q =
Manning equation

2
1
3
2
2
1
o
o
o
o
S
y b
by
by
n
Q
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
1
3
2
0008 0
2 4
4
4
016 0
1
5 1 .
.
.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
o
o
o
y
y
y
212 0
2 4
4
3
2
. =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
o
o
o
y
y
y
m 426 0. y
o
=
The critical depth y
c
m s
b
Q
q
3
m 375 0
4
5 1
.
.
= = =
m 243 0
81 9
375 0
3
2
3
2
.
.
.
= = =
g
q
y
c
< <
o c
y y y
<
o c
y y
The channel is a mild
slope channel

The profile is of the M
2

type

Examples of Occurrence of Type M Flow Profiles
M
1
profile is a subcritical-flow condition.
Obstructions to flow such as weirs, dams,
control structures and natural features such as
bends, produce M
1
backwater curves. These
extends to several kilometres upstream before
merging with the normal depth.
M
2
profiles occur at a sudden drop in the bed
of the channel, at constriction type of
transitions and at the canal outlet of pools.
M
3
profiles occur when there is a supercritical
flow enters a mild-slope channel. Examples
are the flow leading from a spillway or a sluice
gate to a mild slope. M
3
normally followed by a
small stretch of rapidly-varied flow and the
downstream is generally terminated by a
hydraulic jump. Compared to M
1
and M
2

profiles, M
3
profiles are relatively short length.
Examples of Occurrence of Type S Flow Profiles
S
1
profile is produced when the flow from a
steep channel is terminated by a deep pool
created by an obstruction, such as a weir or
dam. At the beginning of the curve, the flow
changes from the normal depth (supercritical
flow) to subcritical flow through a hydraulic
jump. The profiles extend downstream with a
positive water-surface slope to reach a
horizontal asymptote at the pool elevation.
S
2
profiles occur at the entrance region of a
steep channel leading from a reservoir and at
a break of grade from mild slope to steep
slope. Generally S
2
profile are of short length.
S
3
profile is produced when the flow exited
from a sluice gate with a steep slope on its
downstream.
S
3
curve is also produced when a flow exists
from a steeper slope to a less steep slope.
Examples of Occurrence of Type C Flow Profiles
Examples of Occurrence of Type H Flow Profiles
C
1
and C
3
profiles are very rare and are highly unstable.
A horizontal channel can be
considered as the lower limit
reached by a mild slope as its bed
slope becomes flatter. It is obvious
that there is no region 1 for a
horizontal channel as y
o
= . The
H
2
and H
3
profiles are similar to M
2

and M
3
profiles respectively.
However, the H
2
curve has a
horizontal asymptote.
Adverse slopes are rather rare and
A
2
and A
3
curves are similar to H
2

and H
3
curves respectively. These
profiles are of very short length.
Example 4.2
A triangular channel has side slope 1 horizontal : 1 vertical and bed slope is 0.001.
Estimate and categorize this channel whether mild, steep or critical when the flow rate is
given as much as 0.2 m
3
/s through this channel. Assume that Mannings roughness
coefficient n = 0.015. Give various of depths that categorize the flow profile in type 1, 2
and 3.
Solution:
2
y A =
y T 2 = y P 2 2 =
The normal depth y
o
2
1
3
2
1
o
S AR
n
Q =
Manning equation

2
1
3
2
2
001 0
2 2 015 0
1
2 0 .
y
y
.
.
o
o
|
.
|

\
|
=
m 536 0. y
o
=
The critical depth y
c
<
o c
y y
The channel is a mild slope channel

2 2
5
6 3
2
c
c
c
c
c
y
y
y
T
A
g
Q
= = =
00816 0
81 9
2 0 2 2
2 2
5
.
.
.
g
Q
y
c
=

= =
m 382 0. y
c
=
2 2 2 2
2
y
y
y
R = =
Curve M
1
y > 0.536 m
Curve M
2
0.536 m > y > 0.382 m
Curve M
3
y < 0.382 m
Control section
A control section is defined as a section in which a fixed relationship exists between the
discharge and depth of flow. Weirs, spillways, sluice gates are some typical examples of
structures which give rise to control sections. The critical depth is also a control point. Any
GVF profile will have at least one control section.
Profile of gradually varied flow can be determined using dynamic equation of

Equations below are differential equations for gradually varied flow and they
represent depth of water y at a certain distance x.

Calculations are carried out to:
i. determine the length L if the depth y
1
and y
2
known.
ii. determine either one of water depth (y
1
or y
2
), if the length of L and either
one of depth are known.
3
2
1
gA
TQ
S S
dx
dy
o

=
Calculations of Flow Profile
3
2
1
1
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
y
y
K
K
S
dx
dy
c
o
o
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
3
3 10
1
1
y
y
y
y
S
dx
dy
c
o
o
Methods to determine flow profile:
1. Direct Integration*
2. Numerical Integration*
3. Multiple Intergration
a. Direct Step Method*
b. Standard Step Method
4. Graphical Integration
5. Numerical/computer methods
* Methods that will applied for this subject
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
M
c
N
o
o
y
y
y
y
S
dx
dy
1
1
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
M
o
c
N
o
o
o
uy
y
x
uy
y
S
dx
dy
1 1
Direct Integration
Replacing u = y/y
o
du /dy = 1 / y
o

dy = y
o
du

Substituting in the above equation:
From previous equation
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

N
M N
M
o
c
N
o
o
u
u
y
y
u S
y
dx
1 1
1
1
const
1 1
0 0
+

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
} }
u
N
M N
M
o
c
u
N
o
o
u
u
y
y
u
du
u
S
y
x
Intergrate above equation, hence it become :
(3.27)
Substituting
}

u
N
u
u
0
1
d
= F(u,N)
J N
u v =
) 1 ( +
=
M N
N
J Replacing with
( )
}
}

+
=

v
J
N
M N
v
dv
M N
du
u
u
0
1
1
1
1
( ) ( ) J , v F
N
J
du
u
u
N
M N
=

}

1
( ) ( ) ( ) { } J , v ( F N J y y ) N , u F u
S
y
x
M
o c
o
o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Then,

Applying the above equation between two section (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) in one channel:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+ = = J , v F J , v F
N
J
y
y
N , u F N , u F u u
S
y
x x L
M
o
c
o
o
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
Values of F(u,N) can be obtained from table provided in appendix I. If (u,N) is replaced with
(v,J), then the table can also be used to find the value of F(v, J).
( ) du u M N dv
M N
+ = 1
A very wide river have depth of 3.0 m and slopes of 0.0005. Estimate length of flow profile
produced by a weir that caused water surface increased as much as 1.50 m at the upstream
of weir (n = 0.035).
Example 4.3
Solution:
1. Determine y
o
and y
c
.
Given y
o
= 3.0 m, y = 4.5 m

2 1
3 2
1
/
o
/
o o
S ) y )( y (
n b
Q
q = =
/s/m m 987 3 0005 0 3
035 0
1
3 2 1 3 5
. ) . )( (
.
q
/ /
= =
Critical depth , y
c
= (q
2
/g )
1/3
= (3.987/ 9.81)
1/3
= 1.175 m
2. Determine value of N & M
For a very wide rectangular channel,
N = 10/3 dan M = 3
3. Calculate J,
J = N / (N M+1) = 10/3 = 2.5
(10/3 3 + 1)

4. Calculate u
1
, u
2
and v
1
, v
2

u
1
= y
1
/y
o
= 4.5 / 3 = 1.5

u
2
= y
2
/y
o
= 3.03 / 3 = 1.01

v
1
= u
1
N/J
= (1.5)
3.33/2.5
= 1.72

v
2
= u
2
N/J
= (1.01)
3.33/2.5
= 1.01
5. Obtain F (u, N) and F ( v, J) from table

F(u
1
, N) = F (1.5 , 3.33) = 0.189
F(u
2
, N) = F (1.01 , 3.33) = 1.220
F(v
1
, J) = F (1.72 , 2.50) = 0.333
F(v
2
, J) = F (1.01 , 2.50) = 1.867
5. Obtain F (u, N) and F ( v, J) from table

F(u
1
, N) = F (1.5 , 3.33) = 0.189
F(u
2
, N) = F (1.01 , 3.33) = 1.220
F(v
1
, J) = F (1.72 , 2.50) = 0.333
F(v
2
, J) = F (1.01 , 2.50) = 1.867
5. Obtain F (u, N) and F ( v, J) from table

F(u
1
, N) = F (1.5 , 3.33) = 0.189
F(u
2
, N) = F (1.01 , 3.33) = 1.220
F(v
1
, J) = F (1.72 , 2.50) = 0.333
F(v
2
, J) = F (1.01 , 2.50) = 1.867
5. Obtain F (u, N) and F ( v, J) from table

F(u
1
, N) = F (1.5 , 3.33) = 0.189
F(u
2
, N) = F (1.01 , 3.33) = 1.220
F(v
1
, J) = F (1.72 , 2.50) = 0.261
F(v
2
, J) = F (1.01 , 2.50) = 1.867
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+ = = J , v F J , v F
N
J
y
y
N , u F N , u F u u
S
y
x x L
M
o
c
o
o
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )| | { } 333 0 867 1
10
3 5 2
3
175 1
189 0 22 1 5 1 01 1
0005 0
3
3
1 2
. .
. .
. . . .
.
x x L

+ = =
L = - 8711 m ; L = 8711m from back of weir.
6. Finding length L, from equation.
3
2
2
1
1
gA
TQ
K
K
S
dx
dy ave
o
o

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
3
2
1
1
ave
o
o
K
K
gA
TQ
S
dy
dx
Numerical Integration
3
2
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
ave
c
ave
o
o
y
y
K
K
S
dx
dy
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
3
1
1
ave
o
ave
c
o
K
K
y
y
S
dy
dx
ii) For rectangular channel
Equations used are:
i) For any shape of channel
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
3
3
1
1
ave
c
ave
o
o
y
y
y
y
S
dx
dy
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
3
3
1
1
ave
o
ave
c
o
y
y
y
y
S
dy
dx
iii) For wide rentangular channel equation (using Chezy, C)
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
3
3 10
1
1
ave
c
ave
o
o
y
y
y
y
S
dx
dy
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
3
10
3
1
1
ave
o
ave
c
o
y
y
y
y
S
dy
dx
(using Manning)
A very wide channel (rectangular) have depth 3.0 m and slope 0.0005. Determine type of flow
profile and estimate length of gradually-varied flow profile produced by a weir that has elevated
the upstream flow as much as 1.50 m (assumed n = 0.035). Take N = 4 steps/ section.
Example 4.4
Calculate y
o
and y
c

Given y
o
= 3.0 m, y = 4.5 m

2 1
3 2
1
/
o
/
o o
S ) y )( y (
n b
Q
q = =
/s/m m 987 3 0005 0 3
035 0
1
3 2 1 3 5
. ) . )( (
.
q
/ /
= =
Critical depth, y
c
= (q
2
/g )
1/3
= (3.987
2
/ 9.81)
1/3
= 1.175 m
y > y
o
> y
c
; GVF profile is M1
Solution:
Equation used for wide rectangular channel is:
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
3
10
3
1
1
ave
o
ave
c
o
y
y
y
y
S
dy
dx
Table 1: Calculation for flow profile
y (m) dy (m) (m) 1 (y
c
/y
ave
)
3
1 (y
o
/y
ave
)
10/3
dx (m)
4.500 4.125 0.375 4.3125 0.9798 0.7017 1047.23
4.125 3.750 0.375 3.9375 0.9735 0.5960 1224.90
3.750 3.375 0.375 3.5625 0.9642 0.4361 1658.26
3.375 3.000 0.375 3.1875 0.9500 0.1830 3893.92
L = x = 7824.31
Stop calculation at, y = 3.00 m
y
c
= 1.175 m; y
o
= 3.0 m; S
o
= 0.0005
Length of flow profile M1 is 7824.31 m from back of weir.
7824.31 m
1047.23 1224.90 1658.26 3893.92
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
x (m)
y

(
m
)
A river of width 6 m conveys water at normal depth 2.0 m along a slope of 0.0002 and n = 0.035,
upstream of a water fall. The water falls to a depth of 1.9 m. Taking N = 3 steps/ section,
Determine

i. type of flow profile,
ii. length of gradually-varied flow profile produced, and
iii.profile sketch.
Assignment Q1
Calculate y
o
and y
c

Given y
o
= 2.0 m, y = 1.9 m
2
1
3
2
1
o
S AR
n
Q =
Solution:
2
m 12 = = By A m 10 2 = + = y B P m 2 . 1 = =
P
A
R
2
1
3
2
0002 . 0 2 . 1 12
035 . 0
1
= Q
/s m 4754 . 5
3
= Q
Critical depth, y
c
= (q
2
/g )
1/3

= (0.9126
2
/ 9.81)
1/3

= 0.4395 m
y
o
= 2 m

y = 1.9 m

y
c
= 0.4395 m

y
o
> y > y
c
GVF profile is M2
/s/m m 9126 . 0
6
4754 . 5
3
= = =
B
Q
q
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
3
1
1
ave
o
ave
c
o
K
K
y
y
S
dy
dx
( ) ( )
0333 . 0
3
9 . 1 2
min max
=

=
N
y y
dy
Equation used for rectangular channel is:
Table 1: Calculation for flow profile
y (m) dy (m) y
ave
(m) A
ave
(m
2
) P
ave
(m)

R
ave
(m) K
ave
K
o
1
(y
c
/y
ave
)
3

1
(K
o
/K
ave
)
2

dx (m)
1.900
1.933
0.033 1.917 11.5 9.833 1.169 364.721 387.169 0.9879 0.1269 1297.7
(1284.50)
1.933
1.967
0.033 1.950 11.7 9.900 1.182 373.667 387.169 0.9886 0.0736 2239.39
(2222.33)
1.967
2.000
0.033 1.983 11.9 9.967 1.194 382.658 387.169 0.9891 0.0237 6950.19
(6886.14)

L = x =
10487.3
(10392.97
)
Start calculation from y = 1.9 m

Stop calculation at y = 2.00 m
y
c
= 0.4395 m; y
o
= 2.0 m; y = 1.9 m, S
o
= 0.0002,

n = 0.035, N = 3 step/section
169 . 387 2 . 1 12
035 . 0
1 1
3
2
3
2
= = = AR
n
K
o
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
x (m)
y

(
m
)
1.9 m 1.933 m 1.967 m
519 m 896 m 2780 m
M2
2.0 m
horizontal B
h
L

Slope of
energy line,
i
A
v
1

2g
v
2

2g
Datum
S
o

z
2

z
1

C
D
dx
y
1

y
2

S
L
h z y
g
v
z y
g
v
+ +
(

+ = +
(

+
2 2
2
2
1 1
2
1
2 2
Direct Step Method
Using concept of energy continuity

Length AC = BD,

Energy equation ,
E
1
+ z
1
= E
2
+ z
2
+ h
L

Gradually varied flow with respect to
length of dx
, 0
2
= z dx S z
o
=
1
idx E E dx S
o
+ =
1 2
( )
1 2
E E i S dx
o
=
i S
E E
dx
o

=
1 2
Sdx y
g
v
y
g
v
dx S
o
+
(

+ =
(

+ +
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 2
ave o
S S
g
v
y
g
v
y
dx

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2 2
2
1
1
2
2
2
If

Hence, equation used for calculating gradually varied flow
is:

Remember!
1. End calculation at y = ( 1 0.01 ) y
o
2. Accuraccy of calculation, depending
on the number of numerical, N choosen.
A 100 m wide and 3.0 m deep channel has 0.0005 slope. Determine type of flow profile and
estimate length of gradually varied low profile produced by a weir that elevated the upstream
flow as much as 1.50 m.
(assumed n = 0.035).

Example 4.5
Solution
( ) ( )
2
1
3
5 1
o o
S y
n
q =
( ) ( )
2
1
3
5
0005 0 0 3
035 0
1
. .
.
q =
3
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
q
y
c
3
1
2
82 9
987 3
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
.
.
y
c
Assumed the river as a very wide channel, flow/ width are:
Critical depth,
= 1.175 m
q = 3.987 m
3
/s/m
y > y
o
> y
c
; GVF profile is M1

Take N = 4 steps / section

Stop calculation at y = 3.01 m
1
y
(m)
2
R
(m)
3
v (m/s)
4
v
2
/2g
(m)
5
E (m)
6
E
(m)
7
S x 10
-4

8
S
avg
x
10
-4

9
(S
o
- S
avg
)
x10
-4

10
x(m)
11
L (m)
4.5 4.5 0.886 0.0400 4.540 _ 1.294 _ _ _ 0
4.13 4.13 0.965 0.0475 4.178 0.362 1.722 1.508 3.492 1036.7 1036
3.76 3.76 1.060 0.0573 3.817 0.361 2.354 2.038 2.962 1218.8 2255
3.39 3.39 1.176 0.0704 3.460 0.357 3.327 2.841 2.159 1653.5 3908
3.03 3.03 1.316 0.0883 3.118 0.342 4.839 4.083 0.917 3729.6 7638
R = y, q = 3.987 m
3
/s/m , n = 0.035 , S
o
= 0.0005
Table 2:Calculation of flow profile by using direct step method
3 / 4
2 2
R
v n
S =
ave o
S S
g
v
y
g
v
y
dx

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2 2
2
1
1
2
2
2
y
q
V =
Hence the length of flow profile is 7525 m from weir.
M1
4.5m 4.13m 3.76m 3.39m 3.03m
y
2
y
1

x
4
x
3
x
2
x
1

L = dx = 7525 m
A river of width 6 m conveys water at normal depth 2.0 m along a slope of 0.0002 and n = 0.035,
upstream of a water fall. The water falls to a depth of 1.9 m. Taking N = 5 steps/ section, Using
direct step method, determine

i. type of flow profile,
ii. length of gradually-varied flow profile produced, and
iii.profile sketch.
Assignment Q2