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Gabriel S.

Gusmo
Dr. Tam
CHE 175B
Due on April 25
th
, 2012

1

Chemical Process Design Problem Set 1
Question 27 of chapter 10.
[1]

Stream data provided and energy balances above and below the Pinch.
Stream ID mC
p (kW/C)
T
in (C)
T
out (C)
Q
total (kW)
Q
op (kW)
Q
up (kW)

H1/S1 3 180 60 360 270 90
H2/S2 1 150 30 120 60 60
C1/S4 2 20 135 -230 -110 -120
C2/S3 5 80 140 -300 -300 0
a) Conduct the first law of heat analysis. If T
min
= 10C, sketch the temperature
interval diagram, cascade diagrams and find the minimum heating and cooling loads
and the pinch temperature.

The energy, as heat, balance between temperature ranges in which streams are
encompassed may be expressed as following:

,
As the convention proposed, the temperature difference (

) will be given as the


difference between the initial and final temperatures of the hot streams.


Gabriel S. Gusmo
Dr. Tam
CHE 175B
Due on April 25
th
, 2012

2

As shown in the temperature interval diagram, the overall energy balance given by the
sum of heat balance per stream matches the energy balance per gap.

The cascade diagram depicts the pinch point and its temperature with regards to the
cold and hot streams, which relies on the gap in between 80C and 90C.
In addition, from the cascade diagram, it is possible to determine the amount of heat
that is necessary to plug into the process, expressed by the hot utility, and the
quantity of heat that has to be absorbed by the cold utility streams. The values are
represented by the arrows that extends along from left to right and are 80 kW as heat
and 30 kW of cooling for the hot utility and cold utility, respectively.

Gabriel S. Gusmo
Dr. Tam
CHE 175B
Due on April 25
th
, 2012

3

b) Determine the minimum number of heat exchangers required above and below the
pinch for T
min
= 10C.
In order to determine the minimum number of heat exchanger required above the
pinch, the energy balances for each hot stream is undertaken from initial temperature
to the pinch temperature on the hot side, whereas for the cold streams, the balances
are calculated from their final temperature to the pinch temperature as follows.

,
=


And

,
=





The same reasoning is adopted for the region below the pinch, bearing in mind that
the heat transfer is guaranteed for the

is implied in each line that ties the


different streams in the temperature interval diagram.


From the optimal arrangement constructed, the minimum number of heat exchangers
above the pinch is 4 and below the pinch is 3. Hence, it comprehends a total of 7 heat
exchangers.



Gabriel S. Gusmo
Dr. Tam
CHE 175B
Due on April 25
th
, 2012

4

c) Sketch the temperature-enthalpy diagram.
The temperature-enthalpy diagram is represented by the cumulative sum of
enthalpies for the hot and cold streams throughout the temperature interval in which
heat transfer occurs. The enthalpy change for the hot side in each interval is given by

,
=

,

,
, and the respective cumulative distribution.
=
,

=1

The same thinking is used for the cold side. However, the cold input has to be plugged
as a enthalpy increment at the first figure to account for its effect on the overall
energy balance.
HOT Side COLD Side
Interval
Temperature
(C)

(kW)
cum
(kW)
Temperature
(C)

(kW)
cum
(kW)
1
2
3
4
5
180 90 480 170 0 560
150 20 390 140 25 560
145 220 370 135 385 535
90 210 150 80 60 150
60 30 30 50 60 90
30 0 0 20 30 30


Gabriel S. Gusmo
Dr. Tam
CHE 175B
Due on April 25
th
, 2012

5

d) Using the temperature-enthalpy diagram, what would the heating and cooling loads
become if T
min
= 15C?

e) Optimize the heat exchange network at T
min
= 10C and show all work for matching
up of the streams in heat exchangers above and below the pinch point.
The optimization was fairly undertaken in item b, however, the heat-exchanger
network may be represented differently as follows. As a thermodynamic restriction in
order to avoid mathematical inconsistencies towards physical phenomena, the
connections between pinch streams through heat exchangers were made so that,
above the pinch,

<

and the opposite for streams below the pinch.


Streams far from the pinch point were connected in order to minimize utility
consumption.
So as to avoid requirements of large heat exchangers, the arrangement of heat
exchangers was also developed aiming to have greater temperature difference
between streams. Below is the heat exchanger network in question proposed; in
addition, it depicts the total 7 heat exchangers estimated in item b.
The connection between streams 2 and 4 above pinch was made for the low range of
temperatures of stream 4, whereas if it were designed at highest range of
temperature, the minimum temperature difference would be violated.
Gabriel S. Gusmo
Dr. Tam
CHE 175B
Due on April 25
th
, 2012

6


f) Provide the individual areas of each heat exchanger using the following film heat
transfer coefficients.
Stream H1: h
1
= 400 W/m
2
C
Stream H2: h
2
= 300 W/m
2
C
Stream C1: h
3
= 100 W/m
2
C
Stream C2: h
4
= 200 W/m
2
C
Hot utility: h
h
= 2000 W/m
2
C
Cold utility: h
c
= 1000 W/m
2
C
To begin with, the first assumption that has to be made is that the heat transfer
resistance due to conduction through the material that separates each stream is
negligible, and the film coefficients include heat transfer resistance due to fouling.
Therefore, the overall heat transfer coefficient may be calculated as a function of
the film or convection heat transfer coefficient on each side of the heat exchanger.
= (

1
+

1
)
1


Gabriel S. Gusmo
Dr. Tam
CHE 175B
Due on April 25
th
, 2012

7

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/mK)
for Hot and Cold Streams Combinations
Hot\Cold C1\S4 C2\S3 Cold Utility
H1\S1 80.00 133.33 285.71
H2\S2 75.00 120.00 230.77
Hot Utility 95.24 181.82 666.67
The heat transfer between fluid streams in one heat exchanger may be estimated by
Newtons Law of Cooling, given that convection is the main physical phenomena
encompassed and there is no phase transition or biphasic flow.
=


Where is the heat transfer, is the area of heat transfer, comprehends the
correction factor, which accounts for the efficiency of heat transfer and

refers to
the logarithmic mean temperature, which is given by the following equation.

=

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,


The subsequent table tabulates the figures calculated from the previous equation and
the area resultant from these numbers. The correction factors value is usually around
0.8; this number will be used for the calculation. Furthermore, nothing is said with
regards to utility streams temperatures; they are going to be assumed as only to
satisfy the minimum temperature difference. For this special case, in which the
temperature difference between stream is equal on both sides of the heat exchanger,
the mean-log temperature value is the temperature difference or 10C.

HX
Hot Stream
Temperature (C)
Cold Stream
Temperature (C)
T
lm
(C)
Q
(kW)
U
(W/mK)
A
(m)
IN OUT IN OUT
1 180 90 86 140 15.63 270 133.33 129.52
2 135 95 85 125 10.00 80 95.24 84.00
3 150 120 80 95 47.10 30 75.00 8.49
4 120 90 80 86 19.61 30 120.00 12.75
5 90 60 35 80 16.37 90 80.00 68.72
6 90 60 20 25 51.49 30 75.00 7.77
7 70 40 30 60 10.00 30 230.77 13.00

Gabriel S. Gusmo
Dr. Tam
CHE 175B
Due on April 25
th
, 2012

8

References
I. Turton, R.; Bailie, R.C.; Whiting, W. B.; Shaeiwitz, J. A.; Anaysis, Synthesis and Design
of Chemical Processes 3
rd
ed.; 2010 by Prentice Hall PTR.
II. Mathcad 15.0 Copyright 2010 Parametric Technology Corporation.
III. Microsoft Excel 2010, Microsoft Corporation.
IV. Microsoft Visio 2010; 2010 Microsoft Corporation.