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Petersons

MASTER AP
ENGLISH LANGUAGE
& COMPOSITION
2nd Edition
Margaret C. Moran
W. Frances Holder
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ISBN-13: 978-0-7689-2474-9
ISBN-10: 0-7689-2474-X
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 09 08 07
Second Edition
Petersons.com/publishing
Check out our Web site at www.petersons.com/publishing to see if there is any new information regarding the test and
any revisions or corrections to the content of this book. Weve made sure the information in this book is accurate and
up-to-date; however, the test format or content may have changed since the time of publication.
OTHER RECOMMENDED TITLES
Petersons Master AP Calculus AB & BC
Petersons Master AP Chemistry
Petersons Master AP English Literature& Composition
Petersons Master AP U.S. Government & Politics
Petersons Master AP U.S. History
Contents
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Before You Begin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
How This Book Is Organized. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Special Study Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Appendixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Youre Well on Your Way to Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Give Us Your Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Table of Literary Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
Top 10 Strategies to Raise Your Score. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
PART I AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE &
COMPOSITION BASICS
1 All About the AP English Language &
Composition Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
10 Facts About the AP English Language & Composition
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Scoring the AP English Language & Composition Test . . . . . 5
Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Practice Plans for Studying for the AP English Language &
Composition Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Summing It Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
PART II DIAGNOSING STRENGTHS AND
WEAKNESSES
2 Practice Test 1: Diagnostic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Section I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Section II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays . . . . . . . 66
Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Synthesis Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PART III AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION
STRATEGIES
3 About the Multiple-Choice Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Basic Information About Section I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Acing the Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Analyzing the Question Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Attacking the Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
A Final Word of Advice: Educated Guessing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Practicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Exercise 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Exercise 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Exercise 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Exercise 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Exercise 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Summing It Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4 About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Basic Information About Section II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Types of Essays on the Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Strategies for Acing the Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
The Essay: A Quick Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
A Final Word of Advice on Writing Your Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Analyzing Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Practicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Exercise 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Suggestions for Exercise 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Exercise 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Suggestions for Exercise 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Exercise 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Suggestions for Exercise 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Exercise 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Suggestions for Exercise 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Exercise 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Suggestions for Exercise 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Synthesis Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Summing It Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
vi Contents
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PART IV: ENGLISH USAGE AND GRAMMAR REVIEW
5 Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Grammar for the Multiple-Choice Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
More Practical Advice on Writing Your Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
98 Common Usage Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Summing It Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
PART V: TWO PRACTICE TESTS
Practice Test 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Section I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Section II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Synthesis Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Practice Test 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Section I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Section II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Answer Key and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Synthesis Essays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
APPENDIXES
Appendix A: College-by-College Guide to AP Credit and
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Appendix B: A Quick Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms. . . 287
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Contents vii
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Acknowledgments
Text from the Preface of Modern American Poetry, 5th Revi sed Edi ti on, by
Loui s Untermeyer. Copyri ght 1919, 1921, 1925, 1930, 1936 by Harcourt, Brace
& Co, I nc. Repri nted by permi ssi on of Professi onal Publ i shi ng Servi ce.
Text excerpt from Pol i ti cs and the Engl i sh Language from Shooting an
Elephant and Other Essays by George Orwel l . Copyri ght 1946 by Soni a
Brownel l Orwel l and renewed 1974 by Soni a Orwel l . Repri nted by permi ssi on
of Harcourt, I nc., and A. M. Heath & Company, Ltd.
Addressi ng the Graduati ng Cl ass from Essays, Speeches & Public Letters by
William Faulkner, ed. by James B. Meri weather. Copyri ght 1951 by Wi l l i am
Faul kner. Repri nted by permi ssi on of Random House, I nc., and Chatto &
Wi ndus, Ltd.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ix
Before You Begin
HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED
Whether you have fi ve months, ni ne weeks, or just two short weeks to prepare
for the exam, Petersons Master AP English Language& Composition wi l l hel p
you devel op a study pl an that caters to your i ndi vi dual needs and ti metabl e.
These step-by-step pl ans are easy to fol l ow and are remarkabl y effecti ve.
Top 10 Strategies to Raise Your Score gi ves you tri ed and true
test-taki ng strategi es
Part I i ncl udes the basi c i nformati on about the AP Engl i sh
Language & Composi ti on test that you need to know.
Part II provi des a di agnosti c test to determi ne your strengths and
weaknesses. Use the di agnosti c test as a tool to i mprove your
test-taki ng ski l l s.
Parts III and IV provi de the revi ew and strategi es for answeri ng
the di fferent ki nds of mul ti pl e-choi ce and essay questi ons and gi ve
you numerous opportuni ti es to practi ce what you are l earni ng. I t i s a
good i dea to read the answer expl anati ons to al l of the questi ons
because you may fi nd i deas or ti ps that wi l l hel p you better anal yze
the answers to questi ons i n the next practi ce test you take. You wi l l
al so fi nd revi ews of grammar, mechani cs, and usage.
Part V i ncl udes two addi ti onal practi ce tests. Remember to appl y
the test-taki ng system careful l y, work the system to get more correct
responses, and be careful of your ti me i n order to answer more
questi ons i n the ti me peri od.
The Appendixes provi de you wi th the new Petersons Col l ege-by-
Col l ege Gui de to AP Credi t and Pl acement (for more than 400
sel ecti ve col l eges and uni versi ti es) as wel l as a revi ew of l i terary and
rhetori cal terms you may encounter on the test.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xi
SPECIAL STUDY FEATURES
Petersons Master AP English Language& Composition was desi gned to be as user-fri endl y as
i t i s compl ete. I t i ncl udes several features to make your preparati on easi er.
Overview
Each chapter begi ns wi th a bul l eted overvi ew l i sti ng the topi cs that wi l l be covered i n the
chapter. You know i mmedi atel y where to l ook for a topi c that you need to work on.
Summing It Up
Each strategy chapter ends wi th a poi nt-by-poi nt summary that captures the most i mportant
poi nts. The summari es are a conveni ent way to revi ew the content of these strategy chapters.
Bonus Information
Be sure to l ook i n the page margi ns for the fol l owi ng test-prep tool s:
NOTE
Notes hi ghl i ght cri ti cal i nformati on about the test.
TIP
Tips draw your attenti on to val uabl e concepts, advi ce, and shortcuts for tackl i ng the exam. By
readi ng the ti ps, you wi l l l earn how to approach di fferent questi on types, pace yoursel f, and
remember what was di scussed previ ousl y i n the book.
ALERT!
Whenever you need to be careful of a common pi tfal l , youl l fi nd an Alert! Thi s i nformati on
reveal s and el i mi nates the mi spercepti ons and wrong turns many peopl e take on the exam.
By taki ng ful l advantage of al l features presented i n Petersons Master AP English Language
& Composition, you wi l l become much more comfortabl e wi th the exam and consi derabl y more
confi dent about getti ng a hi gh score.
APPENDIXES
Petersons College-by-CollegeGuidetoAP Credit andPlacement, Appendi x A, gi ves you
the equi val ent cl asses, scores, and credi t awarded at more than 400 col l eges and uni versi ti es.
Use thi s gui de to fi nd your possi bl e pl acement status, credi t, and/or exempti on based on your
AP Engl i sh Language & Composi ti on score. Appendi x B provi des a revi ew of l i terary and
rhetori cal terms you may encounter on the test.
xii Before You Begin
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www.petersons.com
YOURE WELL ON YOUR WAY TO SUCCESS
Remember that knowl edge i s power. You wi l l be studyi ng the most comprehensi ve gui de
avai l abl e and you wi l l become extremel y knowl edgeabl e about the exam. We l ook forward to
hel pi ng you rai se your score.
GIVE US YOUR FEEDBACK
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col l ege admi ssi on process. Petersons publ i cati ons can be found at your l ocal bookstore,
l i brary, and hi gh school gui dance offi ce, and you can access us onl i ne at www.petersons.com.
We wel come any comments or suggesti ons you may have about thi s publ i cati on and i nvi te you
to compl ete our onl i ne survey at www.petersons.com/booksurvey. Or you can fi l l out the
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Publ i shi ng Department
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advancement.
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Before You Begin xiii
www.petersons.com
TABLE OF LITERARY WORKS
The fol l owi ng l i st represents al l the works di scussed i n thi s book, broken out by chapter.
Practice Test 1: Diagnostic
Excerpt from the Nati onal Endowment for the Arts Web si te. Readi ng at Ri sk,
Research Di vi si on Report #46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Wal t Whi tman, from Preface to the 1855 Edi ti on of Leaves of Grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
George Orwel l , from Politics and theEnglish Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Mark Twai n, from Roughing I t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Wi l l i am Faul kner, Addressi ng the Graduati ng Cl ass, Uni versi ty Hi gh School , Oxford,
Mi ssi ssi ppi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Andrew Carnegi e, from Wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Chapter 1
Hector St. John de Crvecoeur, from the thi rd essay of Letters froman American
Farmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
From The Law of the Great Peace from the I roquoi s Confederacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
El i zabeth Cady Stanton, from the Decl arati on of Senti ments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
New York Herald, Assassi nati on of Presi dent Li ncol n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
L.H. Hel l er, from Exti nct Ani mal s i n Americana, 1908 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Chapter 2
Ral ph Wal do Emerson, from Self-Reliance, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
James Boswel l , from Feel i ngs i n TheLifeof Samuel J ohnson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Mark Twai n, Advi ce to Li ttl e Gi rl s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Practice Test 2
Loui s Untermeyer, from the Preface of Modern American Poetry,
a Critical Anthology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Benjami n Frankl i n, from Di al ogue Between Gout and Mr. Frankl i n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Adam Smi th, from TheWealth of Nations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Mary Shel l ey, from I ntroduction to Frankenstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Ral ph Wal do Emerson, from The Ameri can Schol ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Practice Test 3
El i zabeth I , Speech to Her Last Parl i ament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Ri chard Steel e, Duel i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Si mon E. Bal dwi n, L.L.D., from TheAmerican J udiciary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Frederi ck Dougl ass, from My Bondageand My Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Henry Davi d Thoreau, from Civil Disobedience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Woodrow Wi l son, Appeal for Neutral i ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
xiv Before You Begin
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www.petersons.com
TOP 10 STRATEGIES TO RAISE YOUR SCORE
When i t comes to taki ng an AP, some test-taki ng ski l l s wi l l do you more good than
others. There are concepts you can l earn and techni ques you can fol l ow that wi l l hel p
you do your best. Here are our pi cks for the top 10 strategi es to rai se your AP Engl i sh
Language & Composi ti on score:
1. Create or choose a study plan from this book and follow it. The ri ght
study pl an wi l l hel p you get the most out of thi s book i n whatever ti me you have.
2. Choosea placeand timeto study every day, and sti ck to your routi ne and
your pl an.
3. Complete the diagnostic and practice tests in this book. They wi l l gi ve
you just what they promi se: practi cepracti ce i n readi ng and fol l owi ng the
di recti ons, practi ce i n paci ng yoursel f, practi ce i n understandi ng and
answeri ng mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons, and practi ce i n wri ti ng ti med essays.
4. Complete all of your assignments for your regular AP English
Language& Composition class. Ask questi ons i n cl ass, tal k about what you
read and wri te, and enjoy what you are doi ng. The test i s supposed to measure
your devel opment as an educated and thi nki ng reader.
5. Highlight the key words in the question so you wi l l know what you are
l ooki ng for i n the answer choi ces.
6. For a tiered or multi-step question, deci de what the correct answer i s and
then determi ne whi ch answer choi ce contai ns ONLY that answer.
7. All elementsin an answer must becorrect for theanswer tobecorrect.
8. With not/except questions, ask yourself if an answer choice is true
about the selection. I f i t i s, cross i t out, and keep checki ng answers.
9. If you arent sure about an answer but know something about the
question, eliminate what you know is wrong and make an educated
guess. I gnore the answers that are absol utel y wrong, el i mi nate choi ces i n
whi ch part of the answer i s i ncorrect, check the ti me peri od of the questi on and
of the answer choi ces, check the key words i n the questi on agai n, and revi si t
remai ni ng answers to di scover whi ch seems more correct.
10. Finally, dont cramthe night before the exam. Rel ax. Go to a movi e, vi si t
a fri endbut not one who i s taki ng the test wi th you. Get a good ni ghts sl eep.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Before You Begin xv
www.petersons.com
P
ART I
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE
& COMPOSITION BASICS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 1 All About the AP English
Language & Composition Test
All About the AP
English Language &
Composition Test
OVERVIEW
10 facts about the AP English Language & Composition Test
Scoring the AP English Language & Composition Test
Suggested reading
Practice plans for studying for the AP English Language &
Composition Test
Summing it up
10 FACTS ABOUT THE AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE &
COMPOSITION TEST
The Advanced Placement Program Offers High School
Students an Opportunity to Receive College Credit for
Courses They Take in High School.
The AP program i s a col l aborati ve effort of secondary school s, col l eges and
uni versi ti es, and the Col l ege Board through whi ch students who are enrol l ed
i n AP or honors courses i n any one or more of thi rty-ei ght subject areas may
recei ve credi t or advanced pl acement for col l ege-l evel work compl eted i n hi gh
school . Whi l e the Col l ege Board makes recommendati ons about course
content, i t does not prescri be content. As a resul t, the annual testi ng program
ensures a degree of comparabi l i ty among courses i n the same subject.
Thousands of Colleges and Universities in the United
States Participate in the AP Program.
Nei ther the Col l ege Board nor your hi gh school awards AP credi t. You need to
fi nd out from the col l eges to whi ch you are pl anni ng to appl y whether they
grant credi t and/or use AP scores for pl acement. I t i s I MPORTANT that you
obtai n each school s pol i cy I N WRI TI NG so that when you actual l y choose one
col l ege and regi ster, you wi l l have proof of what you were tol d.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
c
h
a
p
t
e
r
1
3
The AP English Language & Composition Test Measures Your Ability to
Analyze the Rhetoric of Prose Passages and to Write Essays in Various
Rhetorical Modes.
Accordi ng to the Col l ege Boards course descri pti on, an AP course i n l anguage and
composi ti on wi l l enabl e students to devel op and refi ne thei r wri ti ng styl es by wri ti ng
extensi vel y. The course wi l l al so provi de extensi ve opportuni ti es for students to read a vari ety
of rhetori cal modes to anal yze how wri ters choi ces affect styl e.
The AP English Language and Composition Test Has Two Parts:
Multiple Choice and Essays.
Secti on I , Mul ti pl e Choi ce, typi cal l y has between 50 and 60 questi ons di vi ded among fi ve or
si x prose passages. Thi s secti on counts for 45 percent of your total score, and you have 60
mi nutes to compl ete i t. I n Secti on I I , you have three essays to wri te. The questi ons usual l y
consi st of two essays that requi re anal ysi s of rhetori cal and styl i sti c strategi es i n sel ected
prose passages and one that requi res a synthesi s of sources to support an argumenta
persuasi ve essay based on an anal ysi s and eval uati on of sources. The essays count for 55
percent of your total score. You have 40 mi nutes to wri te each essay, 120 mi nutes total wri ti ng
ti me. You wi l l al so have 15 mi nutes to read the sources for the synthesi s essay.
The Prose Passages Are Taken from a Variety of Subject Areas.
Accordi ng to the i nformati on from the Col l ege Board, you mi ght fi nd sel ecti ons on the AP
exam wri tten by autobi ographers, bi ographers, di ari sts, hi stori ans, cri ti cs, essayi sts,
journal i sts, pol i ti cal wri ters and commentators, and sci ence and nature wri ters. You may al so
fi nd l etters. Wi thi n the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on, you wi l l fi nd one sel ecti on that has footnotes.
One of the essay questi ons wi l l be based on several , possi bl y as many as si x, passages that you
wi l l need to synthesi ze for your answer. The styl es wi l l vary as the subject matter vari es.
There i s no way you can read every possi bl e pi ece of nonfi cti on, but you can hone your ski l l s
of rhetori cal and styl i sti c anal ysi s and argumentati on and work on refi ni ng your own wri ti ng
styl e.
There Is No Required Length for Your Essays.
I t i s the qual i ty, not the quanti ty, that counts. Real i sti cal l y, a one-paragraph essay i s not goi ng
to garner you a hi gh mark because you cannot devel op a wel l -reasoned anal ysi s or argument
and present i t effecti vel y i n one paragraph. An essay of fi ve paragraphs i s a good goal . By
fol l owi ng thi s model , you can set out your i deas wi th an i nteresti ng i ntroducti on, devel op a
reasoned body, and provi de a sol i d endi ng.
4 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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NOTE
See Chapter 3 for
multiple-choice
questions. See
Chapter 4 for
strategies for
writing essays.
NOTE
See Suggested
Reading, p. 8.
www.petersons.com
You Will Get a Composite Score for Your Test.
The Col l ege Board reports a si ngl e score from 1 to 5 for the two-part test, wi th 5 bei ng the
hi ghest. By understandi ng how you can bal ance the number of correct answers i n the
mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on and the essay score you need i n order to recei ve at l east a 3, you can
rel i eve some of your anxi ety about passi ng the test.
Educated Guessing Can Help.
No poi nts are deducted for questi ons that go unanswered on the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on, and
dont expect to have ti me to answer them al l . A quarter of a poi nt i s deducted for each wrong
answer. The Col l ege Board suggests guessi ng I F you know somethi ng about a questi on and
can el i mi nate a coupl e of the answer choi ces. Cal l i t educated guessi ng.
The Test Is Given in Mid-May.
Most l i kel y, the test wi l l be gi ven at your school , so you do not have to worry about fi ndi ng a
strange school bui l di ng i n a strange ci ty. You wi l l be i n fami l i ar surroundi ngsthat shoul d
reduce your anxi ety a bi t. I f the test i s gi ven i n another school , be sure to take i denti fi cati on
wi th you.
Pl an your route to the other school and actual l y take the tri p once before test daydri ve or
take publ i c transportati on, whi chever way you wi l l go on test dayto be sure you wont get
l ost the morni ng of the test. Add extra ti me because you may be goi ng duri ng the morni ng
rush hour.
Studying for the Test Can Make a Difference.
The fi rst step i s to fami l i ari ze yoursel f wi th the format and di recti ons for both parts of the
test. Then, you wi l l not waste ti me on the day of the test tryi ng to understand what you are
supposed to do. The second step i s to put those anal yti cal ski l l s you have been l earni ng to
work, di ssecti ng and understandi ng the ki nds of questi ons you wi l l be asked. The thi rd step i s
to practi ce wri ti ng-on-demand for the essays.
SCORING THE AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION TEST
Around earl y Jul y, you and the col l eges you desi gnate wi l l recei ve a score from 1 to 5, wi th 5
bei ng the hi ghest, for your AP Engl i sh Language & Composi ti on Test, and your hi gh school
wi l l recei ve i ts report a l i ttl e l ater. The mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on i s graded by machi ne, and your
essays are graded duri ng a marathon readi ng sessi on by hi gh school and col l ege teachers.
A di fferent reader grades each of your essays. None of the readers knows who you are (thats
why you fi l l i n i denti fi cati on i nformati on on your pi nk Secti on I I bookl et and then seal i t) or
how the others scored your other essays. Each reader i s fami l i ar wi th the work or works
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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NOTE
See Scoring the
AP English
Language and
Composition
Test, below.
Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 5
www.petersons.com
di scussed i n the essay questi on she or he i s readi ng. The gradi ng i s done on a hol i sti c system;
that i s, the overal l essay i s scored, not just the devel opment of your i deas, your spel l i ng, or
your punctuati on. For each essay, the Col l ege Board works out gradi ng cri teri a for the readers
to use, much as your teacher uses a rubri c to eval uate your wri ti ng.
What the Composite Score Means
The Col l ege Board refers to the composi te score as wei ghted because a factor of about 1.3
(the exact number vari es from year to year) for the mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons and a factor of
3.0556 for the essay questi ons are used to determi ne a raw score for each secti on. That i s, the
actual score you get on the mul ti pl e-choi ce questi onssay 35i s mul ti pl i ed by about 1.3
(1.2273 for 55 questi ons i n a recent year). The actual score that you get on the essay testsay
21i s mul ti pl i ed by 3.0556. Those two numbers, your raw scores, are then added and the
resul ti ng scoresomewhere between 0 and 150 (107, based on the above exampl e)i s then
equated to a number from 5 to 1.
A score of 107 woul d have been good enough to get you a 4 for the test i n a recent year. But
5 more poi nts112woul d have gotten you a 5. The range i n a recent year was 112 to 150
for a 5.
What Does All This Mean to You?
You can l eave bl ank or answer i ncorrectl y some combi nati on of 20 questi ons on a 55-questi on
mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on, get a 7 for each of your three essays, and sti l l get a 5. I t i s not as
easy as i t may seem, or the majori ty of students woul d not fal l i nto the 3 range, al though a
3 may be good enough to get you col l ege credi t or advanced pl acement. A score of 4
certai nl y wi l l .
Take a l ook at the charts bel ow. I t takes work, but rai si ng your score may not be that
POSSIBLE SCORE DISTRIBUTION FOR A55-QUESTION
MULTIPLE-CHOICE SECTION
SCORE 5 5 SCORE 5 4 SCORE 5 3
MC Essays(3) MC Essays(3) MC Essays(3)
25 25 (8.33 ) 25 21 (7) 25 14 (4.66)
30 23 (7.66) 30 19 (6.33) 30 12 (4)
35 21 (7) 35 17 (5.66) 35 10 (3.33)
40 19 (6.33) 40 15 (5) 40 8 (2.66)
45 17 (5.66) 45 13 (4.33) 45 6 (2)
6 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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www.petersons.com
i mpossi bl e. Someti mes, the di fference between a 3 and a 4 or a 4 and a 5 i s onl y a coupl e of
poi nts.
The hi ghest score you can recei ve on an essay i s a 9, so the hi ghest total essay score i s 27. I t
i s possi bl e to get a vari ety of scores on your essays7, 5, and 5, for exampl e. The chances are
that you wi l l not get a wi de range of i ndi vi dual essay scores l i ke 6, 2, and 5. Even i f you di d,
you coul d sti l l get at l east a 3 and possi bl y a 4, dependi ng on how many correct answers you
have i n the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on wei ghed agai nst how many wrong answers you have.
Accordi ng to the Col l ege Board, about 62 percent of the students who took the test i n a recent
year recei ved a 3 or better. The cut-off poi nt for passi ng grades may change from year to year,
but i t remai ns around thi s range. Thi s chart shows the actual conversi on scal e i n a recent
year. What i t means i s that you nei ther have to answer al l the questi ons, nor do you have to
answer them al l correctl y, nor wri te three 9 essays to recei ve your AP credi t.
Five Things to Remember
The 50 to 60 questi on mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on i s worth 45 percent of your total score.
Students who perform acceptabl y on the essays can recei ve a 3 i f they answer correctl y
50 to 60 percent of the mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons.
There i s no deducti on for unanswered questi ons.
There i s a quarter-poi nt deducti on for wrong answers.
The three essays together account for 55 percent of your total score.
Why Are We Telling You These Facts?
Because you can use them to your advantage.
I t i s i mportant to spend ti me practi ci ng the ki nds of questi ons that you wi l l fi nd i n
the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on, because 45 percent of your score comes from that
secti on. You do not have to put al l your emphasi s on the essay questi ons.
AP
Grade AP Qualifier
Composite
Scores
Probability of
ReceivingCredit
5 Extremel y Wel l Qual i fi ed 112150 Yes
4 Wel l Qual i fi ed 95111 Yes
3 Qual i fi ed 7694 Probabl y
2 Possi bl y Qual i fi ed 4875 Rarel y
1 No Recommendati on 047 No
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Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 7
www.petersons.com
You can l eave some questi ons unanswered and sti l l do wel l . Even though you wi l l
be practi ci ng paci ng yoursel f as you use thi s book, you may not be abl e to compl ete
al l 50-odd questi ons on the day of the test. I f you come across a real l y i ncompre-
hensi bl e passage, you can ski p i t and come back to i t l ater and sti l l feel that you are
not doomed to a l ow score.
There i s a guessi ng penal ty. I f you do not know anythi ng about the questi on or the
choi ces, do not take a chance. However, I F you know somethi ng about the questi on
and can el i mi nate one or more of the answer choi ces, then i t i s probabl y worth your
whi l e to choose one of the other answers. You woul d need to answer four questi ons
i ncorrectl y to l ose one poi nt, but answeri ng even one questi on correctl y woul d gai n
you another poi nt. Rather than cal l i ng i t guessi ng, cal l i t EDUCATED GUESSI NG.
Even the Col l ege Board suggests thi s strategy.
I n wri ti ng the essays, you need to pace yoursel f so that you spend approxi matel y
the same amount of ti me pl anni ng and wri ti ng each one. Remember that you wi l l
get an addi ti onal 15 mi nutes to read the sources for the synthesi s essay. You are not
expected to wri te perfect essays. As the Col l ege Board cauti ons i ts readers for the
synthesi s essay, . . . the essay i s not a fi ni shed product and shoul d not be judged by
standards that are appropri ate for out-of-cl ass wri ti ng assi gnments. I nstead, eval u-
ate the essay as a draft, maki ng certai n to reward students for what they do wel l .
Al l essays, even those scored an 8 or a 9, may contai n occasi onal fl aws i n anal ysi s,
prose styl e, or mechani cs.
SUGGESTED READING
The fol l owi ng l i st of autobi ographers, di ari sts, bi ographers, wri ters of hi story, cri ti cs,
essayi sts, journal i sts, pol i ti cal wri ters and commentators, and sci ence and nature wri ters
draws heavi l y from the sel ecti on of wri ters that the Col l ege Board suggests students read
duri ng an AP Engl i sh l anguage and composi ti on course. The works have been chosen from a
vari ety of sources to provi de a representati ve l i st. There are al so suggesti ons for books on
composi ti on and cri ti cal anal ysi s. Readi ng essays i n magazi nes l i ke TheNew Yorker and the
New Republic and col umni sts on the Op-Ed page of the New York Times wi l l i ntroduce you to
wri ters l i ke Cynthi a Ozi ck, Gary Wi l l s, Thomas Fri edman, and Maureen Dowd. I n studyi ng
for the test, use thi s l i st as wel l as wri ters you are i ntroduced to i n cl ass to practi ce devel opi ng
essay responses. I f you are l ooki ng for model s of anal ysi s, check page xi v for a l i st of al l works
di scussed and anal yzed i n thi s book.
8 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics
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NOTE
The Diagnostic
and Practice Tests
will help you
pace yourself in
the exam.
NOTE
See Chapter 3 for
strategies on
educated
guessing.
www.petersons.com
Autobiographers and Diarists
Angel ou, Maya, I Know Why theCaged Bird Sings, TheHeart of a Woman
Cofer, Judi th Orti z, The Myth of the Lati n Ameri can Woman, Woman in Front of theSun:
On Becoming a Writer
Dana, Charl es, Reminiscences of theCivil War, Notes of Travel
De Qui ncey, Thomas, Autobiographical Sketches
Dougl ass, Frederi ck, Narrativeof theLifeof Frederick Douglass, An American Slave
Frankl i n, Benjami n, TheAutobiography of Benjamin Franklin
Hel l man, Li l l i an, An Unfinished Woman, Scoundrel Time
Hurston, Zora Neal e, Dust Tracks on a Road
Kel l er, Hel en, TheStory of My Life, Helen Kellers J ournal
Ki ngston, Maxi ne Hong, No Name Woman
Lawrence, T. E., Seven Pillars of Wisdom
Mal col m X, TheAutobiography of MalcolmX
Newman, John Henry, Apologia Pro Vita Sua
Pepys, Samuel , TheDiary of Samuel Pepys
Wel ty, Eudora, OneWriters Beginnings
Wri ght, Ri chard, Black Boy
Yezi erska, Anzi a, Bread Givers, Red Ribbon on a WhiteHorse: My Story
Biographers and Historians
Bates, Wal ter Jackson, TheAchievement of Samuel J ohnson, J ohn Keats
Boswel l , James, Lifeof Samuel J ohnson
Carl yl e, Thomas, On Heroes, Hero-Worship and theHeroic in History
Catton, Bruce, Mr. Lincolns Army, A Stillness at Appomattox
Churchi l l , Wi nston, My Early Life
DeLori a, Vi ne, Jr., Custer Died for Your Sins
Edel , Leon, 5-vol ume bi ography of Henry James, J ames J oyce: TheLast J ourney
El l mann, Ri chard, J ames J oyce
Foote, Shel by, TheCivil War i n three vol umes, Chickamauga and Other Stories
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Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 9
www.petersons.com
Frankl i n, John Hope, FromSlavery to Freedom, Raceand History
Fraser, Antoni a, TheWeaker Vessel
Gi bbon, Edward, TheHistory of theDeclineand Fall of theRoman Empire
Hol mes, Ri chard, Firing Line, Redcoat
Lerner, Gerda, TheMajority Finds I ts Past, TheCreation of Feminist Consciousness
Macaul ay, Thomas, Mi l ton, History of England
Mori son, Samuel El i ot, Admiral of theOcean Sea, J ohn Paul J ones
Parkman, Franci s, TheOregon Trail
Schama, Si mon, Landscapeand Memory, Rembrandts Eyes
Schl esi nger, Arthur M., TheAgeof J ackson, A Thousand Days
Takaki , Ronal d, A Different Mirror
Trevel yan, George, American Revolution
Tuchman, Barbara, TheGuns of August, Practising History (col l ecti on)
Critics
Al l en, Paul a Gunn, Studies in American I ndian Literature: Critical Essays, The Sacred
Hoop
Anzal dua, Gl ori a, Borderlands/ La Frontera: The New Mestiza, Making Face, Making
Soul/ Haciendo Caras: Creativeand Critical Perspectives of Feminists of Color
Arnol d, Matthew, Essays in Criticism, Cultureand Anarchy
Cl ark, Kenneth, Civilisation
Croce, Arl ene, Afterimages, Going to theDance
Emerson, Ral ph Wal do, Sel f-Rel i ance, The Over-Soul
Gates, Henry Loui s, Jr., Toward a Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism, LooseCanons:
Notes on theCultureWars
Hazl i tt, Wi l l i am, Sketches and Essays
hooks, bel l , Teaching to Transgress
Johnson, Samuel , TheRambler, TheI dler
Kael , Paul i ne, 5001 Nights at theMovies
Oates, Joyce Carol , Where I ve Been, And Where I m Going: Essays, Reviews, and Prose;
Contraries: Essays
10 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics
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www.petersons.com
Pater, Wal ter, TheRenaissance, Appreciations
Ruski n, John, Modern Painters, TheStones of Venice
Santayana, George, TheSenseof Beauty
Sontag, Susan, Against I nterpretation
West, Cornel , RaceMatters, Keeping Faith: Philosophy and Racein America, TheAfrican-
American Century
Wi l son, Edmund, Axels Castle
Essayists
Addi son, Joseph, TheTatler, TheSpectator
Agee, James, Let Us Now PraiseFamous Men
Angel ou, Maya, Wouldnt TakeNothing for My J ourney Now
Bacon, Franci s, Essays, Colours of Good and Evil
Bal dwi n, James, Notes of a NativeSon
Chesterton, G.K., Tremendous Trifles
Di di on, Joan, Mi ami : The Cuban Presence, The Li qui d Ci ty
Fussel l , Paul , Poetic Meter and Poetic Form
Gal l ant, Mavi s, Paris J ournals: Selected Essays and Reviews
Gordi mer, Nadi ne, TheEssential Gesture, Writing and Being
Hoagl and, Edward, TheCircleHome, TheCourageof Turtles
Lamb, Charl es, Essays of Elia
Mai l er, Norman, TheArmies of theNight, A Fireon theMoon, TheExecutioners Song
Mai rs, Nancy, On Bei ng a Sci enti fi c Booby
Mrquez, Gabri el Garc a, Eye of a Bl ue Day
McCarthy, Mary, I deas and theNovel, How I Grew
Montai gne, TheEssays
Nai paul , V.S., TheReturn of Eva Peron: With theKillings in Trinidad
Ol sen, Ti l l i e, Silences
Orwel l , George, Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays
Ozi ck, Cynthi a, Metaphor and Memory, A Cynthia Ozick Reader
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Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 11
www.petersons.com
Reed, I shmael , Shrovetide in Old New Orleans: Essays, God Made Alaska for the I ndians:
Selected Essays
Ri ch, Adri enne, What I s Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics,
Ri chl er, Mordecai , HuntingTigers Under Glass: Essays and Reports, Notes on an Endangered
Species and Others
Sel zer, Ri chard, Mortal Lessons: Notes on the Art of Surgery, The Masked Marvel s Last
Toehol d
Steel e, Ri chard, TheTatler, TheSpectator
Thoreau, Henry Davi d, Walden, Resi stance to Ci vi l Government
Updi ke, John, Picked-Up Pieces, Still Looking: Essays on American Art
Wal ker, Al i ce, I n Search of Our Mothers Gardens, Beauty: When the Other Dancer I s the Sel f
Whi te, E.B., The Ri ng of Ti me
Wi l l i ams, Terry Tempest, Great and Peculiar Beauty: a Utah Centennial Reader
Wool f, Vi rgi ni a, A Roomof Ones Own, Ol d Mrs. Grey
Journalists
Angel l , Roger, TheSummer Game, OnceMoreAround thePark
Baker, Russel l , Growing Up
Dowd, Maureen, AreMen Necessary?
Drew, El i zabeth, Washington J ournal
Ephron, Nora, Crazy Salad
Fi tzgeral d, Frances, America Revised
Goodman, El l en, Turning Points, Paper Trail
Hal berstam, Davi d, TheMaking of a Quagmire, TheBreaks of theGame, TheChildren
Logan, Andy, TheMan Who Robbed theRobber Barons
Mencken, H.L., Prejudices, The Femi ni ne Mi nd
Morri s, Jan, Pax Britannica Tri l ogy
Smi th, Red, Views of Sports, TheRed Smith Reader, Red Smith on Baseball
Steffens, Li ncol n, TheShameof theCities
Tri l l i n, Cal vi n, American Fried: Adventures of a Happy Eater, An Education in Georgia
Wol fe, Tom, TheRight Stuff
12 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics
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Political Writers and Commentators
Arendt, Hannah, TheOrigins of Totalitarianism
de Beauvoi r, Si mone, TheSecond Sex
Buckl ey, Wi l l i am F., Up fromLiberalism
de Crvecoeur, J. Hector St. John, Letters froman American Farmer
Du Boi s, W. E. B., TheSouls of Black Folk
Ful l er, Margaret, Woman in theNineteenth Century
Gal brai th, John Kenneth, TheAffluent Society
Gi l man, Charl otte Perki ns, Women and Economics
Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan
Jefferson, Thomas, The Decl arati on of I ndependence
Kennan, George, Memoirs
Ki ng, Marti n Luther, Jr., Letter from a Bi rmi ngham Jai l
Lapham, Lewi s H., Money and Class in America, Waiting for theBarbarians
Locke, John, TheSecond Treatiseon Civil Government
Machi avel l i , Ni ccol , ThePrince
Mi l l , John Stuart, On Liberty
Mi l ton, John, Areopagitica
More, Thomas, Utopia
Pai ne, Thomas, Common Sense, TheCrisis
Schrei ner, Ol i ve, Women and Labour
Swi ft, Jonathan, A Modest Proposal
de Tocquevi l l e, Al exi s, Democracy in America
Vi dal , Gore, Matters of Fact and Fiction, Decline and Fall of the American Empire, The
American Presidency
Wi l l , George, TheMorning After: American Successes and Excesses, Suddently: TheAmerican
I dea Abroad and at Home
Wi l l s, Garry, Nixon Agonistes, Explaining America: TheFederalist, Lincoln at Gettysburg
Wol l stonecraft, Mary, A Vindication of theRights of Woman
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Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 13
www.petersons.com
Science and Nature Writers
Abbey, Edward, TheMonkey Wrench Gang
Berry, Wendel l , A Continuous Harmony: Essays Cultural and Agricultural, Standing on
Earth, LateHarvest: Rural American Writing
Bronowski , Jacob, TheAscent of Man
Carson, Rachel , Silent Spring
Darwi n, Charl es, Origin of Species, TheDescent of Man
Di l l ard, Anni e, Teaching a Stoneto Talk
Ehrl i ch, Gretel , TheSolaceof Open Spaces
Ei sel ey, Loren, The Brown Wasps
Goul d, Stephen Jay, Ever SinceDarwin, Hens Teeth and Horses Toes, TheHedgehog, theFox,
and theMagisters Pox: Mending theGap Between Scienceand theHumanities
Kel l er, Evel yn Fox, Making Senseof Life, Refiguring Life
Lopez, Barry, Of Wolves and Men, Crossing Open Ground
Matthi essen, Peter, Wildlife in America, Under the Mountain Wall: A Chronicle of Two
Seasons in theStoneAge, Tigers in theSnow
McPhee, John, Annals of theFormer World
Mead, Margaret, Coming of Agein Samoa, Growing Up in New Guinea
Mui r, John, J ohn Muir: NatureWritings, Essays, My First Summer in theSierra
Sagan, Carl , TheDragons of Eden, Cosmos
Thomas, Lewi s, TheLives of Cells, TheYoungest Science: Notes of a Medicine-Watcher
Wei ner, Jonathan, Planet Earth, TheBeak of theFinch
Works on Composition and Analysis
Axel rod, Ri se B., and Charl es R. Cooper, TheSt. Martins Guideto Writing
Barzun, Jacques, Simpleand Direct: A Rhetoric for Writers
Berthoff, Ann E., TheMakingof Meaning: Metaphors, Models and Maxims for WritingTeachers
Cool ey, Thomas, TheNorton Sampler: Short Essays for Composition
Corbett, Edward P. J., Classical Rhetoric for theModern Student
Costel l o, Kari n Bergstrom, Gendered Voices: Readings fromtheAmerican Experience
Cox, Don Ri chard and El i zabeth Gi ddnes, Crafting Prose
14 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics
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Di Yanni , Robert, and Pat C. Hoy I I , TheScribner Handbook for Writers
El bow, Peter, Writing with Power
Gi bson, Wal ker, Persona: A StyleStudy for Readers and Writers
Hal l , Donal d, ed., TheContemporary Essay
Lanham, Ri chard, Analyzing Prose; The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology, and the
Arts; Revising Prose
Murray, Donal d, TheCraft of Revision
Strunk, W., Jr., and E. B. Whi te, TheElements of Style
Warri ner, John E., English Composition and Grammar: CompleteCourse
Zi nsser, Wi l l i am K., On Writing Well: An I nformal Guideto Writing Nonfiction
PRACTICE PLANS FOR STUDYING FOR THE AP ENGLISH
LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION TEST
The fol l owi ng pl an i s worked out for ni ne weeks. The best study pl an i s one that conti nues
through a ful l semester so you have ti me to thi nk about i deas, and to tal k wi th your teacher
and other students about what you are l earni ng, and you wi l l not feel rushed. Stayi ng rel axed
about the test i s i mportant. A ful l -semester study pl an al so means that you can appl y what
you are l earni ng here to cl ass work (your essay wri ti ng) and appl y your cl ass work to test
preparati on. The pl an i s worked out so that you shoul d spend about 3 hours on each l esson.
Nine-Week Practice Plan
WEEK 1
First: Take the PracticeTest 1: Diagnostic, pp. 3368, and compl ete the sel f-scori ng process.
Li st the areas that you had di ffi cul ty wi th such as ti mi ng, questi on types, and wri ti ng
on demand.
Then: Reread Chapter 1 about the basi c facts of the test and i ts scori ng.
WEEK 2
Le sson 1
Reread Scoring the AP Language &Composition Test on pp. 58 to remi nd yoursel f that at
l east a 3 i s achi evabl e.
Read Chapter 3, About theMultiple-ChoiceQuestions, pp. 71104.
Practi ce by compl eti ng Exercise1.
Correct the acti vi ti es wi th the Answer Key and Explanations for the exerci se.
Note areas that need i mprovement.
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Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 15
www.petersons.com
Le sson 2
Read Grammar for the Mul ti pl e-Choi ce Questi ons i n Chapter 5 and Appendi x B, A Quick
Review of Literary and Rhetorical Terms.
Practi ce answeri ng mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons by compl eti ng Exercises 2 and 3 i n Chapter 3.
Correct the acti vi ti es wi th the Answer Key and and Explanations for the exerci ses.
Note those areas where you have i mproved and those areas that sti l l need work.
WEEK 3
Le sson 1
Revi ew Chapter 3, About theMultiple-ChoiceQuestions, pp. 71104; Chapter 5 for grammar,
pp. 147150; and Appendi x B, A Quick Reviewof Literary and Rhetorical Terms, pp. 287293.
Practi ce answeri ng mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons by compl eti ng Exercise4 i n Chapter 3.
Correct the acti vi ti es wi th the Answer Key and Explanations for the exerci se.
Note those areas where you have i mproved and those areas that sti l l need work.
Le sson 2
Read Chapter 4, About theFreeResponseand Synthesis Essays.
Do Exercise 1. Ti me yoursel f to see how wel l -devel oped and compl ete an essay you can pl an
and wri te i n 40 mi nutes.
Compl ete the sel f-eval uati on and ask a responsi bl e fri end, an AP cl assmate, or a teacher to
eval uate your essay agai nst the scori ng gui de.
Wi th your eval uators and your comments i n mi nd, revi se your essay.
WEEK 4
Le sson 1
Reread Chapter 4, pp. 105144, as needed. Do Exercise2 i n 40 mi nutes.
Compl ete the sel f-eval uati on and ask a responsi bl e fri end, an AP cl assmate, or a teacher to
eval uate your essay agai nst the scori ng gui de.
Wi th your and your eval uators comments i n mi nd, revi se your essay.
Le sson 2
Reread Chapter 4, pp. 105144, as needed. Do Exercise3 i n 40 mi nutes.
Compl ete the sel f-eval uati on and ask a responsi bl e fri end, an AP cl assmate, or a teacher to
eval uate your essay agai nst the scori ng gui de.
Wi th your eval uators and your comments i n mi nd, revi se your essay.
16 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics
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www.petersons.com
WEEK 5
Le sson 1
Revi ew the l i st you made after you took the PracticeTest 1: Diagnostic to see what you need
to revi ew about the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on.
Wi th these areas i n mi nd, reread Chapter 3, About theMultiple-ChoiceQuestions.
Revi ew the Exercises i n the chapter and the Answer Key and Explanations. Pay parti cul ar
attenti on to the strategi es for answeri ng the questi ons.
Determi ne i f there are areas that you are sti l l unsure of.
Le sson 2
Revi ew the l i st you made after you took the PracticeTest 1: Diagnostic to see what you need
to revi ew about the essay secti on of the AP exam.
Reread Chapter 4, pp. 105144.
Revi se the fi rst two essays on the PracticeTest 1: Diagnostic.
Use the Self-Evaluation Rubric for the Free Response Essays to assess how much you have
i mproved si nce you ori gi nal l y wrote the two essays.
Note any areas that you thi nk you sti l l need to i mprove.
Revi se the remai ni ng essay i f necessary.
WEEK 6
Le sson 1
Take PracticeTest 2.
Score your answers agai nst the Answer Key and eval uate your essay agai nst the rubri c.
Ask a responsi bl e fri end, an AP cl assmate, or a teacher to eval uate your essay agai nst the
scori ng gui de.
Read the Answer Key and Explanations for al l the mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons, i ncl udi ng the
ones you answered correctl y.
Compare your scores on PracticeTest 2 to the scores on the PracticeTest 1: Diagnostic. Where
di d you i mprove? What do you sti l l need to work on?
Le sson 2
Choose a sel ecti on that i s used for one of the essay questi ons i n the Diagnostic Test and
anal yze i t as though you were goi ng to create your own mul ti pl e-choi ce test. Be sure to ask
yoursel f about the mode of the pi ece, any l i terary devi ces that are empl oyed, and the theme of
the pi ece.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 17
www.petersons.com
Choose one of the sel ecti ons i n the DiagnosticTest that i s used as the basi s for mul ti pl e-choi ce
questi ons and turn i t i nto a practi ce essay acti vi ty. Devel op a questi on and then answer i t i n
an essay.
WEEK 7
Le sson 1
Take PracticeTest 3.
Score your answers agai nst the Answer Key and eval uate your essay agai nst the rubri c.
Ask a responsi bl e fri end, an AP cl assmate, or a teacher to eval uate your essay agai nst the
scori ng gui de.
Read the expl anati ons for al l the mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons, i ncl udi ng the ones you answered
correctl y.
Compare your scores on Practice Test 3 to the scores on the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic and
PracticeTest 2. Where di d you i mprove? What do you sti l l need to work on?
Le sson 2
Choose a sel ecti on that i s used for one of the essay questi ons i n the PracticeTest 1: Diagnostic
and anal yze i t as though you were goi ng to create your own mul ti pl e-choi ce test. Be sure to
ask yoursel f about the mode of the pi ece, any l i terary devi ces that are empl oyed, and the
theme of the pi ece.
Choose one of the sel ecti ons i n the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic that i s used as the basi s for
mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons and turn i t i nto a practi ce essay acti vi ty. Devel op a questi on and
then answer i t i n an essay.
WEEK 8
Le sson 1
Choose a sel ecti on that i s used for one of the essay questi ons i n the Diagnostic Test and
anal yze i t as though you were goi ng to create your own mul ti pl e-choi ce test. Be sure to ask
yoursel f about the mode of the pi ece, any l i terary devi ces that are empl oyed, and the theme of
the pi ece.
Choose one of the sel ecti ons i n the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic that i s used as the basi s for
mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons and turn i t i nto a practi ce essay acti vi ty. Devel op a questi on and
then answer i t i n an essay.
Le sson 2
Read and anal yze fi ve arti cl es i n magazi nes such as The New Yorker and sel ecti ons i n
anthol ogi es to practi ce your ski l l s. Be sure to ask yoursel f about the mode of each pi ece, any
rhetori cal devi ces that are used, and the theme of the pi ece.
18 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics
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www.petersons.com
Appl y an essay questi on from one of the tests i n thi s book to two of the arti cl es and wri te a
practi ce essay for each. Use the scori ng gui de to assess your answer.
WEEK 9
Le sson 1
Read and anal yze arti cl es i n magazi nes such as TheNewYorker and sel ecti ons i n anthol ogi es
to practi ce your ski l l s.
Revi ew Chapters 3 and 4.
Revi ew Chapter 5.
Le sson 2
Randoml y choose sel ecti ons from Secti on I of the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic and the other
Practice Tests and revi ew the Answer Key and Explanations to remi nd yoursel f of the
strategi es you can use to unl ock the answers.
Reread Scoring theAP English Language& Composition Test, pp. 58.
Assembl e al l materi al s you wi l l need on test day: pens, penci l s, a watch, and your regi strati on
i nformati on.
The Panic Plan
Ei ghteen weeks, ni ne weeks, how about two weeks? I f you are the ki nd of person who puts
everythi ng off unti l the l ast possi bl e mi nute, here i s a two-week Pani c Pl an. I ts objecti ves are
to make you fami l i ar wi th the test format and di recti ons, to hel p you get as many correct
answers as possi bl e, and to wri te the best essays you can.
WEEK 1
Read and Scoring theAP English Language& Composition Test, pp. 58.
Take Practice Test 1: Diagnostic: Read the di recti ons careful l y and use a ti mer for each
secti on.
Compl ete the sel f-scori ng process. You can l earn a l ot about the types of questi ons i n the
mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on by worki ng through the answers.
Read Chapters 3 and 4 and compl ete the Exercises.
M ultip le C hoic e
Answer the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on on PracticeTest 2.
Compl ete the sel f-scori ng process, and see where you may sti l l be havi ng probl ems wi th
questi on types.
Read al l the answer expl anati ons, i ncl udi ng those you i denti fi ed correctl y.
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Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 19
www.petersons.com
Essa ys
Compl ete the essay secti on on PracticeTest 2.
Score your essays agai nst the rubri c, noti ng areas for i mprovement.
Ask a responsi bl e fri end, an AP cl assmate, or a teacher to eval uate your essays agai nst the
scori ng gui de as wel l . Compare your scores to those on the PracticeTest 1: Diagnostic.
WEEK 2
Reread Scoring the AP English Language & Composition Test, pp. 58, and Chapters 3, 4,
and 5.
Assembl e al l materi al s you wi l l need on test day: pens, penci l s, a watch, and your regi strati on
materi al .
M ultip le C hoic e
Answer the mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons i n PracticeTest 3.
Compl ete the sel f-scori ng process.
Reread Chapters 1 and 3 i f you are sti l l unsure of any of the strategi es or i nformati on about
answeri ng mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons.
Essa ys
Wri te the essays from PracticeTest 3, worki ng on strengtheni ng your areas of weakness.
Score the essays agai nst the rubri c.
Ask a responsi bl e fri end, an AP cl assmate, or a teacher to eval uate your essays agai nst the
scori ng gui de. Choose one essay to revi se.
20 PART I: AP English Language & Composition Basics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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www.petersons.com
SUMMING IT UP
The AP Program offers an opportuni ty to recei ve col l ege credi t for courses taken i n
hi gh school .
The AP Engl i sh Language & Composi ti on Test measures your abi l i ty to anal yze the
rhetori c of prose passages and to wri te essays i n vari ous rhetori cal modes.
Secti on I , Mul ti pl e Choi ce, contai ns about 50 questi ons on poetry and prose passages;
Secti on I I requi res wri ti ng 3 essays.
The mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons i ncl ude the fol l owi ng types:
mai n i dea
detai l
i nference
defi ni ti on
tone and purpose
form
factual knowl edge
The mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on i s graded by machi ne and the essays are graded duri ng a
readi ng sessi on by hi gh school and col l ege teachers.
Secti on I I i ncl udes three essays. Two of the essays usual l y requi re anal ysi s of rhetori cal
and styl i sti c strategi es i n sel ected prose passages and one requi res a synthesi s of sources
to support an argumenta persuasi ve essay based on an anal ysi s and eval uati on
of sources.
The hi ghest score you can recei ve on an essay i s a 9, so the hi ghest total essay score i s 27.
The three essays together account for 55 percent of the total score
The suggested readi ng l i st draws heavi l y from the sel ecti on of wri ters that the Col l ege
Board suggests students read duri ng thei r AP Engl i sh Language & Composi ti on course.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 1: All About the AP English Language & Composition Test 21
www.petersons.com
P
ART II
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSING STRENGTHS
AND WEAKNESSES
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CHAPTER 2 Practice Test 1: Diagnostic
ANSWER SHEET PRACTICE TEST 1: DIAGNOSTIC
SECTION I
1. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
2. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
3. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
4. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
5. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
6. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
7. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
8. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
9. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
10. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
11. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
12. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
13. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
14. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
15. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
16. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
17. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
18. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
19. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
20. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
21. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
22. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
23. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
24. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
25. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
26. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
27. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
28. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
29. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
30. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
31. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
32. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
33. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
34. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
35. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
36. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
37. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
38. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
39. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
40. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
41. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
42. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
43. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
44. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
45. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
46. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
47. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
48. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
49. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
50. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
51. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
52. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
53. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
54. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

a
n
s
w
e
r
s
h
e
e
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 25
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S
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Practice Test 1:
Diagnostic
SECTION I
54 Q UESTIO NS 60 M INUTES
Directions: Thi s secti on consi sts of sel ecti ons of l i terature and
questi ons on thei r content, styl e, and form. After you have read each
passage, sel ect the response that best answers the questi on and mark
the correspondi ng space on the answer sheet.
QUESTIONS 111 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. READ THE PASSAGE
CAREFULLY, AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
This passage is taken from a report on nationwide literacy prepared by
the National Endowment for the Arts.
Line I n a recent essay, What use i s l i terature? Myron Magnet stated that
data are meani ngl ess unti l we can arti cul ate a story that makes sense
out of them, and l i terature makes sense out of the data of human
experi ence.
46
Data from the 2002 Survey of Publ i c Parti ci pati on i n the Arts
(SPPA) demonstrate that many peopl e enjoy l i terature. Novel s, short
stori es, poetry, and pl ays attract al most one-hal f of those 18 or ol der
(47 percent or about 96 mi l l i on peopl e). Each part of the l i terary puzzl e
exami ned i n thi s monographnovel s, short stori es, poetry, and pl ays
attracts a si gni fi cant number of peopl e. Poetry (read by 25 mi l l i on
adul ts) i s about as popul ar as attendance at jazz performances or at
cl assi cal musi c events. About as many peopl e read pl ays (7 mi l l i on) as
attend l i ve opera or bal l et. Novel s and short stori es have an audi ence
(93 mi l l i on) that i s l arger than al most any other cul tural or l ei sure
pursui t. A number of peopl e have a parti cul arl y strong attachment to
books; about one i n si x l i terary readers (17 percent) read 12 or more
books i n 2002. Ameri cans parti ci pate i n l i terature i n a vari ety of other
ways. Al most one i n ten (9 percent) l i stened to l i ve or recorded read-
i ngs of novel s or books, and 6 percent l i stened to poetry readi ngs
duri ng the survey year. About 7 percent wrote creati ve works of thei r
own, and 9 percent used the I nternet to l earn about, read, or di scuss
topi cs rel ated to l i terature. Most l i terary readers are acti ve i n a wi de
range of other cul tural and l ei sure pursui ts. . . .
46
I n City J ournal, Summer 2003, www.ci ty-journal .org
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33
I t i s not cl ear from the SPPA data how much i nfl uence TV watchi ng has on l i terary
readi ng. Not surpri si ngl y, a stati sti cal model created to anal yze frequent readers
found that watchi ng four hours or more of TV per day had a negati ve i mpact on the
chances of someone readi ng 12 books or more per year.
47
Watchi ng no TV had a
posi ti ve i mpact on the probabi l i ty of someone readi ng 12 books or more. Li terary
readers watch sl i ghtl y l ess TV each day than non-readers, and frequent readers watch
onl y sl i ghtl y l ess TV per day than i nfrequent readers. The SPPA resul ts cannot show
whether non-readers woul d read more i f they watched l ess TV, or whether they woul d
use thi s extra ti me i n other ways. . . . The percentage of U.S. adul ts readi ng l i terature
dropped from 56.4 percent i n 1982 to 46.7 percent i n 2002a decl i ne of al most 10
percentage poi nts. Thi s may i ndi cate a downward trend over the past two decades, but
i t i s i mportant to note that the SPPA i s not conducted on a yearl y basi s. Thi s mono-
graph l ooks at the surveys hel d i n 1982, 1992, and 2002ten-year snapshots. No
i nformati on i s avai l abl e for non-SPPA years, and i t i s possi bl e that the 2002 drop i s a
short, one-year change. I f the 2002 data represent a decl i ni ng trend, i t i s tempti ng to
suggest that fewer peopl e are readi ng l i terature and now prefer vi sual and audi o
entertai nment. Agai n, the databoth from SPPA and other sourcesdo not readi l y
quanti fy thi s expl anati on. As di scussed i n Chapter 3, tel evi si on does not seem to be
the cul pri t. I n 2002, those who do read and those who do not read l i terature watched
about the same amount of TV per daythree hours worth. The I nternet, however,
coul d have pl ayed a rol e. Duri ng the ti me peri od when the l i terature parti ci pati on
rates decl i ned, home I nternet use soared. Accordi ng to a 2000 Census Bureau report,
42 percent of househol ds used the I nternet at homeup dramati cal l y from 26 percent
i n 1998, one of the earl i est years of the Bureaus tracki ng.
48
By contrast, l i terary
readi ng rates reported i n 1982 and 1992 were vi rtual l y i denti cal i n a peri od before the
I nternet was wi del y avai l abl e. I t was not unti l 2002 that the reported percentage of
adul ts readi ng l i terature dropped consi derabl y.
1. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng most accu-
ratel y states the subject of the
passage?
(A) The readi ng habi ts of Ameri -
cans
(B) The effects of tel evi si on on
readi ng
(C) How the I nternet makes peopl e
read l ess
(D) The popul ari ty of poetry and
novel s
(E) The decl i ni ng i mportance of
l i terature
2. The source l i sted i n whi ch footnote
woul d be the best source for
i nformati on on stati sti cs of home
computer use?
(A) 46
(B) 47
(C) 48
(D) None of the above
(E) Any of the above
3. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s cl osest to
the meani ng of arti cul ate as used
i n the fi rst sentence?
(A) Enunci ate
(B) Convey
(C) Cl ear up
(D) Pronounce
(E) Decry
47
The detai l s of the stati sti cal model s created for thi s report are i ncl uded i n Appendi x C.
48
U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Home Computers and I nternet Use i n the
Uni ted States: August 2000. Current Population Report, P23-207, September 2001.
34 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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4. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
descri pti on of the tone of thi s
passage?
(A) I nformati ve and unbi ased
(B) Opi ni onated and persuasi ve
(C) Appeal s to emoti ons
(D) Accurate and hopeful
(E) Creati ve and i nformati onal
5. The purpose of footnote 48 i s to
i nform the reader that the i nforma-
ti on i n l i nes 4547
(A) i s about the U.S. Department of
Commerce
(B) was fi rst publ i shed i n 2000
(C) appears i n Current Population
Report, P23-207
(D) was wri tten by the U.S. Census
Bureau and edi ted by the U.S.
Department of Commerce
(E) appears i n a book cal l ed Home
Computers and I nternet Use
6. Wi th whi ch statement woul d the
authors of thi s arti cl e most l i kel y
agree?
(A) Li terary readers watch as
much, i f not more, tel evi si on
than most non-readers.
(B) Onl y l i terary readers are
i mportant i n determi ni ng
readi ng stati sti cs for U.S.
ci ti zens; non-fi cti on readers do
not count.
(C) I nternet use has had a very
detri mental effect on the
percentage of U.S. ci ti zens who
are l i terary readers.
(D) Al l data must have a story to
accompany them.
(E) A decl i ne i n l i terary readers
mi ght be attri buted to a
growi ng preference for audi o
and vi sual entertai nment, but
there i s no hard data to support
thi s fact.
7. The phrase about one i n si x l i terary
readers (17 percent) read 12 or more
books i n 2002 i n l i nes 1617, i s used
to support the asserti on that
(A) as many peopl e read poetry as
attend jazz performances or
cl assi cal musi c events
(B) many peopl e have a parti cul arl y
strong attachment to books
(C) a smal l percentage of the
popul ati on wrote thei r own
creati ve works
(D) most l i terary readers read at
l east 12 books i n a cal endar
year
(E) si nce 2002, l i terary readers
read l ess books per year than
before 2002
8. The sentence Most l i terary readers
are acti ve i n a wi de range of other
cul tural and l ei sure pursui ts . . . at
the end of the second paragraph i s
most l i kel y
(A) an opi ni on based i n anecdotal
evi dence not i ncl uded i n the
report
(B) i ncl uded to convi nce peopl e who
read the arti cl e to be more
cul tured
(C) a concl usi on drawn from resul ts
of surveys on whi ch the report
i s based
(D) the authors wi shes for a more
cul tural soci ety
(E) untrue based on the i nforma-
ti on i n the passage
9. Thi s monograph l ooks at the surveys
hel d i n 1982, 1992, and 2002ten-
year snapshots. What type of
l i terary devi ce i s represented by the
use of the worl d snapshot i n thi s
sentence?
(A) Personi fi cati on
(B) Si mi l e
(C) Onomatopoei a
(D) I ambi c pentameter
(E) Metaphor
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 35

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


www.petersons.com
10. The word that woul d have the most ac-
curate meani ng i f used to repl ace the
word about as used i n l i nes 8, 11, 12,
and 16 i n the second paragraph i s
(A) Preci sel y
(B) Near
(C) Approxi matel y
(D) Exactl y
(E) Around
11. Footnote 47 i s i ncl uded i n order to
(A) gui de the reader to detai l s
about stati sti cal model s used i n
the report
(B) show the reader that the
passage shoul d be taken
seri ousl y
(C) hel p the reader understand the
i mportance of accurate stati sti -
cal model s
(D) properl y ci te the publ i sher of
the stati sti cal model that i s
menti oned i n the passage
(E) remi nd the reader that there are
some appendi xes to the report
QUESTIONS 1224 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY,
AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
From the Preface to the 1855 Edition of Le a ve s of G ra ss
Line Ameri ca does not repel the past or what i t has produced under i ts forms or ami d other
pol i ti cs or the i dea of castes or the ol d rel i gi ons . . . accepts the l esson wi th cal mness
. . . i s not so i mpati ent as has been supposed that the sl ough sti l l sti cks to opi ni ons
and manners and l i terature whi l e the l i fe whi ch served i ts requi rements has passed
i nto the new l i fe of the new forms . . . percei ves that the corpse i s sl owl y borne from
the eati ng and sl eepi ng rooms of the house . . . percei ves that i t wai ts a l i ttl e whi l e i n
the door . . . that i t was fi ttest for i ts days . . . that i ts acti on has descended to the
stal wart and wel l -shaped hei r who approaches . . . and that he shal l be fi ttest for
hi s days.
The Ameri cans of al l nati ons at any ti me upon the earth have probabl y the ful l est
poeti cal nature. The Uni ted States themsel ves are essenti al l y the greatest poem. I n
the hi story of the earth hi therto the l argest and most sti rri ng appear tame and
orderl y to thei r ampl er l argeness and sti r. Here at l ast i s somethi ng i n the doi ngs of
man that corresponds wi th the broadcast doi ngs of the day and ni ght. Here i s not
merel y a nati on but a teemi ng nati on of nati ons. Here i s acti on unti ed from stri ngs
necessari l y bl i nd to parti cul ars and detai l s magni fi centl y movi ng i n vast masses. Here
i s the hospi tal i ty whi ch forever i ndi cates heroes . . . Here are the roughs and beards
and space and ruggedness and nonchal ance that the soul l oves. Here the performance
di sdai ni ng the tri vi al unapproached i n the tremendous audaci ty of i ts crowds and
groupi ngs and the push of i ts perspecti ve spreads wi th crampl ess and fl owi ng breadth
and showers i ts prol i fi c and spl endi d extravagance. One sees i t must i ndeed own the
ri ches of the summer and wi nter, and need never bankrupt whi l e corn grows from the
ground or orchards drop appl es or the bays contai n fi sh or men beget chi l dren upon
women. . . .
Wal t Whi tman
36 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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12. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
statement of the theme of
thi s passage?
(A) A portrai t of the beauty of the
Uni ted States.
(B) A forecast of the future of
poetry i n the Uni ted States.
(C) A mergi ng of new and ol d
l i terary styl es.
(D) A di scussi on of the resources
and poetry of the Uni ted States.
(E) A poeti c defi ni ti on of the
Uni ted States.
13. I n l i ne 5, to what does the word
corpse refer?
(A) Ol d forms of poetry
(B) The past
(C) Sl ough
(D) Ol der opi ni ons and manners
(E) Current pol i ti cs
14. How does Whi tman suggest that the
past and the present are l i nked?
I . The past nouri shes and edu-
cates the present.
I I . I n the present, the past i s
vi ewed di fferentl y.
I I I . The present i s merel y a mi rror
i mage of the past.
I V. The present can be seen onl y i n
the context of the past.
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I V onl y
(E) I , I I , and I V onl y
15. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng statements
does NOT refl ect Whi tmans i deas
about the Uni ted States?
(A) I t i s l arger than most
other countri es.
(B) The popul ati on i s more l i terate
than that of other nati ons.
(C) The peopl e of the Uni ted States
have bui l t a uni que nati on.
(D) I t i s a country of vast ri ches i n
peopl e and nature.
(E) I t i s a country i n transi ti on.
16. When Whi tman wrote percei ves that
the corpse i s sl owl y borne from the
eati ng and sl eepi ng rooms of the
house, (l i nes 56) he used what type
of l i terary devi ce?
(A) Personi fi cati on
(B) Meter
(C) Oxymoron
(D) Concei t
(E) Metaphor
17. Whi ch i s the best i nterpretati on of
Whi tmans statement the Uni ted
States themsel ves are essenti al l y the
greatest poem i n l i ne 11?
(A) The greatest vol ume of good
poetry i s from the
Uni ted States.
(B) The nati ons vi brancy, beauty,
and di versi ty are poeti c.
(C) The peopl e of the nati on are
very poeti c.
(D) The Uni ted States i s the l eader
i n fi ndi ng new forms of poetry.
(E) Li terature i n the Uni ted States
has poetry at i ts root.
18. The sentence Here are the roughs
and beards and space and rugged-
ness and nonchal ance that the soul
l oves (l i nes 1718) i s i ntended as
(A) a chal l enge presented
to humani ty
(B) symbol i c of emoti onal hi ghs
and l ows
(C) a metaphor for the Ameri can
l andscape: physi cal and cul tural
(D) a contrast between somethi ng
easy and somethi ng di ffi cul t
(E) a reference to styl e and dress at
the ti me of wri ti ng
19. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng descri pti ons
woul d best characteri ze the Uni ted
States, accordi ng to Whi tman?
(A) Ri gi d
(B) Mal l eabl e
(C) Anti -i ntel l ectual
(D) Exuberant
(E) Enshri ni ng the past
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 37

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20. What does Whi tman mean when he
comments that the Uni ted States i s
not merel y a nati on but a teemi ng
nati on of nati ons (l i nes 1415)?
(A) New Ameri cans have tremen-
dousl y i ncreased the popul ati on.
(B) The nati ons resources can
support a l arge popul ati on.
(C) Peopl e come to the Uni ted
States to make thei r fortunes.
(D) Nati ve Ameri cans represent a
nati on wi thi n a nati on.
(E) The Uni ted States i s a cul tur-
al l y di verse nati on.
21. I n the second paragraph, Whi tman
uses the word here to begi n
numerous sentences. What effect
does he create?
(A) A ponderous feel i ng
(B) A sense of predi ctabi l i ty
(C) Formal i ty
(D) Exuberance
(E) A musi cal , poeti c feel i ng
22. The fol l owi ng sentence contai ns
whi ch of the el ements l i sted?
Here the performance di sdai ni ng
the tri vi al unapproached i n the
tremendous audaci ty of i ts crowds
and groupi ngs and the push of i ts
perspecti ve spreads wi th cramp-
l ess and fl owi ng breadth and
showers i ts prol i fi c and
spl endi d extravagance.
(A) A gerund phrase
(B) A parti ci pi al phrase
(C) An i nfi ni ti ve phrase
(D) Al l of the above
(E) None of the above
23. The compound verb i n the sentence
begi nni ng, Here the performance
(l i nes 1821) i s
(A) push and spreads
(B) unapproached and showers
(C) unapproached and di sdai ni ng
(D) spreads and showers
(E) crowds and showers
24. What i s Whi tman sayi ng i n the
sentence Here at l ast i s somethi ng
i n the doi ngs of man that corre-
sponds wi th the broadcast doi ngs of
the day and ni ght. (l i nes 1314)?
(A) The peopl e of the Uni ted States
fol l ow a pattern l i ke day
becomes ni ght.
(B) The nati ons acti ons
are unpredi ctabl e.
(C) The i nfl uence of the Uni ted
States spreads as wi del y as day
and ni ght.
(D) A person meets chal l enges on a
day-to-day basi s.
(E) Peopl e have found a pl ace i n
the Uni ted States where thei r
acti ons are compati bl e
wi th nature.
38 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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QUESTIONS 2538 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY,
AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS. IN PO LITIC S AND THE ENG LISH
LANG UAG E, GEORGE ORWELL EXPRESSES A CONCERN FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND
THE MANIPULATION OF LANGUAGE IN THE MODERN WORLD.
From Politic s a nd the Eng lish La ng ua g e
Line Most peopl e who bother wi th the matter at al l woul d admi t that the Engl i sh l anguage
i s i n a bad way, but i t i s general l y assumed that we cannot by consci ous acti on do
anythi ng about i t. Our ci vi l i zati on i s decadent and our l anguageso the argument
runsmust i nevi tabl y share i n the general col l apse. I t fol l ows that any struggl e
agai nst the abuse of l anguage i s a senti mental archai sm, l i ke preferri ng candl es to
el ectri c l i ght or hansom cabs to aeropl anes. Underneath thi s l i es the hal f-consci ous
bel i ef that l anguage i s a natural growth and not an i nstrument whi ch we shape for
our own purposes. . . .
. . . The defense of the Engl i sh l anguage i mpl i es more than thi s, and perhaps i t i s
best to start by sayi ng what i t does not i mpl y.
To begi n wi th i t has nothi ng to do wi th archai sm, wi th sal vagi ng of obsol ete words
and turns of speech, or wi th the setti ng up of a standard Engl i sh whi ch must never
be departed from. On the contrary, i t i s especi al l y concerned wi th the scrappi ng of
every word or i di om whi ch has out worn i ts useful ness. I t has nothi ng to do wi th
correct grammar and syntax, whi ch are of no i mportance so l ong as one makes ones
meani ng cl ear, or wi th the avoi dance of Ameri cani sms, or wi th havi ng what i s cal l ed a
good prose styl e. On the other hand i t i s not concerned wi th fake si mpl i ci ty and the
attempt to make wri tten Engl i sh col l oqui al . Nor does i t even i mpl y i n every case
preferri ng the Saxon word to the Lati n one, though i t does i mpl y usi ng the fewest and
the shortest words that wi l l cover ones meani ng. What i s above al l needed i s to l et the
meani ng choose the word, and not the other way about. I n prose, the worst thi ng one
can do wi th words i s to surrender to them. When you thi nk of a concrete object, you
thi nk wordl ess, and then, i f you want to descri be the thi ng you have been vi sual i zi ng
you probabl y hunt about ti l l you fi nd the exact words that seem to fi t i t. When you
thi nk of somethi ng abstract you are more i ncl i ned to use words from the start, and
unl ess you make a consci ous effort to prevent i t, the exi sti ng di al ect wi l l come rushi ng
i n and do the job for you, at the expense of bl urri ng or even changi ng your meani ng.
Probabl y i t i s better to put off usi ng words as l ong as possi bl e and get ones meani ng
as cl ear as one can through pi ctures or sensati ons. Afterwards one can choosenot
si mpl y acceptthe phrases that wi l l best cover the meani ng, and then swi tch round
and deci de what i mpressi on ones words are l i kel y to make on another person. Thi s
l ast effort of the mi nd cuts out al l stal e or mi xed i mages, al l prefabri cated phrases,
needl ess repeti ti ons, and humbug and vagueness general l y. But one can often be i n
doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rul es that one can rel y on
when i nsti nct fai l s. I thi nk the fol l owi ng rul es wi l l cover most cases:
(i ) Never use a metaphor, si mi l e, or other fi gure of speech whi ch you are used to
seei ng i n pri nt.
(i i ) Never use a l ong word where a short one wi l l do.
(i i i ) I f i t i s possi bl e to cut a word out, al ways cut i t out.
(i v) Never use the passi ve where you can use the acti ve.
(v) Never use a forei gn phrase, a sci enti fi c word, or a jargon word i f you can thi nk
of an everyday Engl i sh equi val ent.
(vi ) Break any of these rul es sooner than say anythi ng outri ght barbarous.
These rul es sound el ementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change i n
atti tude i n anyone who has grown used to wri ti ng i n the styl e now fashi onabl e. One
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 39
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coul d keep al l of them and sti l l wri te bad Engl i sh, but one coul d not wri te the ki nd of
stuff that I quoted i n those fi ve speci mens at the begi nni ng of thi s arti cl e.
I have not here been consi deri ng the l i terary use of l anguage, but merel y l anguage
as an i nstrument of expressi ng and not for conceal i ng or preventi ng thought. . . . One
can at l east change ones own habi ts, and from ti me to ti me one can even, i f one jeers
l oudl y enough, send some worn-out and usel ess phrasesome jackboot, Achilles heel,
hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritableinferno or other l ump of verbal refusei nto the
dustbi n where i t bel ongs.
George Orwel l
25. The chi ef topi c of thi s sel ecti on i s
(A) poor use of Engl i sh
(B) di cti on
(C) chauvi ni sti c di sregard for
forei gn words and phrases
(D) grammar and mechani cs
(E) sci enti fi c l anguage and jargon
26. Thi s passage i s pri mari l y
concerned wi th
(A) the meani ngs of words
(B) the rul es of syntax and struc-
ture i n the Engl i sh l anguage
(C) the use of col l oqui al i sms i n the
Engl i sh l anguage
(D) some rul es to be used for
better wri ti ng
(E) i ntegrati on of sci enti fi c and
forei gn words i nto the
Engl i sh l anguage
27. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best expresses
one of the authors goal s?
(A) To expand the use of the
Engl i sh l anguage.
(B) To i ntroduce new
grammar rul es.
(C) To teach creati ve wri ti ng.
(D) To fi nd new means
of expressi on.
(E) To si mpl i fy word use and
sentence structure.
28. The author advocates whi ch of the
fol l owi ng acti ons?
(A) Usi ng si mpl i ci ty to make
Engl i sh col l oqui al .
(B) The use of detai l ed,
descri pti ve phrasi ng.
(C) Si mpl e, di rect word sel ecti on.
(D) The use of common i di oms.
(E) The occasi onal use of forei gn
phrases to add i nterest.
29. The general tone of thi s passage i s
(A) subtl y humorous
(B) seri ous and persuasi ve
(C) i roni c
(D) sati ri cal
(E) dramati c and portentous
30. George Orwel l woul d agree wi th
whi ch of the fol l owi ng statements?
(A) You can break the rul es when-
ever you want.
(B) You shoul d never break
the rul es.
(C) You can break the rul es i f the
wri ti ng makes better sense.
(D) You can break the rul es earl y i n
a document i f you
are consi stent.
(E) Rul es are useful conventi ons.
31. I n the second paragraph, the author
i denti fi es what si tuati on under whi ch
rul es are necessary?
(A) When vagueness i s requi red.
(B) When ones sense of what i s
good fai l s.
(C) When there are no gui del i nes.
(D) Whenever one i s
wri ti ng i nformal l y.
(E) Rul es are never requi red.
40 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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32. What does the author thi nk wi l l
happen i f hi s rul es are fol l owed?
(A) Anythi ng wri tten wi l l be good.
(B) Wri ti ng wi l l be easi er to read.
(C) More peopl e wi l l read.
(D) Wri ti ng wi l l be as good
as possi bl e.
(E) More peopl e wi l l wri te.
33. What i s the best paraphrase for the
fol l owi ng sentence: What i s above al l
needed i s to l et the meani ng choose
the word, and not the other way
about (l i nes 2021)?
(A) Defi ni ti ons of words shoul d
change dependi ng on context.
(B) A wri ters meani ng shoul d
determi ne word choi ce.
(C) Words shoul d al ways have the
same meani ng no matter how
they are used.
(D) A uni versal Engl i sh system
shoul d be used.
(E) The shortest and fewest words
shoul d be used.
34. Accordi ng to Orwel l s rul es, why
woul d he object to the fol l owi ng
sentence: The ri ch treasury of our
l anguage mi ght go down the drai n?
(A) Never use a metaphor, si mi l e,
or other fi gure of speech that
you are used to seei ng i n pri nt.
(B) Never use a l ong word where a
short one wi l l do.
(C) I f i t i s possi bl e to cut a word
out, al ways cut i t out.
(D) Never use the passi ve where
you can use the acti ve.
(E) Never use a forei gn phrase, a
sci enti fi c word, or a jargon word
i f you can thi nk of an everyday
Engl i sh equi val ent.
35. I n the thi rd paragraph, Orwel l fi rst
uses the pronoun one and then
swi tches to the pronoun you. What
i s the effect of that change?
(A) By so doi ng, he spotl i ghts
poor syntax.
(B) By usi ng you, he rel ates more
di rectl y to the reader.
(C) He i s fol l owi ng hi s own advi ce:
to si mpl i fy.
(D) He i s usi ng an everyday
Engl i sh equi val ent.
(E) He i s usi ng standard Engl i sh.
36. Thi s sentence from the thi rd para-
graph, I n prose, the worst thi ng one
can do wi th words i s to surrender to
them. (l i nes 2122) contai ns whi ch
of the fol l owi ng?
(A) Si mi l e
(B) Metaphor
(C) Personi fi cati on
(D) Onomatopoei a
(E) Al l i terati on
37. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
expl anati on of the authors rati onal e
for sayi ng that grammar and syntax
are not i mportant?
(A) Grammar and syntax rul es are
too stri ct.
(B) Grammar and syntax are never
a major probl em.
(C) Grammar and syntax are not so
i mportant, as l ong as the
meani ng i s cl ear.
(D) Grammar and syntax rul es are
too l ax.
(E) Grammar and syntax are not
uni versal l y understood.
38. What i s the meani ng of col l oqui al
i n l i ne 18?
(A) Fresh, col orful
(B) Conversati onal , i nformal
(C) Regi onal , provi nci al
(D) I ntri gui ng, fasci nati ng
(E) Understandabl e, comprehensi bl e
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 41

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QUESTIONS 3954 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY,
AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
From Roug hing It
Line I t was al ways very col d on that l ake shore* i n the ni ght, but we had pl enty of bl an-
kets and were warm enough. We never moved a muscl e al l ni ght, but waked at earl y
dawn i n the ori gi nal posi ti ons, and got up at once, thoroughl y refreshed, free from
soreness, and bri m ful l of fri ski ness. There i s no end of whol esome medi ci ne i n such
an experi ence. That morni ng we coul d have whi pped ten such peopl e as we were the
day beforesi ck ones at any rate. But the worl d i s sl ow, and peopl e wi l l go to water
cures and movement cures and to forei gn l ands for heal th. Three months of camp
l i fe on Lake Tahoe woul d restore an Egypti an mummy to hi s pri sti ne vi gor, and gi ve
hi m an appeti te l i ke an al l i gator. I do not mean the ol dest and dri est mummi es, of
course, but the fresher ones. The ai r up there i n the cl ouds i s very pure and fi ne,
braci ng and del i ci ous. And why shoul dnt i t be?i t i s the same the angel s breathe. I
thi nk that hardl y any amount of fati gue can be gathered together that a man cannot
sl eep off i n one ni ght on the sand by i ts si de. Not under a roof, but under the sky; i t
sel dom or never rai ns there i n the summerti me. I know a man who went there to di e.
But he made a fai l ure of i t. He was a skel eton when he came, and coul d barel y stand.
He had no appeti te, and di d nothi ng but read tracts and refl ect on the future. Three
months l ater he was sl eepi ng out of doors regul arl y, eati ng al l he coul d hol d, three
ti mes a day, and chasi ng game over the mountai ns three thousand feet hi gh for
recreati on. And he was a skel eton no l onger, but wei ghed part of a ton. Thi s i s no
fancy sketch, but the truth. Hi s di sease was consumpti on. I confi dentl y commend hi s
experi ence to other skel etons.
Mark Twai n
39. What i s the tone of the passage?
(A) Wi tty
(B) Seri ous, sci enti fi c
(C) I nsi ghtful
(D) Argumentati ve
(E) Questi oni ng, curi ous
40. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
statement of the theme of
thi s passage?
(A) Lake Tahoe i s beauti ful .
(B) Goi ng to Lake Tahoe can
be hel pful .
(C) The ai r and water qual i ty of
Lake Tahoe are outstandi ng.
(D) Lake Tahoe and i ts envi rons
have recuperati ve powers.
(E) I t i s i mportant to keep Lake
Tahoe pri sti ne.
41. Thi s sel ecti on can be cl assi fi ed
as a(n)
(A) exposi tory essay
(B) dramati c di al ogue
(C) exaggerated anecdote
(D) modern myth
(E) persuasi ve essay
42. The wri ters purpose i n thi s sel ecti on
i s to
(A) amuse and entertai n
hi s audi ence
(B) i nform the audi ence about
Lake Tahoe
(C) teach about the envi ronment
(D) advocate a nati onal park
system through i nteresti ng
readers i n natural wonders
(E) subtl y suggest a
heal thy l i festyl e
* Lake Tahoe on the Cal i forni aNevada border
42 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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43. What i s the setti ng of thi s sel ecti on?
(A) The Appal achi an mountai ns i n
the mi d-1800s.
(B) The West i n the l ate
twenti eth century.
(C) The hi gh deserts of the South-
west i n the l ate 1700s.
(D) The mountai ns of the West i n
the mi d-1800s.
(E) The Fi nger Lakes regi on of New
York at the turn of the century.
44. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
characteri zati on of Mark
Twai ns di cti on?
(A) He uses a great deal of
fol ksy l anguage.
(B) Twai ns di cti on i s erudi te.
(C) Hi s styl e i s very sophi sti cated.
(D) He i s somewhat carel ess and
i rresponsi bl e i n hi s
word choi ces.
(E) The passage i s structured
and stati c.
45. Thi s passage from Roughing I t coul d
be consi dered an exampl e of
(A) romanti ci sm
(B) real i sm
(C) natural i sm
(D) cl assi ci sm
(E) regi onal i sm
46. When Twai n wri tes, But the worl d
i s sl ow, i n l i ne 6, he i s sayi ng that
(A) peopl e l ack energy
(B) i t takes ti me to communi cate
(C) peopl e take ti me to l earn
(D) i t takes a l ong ti me to get to a
new pl ace
(E) there i s l i ttl e that i s new
47. The reference to the Egypti an
mummy i n l i ne 8 emphasi zes the
(A) dryness of the regi on
(B) age of the l ake
(C) rehabi l i tati ve powers of
the regi on
(D) spi ri tual aspects of the area
(E) beauty of the regi on
48. When Twai n wri tes I thi nk that
hardl y any amount of fati gue can be
gathered together that a man cannot
sl eep off i n one ni ght on the sand by
i ts si de, (l i nes 1113) he i s sayi ng
that the speaker thi nks
(A) peopl e never get enough sl eep
(B) many peopl e sl eep too much
(C) sand forms a rel axi ng bed
(D) anyone can get ful l y rested at
Lake Tahoe
(E) the sands at Lake Tahoe have
medi ci nal qual i ti es
49. The words braci ng and del i ci ous
(l i ne 11) suggest that the ai r i s
(A) col d and tasteful
(B) supporti ve and tasty
(C) i nvi gorati ng and enjoyabl e
(D) refreshi ng and supporti ve
(E) i nvi gorati ng and refreshi ng
50. Based on thi s passage, what concl u-
si on can be drawn about Twai ns
feel i ngs for the l ocal e?
I . He enjoys the envi ronment of
Lake Tahoe.
I I . He fi nds the mountai n
regi on i nvi gorati ng.
I I I . He feel s i t l acks the depth of
the East.
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I , I I , and I I I
51. When Twai n states, the ai r i s what
angel s breathe, (l i ne 11) he i s
al l udi ng to what aspect of
the envi ronment?
(A) The al ti tude
(B) The col d
(C) The moi sture
(D) The heavenl y scent from
the pi nes
(E) The perfecti on of the bi osphere
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 43

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52. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng does NOT
appl y to Twai ns styl e i n
thi s sel ecti on?
(A) He uses speci fi c detai l s to
create a sense of real i sm.
(B) He captures the l ocal col or.
(C) The speaker seems to be an
ordi nary person, the
common man.
(D) The l anguage has the fl avor
and rhythms of common speech.
(E) I t i mi tates Shakespearean
sentence structure.
53. How woul d you characteri ze the
phrase fancy sketch (l i ne 20)?
(A) An el aborate drawi ng
(B) A short, nonfi cti on anecdote
(C) A medi cal tract di scussi ng cures
(D) A short ski t or humorous act
(E) A tal l tal e, a humorous account
54. Al l of the fol l owi ng rhetori cal
features are evi dent i n thi s
passage EXCEPT
(A) personal anecdote
(B) fi gures of speech
(C) tal l tal e
(D) col l oqui al i sm
(E) si mpl e sentence
S T O P
I f you fi ni sh before ti me i s cal l ed, you may check your work on thi s
secti on onl y. Do not turn to any other secti on i n the test.
44 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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SECTION II
3 Q UESTIO NS 2 HO URS 15 M INUTES
Directions: Read the passage bel ow careful l y. Wri te a wel l -organi zed essay that
eval uates the el ements of rhetori c and styl e found i n the passage. Expl ai n how the
wri ter uses these el ements to communi cate wi th hi s audi ence and to achi eve
hi s purpose.
Question 1
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
Addressi ng the Graduati ng Cl ass
Uni versi ty Hi gh School
Oxford, Mi ssi ssi ppi , May 28, 1951
Years ago, before any of you were born, a wi se Frenchman sai d, I f youth knew; i f age
coul d. We al l know what he meant: that when you are young, you have the power to do
anythi ng, but you dont know what to do. Then, when you have got ol d and experi ence and
observati on have taught you answers, you are ti red, fri ghtened; you dont care, you want to be
l eft al one as l ong as you yoursel f are safe; you no l onger have the capaci ty or the wi l l to gri eve
over any wrongs but your own.
So you young men and women i n thi s room toni ght, and i n thousands of other rooms l i ke
thi s one about the earth today, have the power to change the worl d, ri d i t forever of war and
i njusti ce and sufferi ng, provi ded you know how, know what to do. And so accordi ng to the ol d
Frenchman, si nce you cant know what to do because you are young, then anyone standi ng
here wi th a head ful l of whi te hai r, shoul d be abl e to tel l you.
But maybe thi s one i s not as ol d and wi se as hi s whi te hai rs pretend or cl ai m. Because he
cant gi ve you a gl i b answer or pattern ei ther. But he can tel l you thi s, because he bel i eves
thi s. What threatens us today i s fear. Not the atom bomb, nor even fear of i t, because i f the
bomb fel l on Oxford toni ght, al l i t coul d do woul d be to ki l l us, whi ch i s nothi ng, si nce i n doi ng
that, i t wi l l have robbed i tsel f of i ts onl y power over us: whi ch i s fear of i t, the bei ng afrai d of
i t. Our danger i s not that. Our danger i s the forces i n the worl d today whi ch are tryi ng to use
mans fear to rob hi m of hi s i ndi vi dual i ty, hi s soul , tryi ng to reduce hi m to an unthi nki ng mass
by fear and bri berygi vi ng hi m free food whi ch he has not earned, easy and val uel ess money
whi ch he has not worked for; the economi es or i deol ogi es or pol i ti cal systems, communi st or
soci al i st or democrati c, whatever they wi sh to cal l themsel ves, the tyrants and the pol i ti ci ans,
Ameri can or European or Asi ati c, whatever they cal l themsel ves, who woul d reduce man to
one obedi ent mass for thei r own aggrandi zement and power, or because they themsel ves are
baffl ed and afrai d, afrai d of, or i ncapabl e of, bel i evi ng i n mans capaci ty for courage and
endurance and sacri fi ce.
That i s what we must resi st, i f we are to change the worl d for mans peace and securi ty. I t
i s not men i n the mass who can and wi l l save Man. I t i s Man hi msel f, created i n the i mage of
God so that he shal l have the power and the wi l l to choose ri ght from wrong, and so be abl e to
save hi msel f because he i s worth savi ng;Man, the i ndi vi dual , men and women, who wi l l
refuse al ways to be tri cked or fri ghtened or bri bed i nto surrenderi ng, not just the ri ght but the
duty too, to choose between justi ce and i njusti ce, courage and cowardi ce, sacri fi ce and greed,
pi ty and sel f;who wi l l bel i eve al ways not onl y i n the ri ght of man to be free of i njusti ce and
rapaci ty and decepti on, but the duty and responsi bi l i ty of man to see that justi ce and truth
and pi ty and compassi on are done.
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 45

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So, never be afrai d. Never be afrai d to rai se your voi ce for honesty and truth and
compassi on, agai nst i njusti ce and l yi ng and greed. I f you, not just you i n thi s room toni ght,
but i n al l the thousands of other rooms l i ke thi s one about the worl d today and tomorrow and
next week, wi l l do thi s, not as a cl ass or cl asses, but as i ndi vi dual s, men and women, you wi l l
change the earth; i n one generati on al l the Napol eons and Hi tl ers and Caesars and
Mussol i ni s and Stal i ns and al l the other tyrants who want power and aggrandi zement, and
the si mpl e pol i ti ci ans and ti me-servers who themsel ves are merel y baffl ed or i gnorant or
afrai d, who have used, or are usi ng, or hope to use, mans fear and greed for mans
ensl avement, wi l l have vani shed from the face of i t.
Wi l l i am Faul kner
46 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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Directions: Read thi s passage about the accumul ati on and di stri buti on of weal th
careful l y. Wri te a wel l -organi zed, persuasi ve essay that defends, chal l enges, or qual i fi es
the asserti ons made by the author. Use evi dence from your observati ons, experi ence, or
readi ng to devel op your posi ti on. Bear i n mi nd the structure of an argument, the types
of arguments, and the premi ses.
Question 2
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
There remai ns, then, onl y one mode of usi ng great fortunes; but i n thi s we have the true
anti dote for the temporary unequal di stri buti on of weal th, the reconci l i ati on of the ri ch and
the poora rei gn of harmonyanother i deal , di fferi ng, i ndeed, from that of the Communi st
i n requi ri ng onl y the further evol uti on of exi sti ng condi ti ons, not the total overthrow of our
ci vi l i zati on. I t i s founded upon the present most i ntense i ndi vi dual i sm, and the race i s
prepared to put i t i n practi ce by degrees whenever i t pl eases. Under i ts sway we shal l have an
i deal state, i n whi ch the surpl us weal th of the few wi l l become, i n the best sense, the property
of the many, because admi ni stered for the common good; and thi s weal th, passi ng through the
hands of the few, can be made a much more potent force for the el evati on of our race than i f
i t had been di stri buted i n smal l sums to the peopl e themsel ves. Even the poorest can be made
to see thi s, and to agree that great sums gathered by some of thei r fel l ow ci ti zens and spent
for publ i c purposes, from whi ch the masses reap the pri nci pal benefi t, are more val uabl e to
them than i f scattered among them through the course of many years i n tri fl i ng amounts.
Andrew Carnegi e, Weal th, 1889
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 47

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Directions: The fol l owi ng prompt i s based on the fol l owi ng si x sources. The
assi gnment requi res that you synthesi ze a number of the sources i nto a coherent,
wel l -wri tten essay that takes a posi ti on. Use at l east three of the sources to support your
posi ti on. Do not si mpl y paraphrase or summari ze the sources. Your argument shoul d be
the focus of your essay and the sources shoul d support thi s argument. Remember to
attri bute both di rect and i ndi rect ci tati ons.
Question 3
SUG G ESTED TIM E15 M INUTES FO R READING AND 40 M INUTES FO R WRITING
Introduction: Voter regi strati on i n the Uni ted States i s hi gher than ever before. However,
the number of Ameri cans who are voti ng i s l ower than ever before. What mi ght account for
thi s gap? Why mi ght peopl e who regi ster to vote not exerci se thei r ri ght to vote?
Assignment: Read the fol l owi ng sources (i ncl udi ng any i ntroductory i nformati on) careful l y.
Then, write an essay that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that people
who are registered to vote do not vote because they do not feel that their vote will
makea difference. Synthesizeat least threeof thesources tosupport your position.
You may refer to the sources by thei r ti tl es (Source A, Source B, etc.) or by the descri pti ons i n
parentheses.
Source A (Smi th)
Source B (Jenki ns)
Source C (chart)
Source D (Al l en)
Source E (Beggens)
Source F (Langevi n)
48 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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SOURCE A
Smi th, Andrew. The Regi strati on/Voter Gap, Voter Rights Magazine, Apri l 9, 2005
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le a b out the g a p b e twe e n vote r
re g istra tion num b e rs a nd vote r turnout in e le c tions.
Why dont al l peopl e who can do so vote? I t i s an i ntri nsi c ri ght of every Ameri can ci ti zen. Our
government i s run by el ected offi ci al s. The premi se i s that these offi ci al s represent the wi l l of
the peopl e, as evi denced by the fact that they have been voted i nto offi ce. However, i n real i ty,
peopl e often feel that thei r el ected offi ci al s often dont represent them. But perhaps thi s i s
because those who dont feel that they are adequatel y represented di d not vote i n the fi rst
pl ace. Thi s can create a cycl e i n whi ch voters do not vote because they have no confi dence i n
el ected offi ci al s, because they feel as i f the el ected offi ci al s do not represent them, so therefore,
they dont vote, and the cycl e begi ns agai n. But how can peopl e who do not exerci se thei r ri ght
to hel p choose thei r el ected offi ci al s expect to be properl y represented? What i s perhaps most
frustrati ng i s the fact that a l arge number of these nonvoters are registered to vote.
Throughout the 1990s, voter regi strati on as a percentage of the total voti ng age (el i gi bl e)
popul ati on has ri sen dramati cal l y. Why? Wel l , i ncreased government i nterest i n hel pi ng
peopl e regi ster to vote i s one factor. The Nati onal Voter Regi strati on Act, passed by Congress
i n 1993 (al so known as the Motor Voter program) shares a l arge part of the responsi bi l i ty for
the i ncrease i n voter regi strati on. The Motor Voter act si mpl y makes i t easi er for peopl e to
regi ster to vote. I t cuts out l ots of bureaucrati c red tape. Most states now al l ow peopl e to
regi ster by mai l . I n addi ti on, i n most states, when a person regi sters a vehi cl e, they can al so
regi ster to vote. Duri ng the fi rst ful l year of the program, approxi matel y 11 mi l l i on peopl e
regi stered to vote or updated thei r regi strati on i nformati on.
Yet, i t i s obvi ous that merel y bei ng registered to vote does not cause peopl e to vote. The
government has l aunched programs to i ncrease regi strati on i n an effort to i ncrease voter
participation; but thi s i s a fal l acy. The regi strati on programs do not get to the heart of the
i ssuethe di si l l usi onment of the Ameri can publ i c wi th our pol i ti cal system.
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 49

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SOURCE B
Jenki ns, Angel a. Edi tori al i n the onl i ne magazi ne Students Unite, December 2003 i ssue.
The following is e xc e rp te d from a n online e d itoria l a b out the la c k of p olitic a l
involve m e nt of c olle g e stud e nts a nd how tha t m ig ht a ffe c t p olitic s in the future .
My fel l ow students, we are shi rki ng our responsi bi l i ti es as U.S. ci ti zens. Yes, we, dear reader,
are al l owi ng our pri zed pol i ti cal system to become a joke. We si t around i n the di ni ng hal l and
compl ai n about the war. We compl ai n about the presi dent. We compl ai n about, wel l ,
everythi ng that has to do wi th government. We ki ck around conspi racy theori es and spend
hours l amenti ng how unfai r our government system real l y i s. We whi ne about cri mi nal s wi th
too many ri ghts, or maybe we whi ne about the fact that they dont have enough ri ghts. I t
doesnt real l y matter what the subject i s, wel l debate unti l the day grows l ong.
But, and thi s i s an i mportant but, what do we do about i t? How many of us who were
el i gi bl e to vote actual l y voted i n the l ast presi denti al el ecti on? How many of us voted i n a l ocal
el ecti on? I n fact, how many of us even voted for our own student counci l members? Wel l , I
promi se you, I have seen the numbers, and they are l ow, my fri ends. So, why do we compl ai n
so much?
Thi s l etter i s a cal l to acti on. Thi s pol i ti cal apathy has got to stop. Actual l y, that i s not
enti rel y accuratei t i s not apathy toward pol i ti cs that i s the probl em, i t i s apathy toward
voting. Vote and make a di fference, peopl e. Run for offi ce and make a di fference. Just do
somethi ng!
50 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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S
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Table E.
Reasons for Not Registering by Selected Characteristics: 2004
(Numbers i n Thousands)
Percent distribution of reasons for not registering
Characteristic Total
1
Not
interested
in the
election
or not
involved
in politics
Did not
meet
registration
deadlines
Not
eligible
to
vote
Dont
know
or
refused
Permanent
illness
or
disability Other
Did not
know
where
or
how
to
register
Did not
meet
residency
requirements
My vote
would
not
make a
difference
Total, 18 years
and older
32,432 46.6 17.4 6.7 6.2 5.6 4.7 4.5 3.7 3.7
Age
18 to 24 years 6,888 44.0 24.0 5.8 8.2 1.8 3.1 6.2 3.9 2.6
25 to 44 years 13,284 45.7 19.0 8.5 5.5 2.8 5.0 4.8 4.4 3.5
45 to 64 years 8,508 50.4 13.4 6.6 6.7 5.9 4.6 3.2 3.0 4.6
65 years and older 3,751 45.6 9.1 2.3 3.8 21.6 6.3 3.1 2.2 3.8
1
I ncl udes onl y those respondents who answered no to the questi on Were you regi stered i n the el ecti on of November 2004?
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Popul ati on Survey, November 2004.
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SOURCE D
Al l en, Mari o. Voti ng Ri ghts i n Ameri ca. TheMagazine, August 25, 2005.
The following is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le tha t d isc usse s the history of voting rig hts
in Am e ric a .
Voti ng ri ghts i n Ameri ca have come a l ong way si nce the nati ons foundi ng. I n the earl y years
of our nati on, onl y whi te, l and-owni ng men coul d vote. By 1830, i n most states requi rements
of property ownershi p or rel i gi ous tests were abol i shed, but sti l l , onl y whi te men coul d vote.
Women began to fi ght for the ri ght to vote i n the years before the Ci vi l War, but i t was not
unti l 1920 that the 19
th
Amendment was rati fi ed, gi vi ng women the ri ght to vote.
After the Ci vi l War, the passage of the 15
th
Amendment gave al l Afri can Ameri can mal es
the ri ght to vote. However, thi s ri ght was i n practi ce deni ed to Afri can Ameri cans i n the South
i n many ways, i ncl udi ng the use of pol l taxes and the grandfather cl ause. The 24
th
Amendment woul d el i mi nate pol l taxes i n federal el ecti ons i n 1964.
I n 1965, the Voti ng Ri ghts Act was passed. Thi s act el i mi nated l i teracy tests to vote. I t al so
sent federal representati ves to the south to oversee voti ng regi strati on. Thi s act i ncreased
voter regi strati on and parti ci pati on for southern Afri can Ameri cans. Voti ng parti ci pati on was
extended to 18 year-ol ds wi th the passage of the 26
th
Amendment. Thi s i ncreased regi strati on
and parti ci pati on, as wel l , al though those 1824 have the l owest regi strati on and turnout
rates of any age group. Fi nal l y, the passage of the Motor Voter act i n 1993 i ncreased voter
regi strati on by mi l l i ons.
52 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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SOURCE E
Beggens, Al i ci a. Di d the Generati on Z Vote Campai gn Work? Rolling Moss Magazine,
February 2006.
The following is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le a b out a c a m p a ig n to g e t p e op le b e twe e n
the a g e s of 18 a nd 24 to vote in the m ost re c e nt p re sid e ntia l e le c tion.
The Generati on Z Vote Campai gn seemed l i ke geni us. The nati ons most popul ar musi c
stati on, coupl ed wi th a huge amount of cel ebri ty support, sought to change the way that
young peopl e parti ci pate i n pol i ti cs today. The i dea was to make pol i ti cs i nteresti ng. I t was
reasoned that because young peopl e l ooked up to cel ebri ti es, that cel ebri ty endorsement
woul d make voti ng, wel l , cool . I n addi ti on, the campai gn had a deci dedl y Democrati c l eani ng,
pushi ng a fai rl y l i beral agenda. Even so, many Republ i cans came out i n support of the
campai gn, reasoni ng that any type of pol i ti cal i nvol vement was better than none at al l .
Whi ch begs the questi on: di d i t work? For al most 18 months, the campai gn seemed to be
everywhere: on col l ege campuses, i n mal l s, al l over TV and radi o. And i t seemed as i f the
targeted group was respondi ng. There was a real feel i ng for a whi l e that thi s ti me, the 18- to
24-year-ol ds woul d make a di fference. They mi ght even swi ng an el ecti on.
Al as, i t seems i t was al l for naught. Al though voter turnout overal l i n the l ast presi denti al
el ecti on seemed to sl i ghtl y i ncrease from the previ ous el ecti on, the 18- to 24-year-ol d turnout
numbers were atroci ous. There was barel y a di fference i n the percentage voti ng from the l ast
el ecti on.
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 53

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


www.petersons.com
SOURCE F
Langevin Testifies on Voter Legislation, Uni ted States House of Representati ves press
rel ease, June 2006, can be found at http://www.house.gov/l i st/press/ri 02_l angevi n/
prvoter62206.html
The following is e xc e rp te d from a g ove rnm e nt p re ss re le a se re g a rd ing C ong re ssm a n
Jim La ng e vins ( D- RI) te stim ony b e fore C ong re ss re g a rd ing vote r re g istra tion a nd
id e ntific a tion re q uire m e nts. This e xc e rp t c onta ins b a c kg round inform a tion on C ong re sss
re c ord of e nfra nc hise m e nt.
When I was el ected Secretary of State, Rhode I sl and had the ol dest voti ng equi pment i n the
nati on. Begi nni ng i n 1993, as a state Representati ve when I chai red a speci al l egi sl ati ve
commi ssi on on el ecti on reform and then as Secretary of State, I worked wi th my col l eagues i n
the l egi sl ature, the State Board of El ecti ons, l ocal canvassi ng authori ti es and the publ i c to
i nvesti gate voti ng probl ems throughout the state and devel op an effecti ve resol uti on. We
successful l y upgraded our el ecti on equi pment, si gni fi cantl y reduci ng our error rates and
maki ng our pol l i ng pl aces and machi nes accessi bl e to peopl e wi th di sabi l i ti es. We al so
i mpl emented the requi rements of the Nati onal Voter Regi strati on Actpopul arl y known as
Motor Voterwhi ch reduced certai n l ongstandi ng obstacl es to regi strati on. These changes
were si gni fi cant, and we ul ti matel y met our goal of i ncreasi ng the number of regi stered voters
i n Rhode I sl and by nearl y 60,000 between 1993 and 2000. Our efforts made Rhode I sl and a
model for el ectoral parti ci pati on and accessi bi l i ty, and I was pl eased to hel p transl ate those
successes to the nati onal l evel by parti ci pati ng i n the devel opment of the Hel p Ameri ca Vote
Acta great bi parti san effort of thi s commi ttee and the most recent success story i n
Congresss l ong hi story of expandi ng voti ng opportuni ti es to Ameri cans.
Congress shoul d be proud of i ts record of removi ng barri ers and i ncreasi ng the opportuni ty
of al l Ameri cans to vote. Though i t took us far too l ong, Congress guaranteed the ri ght to vote
to ci ti zens whose onl y di squal i fi cati on was the col or of thei r ski n. I t opened pol l i ng pl aces to
the di sabl ed. I t extended the franchi se to Ameri cans l i vi ng overseas. I t enabl ed al l ci ti zens i n
our mobi l e soci ety to regi ster and reregi ster wi th ease. I t di d al l thi s on a bi parti san basi s. I t
di d thi s whi l e mai ntai ni ng the i ntegri ty of our el ecti ons.
S T O P
I f you fi ni sh before ti me i s cal l ed, you may check your work on thi s
secti on onl y. Do not turn to any other secti on i n the test.
54 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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www.petersons.com
ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS
Section I
1. A
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. E
7. B
8. C
9. E
10. C
11. A
12. E
13. B
14. A
15. B
16. E
17. B
18. C
19. B
20. E
21. D
22. B
23. D
24. C
25. B
26. D
27. E
28. C
29. B
30. C
31. B
32. B
33. B
34. A
35. B
36. C
37. C
38. C
39. A
40. D
41. C
42. A
43. D
44. A
45. E
46. C
47. C
48. D
49. C
50. D
51. A
52. E
53. E
54. D
1. Thecorrect answer is (A). Choi ce (A) i s the best answer to thi s questi on: the passage
i s part of a report about the readi ng habi ts of Ameri cans. Choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect,
because al though the passage does menti on the effect of tel evi si on on readi ng, thi s i s
not the focus of the passage. Choi ce (C) contai ns a concl usi on that si mpl y cannot be
drawn from the i nformati on i n the passage. The passage does menti on poetry and
novel s but onl y as supporti ng detai l s, so choi ce (D) i s i ncorrect. There i s no support
anywhere i n the passage for the cl ai m made i n choi ce (E), so i t, too, i s i ncorrect.
2. The correct answer is (C). Thi s questi on tests your abi l i ty to read and understand
the purpose of certai n footnotes. Choi ce (C), footnote 48, refers to a study on home
computers and I nternet use, and woul d therefore be the best source of i nformati on on
stati sti cs on home computer use. Footnote 46 i s a ci tati on for the quotati on that opens
the passage, so choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. Footnote 47 refers to stati sti cal model s that
appear i n appendi xes to the passage, so i t i s not the best source for i nformati on on home
computer use.
3. The correct answer is (B). To answer thi s questi on correctl y, you must use context
cl ues to determi ne the meani ng of the word arti cul ate as i t i s used i n the passage. For
questi ons l i ke thi s one, i f you do not know the meani ng of the word bei ng tested, try
rereadi ng the sentence to yoursel f, repl aci ng the word bei ng tested wi th the answer
choi ces. Choose the answer choi ce that makes the most sense. I n thi s case, choi ce (B),
convey, i s cl osest i n meani ng to arti cul ateyou can convey, or tel l , a story. Choi ce (A),
enunci ate, does not work, because i t deal s wi th pronunci ati on. Choi ce (C) i s i ncorrect
because i t i mpl i es that there i s a probl em to be sol ved and does not fi t i n the context of
the sentence. Choi ce (D), pronounce, may be a tempti ng choi ce, as i t does i mpl y
speaki ng or arti cul ati ng. However, choi ce (B) i s sti l l the best answer to the questi on.
Choi ce (E), decry, does not make sense i n the context of the sentence.
4. The correct answer is (A). Tone refers to the mood of a passage. I n readi ng thi s
passage, you shoul d note that i t i s a pretty strai ghtforward presentati on of facts, and
the concl usi ons drawn are based on stati sti cs. I n addi ti on, there i s no bi as present i n
the arti cl e. I n fact, i n the thi rd paragraph, the wri ters are careful to warn agai nst
drawi ng unsupported concl usi ons, I f the 2002 data represent a decl i ni ng trend, i t i s
tempti ng to suggest that fewer peopl e are readi ng l i terature and now prefer vi sual and
audi o entertai nment. Agai n, the databoth from SPPA and other sourcesdo not
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 55
www.petersons.com
readi l y quanti fy thi s expl anati on. Therefore, choi ce (A) i s the best answer. The arti cl e
does not attempt to persuade the reader one way or another nor does i t appeal to
emoti ons, so choi ces (B) and (C) are i ncorrect. Choi ce (D) i s tempti ng, because i t
contai ns the word accurate, but hopeful does not accuratel y descri be the tone of the
passage. Choi ce (E) contai ns the word i nformati onal , whi ch accuratel y descri bes the
passage, but the passage i s not parti cul arl y creati ve, so choi ce (E) i s i ncorrect.
5. Thecorrect answer is(C). Here, you must make sure you understand the ci tati ons i n
footnote 48. Choi ce (C) i s correct because i t i s the onl y accurate ci tati on of the footnote
among the answer choi ces. The i nformati on i s not about the Department of Commerce,
i t was compiled i n part by the Department of Commerce, so choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect.
Choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect because the report was publ i shed i n 2001. Choi ce (D) i s i ncorrect
because the report was compi l ed by both the Census Bureau and the Department of
Commerce. Choi ce (E) i s i ncorrect because Home Computers and I nternet Use i s not a
book.
6. The correct answer is (E). Choi ce (E) i s the onl y reasonabl e concl usi on that can be
drawn based on i nformati on i n the passage. Choi ce (A) i s si mpl y untrue based on
i nformati on i n the passage. The passage speci fi cal l y states that l i terary readers watch
tel evi si on as much as or sl i ghtl y l ess than nonreaders. Choi ce (B) i s not supported by
the passage. The passage deal s wi th l i terary fi cti on, but nowhere does i t state or i mpl y
that nonfi cti on readers woul d not count i n readi ng stati sti cs. Choi ce (C) i s al so not
supported by the passage. Choi ce (D) does not make sense.
7. The correct answer is (B). To answer thi s questi on correctl y, reread the part of the
passage where the quote appears. The stati sti c appears after the semi col on i n the
fol l owi ng sentence, A number of peopl e have a parti cul arl y strong attachment to
books; Therefore, you can concl ude that choi ce (B) i s correct. The other choi ces do not
make sense when you read the sentence i n context.
8. The correct answer is (C). I n thi s case, based on the tone of the passage as a whol e,
choi ce (C) i s the best answer among the choi ces. Choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect because the
strai ghtforward and schol arl y nature of the passage does not suggest the i ncl usi on of
any anecdotal evi dence. The arti cl e makes no attempt to convi nce peopl e to do
anythi ng, l et al one be more cul tured, so you can el i mi nate choi ce (B). The authors do
not express wi shes for a more cul tural soci ety anywhere i n the passage, so choi ce (D) i s
not correct. Fi nal l y, there i s nothi ng i n the passage that woul d suggest the i nformati on
i s untrue, so el i mi nate choi ce (E).
9. The correct answer is (E). To answer thi s questi on correctl y, you must recal l what
you know about the l i terary devi ces l i sted i n the answer choi ces. Personi fi cati on i s the
attri buti on of human characteri sti cs to ani mal s or i nani mate objects. Thi s does not fi t
the use of the word snapshot, therefore, choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. Si mi l e descri bes
somethi ng usi ng a compari son usi ng l i ke or as, such as sl y as a fox. Thi s does not
fi t the use of snapshot, so choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect. Choi ce (C) i s i ncorrect: onomatopoei a i s
a word that represents a sound, such as crack! Choi ce (D), i ambi c pentameter, refers
to the cadence of wri tten words, often i n poetry. Choi ce (D) i s i ncorrect. Thi s l eaves you
wi th choi ce (E). A metaphor i s the use of a symbol to represent somethi ng, such as He
i s a rock.
10. The correct answer is (C). Remember that i n thi s case, you are l ooki ng for the word
that most accuratel y matches the meani ng of about as used i n the paragraph. You can
i mmedi atel y el i mi nate choi ce (A), because about woul d never mean preci sel y. Choi ce
(D) i s a synonym for preci sel y, so you can el i mi nate i t as wel l . Thi s l eaves you wi th
choi ces (B), (C), and (E), whi ch can al l have the same meani ng as about as used i n the
56 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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second paragraph. However, choi ce (C), approximately, i s the most accurate and
unequi vocal of the remai ni ng answer choi ces, and i s therefore correct.
11. The correct answer is (A). Here, you must determi ne the purpose of a footnote. I n
thi s case, the footnote refers to a stati sti cal report menti oned i n the passage and tel l s
the reader where to fi nd i t, i n Appendi x C. Therefore, choi ce (A) i s correct. Choi ce (B)
does not make sense. Choi ce (C) i s untrue; the footnote makes reference to stati sti cal
model s, but i t i s not meant to hel p the reader understand them. Choi ce (D) i s i ncorrect
because the footnote di rects the reader to the appendi x; i t does not ci te the publ i sher of
the stati sti cal model s. Choi ce (E) does not make sense. Footnotes are not i ncl uded as
remi nders.
12. The correct answer is (E). Whi l e the passage touches on the beauty of the Uni ted
States, that i s not the mai n focus, so choi ce (A) i s el i mi nated. Nothi ng real l y i s sai d
about poetry as l i terature, so choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect. The past and the present are
di scussed, but not i n terms of l i terature, so choi ce (C) cannot be the answer. Choi ce (D)
has vi rtual l y nothi ng to do wi th the passage. That l eaves choi ce (E).
13. The correct answer is (B). There i s no menti on of poetry i n the paragraph, whi ch
el i mi nates choi ce (A). Sl ough, choi ce (C), l i teral l y means the ski n of a snake that i s cast
off; fi gurati vel y, i t means a l ayer i s cast off. You mi ght not know that, but from the
context, you coul d at l east fi gure out that sl ough was somethi ng extraneousmaybe
l i ke fuzzthat stuck to somethi ng el se. I t woul d not seem i mportant enough to be a
corpse. Choi ce (D) i s rel ated to choi ce (C). Li ne 2 menti ons pol i ti cs but i n the context of
creati ng the past. Choi ces (C), (D), and (E) al l rel ate i n some way to the past, whi ch i s
choi ce (B).
14. The correct answer is (A). Whi tman suggests that Ameri ca accepts the l esson of the
past wi th cal mness and that the past i nforms and educates the present, so poi nt I seems
to be a correct statement about the passage. Poi nts I I and I I I are i ncorrect restatements
of the passages theme. Poi nt I V has a subtl e i mpl i cati on that the past i s al ways
present, whereas Whi tman suggests that the past nurtures the present for a ti me and
then l eaves, so poi nt I V i s al so i ncorrect. Onl y choi ce (A) has i tem I , so i t i s the
correct answer.
15. Thecorrect answer is (B). Usi ng the process of el i mi nati on, choi ce (A) i s out because
the wri ter pl ai nl y states that the Uni ted States i s l arge. Choi ces (C) and (D) contradi ct
Whi tmans asserti ons that di versi ty makes the nati on uni que. Certai nl y, the Uni ted
States i s a nati on that i s changi ng, so choi ce (E) i s not the answer. That l eaves choi ce
(B), and nowhere does the wri ter speak of Ameri cans abi l i ty to read.
16. Thecorrect answer is (E). When Whi tman wri tes about the past, he cal l s i t a corpse.
Personi fi cati on, choi ce (A), gi ves human characteri sti cs to nonhuman thi ngs, i ncl udi ng
concepts, but i n thi s i nstance, metaphor i s a more accurate i denti fi cati on of how
Whi tman uses the fi gure of speech i n context. The passage i s prose, so choi ce (B) i s
i ncorrect. Oxymoron, choi ce (C), combi nes two contradi ctory i deas and i s wrong i n thi s
context. A concei t, choi ce (D), i s an extended metaphor compari ng two or more i deas and
i s, therefore, i ncorrect.
17. Thecorrect answer is(B). The poet states that the nati on i s a poem. The onl y answer
that i ndi cates the same thi ng i s choi ce (B), that the nati on i s poeti c. Whi l e choi ces (A),
(C), (D), and (E) menti on poetry, they do not i ndi cate that i t i s the Uni ted States i tsel f
that i s the poem.
18. The correct answer is (C). Thi s i s a di ffi cul t questi on. By l ogi cal l y exami ni ng the
choi ces, you can see that choi ce (E) i s much too si mpl i sti c. Humani ty i s not Whi tmans
subject, choi ce (A), nor are emoti ons, choi ce (B). A contrast i s possi bl e but not between
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 57
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easy and di ffi cul t, choi ce (D), whi ch do not rel ate to the passage. That l eaves the
physi cal and cul tural l andscape.
19. The correct answer is (B). To choose the ri ght answer here i s real l y an i ssue of
vocabul ary. Even i f you do not know what choi ce (B) means, choi ces (A) and (E) can be
el i mi nated because they contradi ct what Whi tman says about the Uni ted States. He
does not menti on educati on, so el i mi nate choi ce (C). Whi tmans tone i n the passage i s
one of exuberance, choi ce (D), but he does not characteri ze the nati on that way. That
l eaves choi ce (B), whi ch means that somethi ng i s not ri gi d and can be changed
and mol ded.
20. The correct answer is (E). Whi tman stresses the di versi ty of the Uni ted States,
whi ch he fi nds posi ti ve. Whi l e aspects of choi ces (A), (B), (C), and (D) may be true, they
are not poi nts that Whi tman makes i n thi s sel ecti on.
21. The correct answer is (D). The tone of thi s paragraph i s nei ther ponderous, choi ce
(A), nor formal , choi ce (C), but joyous. The repeti ti on of the word herehel ps devel op that
tone. One mi ght argue that the repeti ti on i s styl i sti cal l y poeti c, choi ce (E), the wri ter
usi ng i t purposel y to create uni ty and a sense of rhythm, but that better fi ts the
defi ni ti on of paral l el i sm.
22. Thecorrect answer is (B). Because the constructi on to and a verb form i s not part of
the sentence, there i s no i nfi ni ti ve, thus el i mi nati ng choi ces (C) and (D). A gerund i s a
form of the verb that acts as a noun. No verbal form functi ons as a noun i n thi s
sentence, so choi ce (A) can be el i mi nated. There are several parti ci pl es, forms of a verb
acti ng as an adjecti ve, and several parti ci pi al phrases, parti ci pl es modi fi ed by an
adverb or adverbi al phrase or that have a compl ement, choi ce (B). Si nce there are
parti ci pi al phrases, choi ce (E) i s i ncorrect.
23. The correct answer is (D). Thi s i s a very compl ex sentence, but you can el i mi nate
choi ces (A), (B), and (C) because a compound verb has the same tenses for both or al l
verbs. Crowds and showers, choi ce (E), coul d be nouns or verbs, but i n thi s sentence,
crowds i s a noun, the object of the preposi ti on of.
24. Thecorrect answer is(C). Choi ce (E) may sound i mportant but has no rel ati onshi p to
the passage. Choi ce (A) i s too si mpl i sti c. Choi ces (B) and (D) may be true but do not
rel ate to the passage.
25. Thecorrect answer is (B). Because al l of these answer choi ces are touched on i n the
passage, the answer that covers the broadest porti on of the sel ecti on i s the correct
response. Di cti on deal s wi th the choi ce of words i n wri tten or spoken l anguage, and,
therefore, choi ce (B) i s the most encompassi ng of the avai l abl e responses.
26. Thecorrect answer is (D). The questi on asks for the pri mary concern of the passage.
The author di scusses al l of these answers at some poi nt i n the passage, but he spends
most of hi s ti me l i sti ng and di scussi ng some rul es for better wri ti ng.
27. Thecorrect answer is (E). The best approach to thi s questi on i s to work through the
answers, el i mi nati ng the i ncorrect answers. Orwel l does not propose the expanded use
of the Engl i sh l anguage, the i ntroducti on of new grammar rul es, or the teachi ng of
creati ve wri ti ng, choi ces (A), (B), and (C). He may i mpl y a search for new means of
expressi on, choi ce (D), but he cl earl y states a predi l ecti on for word and sentence
si mpl i fi cati on, choi ce (E).
28. Thecorrect answer is (C). Orwel l states that he i s an advocate of si mpl e, di rect word
sel ecti on. Each of the remai ni ng four responses are counter to hi s fundamental thesi s
of si mpl i ci ty.
58 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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29. Thecorrect answer is (B). The questi on asks the reader to determi ne the feel or tone
of the excerpt. The passage cannot be vi ewed as humorous, choi ce (A); i roni c, choi ce (C);
sati ri cal , choi ce (D); or dramati c, choi ce (E). Orwel l i s qui te seri ous i n hi s concern for
l anguage, and hi s essay i s meant to be persuasi ve, choi ce (B).
30. The correct answer is (C). The author l i sts si x rul es that he bel i eves wi l l i mprove
wri ti ng. The l ast of these states Break any of these rul es sooner that say anythi ng
outri ght barbarous. That rul e i s consi stent wi th choi ce (C). He does not advocate
i rresponsi bl e or unreasoned breaki ng of rul es, choi ces (A) and (D), nor does he advocate
ri gi d adherence to rul es, choi ce (B). Choi ce (E) i s a statement of opi ni on that Orwel l
woul d probabl y agree wi th, but i t i s not the most accurate restatement of the essay. Be
careful of such di stracters that seem to be reasonabl e answers; check to see i f they most
accuratel y refl ect the content.
31. The correct answer is (B). I n the second paragraph, Orwel l says, But one can often
be i n doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rul es that one can rel y
on when i nsti nct fai l s. Onl y choi ce (B) refl ects Orwel l s statement.
32. The correct answer is (B). I n the l ast sentence of the second paragraph, the author
expresses the senti ment that these rul es wi l l not make bad wri ti ng good, the opposi te of
choi ce (A). On the other hand, good wri ti ng does not empl oy these rul es. Choi ces (B) and
(D) are si mi l ar. The di fference i s that components other than fol l owi ng the rul es are
needed to make wri ti ng as good as possi bl e, choi ce (D). Regardl ess of the other
components, wri ti ng wi l l be easi er to fol l ow i f the wri ter fol l ows the rul es. Choi ce (C)
i s i rrel evant to the passage.
33. The correct answer is (B). The author i s stati ng that what a wri ter i ntends to say
shoul d determi ne word sel ecti on. The chosen words shoul d not al ter the wri ters
meani ng. Choi ces (A) and (C) i ncorrectl y deal wi th the defi ni ti ons of words. Orwel l does
not address the responses contai ned i n choi ces (D) and (E) i n the l i nes ci ted.
34. Thecorrect answer is (A). I n the sentence gi ven, there i s fi gurati ve l anguage that i s
a cl i ch, go down the drai n. Orwel l woul d al so object to the redundant phrase ri ch
treasury. However, there i s no response that deal s wi th redundancy. Choi ce (C) deal s
wi th wordi ness, not redundancy. The gi ven sentence has no l ong words, choi ce (B); i s
not i n the passi ve voi ce, choi ce (D); and contai ns no forei gn phrases, sci enti fi c words, or
jargon, choi ce (E). A cl i ch i s not jargon.
35. The correct answer is (B). At fi rst, you mi ght thi nk that several of these are possi bl e
answers. Remember that the wri ter states that i t i s acceptabl e to break rul es i f the
meani ng becomes cl earer by doi ng so. Orwel l wants the reader to pay cl ose attenti on here,
so he di rectl y addresses the audi ence. The other responses do not make sense i n context.
36. The correct answer is (C). The defi ni ti on of personi fi cati on i s a fi gure of speech i n
whi ch i nani mate objects or abstracti ons are endowed wi th human characteri sti cs. I n
thi s sentence, words i s gi ven a human characteri sti c that suggests that a person can
surrender to them. A si mi l e uses likeor as for compari son, choi ce (A), whi l e a metaphor
states that somethi ng i s somethi ng el se, choi ce (B). Words that sound l i ke thei r
meani ngs are onomatopoei a, choi ce (D), and words i n a seri es that repeat an i ni ti al
consonant sound are exampl es of al l i terati on, choi ce (E).
37. Thecorrect answer is(C). The readers of your essays may not agree wi th Orwel l , but
he states i n the second paragraph, I t has nothi ng to do wi th correct grammar and
syntax, whi ch are of no i mportance so l ong as one makes ones meani ng cl ear . . . The
context does not support choi ces (A), (D), or (E). Choi ce (B) i s onl y hal f ri ght. The
statement from Orwel l has the qual i fi er so l ong as ones meani ng i s cl ear, thus
el i mi nati ng choi ce (B).
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 59
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38. Thecorrect answer is(C). Orwel l l i sts some phrases that were popul ar at the ti me he
wrote thi s arti cl e. He suggests that they be thrown i n the trash can. Choi ce (A) i s the
opposi te of what Orwel l i s sayi ng. Choi ce (B) woul d be correct onl y i f you were asked a
questi on about metaphor. Orwel l may be advocati ng choi ce (D) at some poi nt i n the
essay, but the questi on asks what Orwel l i s sayi ng i n the l ast sentence, and choi ce (C)
restates hi s i dea. Choi ce (E) i s i rrel evant to the sentence.
39. Thecorrect answer is (A). The tone of the passage coul d not be consi dered seri ous or
deep. Any answer wi th that sense woul d be i ncorrect, so choi ces (B), (C), and (D) can be
el i mi nated. Humor and wi t are more evi dent i n the wri ti ng than questi oni ng or
curi osi ty, choi ce (E), so choi ce (A) i s the better response.
40. The correct answer is (D). Each of the fi ve answers has an el ement of Twai ns
commentary i n them; therefore, you must l ook for the response that best matches or
sums up the mai n i dea. Much of the sel ecti on l i nks Lake Tahoe wi th i mprovi ng heal th.
Choi ce (D) i s the onl y choi ce that recogni zes the recuperati ve powers of the area.
Choi ces (A) and (E) focus more on the sceni c beauty, and choi ces (B) and (C) touch on
aspects of the area that mi ght be hel pful to good heal th, and thus support choi ce (D).
41. The correct answer is (C). Thi s sel ecti on shoul d not be vi ewed as a seri ous pi ece of
wri ti ng, and any response that suggests that vi ew i s i ncorrect. That i ncl udes choi ces
(A), (B), and (E). Of the two remai ni ng answers, the passage i s an anecdote, a short
narrati ve, choi ce (C), rather than a myth, a story once bel i eved to be true, choi ce (D).
42. Thecorrect answer is(A). The speaker i s not a teacher or an advocate, so choi ces (B),
(C), and (D) must be el i mi nated. Choi ce (E) suggests a more i ndi rect approach, but
there i s nothi ng subtl e about the speaker; he tel l s hi s audi ence what they shoul d do.
The si mpl e answer, to amuse and entertai n, i s the best response.
43. The correct answer is (D). The possi bl e correct answers can qui ckl y be reduced by
two, choi ces (A) and (E), because the excerpt states that Lake Tahoe i s on the
Cal i forni a-Nevada border. The l ocal e i s not set i n a desert, so that el i mi nates choi ce (C).
Mark Twai n wrote i n the 1800s, choi ce (B), and the l ake i s i n the mountai ns. Thi s
i denti fi es choi ce (D) as the correct answer.
44. The correct answer is (A). The correct answer can be determi ned by the process of
el i mi nati on. Twai ns di cti on coul d not be cal l ed erudi te, choi ce (B), and hi s styl e i s not
sophi sti cated, choi ce (C). Al though he chooses words of common speech, he does so wi th
care to pai nt vi vi d i mages, thus el i mi nati ng choi ce (D). The passage i s dynami c rather
than stati c, so choi ce (E) can be el i mi nated. Exampl es l i ke bri m ful l of fri ski ness
(l i ne 5) support choi ce (A) as the correct answer.
45. Thecorrect answer is(E). Thi s i s not a romanti c passage, choi ce (A); i t does not express
great emoti on or devoti on, even though nature i s promi nentl y featured. Consi deri ng the
amount of exaggerati on, i t certai nl y i s not real i sti c, choi ce (B). Nei ther i s i t an exampl e of
natural i sm or cl assi ci sm, choi ces (C) and (D). The focus of thi s passage i s cl earl y on a
speci fi c area of the country. Thi s type of advocacy for a terri tory i s known as regi onal i sm.
46. The correct answer is (C). I t i s i mportant to put the questi on i n context. The phrase
represents a transi ti on from Twai ns l i sti ng of heal th benefi ts at Lake Tahoe to other
approaches that were then i n vogue. The reference to sl owness shows that the author was
i ndi cati ng that i t wi l l take ti me for peopl e to l earn about somethi ng new and to change.
Choi ces (A) and (E) have no rel ati onshi p to the passage. On a qui ck readi ng, you mi ght
thi nk that choi ce (D) coul d be correct, but choi ce (D) rel ates to real movement. I n the
context of the questi on, the author i s not speaki ng about l i teral movement. Choi ce (B)
mi ght seem correct, but the author i s i mpl yi ng that peopl e have to change thei r ways
rather than that the i nformati on about new thi ngs wi l l be del ayed.
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47. The correct answer is (C). As Mark Twai n often does, he i s usi ng an exaggerated
compari son to make a poi nt about Lake Tahoe. I n thi s case, he uses a fi gure of speech
that i ncl udes a l ong-dead mummy to make the poi nt that Lake Tahoe has si gni fi cant
recuperati ve powers. Choi ces (A) and (B) are i ncorrect because the author menti ons
nei ther the regi ons dryness nor the l akes age. Nor does he refer to spi ri tual aspects of
the area, choi ce (D), or i ts beauty, choi ce (E).
48. The correct answer is (D). The questi on i s aski ng about sl eep, the topi c of the
sentence. The i tems to note i n readi ng the sentence are the antecedent of its (Lake
Tahoe) and the recuperati ve powers of the l ake. These el ements i denti fy choi ce (D) as
the answer. Choi ces (A), (B), and (C) do not menti on the l ake, whi l e choi ce (E) does not
menti on sl eep.
49. Thecorrect answer is(C). Whi l e del i ci ous may mean tasty, i t does not mean tasteful ,
so you can el i mi nate choi ce (A). Both sets of words i n choi ces (D) and (E) mean bracing,
so they can be el i mi nated. Al though bracing can mean supporti ve, choi ce (B),
invigorating, i s a better meani ng i n the context of ai r, and delicious when referri ng to
the senses means enjoyabl e, choi ce (C).
50. The correct answer is (D). The i denti fi cati on of the correct answer requi res you to
make an i nference about the authors feel i ngs. I t i s cl ear from Twai ns comments that
he has a posi ti ve feel i ng for the area. Poi nts I and I I refl ect thi s atti tude, whereas poi nt
I I I negati vel y compares Lake Tahoe wi th the East. Onl y choi ce (D) has both I and I I .
51. Thecorrect answer is(A). Taken wi th the phrase the ai r up there i n the cl ouds, the
reference to angel s poi nts di rectl y to hei ght as an el ement i n the correct answer. Si nce
angel s are sai d to be up i n the heavens, al ti tude, choi ce (A), i s the answer. Choi ces (D)
and (E) may di stract you, but the questi on asks about the envi ronmenti n the
mountai ns. Choi ces (B) and (C) do not rel ate to angel s.
52. Thecorrect answer is (E). I f you do not readi l y see that Twai n does not use cl assi cal
Shakespearean sentence structure, try the process of el i mi nati on. The author uses both
speci fi c detai l s, choi ce (A), and l ocal col or, choi ce (B), to make hi s poi nts. The speaker i s
al so an ordi nary person usi ng common speech, choi ces (C) and (D).
53. The correct answer is (E). On a qui ck readi ng, you mi ght sel ect choi ce (A) wi thout
botheri ng to read a sentence or two above and bel ow the ci ted l i nes. Avoi d thi s
temptati on and go back to the sel ecti on. I f you do, you wi l l see that choi ce (A) i s a
di stracter. Choi ce (C) can al so be consi dered a di stracter. I t, too, i s a very l i teral answer,
and Twai n i s not to be taken l i teral l y, so el i mi nate choi ce (C). Whi l e bri ef, the exampl e
Twai n gi ves shoul d not be taken l i teral l y, so el i mi nate choi ce (B), whi ch asks you to
consi der thi s exampl e as a nonfi cti on account. Choi ce (D) i s i ncorrect because there i s no
ski t i nvol ved.
54. Thecorrect answer is (D). You must choose whi ch of the answer choi ces i s not found
i n the passage. The passage i s personal , as evi denced by the use of the fi rst person
pronoun, and fi ts the defi ni ti on of an anecdote, maki ng choi ce (A) a true statement
about the passage and, therefore, an i ncorrect answer. There are several fi gures of
speech, so choi ce (B) i s not the answer. The enti re passage i s a tal l tal e, so choi ce (C) i s
al so i ncorrect. There are several si mpl e sentencesfor exampl e, sentence 3 and the
fi nal sentenceso choi ce (E) i s al so i ncorrect. Al though Twai n i s known for usi ng
col l oqui al i sms i n hi s wri ti ng, none appear i n thi s passage.
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 61
www.petersons.com
Section II
SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 1
The fol l owi ng are poi nts you mi ght have chosen to i ncl ude i n your essay on Faul kners speech
to the graduati ng cl ass. Consi der them as you compl ete your sel f-eval uati on. Revi se your
essay once, usi ng poi nts from thi s l i st to strengthen i t.
Form or M od e
Prose; a speech
Persuasi ve
The m e
I ndi vi dual s can and must choose to change the worl d for the better.
I t i s man hi msel f, created i n the i mage of God so that he shal l have the power and the wi l l
to choose ri ght from wrong, and so be abl e to save hi msel f because he i s worth savi ng.
C ha ra c te rs
Faul kner, the speaker
Audi ence, the graduati ng hi gh school students
C onflic t/ Issue / C ha lle ng e
Good versus evi l
C onte nt/ Im p orta nt Points
Begi nni ng quotati on
Youth has power to ri d the worl d of war and i njusti ce
Fear danger i n the worl d
Danger i n those who use human fear to control humanki nd
Ri ght and duty to choose justi ce, courage, sacri fi ce, compassi on
I f peopl e choose ri ght acti ons, tyrants wi l l di sappear.
Se tting
Speech gi ven at graduati on
Contemporary ti mesthe bomb
Point of Vie w
Fi rst person
62 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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www.petersons.com
Dic tion/ Synta x/ Style
Offers no proof to support openi ng quotati on; abandons poi nt i n thi rd paragraph
Speaki ng di rectl y to students; use of second person, you
Long, compl ex sentences
Much paral l el constructi on: gi vi ng hi m free food whi ch he has not earned, easy and
val uel ess money whi ch he has not worked for
Cadence mi ni steri al , al most musi cal
Word choi ce sophi sti cated but comprehensi bl e: gl i b, baffl ed, aggrandi zement
SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 2
The fol l owi ng are poi nts you mi ght have chosen to i ncl ude i n your essay on Carnegi es
comments about the responsi bi l i ti es of the weal thy. Consi der them as you compl ete your
sel f-eval uati on. Revi se your essay once, usi ng poi nts from thi s l i st to strengthen i t.
Form or M od e
Persuasi ve essay
The m e
The extra weal th of the few shoul d become the property of al l
C onflic t/ Issue / C ha lle ng e
How to resol ve the unequal di stri buti on of weal th and reconci l e the ri ch and the poor
C onte nt/ Im p orta nt Points
The weal thy shoul d spend thei r excess weal th for publ i c purposes and for the publ i c good.
Not Communi st because the change that Carnegi e advocates requi res an evol uti on, not
an overthrow of exi sti ng ci vi l i zati on
The concept i s based on the Ameri can i deal of i ndi vi dual i sm.
Weal th shoul d be admi ni stered by the few for the publ i c good.
Such a system i s more benefi ci al to the poor than di rect di stri buti on of smal l sums of
money to them.
The resul t i s a powerful force that wi l l i mprove publ i c condi ti ons.
Point of Vie w
Fi rst-person pl ural to i ncl ude al l readers
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 63
www.petersons.com
Dic tion/ Synta x/ Style
Long, compl i cated sentences wi th many cl auses or preposi ti onal phrases
Persuasi ve l anguage: onl y one mode, true anti dote, i deal state, i n the best sense
Use of acti ve and passi ve voi ces
Sentence vari ety
Some paral l el structure: to see thi s, and to agree that
Strong adjecti ves: i deal , surpl us, potent, great, pri nci pal , tri fl i ng
SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 3
Thi s questi on asks for a synthesi s essay that supports, qual i fi es, or di sputes the argument
that peopl e do not vote because they do not feel a sense of pol i ti cal effi cacy. I t does not matter
whi ch posi ti on you take as l ong as you provi de adequate support for your argument usi ng
your own opi ni ons al ong wi th i nformati on from the sources. Consi der the fol l owi ng as you
compl ete your sel f-eval uati on. Revi se your essay usi ng poi nts from the l i st to strengthen i t i f
necessary. Remember to proofread your response and make sure your grammar, syntax, and
spel l i ng are correct.
The sis sta te m e nt/ introd uc tion
Cl ear defi ni ti on of the i ssuei n thi s case, a l ack of voter parti ci pati on i n the Uni ted
States
Cl ear statement of your posi ti on on the i ssue: why you agree or di sagree wi th the
statement that peopl e do not vote because they do not feel thei r vote wi l l make a
di fference
Sup p orting d e ta ils
Support i s based on your own opi ni ons about the posi ti on you take but i nformati on i n the
sources shoul d al so be used.
Show a cl ear connecti on between the sources you choose to ci te
Sources are seaml essl y i ntegrated wi th appropri ate transi ti ons
At l east three of the si x sources are used
Expl ai n the l ogi c of how you arri ved at the concl usi on you di d, based on the i nformati on
provi ded i n the sources
Acknowl edge opposi ng arguments and refute them
Attri bute both di rect and i ndi rect ci tati ons
64 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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www.petersons.com
C onc lusion
I ncl ude a restatement of your thesi s ti ed i nto the supporti ng evi dence you used. (ex: I n
sum, there can be no other concl usi on drawn from the evi dence except to say that peopl e
do not vote because of feel i ngs of a l ack of pol i ti cal effi cacy.)
Concl usi on neatl y sums up your argument.
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Chapter 2: Practice Test 1: Diagnostic 65
www.petersons.com
SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE FREE RESPONSE ESSAYS
89 67 5 34 12 0
O
v
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l
I
m
p
r
e
s
s
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Demonstrates ex-
cel l ent control of
the l i terature and
outstandi ng wri t-
i ng competence;
thorough and
effecti ve; i nci si ve
Demonstrates good
control of the
l i terature and good
wri ti ng
competence; l ess
thorough and
i nci si ve than the
hi ghest papers
Reveal s si mpl i sti c
thi nki ng and/or
i mmature wri ti ng;
adequate ski l l s
I ncompl ete
thi nki ng; fai l s to
respond adequatel y
to part or parts of
the questi on; may
paraphrase rather
than anal yze
Unacceptabl y bri ef;
fai l s to respond to
the questi on; l i ttl e
cl ari ty
Lacki ng ski l l and
competence
U
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s
t
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h
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T
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Excel l ent
understandi ng of
the text; exhi bi ts
percepti on and
cl ari ty; ori gi nal or
uni que approach;
i ncl udes apt and
speci fi c references
Good
understandi ng of
the text; exhi bi ts
percepti on and
cl ari ty; i ncl udes
speci fi c references
Superfi ci al
understandi ng of
the text; el ements
of l i terature vague,
mechani cal ,
overgeneral i zed
Mi sreadi ngs and
l ack of persuasi ve
evi dence from the
text; meager and
unconvi nci ng
treatment of
l i terary el ements
Seri ous
mi sreadi ngs and
l i ttl e supporti ng
evi dence from the
text; erroneous
treatment of
l i terary el ements
A response wi th no
more than a
reference to the
l i terature; bl ank
response, or one
compl etel y off the
topi c
O
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g
a
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i
z
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
D
e
v
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l
o
p
m
e
n
t
Meti cul ousl y
organi zed and
thoroughl y
devel oped;
coherent and
uni fi ed
Wel l organi zed and
devel oped;
coherent and
uni fi ed
Reasonabl y
organi zed and
devel oped; mostl y
coherent and
uni fi ed
Somewhat
organi zed and
devel oped; some
i ncoherence and
l ack of uni ty
Li ttl e or no
organi zati on and
devel opment;
i ncoherent and
voi d of uni ty
No apparent
organi zati on or
devel opment;
i ncoherent
U
s
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o
f
S
e
n
t
e
n
c
e
s
Effecti vel y vari ed
and engagi ng;
vi rtual l y error free
Vari ed and
i nteresti ng; a few
errors
Adequatel y vari ed;
some errors
Somewhat vari ed
and margi nal l y
i nteresti ng; one or
more major errors
Li ttl e or no
vari ati on; dul l and
uni nteresti ng;
some major errors
Numerous major
errors
W
o
r
d
C
h
o
i
c
eI nteresti ng and
effecti ve; vi rtual l y
error free
General l y
i nteresti ng and
effecti ve; a few
errors
Occasi onal l y
i nteresti ng and
effecti ve; several
errors
Somewhat dul l and
ordi nary; some
errors i n di cti on
Mostl y dul l and
conventi onal ;
numerous errors
Numerous major
errors; extremel y
i mmature
G
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m
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n
d
U
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g
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Vi rtual l y error free Occasi onal mi nor
errors
Several mi nor
errors
Some major errors Severel y fl awed;
frequent major
errors
Extremel y fl awed
6
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SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE SYNTHESIS ESSAYS
89 67 5 34 12 0
O
v
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a
l
l
I
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
Demonstrates excel -
l ent control of effec-
ti ve wr i ti ng tech-
ni ques, sophi sti -
cated ar gumenta-
ti on, and wel l i nte-
grated synthesi s of
source i nformati on;
uses ci tati ons con-
vi nci ngl y
Demonstrates good
control of effecti ve
wri ti ng techni ques;
somewhat
thorough and
i nci si ve; uses
ci tati ons
appropri atel y
Demonstrates
general
competence i n
stati ng and
defendi ng a
posi ti on; some
i nconsi stenci es and
weaknesses i n
argumentati on
Demonstrates
some ski l l but
l acks
understandi ng of
questi on and
sources
Demonstrates l i ttl e
ski l l i n taki ng a
coherent posi ti on
and defendi ng i t or
i n usi ng sources
Lacks ski l l and
competence
U
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
o
f
t
h
e
T
e
x
t
Takes a cl ear
posi ti on that
defends,
chal l enges, or
qual i fi es the
questi on accuratel y
Demonstrates a
somewhat
superfi ci al
understandi ng of
the sources
Di spl ays some
mi sreadi ng of the
sources or some
stretchi ng of
i nformati on to
support the chosen
posi ti on
Takes a posi ti on
that may mi sread
or si mpl i fy the
sources; may
present overl y
si mpl e argument
Mi sreads sources,
or l acks an
argument, or
summari zes the
sources rather
than usi ng them to
support a posi ti on
Posi ti on does not
accuratel y refl ect
the sources; no
more than a l i sti ng
of the sources
O
r
g
a
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
D
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
Cl earl y states a po-
si ti on; uses at l east
thr ee sour ces to
suppor t that posi -
ti on convi nci ngl y
and effecti vel y; co-
herent and uni fi ed
Cl earl y states a po-
si ti on; uses at l east
three sources to sup-
por t that posi ti on;
adequate devel op-
ment of i deas but
l ess convi nci ng; co-
herent and uni fi ed
General l y cl earl y
stated posi ti on and
l i nks between
posi ti on and ci ted
sources; some
weaknesses i n
l ogi c; ci tes three
sources
Creates weak
connecti ons
between argument
and ci ted sources;
ci tes onl y two
sources
Lacks coherent
devel opment or
organi zati on; ci tes
one or no sources
No apparent
organi zati on or
devel opment;
i ncoherent; ci tes no
sources
U
s
e
o
f
S
e
n
t
e
n
c
e
s
Effecti vel y vari ed
and engagi ng; cl ose
to error free
Vari ed and
i nteresti ng; a few
errors
Adequatel y vari ed;
some errors
Somewhat vari ed
and margi nal l y
i nteresti ng; one or
more major errors
Li ttl e or no
vari ati on; dul l and
uni nteresti ng; some
major errors
Numerous major
errors
W
o
r
d
C
h
o
i
c
e
Uses the vocabul ary
of the topi c as evi -
dent i n the sources;
i nter esti ng and ef-
fecti ve; vi rtual l y er-
ror free
Demonstrates ease
i n usi ng vocabul ary
from the sources
Occasi onal use of
vocabul ary from
the sources;
occasi onal l y
i nteresti ng and
effecti ve
Somewhat dul l and
or di nar y; some er-
rors i n di cti on; no at-
tempt to i ntegr ate
vocabul ary from the
sources
Mostl y dul l and
conventi onal ; no
attempt to
i ntegrate
vocabul ary from
the sources
Numerous major
errors; extremel y
i mmature
G
r
a
m
m
a
r
a
n
d
U
s
a
g
e
Vi rtual l y error free Occasi onal mi nor
errors
Several mi nor
errors
Some major errors Severel y fl awed;
frequent major
errors
Extremel y fl awed
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D
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7
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Usi ng the rubri cs on the previ ous pages, rate yoursel f i n each of the categori es bel ow for each
essay on the test. Enter on the l i nes bel ow the number from the rubri c that most accuratel y
refl ects your performance i n each category. Then cal cul ate the average of the si x numbers to
determi ne your fi nal score. I t i s di ffi cul t to score yoursel f objecti vel y, so you may wi sh to ask
a respected fri end or teacher to assess your wri ti ng for a more accurate refl ecti on of i ts
strengths and weaknesses. On the AP test i tsel f, a reader wi l l rate your essay on a scal e of 0
to 9, wi th 9 bei ng the hi ghest.
Rate each category from 9 (hi gh) to 0 (l ow).
Question 1
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
Question 2
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
Question 3
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
68 PART II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses
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P
ART III
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE
& COMPOSITION
STRATEGIES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 3 About the Multiple-Choice
Questions
CHAPTER 4 About the Free Response
and Synthesis Essays
About the Multiple-
Choice Questions
OVERVIEW
Basic information about section I
Acing the multiple-choice questions
Analyzing the question types
Attacking the questions
A final word of advice: educated guessing
Practicing
Summing it up
The questi ons i n the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on of the AP Engl i sh Language &
Composi ti on Test ask you about passages from a vari ety of sources, rhetori cal
modes, hi stori cal eras, and l i terary peri ods and di sci pl i nes. You may read
passages from commentari es, autobi ographi es, di ari es and journal s, bi ogra-
phi es, or hi stori cal accounts or passages from essays about pol i ti cs, sci ence,
nature, and the arts. I n thi s chapter, you wi l l fi nd some basi c i nformati on
about Secti on I of the test, and you wi l l devel op an effecti ve strategy for aci ng
the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on of the test.
On the Advanced Pl acement exami nati on, you wi l l di scover that most of the
mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons assess how careful l y you read, how wel l you
i nterpret what you read, and how wel l you anal yze l i terature. Some questi ons
wi l l ask you about grammar, mechani cs, rhetori cal modes of wri ti ng,
structure, organi zati on, devel opment, or footnotes.
You may have taken hundreds of mul ti pl e-choi ce tests duri ng your ti me i n
school . The mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons on the AP Engl i sh Language &
Composi ti on test real l y are not that di fferent. Of course, there i s a l ot ri di ng
on the AP test, but, just l i ke any other standardi zed test, i f you have studi ed
and you know some test-taki ng techni ques, you can do wel l .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
c
h
a
p
t
e
r
3
71
Thi s chapter presents some general strategi es for taki ng the objecti ve porti on of the Advanced
Pl acement test. I n addi ti on, you wi l l l earn some speci al techni ques that wi l l al l ow you to score
your hi ghest. You wi l l al so have opportuni ti es to practi ce what you are l earni ng.
Use the Practice Test 1: Diagnostic and Practice Test 2 as tool s to i mprove your objecti ve
test-taki ng ski l l s. Use the techni ques expl ai ned i n thi s chapter to practi ce answeri ng
mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons on the sel ecti ons. Correct your responses wi th the Answer Key
provi ded for each test. I f you do not understand why an answer i s i ncorrect, refer to the
expl anati ons gi ven. I t i s a good i dea to read the answer expl anati ons to al l the
questi onseven the ones you answered correctl ybecause you may fi nd i deas or ti ps that
wi l l hel p you better anal yze the answer choi ces to questi ons on the next PracticeTest that you
take and on the real test.
After you have fi ni shed revi ewi ng al l the answers, ask yoursel f what your weak poi nts are
and what you can do to i mprove. Revi ew the strategi es i n thi s chapter. Then try taki ng the
next PracticeTest. Remember the fol l owi ng test-taki ng ti ps:
Careful l y appl y the test-taki ng system that you wi l l be l earni ng i n thi s chapter.
Work the system to get more correct responses.
Pay attenti on to your ti me, and stri ve to answer more questi ons i n the ti me peri od.
See how much you can i mprove your score each ti me you take a PracticeTest.
BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT SECTION I
Secti on I consi sts of approxi matel y 50 mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons, wi th fi ve choi ces for each.
Secti on I has four to fi ve prose passages, and each sel ecti on has approxi matel y 10 to
15 questi ons.
You wi l l have 60 mi nutes to answer al l of the questi ons.
The mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons requi re the abi l i ty to:
Anal yze rhetori cal and l i ngui sti c choi ces
I denti fy styl i sti c effects that resul t from word choi ce
Cri ti cal l y exami ne prose sel ecti ons
Understand an authors meani ng and purpose
Recogni ze structural organi zati on
Eval uate the l egi ti macy and purpose of sources
Comprehend rhetori cal modes
Anal yze syntax, fi gurati ve l anguage, styl e, and tone
72 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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NOTE
You will have
approximately 1
minute to answer
each multiple-
choice question.
www.petersons.com
The test requi res that you understand the terms and conventi ons of Engl i sh and use the
ski l l s of cri ti cal readi ng and l i terary anal ysi s.
You recei ve 1 poi nt for each correct answer you gi ve. You recei ve no poi nts for each
questi on you l eave bl ank. I f you answer i ncorrectl y, one-quarter poi nt i s subtracted. Thi s
i s the guessi ng penal ty. We wi l l di scuss thi s penal ty i n detai l l ater i n thi s chapter.
Secti on I accounts for 45 percent of your fi nal composi te score.
I n addi ti on to the obvi ous i mportance of understandi ng the materi al , you have probabl y
di scovered duri ng your educati onal career that there are three si gni fi cant consi derati ons
when taki ng mul ti pl e-choi ce tests:
Effecti ve readi ng and anal ysi s of test materi al
Ti me management
Educated guesses
The consequences of fai l i ng at any of these can affect your score:
I f you fai l to read the sel ecti ons or the questi ons ski l l ful l y, you may make errors that
are unnecessary.
I f you negl ect ti me, you may mi ss opportuni ti es for showi ng what you know.
I f you do not make educated guesses to answer questi ons about whi ch you are not
posi ti ve, then you are mi ssi ng out on a hi gher score.
How do you prevent these thi ngs from happeni ng and ensure your hi ghest score? You need to
devel op a pl an to read effecti vel y, to manage your ti me wel l , and to use al l your knowl edge to
the best possi bl e effect.
ACING THE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
Pacing Yourself
The fi rst part of the strategy for aci ng the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on i s ti me awareness. Si nce
you have 60 mi nutes for Secti on I , gi ve yoursel f approxi matel y 11 to 14 mi nutes for each of the
passages, dependi ng on whether there are four or fi ve sel ecti ons. (You wi l l see under Setting
Priorities why i ts not 12 to 15 mi nutes.) Use that 11-to-14-mi nute ti me peri od as a gui del i ne.
I f you fi nd you are spendi ng si gni fi cantl y more ti me per secti on, speed up. I n the event that
you fi ni sh wi th ti me to spare, revi si t any probl em passages to see i f you can answer questi ons
that you l eft bl ank.
I f, as the hour comes to an end, you fi nd that you have onl y 5 or so mi nutes and another
passage to compl ete, try thi s techni que. Do not read the passage; read the questi ons i nstead.
Some questi ons, such as those that ask about vocabul ary, can be answered by readi ng the
l i nes i denti fi ed and a few l i nes above and bel ow to understand the context. Other questi ons
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NOTE
Be sure to take a
watch so you can
pace yourself, but
dont take one
with an alarm.
Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 73
www.petersons.com
ask speci fi c i nformati on about speci fi c porti ons of the sel ecti on. Answer these sorts of
questi ons when ti me i s short.
Setting Priorities
The fi rst acti ve step to take i s pri ori ti zi ng the passages. Qui ckl y scan the passages (thi s i s
where the extra 4 to 5 mi nutes come i n) to fi nd whi ch ones seem di ffi cul t to you and whi ch
seem easi er. You do not have to compl ete questi ons or passages i n the order they appear on
the test. Do the most di ffi cul t one l ast and the easi est one fi rst. Read and answer the other
passages accordi ng to how di ffi cul t they seem. Dont spend ti me agoni zi ng over the order, or
youl l l ose your advantage i n answeri ng the easi est sel ecti on fi rst.
Effective Strategies for Reading Selections
The fi rst step i s obvi ous: Read the sel ecti ons. The passages can vary from a few short
paragraphs to l engthy secti ons. Some sel ecti ons may be from fi cti onal works, but more than
l i kel y, the passages wi l l be taken from essays, arti cl es, l etters, hi stori es, and other types
of nonfi cti on.
Begi n by ski mmi ng the sel ecti on. Take onl y 30 seconds or so to do thi s. You want an
overvi ew at thi s poi nt; dont worry about the detai l s.
Then, concentrate and read the sel ecti on careful l y. Read for a cl ear, speci fi c
understandi ng of the wri ters mai n i deathe underl yi ng communi cati on that the
wri ter i s tryi ng to make. I t i s not detai l s but the fundamental message that you, the
reader, are supposed to recei ve.
I n readi ng a sel ecti on wi th footnotes, pay attenti on to the author, the ti tl e, and the
publ i cati on. Note the date as wel l . Al l thi s i nformati on may be useful to you i n
answeri ng questi ons about the footnote. I t may al so hel p you better understand the
sel ecti on i tsel f.
ANALYZING THE QUESTION TYPES
The i deal i s to know the correct answer as soon as you read the questi on, but that does not
al ways happen. I f you can i denti fy the type of questi on you are faci ng, you can empl oy the
best strategi es to answer i t correctl y.
Comprehension Questions
Most of the mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons wi l l test how careful l y you read and how wel l you
i nterpret what you read. These comprehensi on questi ons fal l i nto several categori es: mai n
i dea, rhetori c, modes of di scourse, defi ni ti ons, meani ng and purpose, form, organi zati on,
structure, and devel opment.
74 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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www.petersons.com
MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS
Thi s type of questi on frequentl y appears on the AP Engl i sh Language & Composi ti on Test.
The questi on measures your abi l i ty to i denti fy the authors i deas, atti tude, and tone. A mai n
i dea questi on may al so requi re you to i denti fy the subject of the passage or to sel ect the choi ce
that best tel l s what the passage i s about. You may al so be asked to determi ne the el ements of
a footnote. Often, mai n i dea questi ons about a passage requi re that you pi ece together facts
and make an i nference based on those facts.
Most i nference questi ons wi l l i ncl ude one of these key words: think, predict, indicate, feel,
probably, seem, imply, suggest, assume, infer, and most likely. When you come upon a questi on
that contai ns one of these terms, return to the sel ecti on to fi nd speci fi c sentences that the
questi on refers to, and make a sound general i zati on based on the cl ues. Ski mmi ng the fi rst
and l ast paragraphs of a passage i s another hel pful techni que for answeri ng these questi ons
because wri ters often state thei r topi c i n the begi nni ng or the end of a sel ecti on. Remember
that i n answeri ng an i nference questi on, you are maki ng a guess, but the best guess i s based
on facts from the sel ecti on.
RHETORIC QUESTIONS
A great many of the questi ons on the exam are i n thi s category. Questi ons about rhetori c
mi ght ask about syntax, poi nt of vi ew, or fi gurati ve l anguage. To answer these questi ons, you
must know how l anguage works wi thi n a gi ven passage. Not onl y must you be abl e to
recogni ze these devi ces, but you must understand the effects these el ements have on the pi ece
of wri ti ng.
MODE QUESTIONS
A few questi ons ask you to i denti fy the vari ous rhetori cal modes that wri ters empl oy. You
must understand the di fferences among narrati on, exposi ti on, descri pti on, and persuasi on.
Knowi ng why an author i s parti cul arl y effecti ve at usi ng a speci fi c mode wi l l hel p you wi th
other types of questi ons.
DEFINITION QUESTIONS
These are basi cal l y vocabul ary questi ons about di ffi cul t words i n a passage or about ordi nary
words that are used wi th a speci al meani ng. Use the context surroundi ng the word or phrase
i n the questi on to arri ve at i ts meani ng. Reread the sentence i n whi ch the word appears, and
then substi tute each of the possi bl e choi ces to see whi ch i s cl osest i n meani ng. To get the ful l
sense of the i dea, you may need to read the sentences that surround the one contai ni ng the
word or phrase i n questi on. Avoi d choosi ng a word or phrase that l ooks or sounds l i ke the
word to be defi ned, unl ess you have checked i t i n context.
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NOTE
As you answer
multiple-choice
questions in the
Practice Tests, try
to identify the
category of each
one. Knowing the
question type will
help you to
identify the best
strategy to use for
answering the
question.
Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 75
www.petersons.com
TONE OR PURPOSE QUESTIONS
These frequentl y asked questi ons ask you to determi ne how or why the author wrote the
materi al . The tone refl ects the wri ters atti tude toward the subject and the audi ence. The
purpose defi nes the effect the author wants to have upon the audi ence. Understandi ng the
tone hel ps you to understand the purpose. Wri ters convey purpose through thei r choi ce of
words and the i mpressi on those words create. Some possi bl e tones are admiration, adoration,
optimism, contempt, pride, objectivity, disappointment, respect, surprise, anger, regret, irony,
indignation, suspicion, pessimism, and amusement. You may al so fi nd a mul ti pl e-choi ce
questi on that asks you to determi ne the purpose of a footnote. These are fai rl y
strai ghtforward comprehensi on questi ons. The answer choi ces offer possi bl e restatements of
the footnote. A cl ose readi ng of the footnote agai nst the answer choi ces wi l l hel p you
determi ne the correct answer.
FORM QUESTIONS
Form i s the method of organi zati on that a wri ter uses. As you read, observe the patterns of
organi zati on used. Whi l e some authors wi l l use onl y one form, others may use a combi nati on.
Be aware of structure, organi zati on, and devel opment. Look for compari son and contrast,
cause and effect, order of i mportance, l ogi cal sequence of events, and spati al order.
Factual Knowledge Questions
There may be a few other questi on types that appear on the test.
English Language Questions. These questi ons may test your knowl edge of
Engl i sh grammar, punctuati on, or mechani cs, or they may test your understandi ng
of l i terary termi nol ogy.
Cultural Questions. Thi s ki nd of questi on tests your knowl edge of facts that are a
part of our ci vi l i zati on. Wel l -educated peopl e shoul d know thi s type of i nformati on.
ATTACKING THE QUESTIONS
Remember that the more mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons you answer correctl y, the l ess pressure
you wi l l have to do excepti onal l y wel l on the three essays. The fol l owi ng test-taki ng
strategi es, combi ned wi th your use of cri ti cal readi ng ski l l s, wi l l hel p you do wel l on Secti on I .
Learning the Directions
I t i s a good i dea to fami l i ari ze yoursel f wi th the i nstructi ons for each part of the test before the
real test day. Knowi ng ahead of ti me what you have to do can save you ti meperhaps enough
to answer another one or two questi ons.
76 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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www.petersons.com
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR THE AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION TEST
On the front page of your test bookl et, you wi l l fi nd some i nformati on about the test. Because
you have studi ed thi s book, none of i t shoul d be new to you, and much of i t i s si mi l ar to other
standardi zed tests you have taken.
The page wi l l tel l you that the fol l owi ng exam wi l l take approxi matel y 3 hours1 hour for the
mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on and 2 hours and 15 mi nutes for the three essaysand that there are
two bookl ets for thi s exam, one for the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on and one for the essays.
The page wi l l al so tel l you that Secti on I :
I s 1 hour
Has 50 questi ons (or some number from 50 to 60)
Counts for 45 percent of your total grade
Then, you wi l l fi nd a sentence i n capi tal l etters that tel l s you not to open your exam bookl et
unti l the moni tor tel l s you to open i t.
Other i nstructi ons wi l l tel l you to be careful to fi l l i n onl y oval s 1 through 50 (or whatever the
number i s) i n Secti on I on your separate answer sheet. Fi l l i n each oval compl etel y. I f you
erase an answer, erase i t compl etel y. You wi l l not recei ve any credi t for work done i n the test
bookl et, but you may use i t for maki ng notes.
You wi l l fi nd not onl y a paragraph about the guessi ng penal tydeducti on of one-quarter poi nt
for every wrong answerbut al so words of advi ce about guessi ng i f you know somethi ng
about the questi on and can el i mi nate several of the answers.
The fi nal paragraph wi l l remi nd you to work effecti vel y and to pace yoursel f. You are tol d that
not everyone wi l l be abl e to answer al l the questi ons. The page suggests that you ski p
questi ons that are di ffi cul t and come back to them i f you have ti me.
DIRECTIONS FOR THE MULTIPLE-CHOICE SECTION
The speci fi c di recti ons for Secti on I read l i ke thi s:
SECTION I
54 Q UESTIO NS 60 M INUTES
Directions: Thi s secti on consi sts of sel ecti ons of l i terature and questi ons on thei r
content, styl e, and form. After you have read each passage, sel ect the response that best
answers the questi on, and mark the space on the answer sheet.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 77
www.petersons.com
I n general , the di recti ons for each sel ecti on and i ts accompanyi ng mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons
read l i ke thi s:
QUESTIONS 115. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO
THE QUESTIONS.
Reading the Selections
Most passages have no ti tl es. I f a sel ecti on i s ti tl ed, thi nk about what i t tel l s you about
the work. You may get a sense of the subject and theme just from the ti tl e.
I f there i s no ti tl e, and there probabl y wont be, l ook for the topi c sentence or thesi s
statement. I n most wri ti ng, you wi l l fi nd i t near the begi nni ng. However, si nce AP exams
ask you about chal l engi ng l i terature, you may fi nd the topi c sentence at the end or i n the
mi ddl e of the sel ecti on. Or you may fi nd that the thesi s i s i mpl i ed as opposed to stated.
Scan the passages to deci de the order i n whi ch you want to answer them. You do not have
to answer the sel ecti ons i n the order presented. You can and shoul d answer the sel ecti ons
and then the questi ons for each sel ecti on i n the order that works for you. By showi ng
yoursel f that you know answers, you bui l d sel f-confi dence.
After you have deci ded the order i n whi ch you wi sh to answer the sel ecti ons, ski m for an
overal l i mpressi on of the sel ecti on. Then, read the sel ecti on careful l y. Do not ski p over
confusi ng sentences. Read the footnotes careful l y. Ski m them when you fi rst read the
sel ecti on and then read them agai n when you have fi ni shed readi ng the sel ecti on.
As you read, hi ghl i ght words and sentences that seem si gni fi cant. However, dont spend a
great deal of ti me on thi s.
As you read, observe patterns of organi zati on that the wri ter empl oys. Patterns may
fol l ow a certai n sequence or order, set up a compare-and-contrast si tuati on, offer a
probl em and sol uti on, show cause and effect, or offer a seri es of exampl es. Some authors
may use more than one system of organi zati on across paragraphs.
Mental l y paraphrase the passages. Paraphrasi ng hel ps you to di scover the subject and
the organi zati on of the sel ecti on or the thesi s and supporti ng arguments. The wri ters
styl e, transi ti ons, sentence types, l anguage, and l i terary devi ces become cl ear. You can
see the framework of the passage i n a paraphrase.
Recal l what you can about the author, the l i terary form, and the hi stori cal peri od.
Identifying the Question Type
Remember that there are si x major types of mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons: main idea,
rhetoric, mode, definition, tone or purpose, and form. You may al so fi nd a few factual
knowl edge or cul tural questi ons.
78 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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TIP
If paraphrasing
does not come
easily to you,
try writing
paraphrases of
the selections in
this book.
www.petersons.com
When answeri ng a mai n-i dea questi on, the correct choi ce must be enti rel y true and
i ncl ude as much rel evant i nformati on as possi bl e. I n many questi ons, two or three choi ces
mi ght be correct. However, the answer that i s most compl ete i s the one to choose.
When you are asked to make judgments about what i s i nferred or i mpl i ed i n a sel ecti on,
you must put together cl ues from the passage. You must be abl e to support your answer
wi th speci fi c facts or exampl es from the sel ecti on.
Questi ons that ask about the meani ng of words or phrases are best answered by
substi tuti ng your choi ce i n the sentence or paragraph. I f the choi ce makes sense, you
have the correct answer.
I n answeri ng a questi on about tone or purpose, pay attenti on to word choi ce. Thi s type of
questi on asks you to determi ne how or why the wri ter created the sel ecti on. Authors
convey that i nformati on through di cti on.
Answering the Questions
Reread l i nes, sentences, or paragraphs that are i denti fi ed i n the questi ons. I n fact, scan
or reread any sel ecti on i f you do not i mmedi atel y know the answer to a questi on.
Just as you choose the order to attack the passages, choose how you wi sh to answer the
mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons. I f you understand the passage, answer the questi ons i n order.
STRATEGIES FOR ANSWERING OBJ ECTIVE QUESTIONS/
MAKING EDUCATED GUESSES
ANSWER
CHOICE REASON TO ELIMINATE
1. Too narrow Too smal l a secti on of the sel ecti on covered, based on the questi on
2. Too broad An area wi der than the sel ecti on covered, based on the questi on
3. I rrel evant Nothi ng to do wi th the passage
Rel evant to the sel ecti on but not the questi on
4. I ncorrect Di storti on of the facts i n the sel ecti on
Contradi cti on of the facts i n the sel ecti on
5. I l l ogi cal Not supported by facts i n the passage
Not supported by ci ted passage from the sel ecti on
6. Si mi l ar choi ces GO BACK AND REVI EW 15 TO TEASE OUT THE
DI FFERENCES.
7. Not/ except Answers that correctl y represent the sel ecti on
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ALERT!
Dont check off
or circle on the
answer sheet the
numbers of
unanswered
questions. This
could confuse
the machine that
grades your test
and cause an
error in
your score.
Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 79
www.petersons.com
I f you are not confi dent about a passage, ski p di ffi cul t questi ons, and answer the easy
ones fi rst. Be sure to mark i n the test bookl et the ones you have not answered. I f you ski p
questi ons, check to be sure that you al so ski p that number on your answer sheet.
Read the questi on stem careful l y, and be sure to read al l the answer choi ces. Si nce the
di recti ons often ask for the best answer, several choi ces may be l ogi cal . Look for the most
i ncl usi ve answer or the general i zati on.
Look for consi stency i n the answers to the questi ons about a passage. I f a choi ce seems
contradi ctory to other answers you have gi ven, rethi nk that choi ce.
Many ti mes, the key to fi ndi ng the correct answer i s to narrow the choi ces and to make an
i ntel l i gent guess. El i mi nate some answers by fi ndi ng those that are obvi ousl y unrel ated,
i l l ogi cal , or i ncorrect. Havi ng reduced the number of choi ces, you can make an educated
guess from among the remai ni ng possi bi l i ti es. Use the techni ques presented i n the chart
above to reduce the number of choi ces.
The not/ except questi ons are tri cky. You can forget what i t i s you are l ooki ng for and
choose a correct answer for the sel ecti on but the wrong answer for the questi on.
Convol uted? Yes; as you go through each answer, ask yoursel f, I s thi s statement true
about the sel ecti on? I f you answer yes, cross off the answer and keep goi ng unti l you
fi nd a choi ce to whi ch you can answer no.
A FINAL WORD OF ADVICE: EDUCATED GUESSING
One techni que that i s especi al l y hel pful for achi evi ng your best score i s educated guessi ng.
Use thi s techni que when you do not i mmedi atel y know the correct answer as fol l ows:
I gnore answers that are obvi ousl y wrong. See the tabl e on page 79, Strategi es for
Answeri ng Objecti ve Questi ons/Maki ng Educated Guesses, for reasons why you
shoul d el i mi nate certai n types of answer choi ces.
Di scard choi ces i n whi ch part of the response i s i ncorrect.
Revi si t remai ni ng answers to di scover whi ch seems more correct. Remember to
el i mi nate any response that has anythi ng wrong about i t.
Choose the answer you feel i s ri ght. Trust yoursel f. Your subconsci ous usual l y wi l l
gui de you to the correct choi ce. Do not argue wi th yoursel f.
Youre probabl y thi nki ng about the quarter-poi nt penal ty for an i ncorrect answer and are
wonderi ng i f taki ng a chance i s worth the possi bl e poi nt l oss. Recogni ze that i f you use thi s
techni que, your chances of scori ng hi gher are excel l ent. You are not guessi ng but maki ng an
educated guess. You wi l l have to answer 4 questi ons i ncorrectl y to l ose a si ngl e poi nt, but
answeri ng even 1 questi on out of 4 correctl y that you are not sure about wi l l gi ve you a
80 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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ALERT!
A partially correct
answer is a
partially incorrect
answerand a
quarter-point
deduction.
www.petersons.com
quarter-poi nt edge. I f you have an i dea about whi ch choi ce i s correct, act on i t. Even the
Col l ege Board suggests that you tryas l ong as you can el i mi nate some answer choi ces.
PRACTICING
Now, take the ti me to practi ce what you have just l earned. Read the sel ecti on i n Exerci se 1, to
fol l ow, that was wri tten i n the ei ghteenth century by Hector St. John de Crvecoeur. Appl y the
suggesti ons and strategi es to determi ne the ri ght answer. Ci rcl e the correct answer, and then
wri te out your reasoni ng on the l i nes provi ded bel ow each questi on.
I f you do not understand the questi on, you may check the expl anati on i mmedi atel y. You may
refer to the answers questi on by questi on, or you may wi sh to score the enti re secti on at one
ti me. No matter whi ch method you choose, read al l the expl anati ons agai nst your own. See
where your reasoni ng and ours di ffer. I f your answer i s i ncorrect, what i s the fl aw i n your
reasoni ng? I f your answer i s correct, i s your reasoni ng the same as ours, or di d we add to your
understandi ng of the questi on and the process of arri vi ng at the answer?
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NOTE
Always read all
the explanations
given for correct
answers in the
Answer Key and
Explanations
sections in this
book. The logic
might offer you
an insight that will
help you with
other questions.
Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 81
www.petersons.com
EXERCISE 1
Directions: Thi s secti on consi sts of sel ecti ons of l i terature and questi ons on thei r
content, styl e, and form. After you have read each passage, choose the best response to
each questi on.
QUESTIONS 110. READ THE PASSAGE
CAREFULLY, AND THEN CHOOSE THE
ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
From the third essay of Le tte rs from a n
Am e ric a n Fa rm e r
Line What attachment can a poor European
emi grant have for a country where he
had nothi ng? The knowl edge of the
l anguage, the l ove of a few ki ndred as
poor as hi msel f, were the onl y cords
that ti ed hi m: hi s country i s now that
whi ch gi ves hi m l and, bread, protec-
ti on, and consequence. Ubi panis ibi
patria* i s the motto of al l emi grants.
What then i s the Ameri can, thi s new
man? He i s ei ther an European, or the
descendant of an European, hence that
strange mi xture of bl ood, whi ch you
wi l l fi nd i n no other country. I coul d
poi nt out to you a fami l y whose
grandfather was an Engl i shman,
whose wi fe was Dutch, whose son
marri ed a French woman, and whose
present four sons have now four wi ves
of di fferent nati ons. Hei s an Ameri can,
who, l eavi ng behi nd hi m al l hi s anci ent
prejudi ces and manners, recei ves new
ones from the new mode of l i fe he has
embraced, the government he obeys,
and the new rank he hol ds. He be-
comes an Ameri can by bei ng recei ved
i n the broad l ap of our great Alma
Mater.** Here i ndi vi dual s of al l nati ons
are mel ted i nto a new race of men,
whose l abors and posteri ty wi l l one day
cause great changes i n the worl d.
Ameri cans are the western pi l gri ms,
who are carryi ng al ong wi th them that
great mass of arts, sci ences, vi gor, and
i ndustry whi ch began l ong si nce i n the
east; they wi l l fi ni sh the great ci rcl e.
The Ameri cans were once scattered al l
over Europe; here they are i ncorpo-
rated i nto one of the fi nest systems of
popul ati on whi ch has ever appeared,
and whi ch wi l l hereafter become
di sti nct by the power of the di fferent
cl i mates they i nhabi t. The Ameri can
ought therefore to l ove thi s country
much better than that wherei n ei ther
he or hi s forefathers were born. Here
the rewards of hi s i ndustry fol l ow wi th
equal steps the progress of hi s l abor;
hi s l abor i s founded on the basi s of
nature, self-interest; can i t want a
stronger al l urement? Wi ves and
chi l dren, who before i n vai n demanded
of hi m a morsel of bread, now, fat and
frol i csome, gl adl y hel p thei r father to
cl ear those fi el ds whence exuberant
crops are to ari se to feed and to cl othe
them al l ; wi thout any part bei ng
cl ai med, ei ther by a despoti c pri nce, a
ri ch abbot, or a mi ghty l ord. Here
rel i gi on demands but l i ttl e of hi m; a
smal l vol untary sal ary to the mi ni ster,
and grati tude to God; can he refuse
these? The Ameri can i s a new man,
who acts upon pri nci pl es; he must
therefore entertai n new i deas, and
form new opi ni ons. From i nvol untary
i dl eness, servi l e dependence, penury,
and usel ess l abor, he has passed to
toi l s of a very di fferent nature, re-
warded by ampl e subsi stence.Thi s i s
an Ameri can.
* Where bread i s, there i s ones country
** Bel oved mother
82 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
www.petersons.com
1. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best descri bes
the authors vi ew of Ameri can soci ety?
(A) A mel ti ng pot
(B) Lacki ng i n prejudi ces
(C) Devoi d of pri nci pl es
(D) Cl ass consci ous
(E) Lawl ess
2. Consi deri ng di cti on, tone, and
rhetori cal mode, how can thi s
sel ecti on best be characteri zed?
(A) An el oquent expressi on of the
Ameri can dream
(B) A charmi ng narrati ve
(C) An i roni c di scourse
(D) A subtl e cri ti ci sm of the new
Ameri can nati on
(E) A commentary di rected at
reformi ng European countri es
3. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s NOTa reason
for Ameri cans to l ove thi s country more
than that of thei r ancestors?
(A) Rel i gi on demands l i ttl e of them.
(B) Rewards fol l ow thei r l abor.
(C) Abbots, pri nces, or l ords do not
set a l evy on crops.
(D) The l abor of Ameri cans i s founded
on thei r own sel f-i nterest.
(E) Chari ty i s freel y gi ven.
4. I n the next to the l ast sentence of the
excerpt (l i ne 67), what i s the mean-
i ng of the word penury?
(A) Largess
(B) I mpri sonment
(C) Desti tuti on
(D) Hard work
(E) Corporal puni shment
5. The semi col on after the word Europe
i n l i ne 38 serves whi ch of the fol l owi ng
purposes?
(A) I t sets off two or more
i ndependent cl auses.
(B) I t separates i tems i n a seri es.
(C) I t separates parentheti cal
el ements.
(D) I t establ i shes a new thought.
(E) I t sets off an i ntroductory phrase.
e
x
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c
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s
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 83
www.petersons.com
6. What l i terary devi ce i s used to
descri be the new Ameri can i n thi s
sentence, He becomes an Ameri can
by bei ng recei ved i n the broad l ap of
our great Alma Mater?
(A) Si mi l e
(B) Personi fi cati on
(C) Metaphor
(D) Apostrophe
(E) Hyperbol e
7. The organi zati on of the sel ecti on
coul d best be characteri zed as
(A) stream of consci ousness
(B) compari son
(C) order of i mportance
(D) contrast
(E) argumentati on
8. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the l i terary
form that the wri ter has chosen
to empl oy?
(A) Narrati ve
(B) Personal l etter
(C) Exposi tory arti cl e
(D) Epi stl e
(E) Di al ogue
9. What i s the best synonym for the
word exuberant i n l i ne 55?
(A) Sparse
(B) Abundant
(C) Harvested
(D) Wi thered
(E) Enthusi asti c
10. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng statements
best presents the wri ters theme?
(A) Ameri cans wi l l become sel f-
absorbed.
(B) The new nati on wi l l become an
i mperi al i st power.
(C) Ameri ca wi l l cause worl dwi de
changes.
(D) Ameri can ci ti zens wi l l devel op a
ri gi d cl ass structure.
(E) The peopl e wi l l destroy thei r own
country because of thei r excesses.
84 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS
1. A
2. A
3. E
4. C
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. D
9. B
10. C
1. The correct answer is (A). The chal l enge of thi s questi on i s to si ft through the
responses to sel ect the one that most accuratel y descri bes the authors vi si on of
Ameri ca. Choi ce (E) i s not menti oned i n the sel ecti on and can be el i mi nated
i mmedi atel y. The i nformati on i n each of choi ces (A) through (D) i s menti oned i n the
passage i n one form or another, so you mi ght sel ect one of these four because they sound
fami l i ar. A scanni ng of the passage, however, shows that the onl y response that trul y
refl ects the authors words i s choi ce (A), a mel ti ng pot. Choi ce (B) i s a detai l that
supports choi ce (A). Choi ces (C) and (D) contradi ct the atti tude of the passage.
2. The correct answer is (A). Someti mes, the obvi ous choi ce i s the correct answer.
Choi ces (C), (D), and (E) do not refl ect the tone, mode, or subject matter that i s
addressed by the author. Your deci si on shoul d have been between choi ces (A) and (B).
Choi ce (B) i s i n the runni ng onl y because of the word charming. The styl e i s arguabl y
charmi ng, but i t i s not a narrati ve.
3. Thecorrect answer is (E). The key to choosi ng the correct answer for thi s questi on i s
i n noti ng the word not i n the questi on. You are l ooki ng for the one answer i n the seri es
that i s ei ther opposi te to or not i ncl uded i n the wri ters thesi s. I n thi s case, the subject
of chari ty, choi ce (E), i s never menti oned i n the passage.
4. The correct answer is (C). Thi s i s a strai ghtforward vocabul ary questi on, whi ch
makes i t easy i f you know the meani ng of the word. I f you are uncertai n of the meani ng,
fi nd the gi ven word i n context, and substi tute each of the answer choi ces. By doi ng so,
some answers may be el i mi nated, and one may cl earl y stand out as the correct answer.
I n thi s case, i nserti ng the answer choi ces i n context of l i ne 67 easi l y el i mi nates choi ces
(A) and (D) because gi fts and hard work woul d not l ogi cal l y appear i n the same seri es as
i nvol untary i dl eness and usel ess l abor. Because i nvol untary i dl eness mi ght mean ei ther
i mpri sonment or unempl oyment, el i mi nate choi ces (B) and (E) because the author
probabl y woul d not repeat the same i dea. Al so corporal puni shment, choi ce (E), does not
seem to fi t i n a seri es about worki ng or not worki ng. That l eaves choi ce (C), whi ch
means desti tute or penni l ess.
5. The correct answer is (A). Choi ce (B) can be el i mi nated because there i s nei ther a
seri es nor a parentheti cal el ement, whi ch el i mi nates choi ce (C). Choi ce (D) does not
fol l ow any grammar rul e, and there i s no i ntroductory phrase, choi ce (E), i n the
sentence. There are, however, two i ndependent cl auses, choi ce (A).
6. The correct answer is (B). The process of el i mi nati on i s a good strategy to use for
determi ni ng the answer when you are not sure about the responses. You can el i mi nate
choi ce (A) i mmedi atel y because a si mi l e i s a fi gure of speech that i ncl udes as or like.
Choi ce (B) mi ght be correct because the author i s attri buti ng a l ap to Ameri ca, whi ch
seems l i ke i t i s personi fi cati on, but keep readi ng the answer choi ces. Reject choi ce (C)
because a metaphor i s an i mpl i ed compari son. Apostrophe, choi ce (D), i s a l i terary
devi ce of cal l i ng out to an i magi nary, dead, or absent person; to a pl ace, thi ng, or
personi fi ed abstracti on; or to begi n a poem or make a dramati c break. Nei ther that nor
choi ce (E), hyperbol e, an obvi ous, l avi sh exaggerati on or overstatement, fi ts the
sentence. That l eaves choi ce (B) as the onl y correct response.
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 85
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7. The correct answer is (C). Thi s questi on tests your abi l i ty to recogni ze types of
organi zati on and structure. El i mi nate choi ces (A) and (E) because they do not appl y to
the sel ecti on. There i s nothi ng that coul d be consi dered stream of consci ousness about
the sel ecti on. I t mi ght be persuasi ve, a form of argumentati on, but argumentati on i s a
mode of di scourse, not a form of organi zati on. Whi l e the wri ter does seem to compare,
choi ce (B), and contrast, choi ce (D), he has arranged hi s thoughts to ri se i n power and
concl ude on a very strong note.
8. The correct answer is (D). The author i s wri ti ng an epi stl e, or l i terary l etter, whi ch
i s a formal composi ti on wri tten i n the form of a l etter that i s addressed to a di stant
person or group of peopl e. Unl i ke personal l etters, choi ce (B), whi ch are more
conversati onal and pri vate, epi stl es are careful l y crafted l i terary works that are
i ntended for a general audi ence. Your best hi nt for thi s i s i n the ti tl e of the sel ecti on.
El i mi nate choi ces (A) and (E) si nce there i s no story bei ng tol d and no di scussi on among
peopl e. Whi l e you may have consi dered choi ce (C), the passage i s l ess exposi tory
than persuasi ve.
9. Thecorrect answer is(B). Thi s i s not so much a vocabul ary dri l l as i t i s a test of your
comprehensi on. None of the responses i s an exact synonym for the word exuberant as
we use the word today. You must determi ne the defi ni ti on from the context of the
sentence. Substi tute each of the proposed responses, and sel ect the one that makes the
most sense, keepi ng i n mi nd the tone and theme of the author. Nei ther sparse, choi ce
(A), nor withered, choi ce (D), woul d l i kel y be the correct response gi ven the rest of the
sentence. Harvested, choi ce (C), does not make sense before the crops grow.
Enthusiastic, choi ce (E), i s a synonym for exuberant, but i t does not make sense i n
context. Abundant, choi ce (B), best captures the authors meani ng.
10. The correct answer is (C). You can el i mi nate al l but the correct answer i n thi s
questi on by keepi ng i n mi nd the general tone of the author. The wri ter i s very posi ti ve
about Ameri ca and Ameri cas future. Four of the fi ve possi bi l i ti es, choi ces (A), (B), (D),
and (E), are negati ve. A cl ue to the answer can be found i n the sentence, Here
i ndi vi dual s of al l nati ons are mel ted i nto a new race of men, whose l abors and posteri ty
wi l l one day cause great changes i n the worl d. (l i nes 2831)
Now that you have a sense of the l ogi c i nvol ved i n aci ng Secti on I of the test, try
Exercises 2 and 3. Study the expl anati ons for choosi ng the correct answers. I f you are
sti l l unsure of your abi l i ty wi th mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons, conti nue on wi th Exercises 4
and 5.
86 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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EXERCISE 2
Directions: Thi s secti on consi sts of sel ecti ons of l i terature and questi ons on thei r
content, styl e, and form. After you have read each passage, choose the best response to
each questi on.
QUESTIONS 110. READ THE PASSAGE
CAREFULLY, AND THEN CHOOSE THE
ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
From The La w of the G re a t Pe a c e from the
Iroquois Confederacy
Line When a candi date i s to be i nstal l ed, he
shal l furni sh four stri ngs of shel l s or
wampum one span i n l ength bound
together at one end. Such wi l l consti -
tute the evi dence of hi s pl edge to the
chi efs of the League that he wi l l l i ve
accordi ng to the Consti tuti on of the
Great Peace and exerci se justi ce i n al l
affai rs. When the pl edge i s furni shed,
the Speaker of the Counci l must hol d
the shel l stri ngs i n hi s hand and
address the opposi te si de of the Counci l
Fi re, and he shal l begi n hi s
address sayi ng:
Now behol d hi m. He has now
become a chi ef of the League. See
how spl endi d he l ooks.
An address may then fol l ow. At the
end of i t he shal l send the bunch of
shel l stri ngs to the opposi te si de, and
they shal l be recei ved as evi dence of
the pl edge. Then shal l the opposi te
si de say:
We now do crown you wi th the
sacred embl em of the deers
antl ers, the embl em of your
chi eftai nshi p. You shal l now
become a mentor of the peopl e of
the Fi ve Nati ons. The thi ckness of
your ski n shal l be seven spans,
whi ch i s to say that you wi l l be
proof agai nst anger, offensi ve
acti ons, and cri ti ci sm. Your heart
shal l be fi l l ed wi th peace and good
wi l l . Your mi nd shal l be fi l l ed
wi th a yearni ng for the wel fare of
the peopl e of the League. Wi th
endl ess pati ence you shal l carry
out your duty and your fi rmness
shal l be tempered wi th tenderness
for your peopl e. Nei ther anger nor
fury shal l fi nd l odgi ng i n your
mi nd. Al l your words and acti ons
shal l be marked wi th cal m
del i berati on. I n al l your del i bera-
ti ons i n l aw-maki ng, i n al l your
offi ci al acts, sel f-i nterest shal l be
cast away. Do not cast over your
shoul der behi nd you the warni ngs
of your nephews and ni eces
shoul d they chi de you for any
error or wrong you may do, but
return to the way of the Great
Lake whi ch i s ri ght and just. Look
and l i sten for the wel fare of the
whol e peopl e, and have al ways i n
vi ew not onl y the present, but
al so the comi ng generati ons, even
those whose faces are yet beneath
the surace of the groundthe
unborn of the future Nati on.
1. Accordi ng to thi s passage, whi ch of
the fol l owi ng i s conduct that the
l eaders woul d be LEAST l i kel y to
encourage i n a new chi ef?
(A) Puni sh cri ti ci sm and
offensi ve behavi or.
(B) Be mi ndful of future genera-
ti ons.
(C) Be cal m i n words and acti ons.
(D) Consi der the wel fare of
al l peopl e.
(E) Be a stern but fai r l awmaker.
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 87
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10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
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2. The cl ause The thi ckness of your
ski n shal l be seven spans (l i nes
2930) i s an exampl e of whi ch of
the fol l owi ng?
(A) Si mi l e
(B) Anal ogy
(C) Vi sual i magery
(D) Metaphor
(E) Al l i terati on
3. How does the speaker use rhetori c
and styl e i n the second speech of the
sel ecti on to communi cate the conduct
expected of a new chi ef?
(A) Decl arati ve sentences,
formal di cti on
(B) Decl arati ve sentences,
future tenses
(C) I mperati ve sentences,
formal di cti on
(D) I mperati ve sentences,
future tenses
(E) I mperati ve sentences,
acti ve verbs
4. I n the context of thi s passage, the
best i nterpretati on of the word
span (l i ne 30) i s
(A) span of a l i fe
(B) span of a hand
(C) span of an arrow
(D) the wi ng span of an eagl e
(E) span of an arm
5. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
i nterpretati on of the sentence
Nei ther anger nor fury shal l fi nd
l odgi ng i n your mi nd (l i nes 4143)?
(A) A chi ef does not become angry.
(B) A chi ef does not rul e
wi th anger.
(C) A chi ef does not remai n angry.
(D) A chi ef does not di spl ay anger.
(E) A chi ef does not l et anger
rul e hi m.
6. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng can you i nfer
about Nati ve Ameri can cul ture from
the i mperati ves and admoni ti ons
i ncl uded i n the i nstal l ati on
ceremony?
I . Fami l y i s i mportant.
I I . A chi efs conduct i s i mportant.
I I I . Anger i s offensi ve.
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I and I I I onl y
7. The mode of thi s sel ecti on as a whol e
i s best descri bed as
(A) argumentati ve
(B) narrati ve
(C) exposi ti on
(D) hi stori cal treati se
(E) descri pti on
8. After careful rhetori cal anal ysi s of
the sel ecti on, whi ch of the fol l owi ng
best descri bes the genesi s of
the speech?
(A) Tri bal customs
(B) Logi c
(C) Ethi cs
(D) Emoti on
(E) Spi ri tual i ty
9. The sentence Wi th endl ess pati ence
you shal l carry out your duty and
your fi rmness shal l be tempered wi th
tenderness for your peopl e contai ns
al l of the fol l owi ng EXCEPT
(A) a verb i n the passi ve voi ce
(B) paral l el structure
(C) speci fi c detai l s
(D) a parti ci pi al phrase
(E) courtl y di cti on
10. I n the sentence Do not cast . . . ri ght
and just (l i nes 4854), what i s the
best meani ng of the word chi de?
(A) Judge
(B) Bl ame
(C) Reprove
(D) Cri ti ci sm
(E) Repri mand
88 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS
1. A
2. C
3. C
4. B
5. E
6. B
7. C
8. C
9. D
10. C
1. The correct answer is (A). Thi s questi on asks you to fi nd the one answer that i s
i ncorrect. You coul d return to the passage and ski m to fi nd the behavi ors requi red. Or
you coul d al so use common sense to recogni ze that choi ces (B), (C), (D), and (E) are
behavi ors that are desi rabl e i n a l eader, whi ch el i mi nates those as the answer, because
you are bei ng asked to fi nd the behavi or that i s l east l i kel y to be encouraged i n a l eader.
Choi ce (A) i s not behavi or that i s desi rabl e i n a l eader, so i t i s the correct answer. I f you
found the probabl e answer by usi ng thi s l ogi c, you coul d confi rm your answer choi ce by
scanni ng the sel ecti on.
2. The correct answer is (C). Thi s questi on requi res your knowl edge of l i terary
el ements. Choi ce (A), si mi l e, i s a compari son that requi res the word likeor as, so i t can
be el i mi nated. Choi ce (B), an anal ogy, or compari son of si mi l ar thi ngs, i s i ncorrect
because there i s no compari son i n the sentence. A metaphor, choi ce (D), i s another type
of compari son i n whi ch one thi ng i s referred to as another; i t, too, i s i ncorrect. Choi ce
(E), al l i terati on, requi res a seri es of words begi nni ng wi th the same sound, so i t can
be el i mi nated.
3. The correct answer is (C). Thi s questi on tests your knowl edge of Engl i sh grammar.
The sentence i s i mperati ve; the use of shall i nstead of the usual will i ndi cates a
demand. Shall i s not a form of the verb to be, but i t i s a hel pi ng verb. A decl arati ve
sentence, choi ces (A) and (B), si mpl y states an i dea, whi ch i s not the case here. One cl ue
that the sentences are not excl amatory, choi ce (D), i s the l ack of an excl amati on poi nt as
the end mark. Because the sentences do not ask a questi on, they cannot be
i nterrogati ve, choi ce (E).
4. The correct answer is (B). Thi s questi on asks you to be l ogi cal . Thi ckness of ski n
coul d not rel ate to l i fe span, maki ng choi ce (A) i ncorrect. Choi ces (C), (D), and (E) are
i l l ogi cal , too; seven ti mes the span of ei ther an arrow, a wi ng, or an arm woul d not be
rel ated to the depth of ski n. As you probabl y have l earned through your study of
hi story, the hand was commonl y used as a measure, maki ng choi ce (B) the most
l ogi cal i nterpretati on.
5. Thecorrect answer is(E). Thi s i s a comprehensi on questi on. Choi ces (B), (C), and (D)
al l seem appropri ate, but the questi on i s aski ng you for the best i nterpretati on. Choi ce
(E) i s the best because i t i ncl udes the i deas i n choi ces (B), (C), and (D). Choi ce (A) i s a
di stracter because the sel ecti on does not say a chi ef cannot become angry, onl y that that
anger shoul d not affect hi s rul e.
6. The correct answer is (B). Al though anger and fami l y (nephews and ni eces) are
menti oned i n the passage, the fundamental message i s the i mportance of a chi efs
conduct. Therefore, onl y choi ce (B), whi ch menti ons the chi efs conduct, can be correct.
Choi ce (A), fami l y, and choi ce (C), the offensi veness of anger, are i ncorrect because they
do not menti on conduct. Choi ce (D) i s onl y parti al l y correct because onl y conduct i s
correct. Choi ce (E) i s enti rel y wrong.
7. The correct answer is (C). The questi on asks you to i denti fy the type of di scourse
used i n the sel ecti on. I f you recogni zed that the purpose i s to expl ai n how a candi date i s
i nstal l ed as a chi ef of the I roquoi s, sel ecti ng choi ce (C), exposi ti on, i s easy. I f you di d not
see that, you coul d use the process of el i mi nati on to fi nd the best choi ce. There i s no
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 89
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argument or persuasi on occurri ng, so choi ce (A) can be rul ed out. A narrati ve, choi ce
(B), tel l s a story, whi ch i s not the mode used here. Whi l e there i s a great deal of
descri pti on, choi ce (E), the purpose of the sel ecti on i s to present the stages of the
ceremony. Choi ce (D) i s a di stracter; thi s i s a not a mode of di scourse.
8. The correct answer is (C). Dont be fool ed. Thi s i s obvi ousl y a tri bal custom, choi ce
(A), and there may be some unspoken spi ri tual overtones, choi ce (E), but remember the
conventi ons of rhetori cl ogi c, ethi cs, and emoti on. Thi s passage di scusses the conduct
that i s expected of new chi efs and, hence, cl earl y evol ves from ethi cs.
9. Thecorrect answer is(D). Thi s questi on tests your understandi ng of rhetori c and the
conventi ons of Engl i sh. You must i denti fy what i s NOT i n the sentence. The sentence
contai ns a verb, shal l be tempered, i n the passi ve voi ce, so choi ce (A) i s wrong. The
coordi nati ng conjuncti on, and, whi ch joi ns two i ndependent cl auses, establ i shes
paral l el structure, thus el i mi nati ng choi ce (B). There are speci fi c detai l s, and the
l anguage i s courtl y, formal , and el egant, so choi ces (C) and (E) are i ncorrect. A
parti ci pi al phrase, choi ce (D), i s a verb form that functi ons as an adjecti ve or adverb.
There i s no such structure, whi ch makes the onl y i ncorrect choi ce the ri ght answer!
10. Thecorrect answer is (C). Thi s i s a di ffi cul t vocabul ary questi on. Most of the choi ces
make sense i n the context of the sentence. Thi nk about the sense of the sentence, and
use the process of el i mi nati on to fi nd the best defi ni ti on. You can el i mi nate choi ce (D)
i mmedi atel y because, whi l e i t suggests a very good possi bi l i ty, i t i s a noun, and chidei s
a verb. Look for a verb among the other four choi ces that i s si mi l ar i n meani ng to
criticism. Si nce the youth are chi di ng a chi ef, you can safel y assume that choi ces (A),
(B), and (D) are too harsh. Reprove, cl ose i n meani ng to cri ti ci ze, i s gentl er and the
best choi ce.
90 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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EXERCISE 3
Directions: Thi s secti on consi sts of sel ecti ons of l i terature and questi ons on thei r
content, styl e, and form. After you have read each passage, choose the best response to
each questi on.
QUESTIONS 110. READ THE PASSAGE
CAREFULLY, AND THEN CHOOSE THE
ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
From De c la ra tion of Se ntim e nts
Line When i n the course of human events, i t
becomes necessary for one porti on of
the fami l y of man to assume among
the peopl e of the earth a posi ti on
di fferent from that whi ch they have
hi therto occupi ed, but one to whi ch the
l aws of nature and natures God enti tl e
them, decent respect to the opi ni ons of
manki nd requi res that they shoul d
decl are the causes that i mpel them to
such a course.
We hol d these truths to be sel f-
evi dent: that al l men and women are
created equal ; that they are endowed
by thei r Creator wi th certai n i nal i en-
abl e ri ghts, that among these are l i fe,
l i berty, and the pursui t of happi ness;
that to secure these ri ghts govern-
ments are i nsti tuted, deri vi ng thei r
just powers from the consent of the
governed. When any form of govern-
ment becomes destructi ve of these
ends, i t i s the ri ght of those who suffer
from i t to refuse al l egi ance to i t, and to
i nsi st upon the i nsti tuti on of a new
government, l ayi ng i ts foundati on on
such pri nci pl es, and organi zi ng i ts
powers i n such form as to them shal l
seem most l i kel y to effect thei r safety
and happi ness. Prudence, i ndeed, wi l l
di ctate that governments l ong estab-
l i shed shoul d not be changed for l i ght
and transi ent causes; accordi ngl y, al l
experi ences hath shown that manki nd
are more di sposed to suffer, whi l e evi l s
are sufferabl e, than to ri ght themsel ves
by abol i shi ng the forms to whi ch they
are accustomed. But when a l ong trai n
of abuses and usurpati ons, pursui ng
i nvari abl y the same object evi nces a
desi gn to reduce them under absol ute
despoti sm, i t i s thei r duty to throw off
such government, and to provi de new
guards for thei r future securi ty. Such
has been the pati ent sufferance of the
women under thi s government, and
such i s now the necessi ty whi ch
constrai ns them to demand the equal
stati on to whi ch they are enti tl ed.
The hi story of manki nd i s a hi story
of repeated i njuri es and usurpati ons on
the part of man toward women, havi ng
i n di rect object the establ i shment of an
absol ute tyranny over her. . . . [An
expl anati on of fi fteen speci fi c gri ev-
ances fol l ows thi s paragraph.]
He has endeavored, i n every way
that he coul d, to destroy her confi dence
i n her own powers, to l essen her
sel f-respect, and to make her wi l l i ng to
l ead a dependent and abject l i fe. Now,
i n vi ew of thi s enti re di sfranchi sement
of one-hal f the peopl e of thi s country,
thei r soci al and rel i gi ous degradati on,
i n vi ew of the unjust l aws above
menti oned, and because women do feel
themsel ves aggri eved, oppressed, and
fraudul entl y depri ved of thei r most
sacred ri ghts, we i nsi st that they have
i mmedi ate admi ssi on to al l the ri ghts
and pri vi l eges whi ch bel ong to them as
ci ti zens of the Uni ted States. . . .
El i zabeth Cady Stanton
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 91
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
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55
60
65
70
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1. At the end of the second paragraph,
i n the sentence begi nni ng Such has
been the pati ent . . . (l i nes 4449),
whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
meani ng for the word constrai ns?
(A) Restrai ns
(B) Coerces
(C) Encourages
(D) Demands
(E) Enti tl es
2. From your readi ng of thi s sel ecti on,
what does the wri ter bel i eve about
the ori gi n of womens ri ghts?
(A) They come from government.
(B) They come from nature.
(C) They come from God.
(D) They come from soci ety.
(E) They come from men.
3. The syntax and organi zati on of the
passage serve to
I . establ i sh an extended anal ogy
to the Decl arati on
of I ndependence
I I . create a powerful argument
supporti ng the wri ters posi ti on
I I I . poi nt out the effects
of di senfranchi sement
(A) I onl y
(B) I and I I onl y
(C) I I and I I I onl y
(D) I and I I I onl y
(E) I , I I , and I I I
4. I n the sentence begi nni ng He has
endeavored . . . (l i nes 5761), the
repeti ti on of the i nfi ni ti ve phrases
serves whi ch of the fol l owi ng
rhetori cal functi ons?
I . Provi des paral l el structure to
i ntensi fy the message
I I . Detai l s the l i st of gri evances
I I I . Creates an i ntel l ectual tone
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I I and I I I onl y
5. The wri ter emphasi zes the evi l s
experi enced by women i n order to
further her argument for
(A) abol i shi ng al l government
(B) wri ti ng powerful statements
(C) hol di ng demonstrati ons
(D) amendi ng the Consti tuti on
(E) demandi ng equal ri ghts
6. To what does the wri ter l i ken the
pl i ght of women i n the
Uni ted States?
(A) To the uni versal pl i ght
of women
(B) To the pl i ght of wi ves
(C) To the pl i ght of al l
oppressed peopl e
(D) To Ameri cas pl i ght as a col ony
(E) To the pl i ght of sl aves
7. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best descri bes
the tone of thi s passage?
(A) I nspi ri ng, powerful
(B) Seri ous, angry
(C) Objecti ve, i nformati ve
(D) Emoti onal , pretenti ous
(E) Dramati c, portentous
92 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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8. Thi s passage i s an exampl e of whi ch
of the fol l owi ng modes of di scourse?
(A) Argument
(B) Persuasi on
(C) Exposi ti on
(D) Narrati ve
(E) Descri pti on
9. The passage as a whol e can best be
descri bed as whi ch of the fol l owi ng?
(A) A commentary about
womens suffrage
(B) An i ndi ctment of mens tyranny
over women
(C) A decl arati on of i ndependence
for women
(D) A femi ni st di atri be
(E) A pol i ti cal l ament
10. I n the sentence begi nni ng We hol d
these truths to be sel f-evi dent: . . .
(l i nes 1221), the best meani ng for
the word i nal i enabl e i s
(A) undeni abl e
(B) fundamental
(C) natural
(D) God-gi ven
(E) not to be taken away
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 93
www.petersons.com
ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS
1. B
2. C
3. B
4. D
5. E
6. D
7. A
8. A
9. C
10. E
1. The correct answer is (B). Thi s vocabul ary questi on presents a chal l enge. Al l the
choi ces, wi th the excepti on of choi ce (A), whi ch i s an antonym for constrains i n thi s
context, make sense i n the sentence. You want the strongest choi ce because the
sentence needs a word meani ng forces. Choi ces (C) and (E) are weaker than choi ces
(D) and (B), so you can el i mi nate them. Choi ce (D) creates a repeti ti on i n the sentence
(whi ch demands them to demand), so i t i s not the best choi ce. Choi ce (B) remai ns as
the strongest verb and best response.
2. The correct answer is (C). The questi on, whi ch i s rather easy, asks you to recal l a
detai l and i nterpret i t. The author, El i zabeth Cady Stanton wri tes, . . . they are
endowed by thei r Creator wi th certai n i nal i enabl e ri ghts. Ask yoursel f, what i s the
Creator? You know that the Creator i s not the government, choi ce (A); soci ety, choi ce
(D); or men, choi ce (E). You mi ght be abl e to make a case for nature, choi ce (B).
However, nature i s rarel y i f ever cal l ed the Creator, so that choi ce i s not the
most accurate.
3. The correct answer is (B). Dont be mi sl ed. Poi nt I I I , a part of choi ces (C), (D), and
(E), i s a di stracter. The effects of di senfranchi sement are menti oned, but the questi on
revol ves around syntax and organi zati on. Choi ce (B) i s the correct answer because both
I and I I are used to support the syntax and organi zati on of the passage.
4. The correct answer is (D). Poi nt I I I i s a di stracter. The repeti ti on of i nfi ni ti ve
phrases provi des both poi nt I , paral l el structure, and poi nt I I , a l i st of gri evances, so
choi ce (D) i s the correct answer because i t i s the onl y answer that has both poi nts I
and I I .
5. The correct answer is (E). Thi s comprehensi on questi on asks for the mai n i dea. Ask
yoursel f, what poi nt i s the wri ter maki ng? Stanton certai nl y does not advocate the
overthrow of al l governments; she wants the rul es of the U.S. government to appl y
fai rl y to al l ci ti zens, so choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. The wri ter mi ght feel that choi ces (B) and
(C) are good methods for spotl i ghti ng the probl em, but nei ther refl ects the mai n
purpose of the passage. Choi ce (D) woul d be requi red to gai n equal ri ghts, but that i s
i mpl i ed i n the passage and i s not the mai n i dea.
6. The correct answer is (D). Thi s i s a cul tural questi on that rel i es on your knowl edge
of U.S. hi story. Just as the Bri ti sh col oni sts fel t that they were deni ed thei r ri ghts as
ci ti zens by the Bri ti sh, Stanton and her peers fel t that U.S. women were deni ed thei r
ri ghts as ci ti zens by the U.S. government. The remai ni ng choi ces, (A), (B), (C), and (E),
have l i ttl e or no rel ati onshi p to the Decl arati on of I ndependence.
7. Thecorrect answer is(A). Whi l e the arti cl e has some el ements of choi ces (B) and (E),
nei ther choi ce i s enti rel y correct. The document i s seri ous but not necessari l y angry,
choi ce (B), and portentous but not necessari l y dramati c, choi ce (E). The passage i s
argumentati ve, not objecti ve, so choi ce (C) i s not the answer. Al though based on the
Decl arati on of I ndependence, some readers of the Decl arati on of the Senti ments mi ght
have consi dered i t emoti onal and pretenti ous, choi ce (D), but that i s not the tone the
author set out to create. That l eaves choi ce (A) as the correct answer.
94 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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www.petersons.com
8. The correct answer is (A). You can i mmedi atel y el i mi nate choi ces (C), (D), and (E)
because the sel ecti on i s not si mpl y i nformati ve, does not tel l a story, and does not
descri be a person, pl ace, thi ng, event, or i dea. The answer hi nges on your
understandi ng of the di fference between persuasi on and argumentati on. Argumenta-
ti on i s a more powerful type of wri ti ng than persuasi on. That el i mi nates choi ce (B),
because thi s i s a very strong pi ece of wri ti ng.
9. The correct answer is (C). I f you remembered questi on 6, about the Decl arati on of
I ndependence, you had a good i dea about how to answer thi s questi on. The sel ecti on
advocates femal e suffrage, not just comments on i t, so choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. The wri ter
di scusses mens tyranny over women, but that i s onl y part of the argument, so you can
el i mi nate choi ce (B). You can el i mi nate choi ces (D) and (E) as i nappropri ate descri pti ons
of thi s passage. The word diatribe, choi ce (D), has a negati ve connotati on, and lament
has a connotati on of weakness.
10. The correct answer is (E). Al l the answers for thi s questi on make sense. You must
pi ck the best one. Whi l e human ri ghts may be undeni abl e, choi ce (A); fundamental ,
choi ce (B); natural , choi ce (C); and God-gi ven, choi ce (D), the most i mportant aspect i s
that they cannot be made al i en; that i s, they cannot be taken away, choi ce (E).
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 95
www.petersons.com
EXERCISE 4
Directions: Thi s secti on consi sts of sel ecti ons of l i terature and questi ons on thei r
content, styl e, and form. After you have read each passage, choose the best response to
each questi on.
QUESTIONS 110. READ THE PASSAGE
CAREFULLY, AND THEN CHOOSE THE
ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.
Line Washi ngton, Apri l 14, 1865
Publ i shed i n the New York Herald,
Apri l 15, 1865
Washi ngton was thrown i nto an
i ntense exci tement a few mi nutes
before el even ocl ock thi s eveni ng, by
the announcement that the Presi dent
and Secretary Seward had been
assassi nated and were dead.
The wi l dest exci tement prevai l ed i n
al l parts of the ci ty. Men, women, and
chi l dren, ol d and young, rushed to and
fro, and the rumors were magni fi ed
unti l we had nearl y every member of
the Cabi net ki l l ed. Some ti me el apsed
before authenti c data coul d be ascer-
tai ned i n regard to the affai r.
The Presi dent and Mrs. Li ncol n
were at Fords theatre, l i steni ng to the
performance of The Ameri can Cousi n,
occupyi ng a box i n the second ti er. At
the cl ose of the thi rd act a person
entered the box occupi ed by the
Presi dent, and shot Mr. Li ncol n i n the
head. The shot entered the back of hi s
head, and came out the templ e.
The assassi n then jumped from the
box upon the stage and ran across to
the other si de, exhi bi ti ng a dagger i n
hi s hand, fl ouri shi ng i t i n a tragi cal
manner, shouti ng the same words
repeated by the desperado at Mr.
Sewards house, addi ng to i t, The
South i s avenged, and then escaped
from the back entrance to the stage,
but i n hi s passage dropped hi s pi stol
and hi s hat.
Mr. Li ncol n fel l forward from hi s
seat, and Mrs. Li ncol n fai nted.
The moment the astoni shed audi -
ence coul d real i ze what happened, the
Presi dent was taken and carri ed to Mr.
Petersons house, i n Tenth street,
opposi te the theatre. Medi cal ai d was
i mmedi atel y sent for, and the wound
was at fi rst supposed to be fatal , and i t
was announced that he coul d not l i ve,
but at hal f-past twel ve he i s sti l l al i ve,
though i n a precari ous condi ti on.
1. Thi s passage i s an exampl e of whi ch
of the fol l owi ng modes of di scourse?
(A) Descri pti on
(B) Exposi ti on
(C) Narrati on
(D) Persuasi on
(E) Argument
2. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best descri bes
the tone of thi s passage?
(A) Angry
(B) Objecti ve
(C) Dramati c
(D) Sol emn
(E) Emoti onal
3. The sentence from the second
paragraph begi nni ng Men, women,
and chi l dren, ol d and young, rushed
to and fro. . . . (l i nes 1115) i s an
exampl e of whi ch of the fol l owi ng?
(A) Paral l el i sm
(B) Si mpl e sentence
(C) Run-on sentence
(D) Archai c Engl i sh
(E) Exaggerati on
96 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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4. I n the fi rst two paragraphs, the
wri ters rhetori c and syntax combi ne
to create an i mpressi on of
I . exci tement and chaos
I I . fear and tragedy
I I I . terri bl e news and uncertai nty
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I and I I I onl y
5. I n the fourth paragraph, what i s the
best meani ng of the word tragi cal
(l i ne 30)?
(A) Sorrowful
(B) Dramati c
(C) Terri bl e
(D) Threateni ng
(E) Deadl y
6. I n thi s passage, whi ch of the fol l ow-
i ng rhetori cal devi ces i s
most evi dent?
(A) Appeal i ng to authori ty
(B) Massi ng of factual i nformati on
(C) Abstract general i zati ons
(D) Emoti onal appeal
(E) Anecdotal i nformati on
7. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best summa-
ri zes the purpose of the passage?
(A) To di scuss the reason for the
ci tys exci tement
(B) To report the news of Presi dent
Li ncol ns death
(C) To cl ari fy the report of the
assassi nati on attempt on
Presi dent Li ncol n
(D) To report that Presi dent Li ncol n
i s sti l l al i ve
(E) To gi ve an account of the events
at Fords Theatre
8. Revi ewi ng the di cti on of the passage,
whi ch of the fol l owi ng best character-
i zes the wri ters styl e?
(A) I nformal di cti on
(B) Col l oqui al di cti on
(C) Sl ang di cti on
(D) Formal di cti on
(E) Pretenti ous di cti on
9. I n thi s sel ecti on, whi ch of the
fol l owi ng patterns of organi zati on i s
most i n evi dence?
(A) Devel opment by detai l s
(B) Chronol ogy
(C) Cause and effect
(D) Anal ysi s
(E) Synthesi s
10. I n the l ast sentence of the l ast
paragraph (l i nes 4449), what i s the
best meani ng for the
word precari ous?
(A) Ri sky
(B) Dangerous
(C) Vul nerabl e
(D) Uncertai n
(E) Treacherous
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 97
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ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS
1. B
2. B
3. A
4. E
5. B
6. E
7. C
8. D
9. B
10. D
1. The correct answer is (B). The passage expl ai ns what happened at Li ncol ns
assassi nati on. A cl ue i s offered i n the i ntroducti on, where the sel ecti on i s i denti fi ed as a
newspaper arti cl e. News arti cl es al most al ways are exposi tory, answeri ng who, what,
where, when, why, and how. There i s no effort to persuade i n the sel ecti on, so choi ces
(D) and (E) can be el i mi nated. Whi l e there are some descri pti ve el ements, the purpose
i s to i nform, thus excl udi ng choi ce (A). You mi ght have thought twi ce about choi ce (C),
but the factual nature of the pi ece el i mi nates narrati on, the tel l i ng of a story.
2. Thecorrect answer is (B). To answer thi s questi on correctl y, you need to i denti fy the
feel i ng that the arti cl e gi ves you, not the feel i ng of the event reported. That peopl e were
angry and emoti onal i s true, but the tone i s nei ther angry, choi ce (A), nor emoti onal ,
choi ce (E). The event i s very dramati c, choi ce (C), yet the wri ter presents the si tuati on
i n an i nformati ve and i mpersonal manner, maki ng choi ce (C) i ncorrect. Consequent
events were sol emn, not thi s arti cl e, choi ce (D). That l eaves choi ce (B) as the
correct answer.
3. The correct answer is (A). You probabl y recogni zed several exampl es of paral l el
constructi on i n the sentence. I f not, you coul d di scover the answer by the process of
el i mi nati on. The sentence i s a grammati cal l y correct compound-compl ex sentence, so
choi ces (B) and (C) are i ncorrect. Thi s sentence i s certai nl y not archai c Engl i sh. To be
so, i t woul d read l i ke Beowulf or TheCanterburyTales, maki ng choi ce (D) i nval i d. There
i s no exaggerati on i n thi s factual reporti ng of a very di stressi ng event. Thus, choi ce (E)
i s i ncorrect.
4. Thecorrect answer is (E). The questi on i s about rhetori c and i ts effect i n creati ng an
i mpressi on i n the fi rst two paragraphs. Dont be carri ed away by what you know about
the hi stori cal event. Al though the assassi nati on of Li ncol n was i ndeed a tragedy and
undoubtedl y generated fear (poi nt I I ), that i s not the sense that was rel ated i n the fi rst
two paragraphs. They tal k about exci tement and rumors and peopl e rushi ng to and fro.
These facts rel ate to poi nts I and I I I . The onl y answer choi ce that i ncl udes both poi nts
i s choi ce (E).
5. Thecorrect answer is(B). Di d you noti ce that several of these answers made sense i n
the sentence, but onl y one made sense i n the context of the arti cl e? Thi s i s why i n order
to choose the correct answer, you need to read a few l i nes above and bel ow the l i ne that
i s i denti fi ed. The assassi n waved a dagger after he shot Li ncol n. The gesture was
dramati c, choi ce (B), more than terri bl e, choi ce (C), and not very threateni ng, choi ce
(D), or deadl y, choi ce (E). Choi ce (A), sorrowful , i s i l l ogi cal .
6. The correct answer is (E). Thi s questi on may seem di ffi cul t, but you can el i mi nate
the i ncorrect answers through l ogi cal thi nki ng. Does the arti cl e appeal to authori ty? No,
authori ti es are not ci ted, l et al one addressed. Therefore, choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. I s there
a mass of i nformati on? Yes, the arti cl e presents i nformati on, but i t i s not an
overwhel mi ng amount, so choi ce (B) i s i nval i d. The arti cl e i s a factual report, contai ni ng
nei ther abstracti ons nor appeal s to emoti on, so choi ces (C) and (D) are i ncorrect.
98 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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7. The correct answer is (C). You may have found thi s mai n-i dea questi on fai rl y easy.
Al l responses except choi ce (B) are truthful . However, choi ces (A), (D), and (E) are
support for the purpose of the arti cl eto gi ve the facts about the assassi nati on attempt
on the presi dent.
8. The correct answer is (D). Several of the answers, choi ces (A), (B), and (C), are
redundant, so you can concl ude that these are i ncorrect. The arti cl e i s not affected or
ostentati ous, whi ch el i mi nates choi ce (E).
9. The correct answer is (B). Choi ces (C), (D), and (E) are easi l y rul ed out because
al though they may be i n evi dence i n parts of the arti cl ecause and effect i n the
descri pti on of why rumors were fl yi ngnone of them predomi nates i n the arti cl e. The
sel ecti on offers detai l s, but i n terms of the pattern of organi zati on, choi ce (B),
chronol ogy, i s the most i mportant feature.
10. Thecorrect answer is (D). For vocabul ary questi ons, substi tute i n the sentence each
of the possi bl e choi ces to see whi ch i s cl osest i n meani ng. Usi ng thi s process, choi ces (A),
(B), and (E) dont qui te fi t the context. Choi ce (C) i s tempti ng, but the actual defi ni ti on
of the word precari ous i s uncertai n, i nsecure.
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 99
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EXERCISE 5
Directions: Thi s secti on consi sts of sel ecti ons of l i terature and questi ons on thei r
content, styl e, and form. After you have read each passage, choose the best response to
each questi on.
QUESTIONS 110. READ THE PASSAGE
CAREFULLY, AND THEN CHOOSE THE
ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
From Extinc t Anim a ls written by L. H. Heller
in 1908
Line Many ani mal s whi ch i nhabi ted the
earth i n bygone peri ods have enti rel y
di sappeared, l eavi ng not even a
modern representati ve of thei r race.
Others, no doubt, were known to
pre-hi stori c peopl es, concerni ng whi ch
no record has come down to us. But
wi thi n the peri od of recorded observa-
ti on, many ani mal s have l i ved and di ed
out; vari ous causes contri buti ng to
thei r extermi nati on, not l east among
these bei ng i n the presence of man-
ki nd. Man reconstructs the face of the
earth to sui t hi s needs; he cuts down
forests, pl ows or burns over prai ri e
l ands, changes the course of ri vers,
drai ns the swamps, and thus destroys
the natural envi ronment of many of
natures wi l d chi l dren. Then, too, he
destroys creatures di rectl y; he ki l l s
them for food, for cl othi ng, or for other
uti l i tari an purposes; he hunts them
because he fears them, as dangerous
foes to hi msel f, or to hi s agri cul tural
pursui ts; he destroys them for sport;
and fi nal l y he draws them from feral
condi ti ons by domesti cati on. Not onl y
thus does man di rectl y i njure by
extermi nati ng i nfl uences, but hi s
comi ng accompani ed by extermi nati ng
i nfl uences, ki l l s out certai n other
creatures. These, when man has
destroyed thei r natural prey, practi -
cal l y di e of starvati on before they can
adapt themsel ves to changed condi -
ti ons. Then the domesti c dogs, cats,
etc. hel p on the work of sl aughter i n
certai n ways, by preyi ng upon wi l d l i fe.
1. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best charac-
teri zes the tone of thi s passage?
(A) Reproachful
(B) Seri ous
(C) Schol arl y
(D) I mpassi oned
(E) Objecti ve
2. What i s the functi on of the fi rst
sentence of the passage?
I . To state the mai n topi c of
the sel ecti on
I I . To state the authors opi ni on
I I I . To arouse i nterest i n the thesi s
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I and I I I onl y
3. The mode of di scourse for thi s
passage may best be characteri zed as
(A) descri pti ve
(B) narrati ve
(C) exposi tory
(D) argumentati ve
(E) persuasi ve
4. The best meani ng for the word feral
(l i ne 26) i s
(A) pri mi ti ve
(B) untamed
(C) deadl y
(D) fi erce
(E) tri cky
100 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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5. The fi rst sentence of the passage
(l i nes 14) contai ns al l of the fol l ow-
i ng EXCEPT a(n)
(A) coordi nati ng conjuncti on
(B) negati ve adverb
(C) preposi ti onal phrase
(D) parti ci pi al phrase
(E) i ntransi ti ve verb
6. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best descri bes
the theme of the passage?
(A) Humanki nd as a destructi ve
force i n nature
(B) The exti ncti on of wi l d ani mal s
(C) Human bei ngs effect on
wi l d ani mal s
(D) Humanki nds responsi bi l i ty for
exti ncti on of wi l d ani mal s
(E) Humanki nds rol e i n hal ti ng the
exti ncti on of wi l d ani mal s
7. I n thi s passage, whi ch of the fol l ow-
i ng rhetori cal devi ces i s
most evi dent?
(A) Stereotypi ng
(B) Emoti onal appeal
(C) Statement of facts
(D) Causal rel ati on
(E) Si mi l e
8. I n the fi nal sentence of the passage,
whi ch phrase(s) i ntensi fi es the mood
of the sel ecti on?
I . Domesti c dogs, cats, etc.
I I . The work of sl aughter
I I I . Preyi ng upon wi l d l i fe
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I I and I I I onl y
9. I n the sentence begi nni ng Not onl y
thus does man . . . (l i nes 2732), to
what does thus refer?
(A) The di rect and i ndi rect acti ons
of humans
(B) Humanki nds hunti ng
of ani mal s
(C) The previ ous sentence
(D) Humanki nds fear of
some ani mal s
(E) Humanki nds al terati on of
the envi ronment
10. I n the cl ause [man] destroys the
natural envi ronment of many of
natures wi l d chi l dren (l i nes 1719),
wi l d chi l dren i s an exampl e of
whi ch of the fol l owi ng?
(A) Si mi l e
(B) Metaphor
(C) Personi fi cati on
(D) Anal ogy
(E) Fi gurati ve l anguage
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 101
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ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS
1. C
2. D
3. D
4. B
5. A
6. D
7. D
8. E
9. C
10. C
1. The correct answer is (C). The key to thi s questi on i s to si ft through the choi ces to
sel ect the one that i s best. Choi ce (E) i s easi l y el i mi nated because the author exami nes
onl y one si de of the i ssue, peopl es negati ve effect on the envi ronment. Choi ces (A), (B),
and (D) are somewhat true, but choi ce (C) best characteri zes the authors atti tude and,
therefore, most accuratel y refl ects the tone of the passage.
2. The correct answer is (D). Eval uate the Roman numeral poi nts fi rst to see whi ch
one(s) may be true i n rel ati on to the questi on. Does the sentence state the mai n topi c of
the passage? Yes. Does i t state the authors opi ni on? Yes. Does i t arouse i nterest i n the
thesi s? Not real l y. The rhetori c and styl e of thi s sentence i s not exci ti ng; i t does not
provi de a hook to enti ce readers to read on. Thi s means that you can el i mi nate any
response wi th poi nt I I I i n i t, choi ces (C) and (E). The sentence functi ons to state both
the mai n topi c and the authors vi ew; therefore, choi ce (D), whi ch i ncl udes both I and I I ,
i s the correct answer.
3. The correct answer is (D). Thi s i s a questi on about the mode of di scourse of thi s
sel ecti on. Usi ng the process of el i mi nati on, choi ce (A) i s wrong because the wri ter i s not
si mpl y descri bi ng somethi ng. Choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect because the author i s not tel l i ng a
story. You can el i mi nate choi ce (C) because the author i s not si mpl y tel l i ng or expl ai ni ng
somethi ng. Choi ce (E) may be tempti ng because the author does i ndeed want you to
thi nk as he does, but choi ce (D) i s the best response because the authors pri mary
purpose i s to gi ve the reader i nformati on from whi ch to draw certai n concl usi ons.
4. The correct answer is (B). Thi s i s a vocabul ary questi on. Use the context of the
sentence to hel p you make your choi ce. Reread the sentence i n whi ch the word appears,
and then substi tute each of the possi bl e choi ces to see whi ch i s cl osest i n meani ng. I n
context, Choi ces (C), (D), and (E) are easi l y el i mi nated because they do not make sense
i n the context of the sentence. Choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect because pri mi ti ve can be appl i ed
to an ani mal or i ts condi ti on onl y i f the connotati on i s prehi stori c. Choi ce (B) i s the
correct answer, gi ven the context and the fact that i t modi fi es conditions.
5. The correct answer is (A). Thi s questi on tests your knowl edge of Engl i sh grammar.
Si ft through each of the grammati cal appl i cati ons i n the sentence unti l you i denti fy al l
that are present. There i s a negati ve adverb, choi ce (B), not even. There i s a
preposi ti onal phrase, choi ce (C), of thei r race. There i s a parti ci pi al phrase, choi ce (D),
l eavi ng not even. There i s an i ntransi ti ve verb, choi ce (E), have di sappeared. What
remai ns? Choi ce (A). There i s no coordi nati ng conjuncti on.
6. The correct answer is (D). Thi s ki nd of questi on asks that you sel ect the choi ce that
best tel l s what the passage i s about. Choi ce (E) i s el i mi nated because the i dea, al though
i mpl i ed, i s not actual l y stated i n the passage. Choi ces (A), (B), and (C) are touched on i n
the passage, but choi ce (D) i s the strongest message to the reader.
102 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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7. Thecorrect answer is (D). The wri ter makes a number of statements as i f they were
factual , but they may actual l y be opi ni ons, so choi ce (C) can be el i mi nated. I n a si mi l e,
a wri ter says something is like something else; there i s no evi dence of that fi gure of
speech i n thi s pi ece, so choi ce (E) can al so be el i mi nated. Dependi ng on whether or not
you agree wi th the author, you may see stereotypi ng i n the passage, but that was not
the authors i ntent, so cross off choi ce (A). The author i s bui l di ng hi s case on a seri es of
reasons, so choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect. That l eaves causal rel ati on, choi ce (D). Even though
al l the causes contri buti ng to exti ncti on may not be menti oned, the devi ce i s sti l l
causal rel ati on.
8. Thecorrect answer is (E). Poi nt I , part of choi ces (A) and (D), contai ns no words that
woul d i ntensi fy the mood. The words slaughter and preying i n poi nts I I and I I I have
emoti onal connotati ons that woul d i ntensi fy the mood of the sentence and assi st the
author i n achi evi ng hi s purpose. Onl y choi ce (E) has both poi nts and i s, therefore, the
correct answer.
9. Thecorrect answer is(C). The antecedent of thus refers to the previ ous sentence and
al l the acti ons of humanki nd descri bed i n i t, choi ce (C). Choi ces (B) and (E) are too
narrow. The remai ni ng choi ces do not make sense i n context.
10. The correct answer is (C). Thi s i s a l anguage questi on that tests your knowl edge of
fi gures of speech. You can el i mi nate choi ces (A), (B), and (D) i mmedi atel y because each
refers to some ki nd of compari son, and there i s no compari son i n the cl ause. Fi gurati ve
l anguage, choi ce (E), a ki nd of vi vi d i magery, i s general l y true but not appropri ate. Thi s
i s a speci fi c exampl e of personi fi cati on, the gi vi ng of human qual i ti es to nonhumans,
e.g., wi l d ani mal s.
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Chapter 3: About the Multiple-Choice Questions 103
www.petersons.com
SUMMING IT UP
The questi ons i n Secti on I ask you about passages from a vari ety of sources, rhetori cal
modes, hi stori cal eras, and l i terary peri ods and di sci pl i nes.
Most of the questi ons assess how careful l y you read, how wel l you i nterpret what you
read, and how wel l you anal yze l i terature. Some questi ons wi l l ask you about grammar,
mechani cs, structure, organi zati on, devel opment, or footnotes.
You wi l l have approxi matel y one mi nute to answer each mul ti pl e-choi ce questi on.
You recei ve one poi nt for each correct answer you gi ve. You recei ve no poi nts for each
questi on you l eave bl ank. I f you answer i ncorrectl y, one-quarter poi nt i s subtracted. Thi s
i s the guessi ng penal ty. Secti on I accounts for 45 percent of your fi nal composi te score.
Scan the passages to deci de the order i n whi ch you want to answer them. You do not have
to answer the sel ecti ons i n the order presented. Then ski m for an overal l i mpressi on of
the sel ecti on. Fi nal l y, read the sel ecti on careful l y.
You may fi nd a mul ti pl e-choi ce questi on that asks you to determi ne the purpose of a
footnote. These are fai rl y strai ghtforward comprehensi on questi ons. A cl ose readi ng of the
footnote agai nst the answer choi ces wi l l hel p you determi ne the correct answer.
104 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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www.petersons.com
About the Free
Response and
Synthesis Essays
OVERVIEW
Basic information about section II
Types of essays on the test
Strategies for acing the essays
The essay: a quick review
A final word of advice on writing your essays
Analyzing literature
Practicing
Self-evaluation rubric for the free response essays
Self-evaluation rubric for the synthesis essays
Summing it up
Secti on I I of the Advanced Pl acement test for Engl i sh Language &
Composi ti on contai ns three essays aski ng you to anal yze l i terary styl e,
di scuss rhetori cal usage, and defend a posi ti on. There are several thi ngs to
remember about the test. Fi rst, usual l y when you work on an essay, you have
adequate ti me to brai nstorm, prewri te, revi se, and edi t. On the AP test, your
ti me i s l i mi ted. Second, most of the essays you have wri tten i n Engl i sh cl ass
i nvol ve l i terature you and your cl assmates have studi ed. On thi s test, you
most l i kel y have not seen the sel ecti ons previ ousl y. Fi nal l y, you know your
Engl i sh teacher. You know what he or she thi nks i s i mportant. You recogni ze
your teachers preferences i n organi zati on, mechani cs, and sentence structure.
You do not know the i ndi vi dual s who wi l l score your AP essays, so you cannot
wri te to the audi ence. I f you are wonderi ng how you are goi ng to be successful ,
we can hel p.
Thi s chapter l ays out some basi c i nformati on about the essay porti on of the
test and about good wri ti ng i n general . I n addi ti on, thi s chapter wi l l hel p you
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105
to understand what the essay questi ons ask and how to answer each speci fi c type of questi on.
Now i s the ti me to pl an and practi ce, so you wi l l have the sel f-confi dence to excel , not pani c.
You wi l l expl ore the di fferent types of essays on the AP test and have ampl e opportuni ti es to
practi ce wri ti ng sampl e essays. Use the rubri cs and scori ng gui des to pi npoi nt your
weaknesses and to i mprove as you wri te each subsequent essay.
Use the PracticeTests as tool s to i mprove your wri ti ng, too. The techni ques descri bed i n thi s
chapter wi l l hel p you to wri te each of your practi ce essays i n 40 mi nutes. Gi ve yoursel f the ful l
15-mi nute readi ng peri od to read, anal yze, and make notes about the sources for the synthesi s
essay. When you have fi ni shed each test, turn to the Answer Key and Explanations secti on.
Compare each essay to the l i st of suggested poi nts that you mi ght have devel oped i n that
essay. Score your essay agai nst the Self-Evaluation Rubrics. Ask a rel i abl e fri end, an AP
cl assmate, or a teacher to eval uate your essay hol i sti cal l y. Where are you weak? What can you
i mprove? Take several of the poi nts from the l i st and rework your essay wi th those poi nts,
strengtheni ng the weak areas.
Reeval uate your essay. Agai n, compare the poi nts you made wi th the ones we suggest. Di d our
suggesti ons hel p you to better understand what the questi on i s aski ng? I s your rewri tten
essay more ti ghtl y focused on the questi on and more cl earl y devel oped as a resul t of
i ncorporati ng some of our poi nts? Sti l l need work on your weak poi nts? How much di d
you i mprove?
Now, stop. Do not keep worki ng on the same essay to pol i sh i t to perfecti on. You wont have
that opportuni ty duri ng the test. The purpose of reworki ng your essay i s to hel p you pi npoi nt
what the questi on i s real l y aski ng and how you can best answer i t wi th a cl ear, coherent, and
uni fi ed essay. Keep i n mi nd what you l earned on your fi rst try and go on to the next essay.
BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT SECTION II
Secti on I I has three essay questi ons. They probabl y wi l l ask you to anal yze l i terary styl e,
di scuss rhetori cal usage, and defend a posi ti on.
One of the three essay questi ons wi l l i ncl ude several sources. I n wri ti ng your essay, you
must synthesi ze the i nformati on i n at l east three of those sources to support your
argument.
You wi l l have 2 hours to wri te the essays and 15 mi nutes to read the sources for the
synthesi s essay. The Col l ege Board suggests you al l ot approxi matel y 40 mi nutes to wri te
each essay.
Each essay i s scored from 0 to 9, wi th 9 bei ng the hi ghest.
106 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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TIP
Check the
Practice Plans for
Studying for the
AP English
Language &
Composition Test
on pp. 1520.
NOTE
You will need a
pen to write your
essays. Be safe:
take at least two.
www.petersons.com
A di fferent reader wi th knowl edge of the l i terary work that you di scuss wi l l read each of
your essays.
The essays together account for 55 percent of your fi nal composi te score.
What does al l thi s mean? I t means that you need to do some pl anni ng and practi ci ng.
I f you have 2 hours120 mi nutesto wri te al l three essays, you cannot spend 90 mi nutes on
one and 15 mi nutes api ece on the other two. When you practi ce, take 5 or so mi nutes for each
of the nonsynthesi s essays to read each questi on and sel ecti on and to pl an what you wi l l say.
Use the remai ni ng ti me35 mi nutes eachto wri te and revi se those two essays. You wi l l
have 15 mi nutes to read the sources for the synthesi s essay.
Ski m the three questi ons and then put them i n the order i n whi ch you want to answer them.
Begi n wi th the easi est, then move to the next hardest, and fi nal l y, wri te the most di ffi cul t.
Because your three essays wi l l be read by three di fferent peopl e, you dont have to worry that
one weaker essay wi l l pul l down the scores for the other two essays. I nstead, you can be
confi dent that your cl ear, coherent, uni fi edand neatl y wri ttenessays wi l l bri ghten each
graders pi l e of vague, i ncoherent, fragmented, and i l l egi bl e essays.
You are probabl y thi nki ng that our menti oni ng a neatl y wri tten paper i s a bi t fatuous. Whi l e
neatness does not count, i t does matter. Why? Neatness affects l egi bi l i ty. You cannot expect a
reader faced wi th hundreds of papers to score to take ti me to puzzl e over your handwri ti ng.
Wri te as neatl y as you can. I f your cursi ve styl e i s ti ny and cramped or l arge and i l l -defi ned,
try pri nti ng. You wi l l not have ti me for much revi si on, but i f you do revi se, do i t neatl y
and cl earl y.
TYPES OF ESSAYS ON THE TEST
There are two types of essays on the AP Engl i sh Language & Composi ti on Test: free response
and synthesi s. Typi cal l y, the synthesi s essay wi l l ask you to take a posi ti on and support i t by
synthesi zi ng i nformati on from several sources. The purpose i s to convi nce the reader of your
posi ti on on an i ssue. The free response essays are typi cal l y exposi tory or persuasi ve. The
purpose of exposi tory essays i s to i nform the reader of somethi ng, whereas the purpose of
persuasi ve wri ti ng i s to i nfl uence the readers opi ni on and to l ead your reader to act i n a
certai n way. Knowi ng the el ements of each mode of wri ti ng ensures that you can work
effecti vel y i n that manner.
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 107
www.petersons.com
Expository Essays
I f the essay prompt asks you to present i nformati on, to expl ai n styl e, to defi ne a concept or
i dea, or to anal yze rhetori c, you are bei ng asked to wri te an exposi tory essay. Exposi tory
essays are usual l y objecti ve and strai ghtforward. The di sti ngui shi ng characteri sti cs of
exposi ti on are an expl anatory purpose and an i nformati ve tone, because exposi tory essays are
i ntended to communi cate factual materi al .
An exposi tory essay shoul d fol l ow the standard three-part essay structure. However, the
essays thesi s statement shoul d be cl earl y expl anatory, presenti ng a factual statement that
the body of the essay el aborates upon, cl ari fi es, and expl ai ns.
The supporti ng i nformati on furthers the expl anatory purpose by provi di ng suffi ci ent
exampl es and detai l s to gi ve your reader an understandi ng of your mai n poi nt. Such
i nformati on shoul d be veri fi abl e, so avoi d controversi al statements. Your support shoul d be
organi zed l ogi cal l y i n subtopi cs that devel op i mportant el ements of your mai n poi nt. These
gui del i nes wi l l hel p you pl an, wri te, and revi se an exposi tory essay.
As you wri te your exposi tory essay, focus on expl ai ni ng your topi c to the audi ence. Move
l ogi cal l y through the steps of the process or through the supporti ng detai l s for a concept by
provi di ng al l the i nformati on a reader needs to understand what you are presenti ng. Be sure
to use transi ti ons to assi st your audi ence i n fol l owi ng your expl anati on. I f ti me remai ns,
revi se your essay, checki ng for uni ty and coherence. Revi ew your word choi ces to ensure an
objecti ve, i nformati ve tone.
Argument and Persuasion
An essay that asks you to defend, chal l enge, or qual i fy a cl ai m i s argumentati on. The formal
defi ni ti on of argument i s wri ti ng that attempts to convi nce the reader of the truth or fal si ty
of a gi ven proposi ti on or thesi s. I n wri ti ng an argument, you set out a thesi s, or opi ni on, of
your own and proceed to defend i t.
Guidelines for Exposition
1. Li mi t your mai n poi nt, so i t can be devel oped i n the 40-mi nute ti me peri od.
2. Be sure that your mai n poi nt l ends i tsel f to a factual treatment.
3. Brai nstorm supporti ng i nformati on that you wi l l need i n order to expl ai n your mai n
i dea thoroughl y to your reader.
4. Devel op a thesi s statement and break i t down i nto several subtopi cs.
5. Organi ze the subtopi cs and thei r supporti ng i nformati on for cl ari ty.
6. Concentrate on expl ai ni ng as you wri te.
108 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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NOTE
Review literary
and rhetorical
terms in
Appendix B.
www.petersons.com
I f you are asked to wri te an essay that anal yzes whi ch i s the more persuasi ve argument
between two posi ti ons or to consi der opposi ng posi ti ons on an i ssue and devel op a sol uti on,
you are bei ng asked to wri te a persuasi ve essay. The purpose i s to i nfl uence the reader to take
an acti on that agrees wi th your thesi s. Thi s i s one step past argument. You are attempti ng to
persuade the reader to adopt your poi nt of vi ew and then to do somethi ng about i t. Argument
stops at the attempt to change the readers mi nd about an i ssue.
Both modes of wri ti ng are often subjecti ve. However, you must i ncl ude i n both types l ogi cal
reasoni ng and convi nci ng factual i nformati on i n order to defend your opi ni on effecti vel y. Both
modes of wri ti ng di ffer from other ki nds of essays i n tone and i n the requi rement that they
i ncl ude supporti ng evi dence. However, both modes of wri ti ng are si mi l ar to exposi tory essays
i n that they use the same three-part essay formati ntroducti on, body, concl usi on. The thesi s
statement shoul d present your posi ti on i n a reasonabl e tone. You may not be abl e to convi nce
every reader of the val i di ty of your opi ni on, but your essay shoul d demonstrate that you
thought careful l y, cri ti cal l y, and l ogi cal l y about the i ssue.
I n wri ti ng both persuasi ve and argument essays, you must i ncl ude supporti ng materi al that
provi des convi nci ng evi dence for your thesi s statement. Support must consi st of l ogi cal
reasons or exampl es, facts, and detai l s. Your supporti ng i nformati on shoul d never be based on
unsubstanti ated opi ni ons. Your evi dence shoul d be sol i d, authori tati ve, rati onal , and
bel i evabl e, appeal i ng even to those readers who di sagree wi th you. You want to show your
readers that you are wel l i nformed and have thought about opposi ng arguments.
For the free-response persuasi ve essays on the AP Engl i sh Language and Composi ti on Test,
you wi l l have to rel y on your own experi ence and readi ng and whatever i nformati on you may
fi nd i n the rel ati vel y bri ef sel ecti on. Or the free response essay prompt may be onl y a
quotati on that you must support from your own experi ence and readi ng.
The synthesi s questi on wi l l provi de a number of sources that you are to draw upon to fi nd
support for your posi ti on. Al l of your support must defend your posi ti on. I n addi ti on to the
sources, you may i ncl ude i deas from your own experi ence and readi ng. However, al l the
i nformati on that you use from the sources al ong wi th your own i deas must be synthesi zed to
create a coherent, uni fi ed essay. The stronger the l i nk between your argument and your
sources, the hi gher your score wi l l be on the exam. Al so, remember that i n usi ng i nformati on
from a source, you must ci te the sourcewhether you quote di rectl y from i t or just restate
i deas or i nformati on from i t i n your own words.
Your tone shoul d be persuasi ve but reasonabl e, forceful but respectful of opposi ng vi ewpoi nts.
I n wri ti ng ei ther a persuasi ve or argument paper for cl ass, you woul d adjust your tone to your
audi ence and take i nto consi derati on whether your audi ence mi ght be sympatheti c, apatheti c,
or strongl y opposed to your posi ti on. You mi ght choose a humorous, l i ghthearted approach or
a seri ous, academi c tone. Dependi ng on the topi c, the l atter i s probabl y the better tone for
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TIP
Vary your
sentence
structure by:
Beginning with
a prepositional
phrase
Using adverbs
and adverbial
phrases
Starting with
dependent
clauses
Using various
conjunctions
not only, either,
yet, so
Including
infinitives and
participles
Beginning with
adjectives and
adjective
phrases
Employing
inversions
Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 109
www.petersons.com
both the persuasi ve and argument essays. Be sure to mai ntai n whatever tone you choose
throughout the essay.
When you advocate a hi ghl y controversi al opi ni on, an effecti ve method for devel opi ng
supporti ng i nformati on i s to l i st the pri nci pal arguments for your posi ti on and then marshal
the strongest arguments agai nst your vi ewpoi nt. After each opposi ng argument, present
counterarguments for your si de.
The fol l owi ng el even gui del i nes wi l l hel p you wi th wri ti ng both argument and persuasi on
essays:
Use your knowl edge and bel i efs to choose an opi ni on/topi c that you can support.
Deci de how persuasi ve you must be to make your poi ntsthe i ntensi ty of your
purpose and tone.
Determi ne your readers probabl e response to your posi ti on.
Brai nstorm for speci fi c exampl es, facts, detai l s, reasons, and events that support
your thesi s statement.
I f your opi ni on i s controversi al , consi der the opposi ng arguments and l i st evi dence
for and agai nst your posi ti on.
State your opi ni on i n a thesi s statement that i s di rect, si gni fi cant, and supportabl e.
Organi ze your support i n order of i mportance.
Consi der concedi ng one or two poi nts to the other si de i f your mai n poi nt i s hi ghl y
controversi al .
Use concrete, speci fi c words. Be sure your l anguage i s reasonabl e but compel l i ng.
Dont be emoti onal
. Empl oy smooth, l ogi cal transi ti ons.
Revi se your paper by exami ni ng your word choi ces to ensure a bal anced, forceful ,
and consi stent tone.
A WORD ABOUT THE SYNTHESIS ESSAY
The fol l owi ng ti ps wi l l hel p you speci fi cal l y wi th pl anni ng and wri ti ng the synthesi s essay:
Use at l east the mi ni mum number of sources to support your argument. You do not
want to l ower the score of a wel l -wri tten essay because you fai l ed to fol l ow
i nstructi ons.
I ncorporate the sources i n your argument, but be careful to ensure that your
argument i s the focus of the essay, not the sources. Your arguments and sources
shoul d support your thesi s, not the other way around.
110 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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TIP
Use transitions
to create a
roadmap for
your argument.
www.petersons.com
Do not si mpl y summari ze or restate the i nformati on provi ded i n the sources.
Show an understandi ng of the sources and successful l y devel op your posi ti on.
A WORD ABOUT LOGIC
When you wri te persuasi vel y or argumentati vel y, you must thi nk cri ti cal l y. Fi rst, you must
anal yze and eval uate the i nformati on so you can deci de i f i t i s rel i abl e. Second, you must
di sti ngui sh between val i d and i nval i d forms of reasoni ng to determi ne i f a posi ti on hol ds up
under scruti ny.
To determi ne i f materi al i s rel i abl e, you must di sti ngui sh fact from opi ni on. A fact, of course,
i s a statement that can be veri fi ed by objecti ve means. An opi ni on i s subjecti ve and shoul d be
supported by rel evant facts before i t i s consi dered val i d. An opi ni on may express personal
feel i ngs about an i dea or condi ti on, or i t may refl ect a judgment or predi cti on based on facts.
No matter whi ch, an opi ni on i s not val i d i f the facts supporti ng i t are i nsuffi ci ent.
After you have veri fi ed facts and determi ned that the opi ni ons are val i d, you must anal yze
how the i nformati on i s presented. To draw val i d concl usi ons, you must thi nk l ogi cal l y and
reasonabl y about the materi al . There are two types of formal reasoni ng: i nducti ve and
deducti ve. Each produces val i d concl usi ons when used properl y, but each can l ead to i nval i d
concl usi ons when used i ncorrectl y.
I nducti ve reasoni ng moves from speci fi c facts to a concl usi on, or a general i zati on, based on
those facts. A val i d general i zati on i s supported by evi dence and hol ds true i n a majori ty of
ci rcumstances. I f the reasoni ng i s i l l ogi cal , the resul t i s a l ogi cal fal l acy. Errors i n l ogi c can
take the form of the fol l owi ng:
A hasty general i zati on or statement that i s made about a l arge number of cases or a
whol e group on the basi s of a few exampl es, wi thout taki ng i nto account qual i fyi ng
factors.
Example: Teenage dri vers have poor ski l l s; therefore, they cause most of the
automobi l e acci dents.
A non sequi tur i s an i dea or concl usi on that does not fol l ow l ogi cal l y from the
precedi ng i dea.
Example: Vl adi mi r woul d be a great hi story teacher because he was born i n
Europe and has travel ed extensi vel y on three conti nents.
Deducti ve reasoni ng moves from the general i ty that i s assumed to be true to speci fi c cases.
Logi cal fal l aci es occur when deducti on i s used i ncorrectl y.
Beggi ng the questi on occurs when a general statement i s restated wi thout
supporti ng evi dence or facts, assumi ng as true somethi ng that needs to be proved or
expl ai ned.
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NOTE
Applying logic
can help you with
the multiple-
choice section as
well as the essay
questions.
Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 111
www.petersons.com
Example: The l awyer sai d he i s qual i fi ed to try the case because he has tri ed
other cases.
I n addi ti on to i nducti ve and deducti ve reasoni ng, two other forms of reasoni ng can be used to
reach val i d concl usi ons: cause and effect and anal ogy. A cause-and-effect sequence i s one i n
whi ch somethi ng i s affected by one or more events that occurred before i t.
A fal se cause resul ts when one thi ng precedi ng another i s assumed to have caused a
second event.
Example: I f I sl eep 8 hours toni ght, I can run 5 fi ve mi l es i n the morni ng.
An anal ogy i s a compari son between two thi ngs that are si mi l ar i n some ways but are
essenti al l y di ssi mi l ar.
A fal se anal ogy i s one that overl ooks essenti al di ssi mi l ari ti es between two thi ngs
bei ng compared.
Example: Debbi e i s l i ke her si ster because they both have freckl es.
When you appl y l ogi c to an anal ysi s or to your own wri ti ng, use these questi ons to exami ne an
authors l ogi c.
Questions for Valid Reasoning
Generalizations
1. What facts are bei ng presented as evi dence to support the general statement?
2. Are there any excepti ons to the statement?
3. Are enough cases or exampl es presented to l ead you to a sol i d concl usi on, or does the
materi al l ead you to jump to hasty general i zati ons?
Cause and Effect
1. What evi dence i s there that the fi rst event or si tuati on coul d have caused the second,
or does the cause-and-effect sequence reveal a non sequi tur?
2. What other events mi ght have caused the second event?
3. Coul d the second event have occurred wi thout the fi rst?
Analogies
1. How are the two thi ngs compared essenti al l y di fferent?
2. How are the thi ngs si mi l ar? I s the compari son l ogi cal or does i t l ead to a fal se
anal ogy?
3. What i s the truth that the compari son tri es to show?
NOTE: These questi ons are general . You wi l l need to adapt them to the type of prose you
are readi ng. Some questi ons may be more appropri ate for fi cti on, whi l e others work better
wi th nonfi cti on. By usi ng them throughout thi s chapter, you wi l l know automati cal l y whi ch
ones are appropri ate to use wi th a gi ven prose passage.
112 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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www.petersons.com
STRATEGIES FOR ACING THE ESSAYS
Anal yzi ng and eval uati ng l i terature requi res ski l l and thoughtful ness. I t i s i mportant to read
the materi al careful l y. You al so must make the effort to understand the wri ters and be
sensi ti ve to thei r meani ng. Wri ti ng good essays about l anguage and l i terature requi res the
real i zati on that your reader and eval uator can onl y recei ve what you pl ace on your paper, not
your unstated i deas. I f your thesi s i s cl ear i n your mi nd, you can state i t cl earl y on paper. I f
you ful l y support that thesi s wi th i nteresti ng, apt, and l ogi cal i nformati on that i s
wel l -organi zed, ful l y devel oped, coherent, and uni fi ed, your reader has a far better chance of
understandi ng your message. I f you al so i ncl ude good word choi ce and tone, you wi l l ace the
essay questi ons.
Thi s secti on sets out two customi zed pl ans of attack for wri ti ng the two types of essays. You
wi l l not that many of the strategi es are the same.
Plan of Attack for the Free Response Essays
STEP 1: READ THE MATERIAL
The mi stake that students often make i s wri ti ng an essay about somethi ng other than the
questi on they are asked to answer. I t may be a fabul ous 9 essay i n al l other ways, but i f i t
does not answer the questi on, i t wi l l earn you a l ow score.
Fi rst, i denti fy the type of essay questi on you are bei ng asked to answer. I s i t aski ng you for
i nterpretati on, anal ysi s, and/or eval uati on of the sel ecti on?
Underl i ne the i mportant poi nts or key words i n the questi on. Are you bei ng asked to expl ai n
how the wri ters use of a moti f affects the mood? Underl i ne explain, motif, and mood. You now
know that one of the thi ngs you wi l l need to l ook for as you read i s a moti f.
Restate the questi on to yoursel fparaphrase i tto be sure you understand what you are
bei ng asked to do.
Once you know what you wi l l need to wri te about, you are ready to read the sel ecti on, and you
wi l l need to read i t several ti mes. Remember, you have about 5 mi nutes to read and pl an, but
the sel ecti ons are short. Fol l ow these steps to get the most out of each readi ng:
Regardl ess of what the questi on i s aski ng, you need to determi ne the theme or
meani ng of the pi ece fi rst. I n order to tal k about el ements of the sel ecti on, you need
to know what the pi ece i s about.
The fi rst ti me you read, ski m the passage.
The second ti me, read careful l y.
Be aware of l anguage and di cti on, person, tone, the wri ters i ntenti ons and purpose,
the sel ecti ons i mpact, and speci al techni ques.
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NOTE
Remember to use
present tense
when you
analyze writing.
NOTE
Write the essay
that you feel most
confident about
first. Save the
most difficult
for last.
NOTE
You will be given
paper for your
essay, and you
will be able to
use your test
booklet for
scratch paper.
Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 113
www.petersons.com
As you read, underl i ne words and sentences that seem si gni fi cant and that you
mi ght want to quote i n your essay. Jot down notes. However, do not spend a l ot of
ti me doi ng thi s.
STEP 2: PLAN AND WRITE YOUR ESSAY
After you have compl eted your readi ng, take a few mi nutes to pl an what you wi l l wri te.
Brai nstorm or l i st i deas and thoughts, but do not outl i ne. Outl i ni ng wastes ti me. What
you want to do i s anal yze the passage. Li st how each l i terary el ement enhances the
communi cati on i n the passage. Make another l i st of exampl es and supporti ng evi dence
from the passage. Revi ew anythi ng you underl i ned i n the passage to i ncl ude i n the l i sts.
Check through your notes and l i sts and devel op your thesi s.
Organi ze your i deas and begi n wri ti ng.
Peri odi cal l y reread your i ntroductory paragraph to be sure you stay on track to prove
your thesi s. Do more than summari ze. I ncl ude your i nsi ghts, reacti ons, and emoti ons.
Be sure to i ncl ude exampl es from the sel ecti on to support your poi nts. However, dont try
to use copi ous quotati ons to fi l l up the sheets. You dont need to use compl ete sentences;
you can use el l i pses.
Wri te an effecti ve concl udi ng paragraph. Restate your thesi s and summari ze how your
essay supports i t.
The chart Anal yzi ng Li terature on pp. 122123 suggests questi ons to ask yoursel f to hel p
you anal yze l i terary el ements to fi nd the meani ng i n what you read. Use thi s chart to prepare
the practi ce essay questi ons i n thi s chapter. Try i t for the essays you have to wri te about prose
sel ecti ons i n school , too, and see how much easi er i t i s to organi ze and devel op your thoughts.
STEP 3: REVISE YOUR ESSAY
Pace yoursel f so that you have at l east 2 mi nutes to reread your essay for proofreadi ng and
revi si on. Cross out any i rrel evant i deas or words and make any addi ti onsneatl y. I f you have
been fol l owi ng your i nformal pl an to devel op your thesi s, you can use thi s ti me to make sure
your grammar and mechani cs are correct and your handwri ti ng i s l egi bl e.
Plan of Attack for the Synthesis Essays
STEP 1: READ THE MATERIAL
As i n wri ti ng the free response essays, students make the mi stake of not readi ng the questi on
careful l y and thoughtful l y.
Read the I ntroducti on careful l y. Consi der what you thi nk about the topi c.
Underl i ne the i mportant poi nts or key words i n the Assi gnment. These are the
thi ngs that you wi l l need to l ook for as you read the sources.
114 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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NOTE
Time yourself as
you plan and
write your
practice essays.
That way you will
become
comfortable with
the time limits on
the actual
AP test.
www.petersons.com
When you read the cl ai m made i n the Assi gnment, deci de i f you want to chal l enge,
defend, or qual i fy the cl ai m. Whatever you deci de, keep your deci si on i n mi nd as you
read the sources. Note that readi ng the sources may change your mi nd about how to
approach the cl ai m, so i t i s i mportant to keep an open mi nd at thi s poi nt.
Restate the questi on to yoursel fparaphrase i tto be sure that you understand
what you are bei ng asked to wri te about.
You now have sl i ghtl y fewer than 15 mi nutes to read and anal yze the sources. The
Assi gnment wi l l gi ve you a mi ni mum number of sources to ci te i n your essay. For exampl e, i f
there are si x sources, you may be asked to use a mi ni mum of three sources to support your
argument. Regardl ess of the type of essay you have to wri te, you fi rst have to determi ne the
theme or meani ng of the sel ecti on. You wi l l need to read each sel ecti on or source
several ti mes.
The fi rst ti me you read each source, ski m.
The second ti me, read careful l y.
Be aware of the theme, the wri ters purpose, the i ntended audi ence, the sources
i mpact, any rhetori cal devi ces, and any bi as or propaganda el ements i n each pi ece.
Note how the sources are i denti fi ed. As part of the prompt, you wi l l be gi ven two
ways to refer to the sourcesei ther by l etter (Source A, Source B, etc.) or by a
desi gnated name provi ded i n parentheses next to the source l etter. Choose now
whi ch i denti fyi ng system you want to use, so that you dont confuse yoursel f or your
reader. The l etter system i s faster. Begi n to use the i denti fi er as soon as you begi n to
make notes.
As you read, underl i ne words and sentences that seem si gni fi cant and that you
mi ght want to quote i n your essay. Jot down notes. However, do not spend a great
deal of ti me doi ng thi s. Remember al so that quoti ng sources i s not the same as
i nternal i zi ng the i nformati on from sources and produci ng a synthesi s of i deas.
STEP 2: PLAN AND WRITE YOUR SYNTHESIS ESSAY
After you have compl eted readi ng the sources, go back to the I ntroducti on to the questi on
and ask yoursel f i f you have changed your mi nd about what you thi nk about the topi c.
Reread the Assi gnment and make the fi nal deci si on about whether you are goi ng to
chal l enge, defend, or qual i fy the cl ai m.
Once you have deci ded, revi ew the sources and your notes and choose at least the
mi ni mum number of sources to use i n your essay.
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 115
www.petersons.com
Brai nstorm or l i st i nformati on from the sources and your own knowl edge and opi ni ons
that rel ate to the topi c and the posi ti on you are taki ng. Do not create a formal outl i ne.
Li st poi nts that you want to make and l i st i nformati on that supports those poi nts.
Usi ng your notes, formul ate a thesi s statement.
Organi ze your i deas by numberi ng them i n the order you want to use them. Begi n
wri ti ng.
Peri odi cal l y reread your i ntroducti on to be sure you stay on track to prove your thesi s.
I ncl ude your own i deas wi th the i nformati on from the sources. Do not summari ze or just
paraphrase the sources. I ntegrate the i nformati on i n the sources to create convi nci ng
support for your argument.
Wri te an effecti ve concl usi on. Restate your thesi s and summari ze your support.
STEP 3: REVISE YOUR ESSAY
Pace yoursel f so that you have at l east 2 mi nutes to reread your essay for proofreadi ng and
revi si on. Cross out any i rrel evant i deas or words and make any addi ti onsneatl y. Thi s i s the
ti me to make sure that you have gi ven attri buti on to every i dea that you have used from the
sources. The di recti ons state you are to attri bute both di rect and i ndi rect ci tati ons. Students
tend to overl ook the need to provi de ci tati ons for i deas that come from sources. Thi s i s al so the
ti me to check for errors i n grammar, usage, and mechani cs. Check your handwri ti ng for
l egi bi l i ty, too.
THE ESSAY: A QUICK REVIEW
You wi l l recal l that an essay i s a group of paragraphs that work together to present a mai n
poi nt, or thesi s. An essay contai ns an i ntroductory paragraph, separate paragraphs that
devel op the thesi s, and a concl udi ng paragraph. You can see the parts of a fi ve-paragraph
essaythe begi nni ng, cal l ed the i ntroducti on; the mi ddl e, cal l ed the body; and the endi ng,
cal l ed the concl usi ondi agrammed on the next page.
To communi cate cl earl y and preci sel y, you must determi ne who your audi ence i s, what your
purpose i s, and what the appropri ate tone i s. Your wri ti ng must be cl ear and coherent. For the
AP essays, consi der the fol l owi ng suggesti ons.
Audience
You have an audi ence of onea Col l ege Boardtrai ned reader who teaches hi gh school or
col l ege Engl i sh and who wi l l be readi ng hundreds of si mi l ar papers. She or he has knowl edge
of the l i terary work you have wri tten about and wi l l have a scori ng gui de or rubri c to eval uate
your paper. He or she wi l l score your essay hol i sti cal l y, i .e., there i s no si ngl e score for thi ngs
l i ke grammar and punctuati on. The reader wi l l consi der every aspect of wri ti ng for i ts i mpact
116 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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NOTE
An intriguing,
informative
introductory
paragraph will
make a good
impression on
your readers.
www.petersons.com
INTRODUCTION
I nteresti ng Materi al and Background I nformati on on Topi c
Thesis Statement
Theintroduction should catch thereaders attention,
establish thepurposeand tone, and
present thethesis statement
or themain idea.

Body Paragraph 1
Supporting Information
Each paragraph within thebody of theessay should develop a subtopic
of themain point by providing strong supporting information.
Body Paragraph 2
Supporting Information
Each paragraph within thebody of theessay should develop a subtopic
of themain point by providing strong supporting information.
Body Paragraph 3
Supporting Information
Each paragraph within thebody of theessay should develop a subtopic
of themain point by providing strong supporting information.

CONCLUSION
Remi nder of Thesi s Statement
Summary or Final Remarks
Theconclusion of an essay should bring theessay
to a satisfactory closeand remind thereader of themain point.
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 117
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on the overal l i mpressi on of your essay. (Our rubri c si ngl es out the vari ous descri ptors so you
can pi npoi nt your weaknesses to work on and i ncrease your overal l score.)
Purpose
Your purpose i s to get a score of 5 or better. To do that, you need to wri te a uni fi ed, coherent,
and consi stent essay that answers the questi on. A wel l -wri tten essay that mi sses the poi nt of
the questi on wi l l not get you a good score.
Tone
Your tone i s the refl ecti on of your atti tude toward the subject of the essay. A wri ters tone, for
exampl e, may be l i ghthearted, brusque, or seri ous. The safest tone to adopt i s formal and
subjecti ve, si nce you are bei ng asked your opi ni on. You do not want to be stuffy and
pretenti ous by usi ng phrases such as one understands or we can surmi se. On the other
hand, do not be too casual ei ther by wri ti ng thi ngs l i ke you know what I mean. Most
students, however, err on the si de of faux erudi ti on, usi ng bi g words and convol uted
constructi ons. When i s doubt, wri te what you mean si mpl y and di rectl y.
How do you devel op the proper tone? Through styl e. Your styl e shoul d be your own natural
styl e that you use for school essays. That means:
Usi ng proper grammar and punctuati on.
Choosi ng words that convey your meani ng i n an i nteresti ng rather than a
pedestri an or vague way: The author created a dynami c personal i ty i n Tom Jones
versus The mai n character i s i nteresti ng.
Avoi di ng the use of several words when one wi l l do: There are a number of aspects
to the character that are dynami c such as . . . versus Jones i s both a rascal and . . .
Avoi di ng hackneyed phrases and cl i chs such as The wri ter was on cl oud ni ne
versus The wri ters tone showed her enthusi asm.
Your styl e adds i nterest to the paper. I nteresti ng words and phrasi ng, as much as a uni que
poi nt of vi ew about a subject, can make a paper i nteresti ng to read.
Unity
Uni ty i s another word for cl ari ty. Al l of your essays i deas and i nformati on must bel ong
together and be essenti al to the devel opment of the thesi s. The parts of the essaythe
i ntroducti on, the body, and the concl usi onshoul d al l focus on the mai n i dea. Each paragraph
must rel ate to every other, and every paragraph must support the overal l thesi s. I n addi ti on,
each paragraph wi thi n the essay must be uni fi ed. Each paragraph must have a topi c
sentence, and every sentence i n the paragraph must rel ate to every other and add to the
devel opment of the topi c sentence. I n other words, a uni fi ed paper i s one that i s cl earl y
118 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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TIP
Whenever
possible, write in
the active voice.
Your essay will
seem stronger.
www.petersons.com
devel oped. The i ntroducti on and the concl usi on work together to create uni ty. The
i ntroducti on establ i shes the mai n poi nt. Then the concl usi on echoes the i deas or key words of
the i ntroducti on.
Perhaps the most i mportant el ement creati ng uni ty i n an essay i s the cl ari ty of the thesi s
statement. Remember that your thesi s statement contai ns the central i dea that you have
devel oped from brai nstormi ng i deas to respond to the essay prompt. As the HarbraceCollege
Handbook, that venerabl e col l ege Engl i sh manual , states: [Your thesi s statement] i s
basi cal l y a cl ai m statement, that i s, i t i ndi cates what you cl ai m to be true, i nteresti ng, or
val uabl e about your subject.
I f the thesi s statement i s focused and cl ear, i t outl i nes the scope of the essay and the
boundari es separati ng the rel evant from the i rrel evant. I n the same way, the subtopi cs must
l ogi cal l y grow out of the thesi s. When the subtopi cs represent si gni fi cant aspects of the mai n
poi nt and rel ate to each other, i n al l probabi l i ty you wi l l wri te a uni fi ed essay.
Al though you can pl ace your thesi s statement anywhere i n your essay, i t i s probabl y safest to
put i t i n the i ntroducti on, even as the fi rst sentence, so you can refer to i t as you wri te to be
sure that everythi ng you are wri ti ng devel ops and supports i t. Putti ng the thesi s fi rst al so
gets you started wri ti ng.
Coherence
I n a coherent essay, a reader can move smoothl y and l ogi cal l y from one thought to another. A
coherent essay i s one i n whi ch the i deas wi thi n each paragraph and wi thi n the essay as a
whol e are i n l ogi cal order and thei r connecti ons fl ow. Coherence depends on cl ear, rel evant
orderi ng of i deas and the i ntroducti on of transi ti onal words and phrases. Many methods exi st
for organi zi ng i deas l ogi cal l y. The fol l owi ng chart offers fi ve methods for organi zi ng
your work.
Organization of Supporting Information
Chronological order I nformati on arranged i n ti me sequence
Spatial order I nformati on arranged accordi ng to space rel ati onshi ps
Order of importance I nformati on arranged from l east i mportant to most
i mportant or vi ce versa
Compare and contrast I nformati on arranged accordi ng to si mi l ari ti es and
di fferences between two or more subjects
Developmental order I nformati on arranged so that one poi nt l eads l ogi cal l y
to another
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 119
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Transitions
I n addi ti on to bei ng l ogi cal l y organi zed, a coherent essay moves smoothl y from one thought to
the next because i ts i deas are connected by transi ti ons, repeti ti on of key words, synonyms,
and pronouns. Transi ti ons i ndi cate how one i dea rel ates to another, whi l e repeti ti on of words
ti es i deas together. The fol l owi ng are some transi ti ons that hel p establ i sh l ogi cal order.
Time Relationship
after fi nal l y l ater
before fi rst meanwhi l e
duri ng second next
earl i er thi rd then
Spatial Relationship
above beneath near
ahead beyond outsi de
before here over there
behi nd i nsi de
Comparison or Contrast
al though i ndeed nonethel ess
conversel y i n l i ke manner si mi l arl y
however i nstead whereas
i n contrast l i kewi se yet
Cause and Effect
accordi ngl y i nevi tabl y then
as a resul t on account of therefore
because of si nce thus
consequentl y
Addition
al so furthermore not onl y
as wel l i n addi ti on too
besi des moreover
Emphasis
i ndeed i n other words
i n fact most of al l most si gni fi cantl y
Examples
al so for exampl e speci fi cal l y
as an i l l ustrati on i n parti cul ar that i s
for i nstance namel y
120 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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Adequate Development
What i s an adequate devel opment? You have approxi matel y 40 mi nutes to read, pl an, and
devel op your i deasneatl y. I n addi ti on to the thesi s statement, your essay must contai n
enough speci fi c i nformati on to expl ai n your mai n i dea. Support consi sts of exampl es, detai l s,
facts, reasons, or events. The fol l owi ng chart presents fi ve types of supporti ng i nformati on
that you can use to devel op your thesi s.
Kinds of Support
Type of
Support Definition Example
Examples Parti cul ar i nstances of a general
i dea or pri nci pl e
An essay about the best movi es of the
year mi ght i ncl ude a di scussi on of three
or four fi l ms.
Details Smal l i tems or pi eces of
i nformati on that make up
somethi ng l arger
An essay about an author mi ght
descri be detai l s about hi s or her career.
Facts Speci fi c pi eces of i nformati on
that can be veri fi ed
An essay about the tone and styl e of a
sel ecti on mi ght i ncl ude quotati ons.
Reasons Expl anati ons, justi fi cati ons, or
causes, often answeri ng the ques-
ti on why? about the mai n i dea
An essay advocati ng gun control mi ght
i ncl ude an expl anati on of i neffecti ve
current l aws.
Events I nci dents or happeni ngs An essay about a travel memoi r mi ght
i ncl ude one or two amusi ng anecdotes.
A wel l -devel oped essay must contai n enough support to meet the expectati ons establ i shed by
your i ntroducti on and thesi s statement. I n addi ti on, the supporti ng i nformati on must make
the essay seem compl ete. The fi ve types of support wi l l work wi th both synthesi s and
nonsynthesi s essays.
A FINAL WORD OF ADVICE ON WRITING YOUR ESSAYS
The fol l owi ng are some suggesti ons to hel p you wri te cl ear, wel l -organi zed, wel l -reasoned,
coherent, and i nteresti ng essays. I f you keep these suggesti ons i n mi nd as you wri te your
practi ce essays, these steps wi l l come natural l y to you on the day of the test.
Begi n wri ti ng your fi rst paragraph by stati ng the thesi s cl earl y. Take a ful l 5
mi nutes to be sure that you are wri ti ng a cl earl y stated and i nteresti ng i ntroducti on.
At the end of the fi rst paragraph, read i t to be sure that your i deas are l ogi cal l y
fol l owi ng each other and supporti ng the thesi s.
Wri te a transi ti on i nto the second paragraph. Check your l i st of i deas.
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NOTE
Do not forget the
simple things such
as capitalization,
punctuation, and
spelling. See
Chapter 5 for a
quick review.
Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 121
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ANALYZING LITERATURE
IDENTIFICATION
Genre/Mode of Discourse
1. What type of prose i s i tfi cti on or nonfi cti on? Exposi ti on, persuasi on, argument,
descri pti on, narrati ve, or drama?
2. Are poi nts devel oped by defi ni ti ons, exampl es, facts, events, or quotati ons and ci ta-
ti ons?
Author
1. Who i s the author?
2. What do you know about the wri ter?
3. What do you know about the ti me peri od or l i terary peri od i n whi ch the passage
was wri tten?
Title
1. I f there i s a ti tl e, what does i t tel l you?
2. What does i t suggest about the subject or the theme (meani ng) of the passage?
Subject
1. What i s the subject of the passage?
2. What i s thi s sel ecti on about?
Theme/Thesis
1. What i s the theme, or central i dea, of the sel ecti on?
2. How i s the theme conveyed?
LITERARY ELEMENTS
Setting
1. Where and when does the sel ecti on take pl ace?
2. What detai l s does the wri ter use to create the setti ng?
3. Does the setti ng create a mood or feel i ng?
4. I s the setti ng a symbol for an i mportant i dea the wri ter wants to convey?
5. Does the setti ng pl ay a rol e i n the central confl i ct?
Point of View
1. I s the passage tol d from the fi rst-person or from the thi rd-person poi nt of vi ew?
2. I s the narrator l i mi ted or omni sci ent?
3. What effect does the poi nt of vi ew have on the way you experi ence the sel ecti on?
Central Conflict
1. I n what struggl e i s the protagoni st i nvol ved?
2. I s the central confl i ct i nternal , wi thi n the mai n characters mi nd, or external , wi th
another character, soci ety, or nature?
3. How i s the confl i ct resol ved?
Development
1. What events take pl ace i n the sel ecti on?
2. Does the pi ece have an i ntroducti on?
3. I f so, what does the reader l earn i n the i ntroducti on?
122 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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4. What i s the i nci ti ng i nci dent?
5. What happens duri ng the devel opment?
6. When does the cl i max occur?
7. What events mark the resol uti on?
8. Does the sel ecti on have a denouement?
9. Are there speci al pl ot devi ces, such as a surpri se endi ng, foreshadowi ng, or fl ash-
backs?
Characterization
1. Who i s the protagoni st or speaker?
2. Who are the other major and mi nor characters?
3. I s there confl i ct among characters?
4. How does the wri ter devel op each of the characters or the speaker?
5. Whi ch characters change and whi ch are fl at?
LANGUAGE AND STYLE
Rhetorical Elements
1. What words does the wri ter choose?
2. Are there denotati ve words, connotati ve words, abstract words, or i ncl usi ve words?
3. What i s the tone?
Organization and Structure
1. What ki nds of sentence structure are present?
2. I s there sentence vari ety?
3. Does sentence l ength vary?
4. How i s the passage organi zed?
5. What type of structure di d the wri ter use?
Literary Devices and Figures of Speech
1. Does the wri ter make use of devi ces such as euphony or al l i terati on?
2. Does the passage contai n any exampl es of fi gurati ve l anguage, such as hyperbol e,
metaphor, or si mi l e?
3. I s there symbol i sm? What i s i t?
Diction
1. I s there a speci al i zed vocabul ary?
2. Does the wri ter empl oy i rony to communi cate meani ng?
3. Are overstatement or understatement used?
4. I s the l anguage i nfl ated by schol arl y, techni cal , or sci enti fi c words or overl y l ong
phrases?
5. Does the sel ecti on contai n jargon or euphemi sms?
6. What are some of the wri ters best-worded phrases?
7. I s the word choi ce col l oqui al , i di omati c, sci enti fi c, formal , i nformal , or concrete?
NOTE: These questi ons are general . You wi l l need to adapt them to the type of prose
you are readi ng. Some questi ons are more appropri ate for fi cti on, whi l e others work bet-
ter wi th nonfi cti on. By usi ng them throughout the chapter, you wi l l become so fami l i ar
wi th the questi ons that you wi l l know automati cal l y whi ch ones to use wi th each prose
passage on the test.
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 123
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Do more than summari ze. I ncl ude your i nsi ghts, reacti ons, and emoti ons.
Keep wri ti ng unti l you have used al l the RELEVANT i deas on your l i st. I f a new
i dea comes from the fl ow of your wri ti ng, use i t i f i t fi ts.
Use transi ti ons.
Peri odi cal l y reread your i ntroductory paragraph to be sure you are stayi ng on track
to prove your thesi s. I f you must change somethi ng, cross i t out neatl y.
Do not be concerned about perfecti on. No essay can be perfect i n just 40 mi nutes.
Al l ow ti me to wri te a sol i d concl udi ng paragraph. There are several ways to
approach the concl usi on: rephrasi ng the thesi s, summari zi ng the mai n poi nts, or
referri ng i n some way back to your openi ng paragraph. Do not l eave the reader
wonderi ng, So what?
PRACTICING
The fol l owi ng questi ons and sel ecti ons are very si mi l ar to those that you wi l l fi nd on the
actual AP test. Appl y the suggesti ons and strategi es you have just read and wri te about the
excerpt from Ral ph Wal do Emersons Self-Reliance. Then check your essay by readi ng the
suggested poi nts of di scussi on that fol l ow. Eval uate yoursel f by usi ng the Self-Evaluation
Rubric for theFreeResponseEssays on p. 140.
124 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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EXERCISE 1
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
Directions: Read the fol l owi ng passage careful l y. I t was wri tten by Ral ph Wal do
Emerson, one of the most i nfl uenti al of the Transcendental i sts. Di scuss how the authors
styl e contri butes to hi s arguments espousi ng transcendental i deas. Consi der such
el ements as l i terary devi ces, tone, and rhetori c.
From Se lf- Re lia nc e
Line There i s a ti me i n every mans educa-
ti on when he arri ves at the convi cti on
that envy i s i gnorance; that i mi tati on
i s sui ci de; that he must take hi msel f
for better, for worse, as hi s porti on;
that though the wi de uni verse i s ful l of
good, no kernel of nouri shi ng corn can
come to hi m but through hi s toi l
bestowed on that pl ot of ground whi ch
i s gi ven to hi m to ti l l . The power whi ch
resi des i n hi m i s new i n nature, and
none but he knows what that i s whi ch
he can do, nor does he know unti l he
has tri ed. Not for nothi ng one face, one
character, one fact makes much
i mpressi on on hi m, and another none.
Thi s scul pture i n the memory i s not
wi thout preestabl i shed harmony. The
eye was pl aced where one ray shoul d
fal l , that i t mi ght testi fy of that
parti cul ar ray. We but hal f express
oursel ves, and are ashamed of that
di vi ne i dea whi ch each of us repre-
sents. I t may be safel y trusted as
proporti onate and of good i ssues, so i t
be fai thful l y i mparted, but God wi l l not
have hi s work made mani fest by
cowards. A man i s rel i eved and gay
when he has put hi s heart i nto hi s
work and done hi s best; but what he
has sai d or done otherwi se, shal l gi ve
hi m no peace. I t i s a del i verance whi ch
does not del i ver. I n the attempt hi s
geni us deserts hi m; no muse befri ends;
no i nventi on, no hope.
Trust thysel f: every heart vi brates to
that i ron stri ng. Accept the pl ace the
di vi ne provi dence has found for you;
the soci ety of your contemporari es, the
connecti on of events. Great men have
al ways done so and confi ded them-
sel ves chi l dl i ke to the geni us of the
age, betrayi ng thei r percepti on that the
absol utel y trustworthy was sti rri ng at
thei r heart, worki ng through thei r
hands, predomi nati ng i n al l thei r
bei ng. And we are now men, and must
accept i n the hi ghest mi nd the same
transcendent desti ny; and not mi nors
and i nval i ds i n a protected corner, but
gui des, redeemers, and benefactors,
obeyi ng the Al mi ghty effort and
advanci ng on Chaos and the Dark. . . .
Soci ety everywhere i s i n conspi racy
agai nst the manhood of every one of i ts
members. Soci ety i s a joi nt-stock
company i n whi ch the members agree
for the better securi ng of hi s bread to
each sharehol der, to surrender the
l i berty and cul ture of the eater. The
vi rtue i n most request i s conformi ty.
Sel f-rel i ance i s i ts aversi on. I t l oves not
real i ti es and creators, but names
and customs.
Whoso woul d be a man must be a
nonconformi st. He who woul d gather
i mmortal pal ms must not be hi ndered
by the name of goodness, but must
expl ore i f i t be goodness. Nothi ng i s at
l ast sacred but the i ntegri ty of our own
mi nd. Absol ve you to yoursel f, and
you shal l have the suffrage of the
worl d. . . .
A fool i sh consi stency i s the hobgob-
l i n of l i ttl e mi nds, adored by l i ttl e
statesmen and phi l osophers and
di vi nes. Wi th consi stency a great soul
has si mpl y nothi ng to do. He may as
wel l concern hi msel f wi th hi s shadow
on the wal l . Speak what you thi nk now
i n hard words and tomorrow speak
what tomorrow thi nks i n hard words
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agai n, though i t contradi ct everythi ng
you sai d today. Ah, so you shal l be
sure to be mi sunderstood?I s i t so
bad, then, to be mi sunderstood?
Pythagoras was mi sunderstood, and
Socrates, and Jesus, and Luther, and
Coperni cus, and Gal i l eo, and Newton,
and every pure and wi se spi ri t that
ever took fl esh. To be great i s to be
mi sunderstood. . . .
Ral ph Wal do Emerson
Before you turn the page and read our suggesti ons for an essay on thi s sel ecti on, score
your essay usi ng the Self-Evaluation Rubric for theFreeResponseEssays on p. 140.
126 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 1
The fol l owi ng are poi nts that you mi ght have chosen to i ncl ude i n your essay on a passage from
Self-Reliance. Consi der them as you perform your sel f-eval uati on. You wi l l noti ce that we di scuss
el ements of l i terature that are not cal l ed for i n the essay questi on. However, by i denti fyi ng the
author, nami ng the type of l i terature, and wri ti ng the ti tl e you have a pl ace to begi n and you gi ve
yoursel f an opportuni ty to i ncl ude i nformati on that shoul d i mpress your readers.
Mode of Discourse
Thi s sel ecti on i s a persuasi ve essay, a pi ece of nonfi cti on. Whi l e you were not asked about thi s
poi nt di rectl y i n the questi on, by bei ng speci fi c about what type of l i terature you read, you
appear to know l i terature.
Author
A phi l osopher, poet, orator, and wri ter, Ral ph Wal do Emerson became the most i nfl uenti al
member of the Transcendental i sts, a group of Massachusetts i ntel l ectual s of the
mi d-ni neteenth century. The Transcendental phi l osophy i s one of responsi bl e i ndi vi dual i sm.
Adherents bel i eved that al l forms of bei ng are uni ted through a shared uni versal soul . They
bel i eved that God and the human spi ri t were refl ected i n nature. By studyi ng nature,
Transcendental i sts thought they woul d come to know themsel ves and di scover uni versal
truths. The Transcendental i sts val ued i ntui ti on, i ndi vi dual i ty, and sel f-rel i ance.
Of course, you cannot fi nd thi s i n the sel ecti on, but you mi ght remember some of thi s from your
study of Ameri can l i terature. The i nformati on may hel p you understand the sel ecti on better.
Title
Thi s sel ecti on i s excerpted from Self-Reliance. The ti tl e speaks to one of Emersons core
bel i efs, the i mportance of sel f-rel i ance, whi ch, al ong wi th i ntui ti on and i ndi vi dual i ty, form the
heart of the phi l osophi cal system known as Transcendental i sm.
Subject
The subject, obvi ousl y, i s sel f-rel i ance, Emersons profound convi cti on that each person must
count ones sel f, count for ones sel f, account to ones sel f, and nurture the seeds of greatness
to be found wi thi n. Emerson advi ses each person to trust ones sel f, to accept ones sel f and
ones pl ace i n l i fe, to resi st conformi ty, and to thi nk l i ttl e of soci etys regard; i n fact, many
great and wi se spi ri ts were mi sunderstood.
Literary Devices and Figures of Speech
I n the fi rst paragraph, Emerson uses an anal ogy, kernel of . . . corn, compari ng the effort
needed to produce corn to the effort peopl e must make to reach thei r potenti al . He uses
i magery when he says every heart vi brates to that i ron stri ng. He empl oys a number of
metaphorsSoci ety i s a joi nt-stock company, i mmortal pal ms, and a fool i sh consi stency i s
the hobgobl i n. Emerson makes reference to i ndi vi dual s who made i mportant contri buti ons i n
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 127
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the fi el ds of mathemati cs, phi l osophy, rel i gi on, and sci ence and who were al so nonconformi sts
and mi sunderstood. They were great spi ri ts and sel f-rel i ant, as we must be.
Themes and Theses
Emersons thesi s i s that peopl e (and, therefore, soci ety) woul d be better served by espousi ng a
creed of responsi bl e i ndi vi dual i sm. He has i mmense fai th i n human potenti al , and he
advocates that one must obey i nternal di ctates onl y and that one must resi st the pressures of
soci ety to conform. He conveys these bel i efs di rectl y and cl earl y throughout the essay.
Style
The authors tone i s one of heartfel t emoti on, and yet at the same ti me he wri tes i n a l ogi cal
and erudi te manner, wi th an educated di cti on. He devel ops hi s i deas poi nt by poi nt, i n order
of i mportance. He uses a posi ti ve denotati on for words proposi ng sel f-rel i ance (nourishing,
harmony, trust) and negati ve ones for words descri bi ng conformi ty (dark, conspiracy, foolish).
He uses a vari ety of sentence structures and empl oys a rhetori cal questi on i n the concl usi on
of the l ast paragraph.
Your Style
You have just read some i mportant poi nts that you mi ght have i ncl uded i n your essay. Now
revi ew your i ntroductory paragraph. I f i t seems a l i ttl e dry, consi der tryi ng one of these types
of openi ngs to punch i t up: more forceful or vi vi d l anguage, a quotati on, a rhetori cal questi on,
an anecdote, or perhaps one of Emersons i mages. But whatever you add has to rel ate to
your thesi s.
Look at your concl udi ng paragraph. A si mpl e summary of your major poi nts creates an
effecti ve concl usi on. You can al so end an essay wi th a rel evant quote. A speci fi c suggesti on
works wel l i n a persuasi ve essay. I f you have organi zed your wri ti ng around a
probl em/sol uti on, consi der a vi vi d i mage of the consequences.
Once you have eval uated your essay wi th the Self-Evaluation Rubric on p. 140 and revi ewed
our poi nts, you may choose to revi se your essay usi ng the poi nts suggested here. However, do
not spend a great deal of ti me tryi ng to make i t perfect. Revi se i t si mpl y to see how addi ng
some of our poi nts may make i t stronger. Whether you revi se or not, ask a cl assmate or your
teacher to eval uate your essay for you usi ng the Self-Evaluation Rubric. How does your own
eval uati on match wi th a more objecti ve vi ew? Keep the di fferences i n mi nd as you wri te and
score more essays.
Now that you have a sense of the l ogi c i nvol ved i n aci ng the free response essay
questi ons of Secti on I I , try Exercise 2. Study the poi nts for eval uati on and use the
Self-Evaluation Rubric. I f you are sti l l unsure about wri ti ng free response essays,
conti nue wi th Exercises 3 and 4.
128 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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EXERCISE 2
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
Directions: James Boswel l stated: to wri te, not hi s panegyri ck, whi ch must be al l
prai se, but hi s Li fe; whi ch, great and good as he was, must not be supposed to be
enti rel y perfect . . . i n every pi cture there shoul d be shade and l i ght. Read the fol l owi ng
passage careful l y. Wri te an essay anal yzi ng how Boswel l s styl e contri buted to success or
fai l ure i n achi evi ng hi s goal . Consi der such l i terary and rhetori cal el ements as di cti on,
poi nt of vi ew, and tone.
From The Life of Sa m ue l
Johnson, Feelings
Line [Sai d Johnson:] Pi ty i s not natural to
man. Chi l dren are al ways cruel .
Savages are al ways cruel . Pi ty i s
acqui red and i mproved by the cul ti va-
ti on of reason. We may have uneasy
sensati ons from seei ng a creature i n
di stress, wi thout pi ty; for we have not
pi ty unl ess we wi sh to rel i eve them.
When I am on my way to di ne wi th a
fri end, and fi ndi ng i t l ate, have bi d the
coachman make haste, i f I happen to
attend when he whi ps hi s horses, I
may feel unpl easantl y that the ani mal s
are put to pai n, but I do not wi sh hi m
to desi st. No, si r, I wi sh hi m to
dri ve on.
Johnsons l ove of l i ttl e chi l dren,
whi ch he di scovered upon al l occasi ons,
cal l i ng them pretty dears, and gi vi ng
them sweetmeats, was an undoubted
proof of the real humani ty and gentl e-
ness of hi s di sposi ti on.
Hi s uncommon ki ndness to hi s
servants, and seri ous concern, not onl y
for thei r comfort i n thi s worl d, but
thei r happi ness i n the next, was
another unquesti onabl e evi dence of
what al l , who were i nti matel y ac-
quai nted wi th hi m, knew to be true.
Nor woul d i t be just, under thi s
head, to omi t the fondness whi ch he
showed for ani mal s whi ch he had
taken under hi s protecti on. I never
shal l forget the i ndul gence wi th whi ch
he treated Hodge, hi s cat; for whom he
hi msel f used to go out and buy oysters,
l est the servants, havi ng that troubl e,
shoul d take a di sl i ke to the poor
creature. I am, unl ucki l y, one of those
who have an anti pathy to a cat, so that
I am uneasy when i n the room wi th
one; and I own I frequentl y suffered a
good deal from the presence of thi s
same Hodge. I recol l ect hi m one day
scrambl i ng up Dr. Johnsons breast,
apparentl y wi th much sati sfacti on,
whi l e my fri end, smi l i ng and hal f-
whi stl i ng, rubbed down hi s back and
pul l ed hi m by the tai l ; and when I
observed he was a fi ne cat, sayi ng,
Why, yes, si r, but I have had cats
whom I l i ked better than thi s; and
then, as i f percei vi ng Hodge to be out
of countenance, addi ng, but he i s a
very fi ne cat, a very fi ne cat i ndeed.
Thi s remi nds me of the l udi crous
account whi ch he gave Mr. Langton of
the despi cabl e state of a young gentl e-
man of good fami l y. Si r, when I heard
of hi m l ast, he was runni ng about town
shooti ng cats. And then, i n a sort of
ki ndl y reveri e, he bethought hi msel f of
hi s own favori te cat, and sai d, But
Hodge shant be shot; no, no, Hodge
shal l not be shot.
James Boswel l
Use the Self-Evaluation Rubricfor theFreeResponseEssays on p. 140 to hel p you assess
your progress i n wri ti ng your essays.
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SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 2
Background Information
Mode: nonfi cti on; excerpt from bi ography
Author: James Boswel l , mi d- to l ate 1700s
Ti tl e: a bi ography, one of the ful l est records of a mans l i fe ever wri tten; character of
Johnson reveal ed
Subject: atti tude toward ani mal s, characteri zati on of Johnson
Point of View
Fi rst person
Author as narrator
Personal knowl edge and experi ence
Accounts of personal di al ogues
Characterization
Two characters: Johnson and Boswel l
Boswel l : admi rati on of Johnson, respect, al most i dol atry, consci enti ous record, frank
Exampl es: al l ergy to cats, story of Langton
Johnson: fondness for ani mal s, ki nd feel i ngs, humor, i di osyncrati c
Exampl es: getti ng oysters hi msel f, thi nki ng Hodge coul d understand l anguage
Theme or Thesis
Peopl e are made of contradi ctory qual i ti es. A man as great as Johnson has qui rks and
i di osyncraci es just as others do.
Johnson i s a man to be admi red.
Style
Most bi ographers are objecti ve; Boswel l i s not.
Di cti on shows admi rati on: fondness, i ndul gence, ki ndl y reveri e.
Tone: admi rati on, respect, approval , amusement
Sentences: di rect quotes from conversati on, vari ed, compl ex, but cl ear
Exampl es: But Hodge shant be shot; no, no, Hodge shal l not be shot.
Use of speci fi c detai l s: pul l i ng Hodges tai l , hal f-whi stl i ng
Organi zati on: anecdotal
130 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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EXERCISE 3
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
Directions: Read the fol l owi ng work careful l y. Then wri te a wel l -organi zed essay i n
whi ch you di scuss how the sel ecti on uses humor to comment on human nature and
human conduct. Consi der such l i terary el ements as di cti on, narrati ve pace, sati re, and
poi nt of vi ew.
From Advice to Little Girls
Line Good l i ttl e gi rl s ought not to make
mouths at thei r teachers for every
tri fl i ng offense. Thi s retal i ati on shoul d
onl y be resorted to under pecul i arl y
aggravated ci rcumstances.
I f you have nothi ng but a rag-dol l
stuffed wi th sawdust, whi l e one of your
more fortunate l i ttl e pl aymates has a
costl y Chi na one, you shoul d treat her
wi th a show of ki ndness neverthel ess.
And you ought not to attempt to make
a forci bl e swap wi th her unl ess your
consci ence woul d justi fy you i n i t, and
you know you are abl e to do i t.
You ought never to take your l i ttl e
brothers chewi ng-gum away from
hi m by mai n force; i t i s better to rope
hi m i n wi th the promi se of the fi rst
two dol l ars and a hal f you fi nd fl oati ng
down the ri ver on a gri ndstone. I n the
artl ess si mpl i ci ty natural to hi s ti me of
l i fe, he wi l l regard i t as a perfectl y fai r
transacti on. I n al l ages of the worl d
thi s emi nentl y pl ausi bl e fi cti on has
l ured the obtuse i nfant to fi nanci al
rui n and di saster.
I f at any ti me you fi nd i t necessary
to correct your brother, do not correct
hi m wi th mudnever, on any account,
throw mud at hi m, because i t wi l l spoi l
hi s cl othes. I t i s better to scal d hi m a
l i ttl e, for then you obtai n desi rabl e
resul ts. You secure hi s i mmedi ate
attenti on to the l essons you are
i ncul cati ng, and at the same ti me your
hot water wi l l have a tendency to move
i mpuri ti es from hi s person, and
possi bl y the ski n, i n spots.
I f your mother tel l s you to do a
thi ng, i t i s wrong to repl y that you
wont. I t i s better and more becomi ng
to i nti mate that you wi l l do as she bi ds
you, and then afterward act qui etl y i n
the matter accordi ng to the di ctates of
your best judgment.
You shoul d ever bear i n mi nd that i t
i s to your ki nd parents that you are
i ndebted for your food, and your ni ce
bed, and for your beauti ful cl othes, and
for the pri vi l ege of stayi ng home from
school when you l et on that you are
si ck. Therefore you ought to respect
thei r l i ttl e prejudi ces, and humor thei r
l i ttl e foi bl es unti l they get to crowdi ng
you too much.
Good l i ttl e gi rl s al ways show
marked deference for the aged. You
ought never to sass ol d peopl e unl ess
they sass you fi rst.
Mark Twai n
Use the Self-Evaluation Rubricfor theFreeResponseEssays on p. 140 to hel p you assess
your progress i n wri ti ng
your essays.
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 131
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SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 3
The fol l owi ng are poi nts you mi ght have chosen to i ncl ude i n your essay on Mark Twai ns
Advi ce to Li ttl e Gi rl s. Consi der them as you perform your sel f-eval uati on. Revi se your essay
usi ng poi nts from thi s l i st to strengthen i t.
Form or Mode
Humorous essay
Theme
Faceti ous advi ce tel l i ng gi rl s how to behave
Characters
Narrator, Mark Twai n
Addressi ng gi rl s i n general
Dialogue
No speci fi c di al ogue
Chatty and fami l i ar styl e
Conflict
Gi rl s versus conventi on
Plot/Development
Basi cal l y, advi ce on how gi rl s can actual l y do what they want whi l e appeari ng to be ever
so proper
Setting
Mi d-1800s
Point of View
Wri tten to the second person
Diction
Very i nformal
Much humor
And you ought not to attempt to make a forci bl e swap wi th her unl ess your consci ence
woul d justi fy you i n i t, and you know you are abl e to do i t.
Tone: tongue i n cheek
Fol ksy l anguage
132 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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www.petersons.com
EXERCISE 4
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
Directions: Wri te a persuasi ve essay that ei ther qual i fi es, agrees wi th, or di sagrees
wi th these soci al sci enti sts asserti on.
Many behavi oral sci enti sts and psychol ogi sts have come to bel i eve that success i n school , i n
the workpl ace, on the pl ayi ng fi el d, and el sewhere i n l i fe i s not so much determi ned by
i ntel l ect but by soci al i ntel l i gencethe abi l i ty to work wi th others, l ead and moti vate others,
and i nspi re team spi ri t.
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 133
www.petersons.com
SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 4
The fol l owi ng are some of the poi nts you mi ght have chosen to i ncl ude i n your persuasi ve
essay. Consi der them as you perform your sel f-eval uati on. Di d you fal l i nto any of the traps of
i l l ogi cal reasoni ng? Revi se your essay usi ng poi nts from thi s l i st to strengthen i t.
A thesi s that states your stand or poi nt of vi ew on the reasons for success. I t must be
supported by val i d evi dence.
Evi dence that the reader shoul d be wi l l i ng to accept as true wi thout further proof
Evi dence compri si ng a major porti on of the essay, especi al l y i f you have created a
controversi al or compl ex thesi s. Bear i n mi nd that the more commonl y
acknowl edged or the more wi del y shared an experi ence, the fewer exampl es
you need.
Evi dence i n the form of stati sti cs, i l l ustrati ons, speci fi c exampl es, personal
experi ence, occurrences reported by authori ti es
Perhaps demonstrati on of proof, showi ng the connecti on between the truth of the
supporti ng evi dence and the truth of the asserti on; often si gnal ed by words because
or as well
Defi ni ti on of any term whose exact meani ng i s essenti al to cl earl y communi cati ng
your posi ti on
Soundl y reasoned wi th no di storti ons of evi dence
Answers to objecti ons from the opposi ti on
Matchi ng of structure to your audi ence and goal
134 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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www.petersons.com
EXERCISE 5
SUG G ESTED TIM E15 M INUTES FO R READING AND 40 M INUTES FO R WRITING
Directions: The fol l owi ng prompt i s based on the fol l owi ng three sources. Thi s
assi gnment requi res that you synthesi ze a number of sources i nto a coherent,
wel l -wri tten essay. For thi s practi ce exerci se, use al l three sources i n your answer. Refer
to the sources to support your posi ti on. Do not si mpl y paraphrase or summari ze the
sources. Your argument shoul d be the focus of your essay and the sources shoul d support
thi s argument. Remember to attri bute both di rect and i ndi rect ci tati ons.
Introduction: Begi nni ng i n the 1990s, tel evi si on stati ons have i ncreasi ngl y turned to real i ty
TV shows and away from scri pted shows i n an effort to gai n hi gher vi ew rati ngs. Real i ty TV
shows are i nexpensi ve to produce compared to scri pted shows, whi ch transl ates to i ncreased
profi ts for many stati ons. Because they are i nexpensi ve to produce and hi ghl y popul ar wi th
vi ewers, some peopl e bel i eve that real i ty TV mi ght repl ace scri pted TV i n the future.
Assignment: Read the fol l owi ng sources (i ncl udi ng any i ntroductory i nformati on) careful l y.
Then, in an essay that synthesizes all three of the sources for support, take a
position that defends or challenges the claim that reality TV will replace scripted
TV because reality TV is more popular with television viewers today.
You may refer to the sources by thei r ti tl es (Source A, Source B, etc.) or by the descri pti ons i n
parentheses.
Source A (TPN press rel ease)
Source B (Chart)
Source C (Tol l y)
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 135
www.petersons.com
SOURCE A
Press Rel ease, The Popul ar Network (TPN), September 2006
The Popul ar Network (TPN) woul d l i ke to announce an exci ti ng new change i n our
programmi ng format. Due to the recent success of The Jones Fami l y, Creati ng the Band,
Castaways, and Col l ege Dorm Days, we have deci ded to del i ver to vi ewers even more
real i ty tel evi si on. Begi nni ng i n October, Tuesday ni ghts on TPN wi l l be Real TV Ni te, an
exci ti ng new format i n whi ch al l shows ai red from 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. wi l l be unscri pted,
real -l i fe shows. I n addi ti on to our al ready popul ar shows menti oned previ ousl y, we wi l l be
addi ng four brand-new, hour-l ong real i ty TV shows, begi nni ng at 7 p.m. These hour-l ong
shows have been created i n response to vi ewer-enjoyment surveys taken over the past year, i n
whi ch the chi ef request of vi ewers was addi ti onal l onger-format real i ty shows. The new shows
are Race from Coast to Coast, Dr. Danas Advi ce Hour, Becomi ng a Musi c Star, and
Fi ndi ng True Love. Three of these shows are competi ti ons; survey responses i ndi cated that
vi ewers wanted to see more contests, and here at TPN, we stri ve to pl ease the vi ewers. We
al so stri ve to pl ease our sharehol ders and, due to l ower producti on costs of real i ty TV, our
sharehol ders wi l l noti ce a si gni fi cant i ncrease i n profi t. Real TV Ni te wi l l revol uti oni ze the
tel evi si on i ndustry, so stay tuned for the exci ti ng devel opments!
136 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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www.petersons.com
SOURCE B
Sel ected resul ts from the NETWORK RATI NGS SYSTEM for June 22, 2006.
Shows/Designation* Time Slot Number of Viewers
Pals (S) 88:30 p.m. 1 mi l l i on
The Beach (R) 88:30 p.m. 1.5 mi l l i on
Singing Star (R) 88:30 p.m. 500,000
For the Defense (S) 910 p.m. 3 mi l l i on
My Nanny (R) 910 p.m. 2 mi l l i on
Doctors in Love (S) 910 p.m. 1 mi l l i on
Finding the Truth (S) 1011 p.m. 2 mi l l i on
Looking for The One(R) 1011 p.m. 3 mi l l i on
Who Did It? (R) 1011 p.m. 2.5 mi l l i on
* (R) denotes a real i ty tel evi si on show. (S) denotes a scri pted show.
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 137
www.petersons.com
SOURCE C
Tol l y, Jenni fer. What do teenagers want to watch? Parents Television Guide Monthly,
Apri l 2006.
What do teenagers want to watch? Thi s i s a questi on that perhaps many teenagers and thei r
parents coul d easi l y answer, but the answer i s not so apparent to many tel evi si on networks.
I t i s a fact that teenagers today watch much more tel evi si on than thei r parents ever di d and,
because of thi s, teenagers have become the new target market for networks. And what have
the networks deci ded? They have deci ded that what teens want i s real i ty TV. The questi on i s:
are they correct, or i s thi s an error i n judgment that wi l l cost many networks a whol e l ot of
money?
The real i ty obsessi on began wi th shows on a popul ar musi c vi deo network, MMV. MMV
began ai ri ng real i ty shows that i nvol ve teenagers and col l ege ki ds i n a vari ety of formats.
Many of these shows were meant to be i nformati ve, such as A Day i n the Li fe, whi ch
attempts to show how teenagers throughout the U.S. are both si mi l ar and di fferent, from
smal l town ki ds to ci ty ki ds. Other real i ty shows on the network seemed to be l ess educati onal
or i nformati ve, such as dati ng shows and make-over shows. However, whether parents l i ked
the shows or not, teenagers were watchi ng them, and network tel evi si on took noti ce.
Begi nni ng l ast year, many network stati ons began ai ri ng more and more real i ty TV shows.
Accordi ng to the networks, thei r rati ngs soared. Networks seemed to bel i eve that they fi nal l y
captured the attenti on of todays teenagers. However, many parents and i ndustry
professi onal s now bel i eve that the spi ke i n network-based (as opposed to cabl e-based) rati ngs
among teenagers wi l l be short l i ved and i s onl y a resul t of the fact that thi s type of
programmi ng i s new and novel . The fear that many networks shoul d have, i f they do not
al ready, i s that the novel ty of real i ty TV wi l l wear off i f real i ty TV i s al l that i s avai l abl e.
Networks shoul d not di scount the fact that vari ety i n programmi ng i s a good thi ng, and
ever-fi ckl e teens can qui ckl y change thei r mi ndreal i ty TV can become un-cool as qui ckl y as
i t became cool .
138 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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www.petersons.com
SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISE 5
Thi s questi on asks for a synthesi s essay that supports, qual i fi es, or di sputes the argument
that real i ty TV wi l l repl ace scri pted TV because real i ty TV i s more popul ar wi th tel evi si on
vi ewers today. I t does not matter whi ch posi ti on you take as l ong as you provi de adequate
support for your argument usi ng your own opi ni ons al ong wi th i nformati on from the sources.
You may argue that real i ty TV wi l l repl ace scri pted TV for reasons other than popul ari ty wi th
vi ewers, as l ong as you can support thi s cl ai m. Consi der the fol l owi ng as you compl ete your
sel f-eval uati on. Revi se your essay usi ng poi nts from the l i st to strengthen i t i f necessary.
Remember to proofread your response and make sure your grammar, syntax, and spel l i ng
are correct.
Thesis statement/introduction
Cl ear defi ni ti on of the i ssuei n thi s case, real i ty TV programmi ng repl aci ng scri pted TV
Cl ear statement of your posi ti on on the i ssue: statement of the reason you agree or
di sagree wi th the statement that real i ty TV wi l l repl ace scri pted TV because real i ty TV i s
more popul ar wi th vi ewers
Supporting details
Support i s based on your own opi ni ons about the posi ti on you take but i nformati on i n the
sources shoul d al so be used
Show a cl ear connecti on between the sources you ci te
Sources are seaml essl y i ntegrated wi th appropri ate transi ti ons
Al l three sources are used
Expl ai n the l ogi c of how you arri ved at the concl usi on you di d, based on the i nformati on
provi ded i n the sources
Acknowl edge opposi ng arguments and refute them
Attri bute both di rect and i ndi rect ci tati ons
Conclusion
I ncl ude a restatement of your thesi s ti ed i nto the supporti ng evi dence you used. (ex: I n
sum, there can be no other concl usi on drawn from the evi dence except to say that i n the
future peopl e wi l l demand even more real i ty TV than they do today.)
Concl usi on neatl y sums up your argument.
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 139
www.petersons.com
SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE FREE RESPONSE ESSAYS
89 67 5 34 12 0
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Demonstrates ex-
cel l ent control of
the l i terature and
outstandi ng wri t-
i ng competence;
thorough and effec-
ti ve; i nci si ve
Demonstrates good
control of the l i t-
erature and good
wri ti ng compe-
tence; l ess thor-
ough and i nci si ve
than the hi ghest
papers
Reveal s si mpl i sti c
thi nki ng and/or
i mmature wri ti ng;
adequate ski l l s
I ncompl ete thi nk-
i ng; fai l s to re-
spond adequatel y
to part or parts of
the questi on; may
paraphrase rather
than anal yze
Unacceptabl y bri ef;
fai l s to respond to
the questi on; l i ttl e
cl ari ty
Lacki ng ski l l and
competence
U
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g
o
f
t
h
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T
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Excel l ent under-
standi ng of the
text; exhi bi ts per-
cepti on and cl ari ty;
ori gi nal or uni que
approach; i ncl udes
apt and speci fi c
references
Good understand-
i ng of the text; ex-
hi bi ts percepti on
and cl ari ty; i n-
cl udes speci fi c ref-
erences
Superfi ci al under-
standi ng of the
text; el ements of
l i terature vague,
mechani cal , over-
general i zed
Mi sreadi ngs and
l ack of persuasi ve
evi dence from the
text; meager and
unconvi nci ng
treatment of l i ter-
ary el ements
Seri ous mi sread-
i ngs and l i ttl e sup-
porti ng evi dence
from the text; erro-
neous treatment of
l i terary el ements
A response wi th no
more than a refer-
ence to the l i tera-
ture; bl ank re-
sponse, or one
compl etel y off the
topi c
O
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a
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i
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a
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i
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a
n
d
D
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o
p
m
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t
Meti cul ousl y orga-
ni zed and thor-
oughl y devel oped;
coherent and uni -
fi ed
Wel l organi zed and
devel oped; coher-
ent and uni fi ed
Reasonabl y orga-
ni zed and devel -
oped; mostl y coher-
ent and uni fi ed
Somewhat orga-
ni zed and devel -
oped; some i nco-
herence and l ack of
uni ty
Li ttl e or no organi -
zati on and devel op-
ment; i ncoherent
and voi d of uni ty
No apparent orga-
ni zati on or devel -
opment; i ncoherent
U
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o
f
S
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e
s
Effecti vel y vari ed
and engagi ng; vi r-
tual l y error free
Vari ed and i nter-
esti ng; a few errors
Adequatel y vari ed;
some errors
Somewhat vari ed
and margi nal l y
i nteresti ng; one or
more major errors
Li ttl e or no vari a-
ti on; dul l and uni n-
teresti ng; some
major errors
Numerous major
errors
W
o
r
d
C
h
o
i
c
e
I nteresti ng and
effecti ve; vi rtual l y
error free
General l y i nterest-
i ng and effecti ve; a
few errors
Occasi onal l y i nter-
esti ng and effec-
ti ve; several errors
Somewhat dul l and
ordi nary; some er-
rors i n di cti on
Mostl y dul l and
conventi onal ; nu-
merous errors
Numerous major
errors; extremel y
i mmature
G
r
a
m
m
a
r
a
n
d
U
s
a
g
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Vi rtual l y error free Occasi onal mi nor
errors
Several mi nor er-
rors
Some major errors Severel y fl awed;
frequent major
errors
Extremel y fl awed
1
4
0
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A
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L
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&
C
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SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE SYNTHESIS ESSAYS
89 67 5 34 12 0
O
v
e
r
a
l
l
I
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
Demonstrates excel -
l ent control of effec-
ti ve wr i ti ng tech-
ni ques, sophi sti -
cated ar gumenta-
ti on, and wel l i nte-
grated synthesi s of
source i nformati on;
uses ci tati ons con-
vi nci ngl y
Demonstrates good
control of effecti ve
wri ti ng techni ques;
somewhat
thorough and
i nci si ve; uses
ci tati ons
appropri atel y
Demonstrates
general
competence i n
stati ng and
defendi ng a
posi ti on; some
i nconsi stenci es and
weaknesses i n
argumentati on
Demonstrates
some ski l l but
l acks
understandi ng of
questi on and
sources
Demonstrates l i ttl e
ski l l i n taki ng a
coherent posi ti on
and defendi ng i t or
i n usi ng sources
Lacks ski l l and
competence
U
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
o
f
t
h
e
T
e
x
t
Takes a cl ear
posi ti on that
defends,
chal l enges, or
qual i fi es the
questi on accuratel y
Demonstrates a
somewhat
superfi ci al
understandi ng of
the sources
Di spl ays some
mi sreadi ng of the
sources or some
stretchi ng of
i nformati on to
support the chosen
posi ti on
Takes a posi ti on
that may mi sread
or si mpl i fy the
sources; may
present overl y
si mpl e argument
Mi sreads sources,
or l acks an
argument, or
summari zes the
sources rather
than usi ng them to
support a posi ti on
Posi ti on does not
accuratel y refl ect
the sources; no
more than a l i sti ng
of the sources
O
r
g
a
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
D
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
Cl earl y states a po-
si ti on; uses at l east
thr ee sour ces to
suppor t that posi -
ti on convi nci ngl y
and effecti vel y; co-
herent and uni fi ed
Cl earl y states a po-
si ti on; uses at l east
three sources to sup-
por t that posi ti on;
adequate devel op-
ment of i deas but
l ess convi nci ng; co-
herent and uni fi ed
General l y cl earl y
stated posi ti on and
l i nks between
posi ti on and ci ted
sources; some
weaknesses i n
l ogi c; ci tes three
sources
Creates weak
connecti ons
between argument
and ci ted sources;
ci tes onl y two
sources
Lacks coherent
devel opment or
organi zati on; ci tes
one or no sources
No apparent
organi zati on or
devel opment;
i ncoherent; ci tes no
sources
U
s
e
o
f
S
e
n
t
e
n
c
e
s
Effecti vel y vari ed
and engagi ng; cl ose
to error free
Vari ed and
i nteresti ng; a few
errors
Adequatel y vari ed;
some errors
Somewhat vari ed
and margi nal l y
i nteresti ng; one or
more major errors
Li ttl e or no
vari ati on; dul l and
uni nteresti ng; some
major errors
Numerous major
errors
W
o
r
d
C
h
o
i
c
e
Uses the vocabul ary
of the topi c as evi -
dent i n the sources;
i nter esti ng and ef-
fecti ve; vi rtual l y er-
ror free
Demonstrates ease
i n usi ng vocabul ary
from the sources
Occasi onal use of
vocabul ary from
the sources;
occasi onal l y
i nteresti ng and
effecti ve
Somewhat dul l and
or di nar y; some er-
rors i n di cti on; no at-
tempt to i ntegr ate
vocabul ary from the
sources
Mostl y dul l and
conventi onal ; no
attempt to
i ntegrate
vocabul ary from
the sources
Numerous major
errors; extremel y
i mmature
G
r
a
m
m
a
r
a
n
d
U
s
a
g
e
Vi rtual l y error free Occasi onal mi nor
errors
Several mi nor
errors
Some major errors Severel y fl awed;
frequent major
errors
Extremel y fl awed
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Usi ng the rubri cs on the previ ous pages, rate yoursel f i n each of the categori es bel ow for each
exerci se. Enter on the l i nes bel ow the number from the rubri c that most accuratel y refl ects
your performance i n each category. Then cal cul ate the average of the si x numbers to
determi ne your fi nal score. I t i s di ffi cul t to score yoursel f objecti vel y, so you may wi sh to ask
a respected fri end or teacher to assess your wri ti ng for a more accurate refl ecti on of i ts
strengths and weaknesses. On the AP test i tsel f, a reader wi l l rate your essay on a scal e of 0
to 9, wi th 9 bei ng the hi ghest.
Rate each category from 9 (hi gh) to 0 (l ow).
Exercise 1
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
Exercise 2
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
Exercise 3
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
142 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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Exercise 4
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
Exercise 5
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
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Chapter 4: About the Free Response and Synthesis Essays 143
www.petersons.com
SUMMING IT UP
Secti on I I contai ns three essays aski ng you to anal yze l i terary styl e, di scuss rhetori cal
usage, and defend a posi ti on.
You wi l l have 2 hours to wri te the essays and fi fteen mi nutes to read the sources for the
synthesi s essay.
One of the three essay questi ons wi l l i ncl ude several sources. I n wri ti ng your essay, you
must synthesi ze the i nformati on i n at l east three of those sources to support your
argument.
Each essay i s scored from 0 to 9, wi th 9 bei ng the hi ghest score.
The essays together account for 55 percent of your fi nal composi te score.
Because your three essays wi l l be read by three di fferent peopl e, you dont have to worry
that one weaker essay wi l l pul l down the scores for the other two essays. Wri te the essay
that you feel most confi dent about fi rst. Save the most di ffi cul t for l ast.
Whenever possi bl e, wri te i n the acti ve voi ce. Your essay wi l l seem stronger.
Do more than summari ze. I ncl ude your i nsi ghts, reacti ons, and emoti ons.
144 PART III: AP English Language & Composition Strategies
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P
ART IV
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGLISH USAGE AND
GRAMMAR REVIEW
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 5 Grammar, Mechanics, and
Usage Review
Grammar, Mechanics,
and Usage Review
OVERVIEW
Grammar for the multiple-choice questions
More practical advice on writing your essays
98 common usage problems
Summing it up
Thi s chapter has three parts: (1) a qui ck revi ew of parts of speech for the
mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on, (2) an overvi ew of the mechani cs and punctuati on
that you wi l l need i n order to wri te a grammati cal l y correct essay, as wel l as
some recommendati ons for refi ni ng your di cti on, and (3) suggesti ons for
avoi di ng the top 98 usage probl ems.
GRAMMAR FOR THE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
Any grammar questi ons on the AP Engl i sh Language & Composi ti on Test are
real l y di sgui sed comprehensi on questi ons. They wi l l ask you to i denti fy one of
the parts of speechnouns, verbs, adjecti ves, adverbs, preposi ti ons, conjunc-
ti ons, and i nterjecti onsor they wi l l ask you to cl assi fy parts of a
sentencesubjects, predi cates, compl ements, modi fi ers, or antecedents. To
answer questi ons i n the mul ti pl e-choi ce secti on, remember:
Functions of Nouns and Pronouns
For the subject, l ook for nouns, pronouns, or word groups (gerunds,
parti ci pi al phrases, or cl auses) acti ng as essenti al nouns that tel l you who
or what the sentence i s about.
What I have described in the Frenchman was merel y the
resul t of an exci ted, or perhaps of a di seased, i ntel l i gence.
TheMurders in theRueMorgue, Edgar Al l an Poe
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
c
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147
Note: The subject wi l l not be stated i f the sentence or cl ause i s i mperati ve.
Do tal k to me as i f I were one, sai d Lord Warburton.
ThePortrait of a Lady, Henry James
A gerund i s a verbal that ends i n -ing and serves
as a noun. I t may take objects, compl ements, and modi fi ers.
Describing the Frenchman was a tour de force for Poe.
A parti ci pl e i s a verb that ends i n ei ther -ing or -ed and modi fi es a noun or pronoun. A
parti ci pl e i n a parti ci pi al phrase may have objects, compl ements, and modi fi ers of
i ts own.
What I have descri bed i n the Frenchman was merel y the resul t of an excited, or
perhaps of a di seased, intelligence.
TheMurders in theRueMorgue, Edgar Al l an Poe
The di rect object i s a noun, pronoun, or group of words acti ng as a noun that recei ves the
acti on of a transi ti ve verb, the person or thi ng acted on. To fi nd a di rect object, rephrase
the sentence by changi ng i t i nto a whomor what questi on.
I bel i eve that I have omi tted mentioning that i n my fi rst voyage from Boston to
Phi l adel phi a, bei ng becal med off Bl ock I sl and, our crew empl oyed themsel ves
catchi ng cod and haul ed up a great number.
TheAutobiography of Benjamin Franklin,
Benjami n Frankl i n
Rephrased: I have omi tted whom or what? The di rect object i s mentioning.
An i ndi rect object i s a noun or pronoun that appears wi th a di rect object and names the
person or thi ng that somethi ng i s gi ven to or done for.
Whi chever way I turn, O I thi nk you coul d gi ve me my mate back agai n i f you
onl y woul d.
Sea-Dri ft, Wal t Whi tman
A sentence can have both an object and an i ndi rect object.
Whi chever way I turn, O I thi nk you coul d gi ve me my mate
back agai n i f you onl y woul d.
Sea-Dri ft, Wal t Whi tman
148 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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An antecedent i s a noun or words taki ng the pl ace of nouns for whi ch a pronoun stands.
No good novel wi l l ever proceed from a superfi ci al mi nd; that seems to me an
axiom whi ch, for the arti st i n fi cti on, wi l l cover al l needful moral ground: i f the
youthful aspi rant take i t to heart i t wi l l i l l umi nate for hi m many of the mysteri es
of purpose.
The Art of Fi cti on, Henry James
Functions of Verbs
Verbs express acti on, occurrence (appear, become, continue, feel, grow, look, remain, seen,
sound, and taste), or state of bei ng (the verb to be).
Ye Angel l s bri ght, pluck from your Wi ngs a Qui l l ;
Make me a pen thereof that best will write:
Lende me your fancy and Angel l i ck ski l l
To treate thi s Theme, more ri ch than Rubi es bri ght.
Medi tati on Si xty: Second Seri es,
Edward Tayl or
Verbs that express occurrence or state of bei ng, al so known as l i nki ng verbs, are
i ntransi ti ve verbs and have no objects.
The fi rst ti me that the sun rose on thi ne oath
To l ove me, I looked forward to the moon
To sl acken al l those bonds whi ch seemed too soon
And qui ckl y ti ed to make a l asti ng troth.
Sonnets fromthePortuguese,
El i zabeth Barrett Browni ng
Looked i s an i ntransi ti ve verb and, therefore, has no object. Forward i s an adverb
that answers the questi on where, and the adverbi al phrase the fi rst ti me
answers the questi on when.
Li nki ng verbs may have predi cate adjecti ves or predi cate nomi nati ves, al so known as
predi cate nouns.
Of al l hi stori cal probl ems, the nature of a nati onal character is themost difficult
and the most important.
Ameri can I deal s, Henry Adams
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 149
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Verb Tenses
I t woul d al so be useful to revi ew the tenses and forms of verbs, not necessari l y because you
may fi nd mul ti pl e-choi ce questi ons about them but because the revi ew wi l l hel p you when you
wri te your own essays. Verbs have si x tenses to reveal the ti me of an acti on or condi ti on. Each
tense has a basi c, progressi ve, and emphati c form.
TENSES AND FORMS OF VERBS
Basic
Form
Progressive
Form
Emphatic
Form
Present I tal k a l ot. I am tal ki ng about i t
now.
I do tal k more than most
students.
Past I tal ked wi th the group. I was tal ki ng when you
i nterrupted.
I di d tal k wi th you about
that.
Future I wi l l tal k to you Sun-
day.
I wi l l be tal ki ng at the
conference.
Present
Perfect
I have tal ked for al most
an hour.
I have been tal ki ng too
much.
Past
Perfect
I had tal ked to hi m a
year ago.
I had been tal ki ng wi th
you when he arri ved.
Future
Perfect
I wi l l have tal ked to the
recrui ter by the end of
the week.
I wi l l have been tal ki ng
about thi s project for a
month before I get ap-
proval .
MORE PRACTICAL ADVICE ON WRITING YOUR ESSAYS
The basi c grammar and punctuati on we are tal ki ng about here wi l l hel p you wi th wri ti ng.
Revi ew the fol l owi ng rul es and ti ps before you wri te a practi ce essay, and then eval uate your
fi ni shed essay agai nst them. As you wri te your next essay, keep i n mi nd any rul es wi th whi ch
you had troubl e. I f necessary, focus on one rul e at a ti me. I t i s i mportant that you are
comfortabl e wi th the rul es of grammar and punctuati on; that way, they fl ow natural l y as you
wri te, and you dont spend ti me thi nki ng about where the commas shoul d go.
Sentence Structure
Good wri ti ng has a vari ety of sentence structures: si mpl e, compound, compl ex, and
compound-compl ex. Sentence combi ni ng i s one way to be sure you have a vari ed sentence
pattern that adds to the i nterest of your wri ti ng. Consi der the fol l owi ng exampl es as
possi bi l i ti es that you have to choose from, and note the correct punctuati on for each. Al l
quotati ons are from Henry Adamss Ameri can I deal s.
150 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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SIMPLE SENTENCE
Of al l hi stori cal probl ems, the nature of a nati onal character i s the most di ffi cul t and the
most i mportant.
Ral ph Wal do Emerson, a more di sti nct i deal i st, was born i n 1780.
COMPOUND SENTENCE
After the downfal l of the French republ i c, they (Ameri cans) had no ri ght to expect a ki nd word
from Europe, and duri ng the next twenty years, they rarel y recei ved one.
Probabl y Jefferson came nearest to the mark, for he represented the hopes of sci ence as wel l
as the prejudi ces of Vi rgi ni a.
COMPLEX SENTENCE
Li ncol n was born i n 1809, the moment when Ameri can character stood i n l owest esteem.
Jefferson, the l i terary representati ve of hi s cl ass, spoke chi efl y for Vi rgi ni ans, and dreaded so
greatl y hi s own reputati on as a vi si onary that he sel dom or never uttered hi s whol e thought.
COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES
Benjami n Frankl i n had rai sed hi gh the reputati on of Ameri can pri nters, and the actual
Presi dent of the Uni ted States, who si gned wi th Frankl i n the treaty of peace wi th Great
Bri tai n, was the son of a farmer, and had hi msel f kept a school i n hi s youth.
I n the year 1800 El i Terry, another Connecti cut Yankee of the same cl ass, took i nto hi s empl oy
two young men to help hi m make wooden cl ocks, and thi s was the capi tal on which the
greatest cl ock-manufactory i n the worl d began i ts operati on.
PARALLEL CONSTRUCTION
I n addi ti on to usi ng dependent and i ndependent cl auses to add vari ety, try usi ng words,
phrases, and cl auses i n paral l el constructi ons. Paral l el i sm rei nforces equal i deas, contri butes
to ease i n readi ng, and, most i mportantl y, adds cl ari ty and rhythm to your i deas. The most
si mpl e paral l el i sm empl oys compari sons and contrasts.
El i Whi tney was better educated than Fi tch, but had neither wealth, social
influence, nor patron to back his ingenuity.
Revi ew your own essays, and underl i ne sentences that you coul d combi ne. Then try
combi ni ng them on a separate sheet of paper. Thi s i s a good exerci se to get you accustomed to
varyi ng your sentence structures as you wri te. But do not try for vari ety for the fi rst ti me
duri ng the real test.
When combi ni ng sentences, do not fal l prey to run-on sentences, sentence fragments, or
comma spl i ces.
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NOTE
Remember to use
present tense
when writing
about the
authors intention
in literary works.
NOTE
Writing timed
essays, evaluating
them, and then
working to
improve the
weaknesses you
identify is the best
way to prepare
for the test.
Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 151
www.petersons.com
RUN-ON SENTENCES
A run-on sentence i s a compound or compound-compl ex sentence i n whi ch nei ther a
conjuncti on nor punctuati on separates two or more i ndependent cl auses. You can fi x a run-on
sentence by usi ng:
1. A coordi nati ng conjuncti on, i f you are wri ti ng a compound sentence
2. A coordi nati ng adverb
3. A transi ti onal phrase
4. And/or a semi col on i n a compl ex or compound-compl ex sentence
The fol l owi ng exampl es ar e taken, wi th our apol ogi es, fr om Mi l ton by John
Babi ngton Macaul ay.
1. Mi l ton was, l i ke Dante, a statesman and a l over, and, l i ke Dante, he had been
unfortunate i n ambi ti on and i n l ove.
2. Mi l ton was, l i ke Dante, a statesman and a l over; moreover, l i ke Dante, he had
been unfortunate i n ambi ti on and i n l ove.
3. Mi l ton was, l i ke Dante, a statesman and a l over; in addition, l i ke Dante, he had
been unfortunate i n ambi ti on and i n l ove.
4. Mi l ton was, l i ke Dante, a statesman and a l over; l i ke Dante, he had been unfortu-
nate i n ambi ti on and i n l ove.
(Macaul ays choi ce)
Di d you noti ce that these sentences are al so exampl es of both compari son and the use of
i ndependent cl auses as paral l el i sm?
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
A sentence fragment i s just thatpart of a sentence, a group of words that does not express a
compl ete thought. I f i t has a verb forma verbal such as a parti ci pl ei t may l ook l i ke a
sentence, but i t i s not a sentence. You can avoi d sentence fragments by al ways maki ng
sure that:
The verb i s a verbnot a parti ci pi al form (-ingor -ed) wi thout i ts auxi l i ary (some form of
haveor be) or an i nfi ni ti ve (to pl us a verb).
Such as i t was. When, on the eve of great events, he [Mi l ton] returned from hi s
travel s, i n the pri me of heal th and manl y beauty. Loaded wi th l i terary di sti ncti ons,
and gl owi ng wi th patri oti c hopes. . . .
152 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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www.petersons.com
There i s a subject. I f there i s none, add one or attach the fragment to a sentence.
Such as i t was. When, on the eve of great events, he [Mi l ton] returned from hi s
travel s, i n the pri me of heal th and manl y beauty, loaded wi th l i terary di sti ncti ons,
and gl owi ng wi th patri oti c hopes. . . .
You remove any i ncorrectl y used subordi nati ng conjuncti ons, or you combi ne the
fragment so i t becomes a sentence.
Such as i t was. When, on the eve of great events, he [Mi l ton] returned from hi s
travel s, i n the pri me of heal th and manl y beauty. He was l oaded wi th l i terary
di sti ncti ons, and gl owi ng wi th patri oti c hopes. . . .
The fol l owi ng i s Macaul ays choi ce:
Such as i t was when, on the eve of great events, he [Mi l ton] returned from hi s travel s,
i n the pri me of heal th and manl y beauty, loaded wi th l i terary di sti ncti ons, and gl owi ng
wi th patri oti c hopes. . . .
CONJ UNCTIVE ADVERBS TRANSITIONAL PHRASES
al so
anyhow
anyway
besi des
consequentl y
fi nal l y
furthermore
hence
however
i nci dental l y
i ndeed
l i kewi se
meanwhi l e
moreover
neverthel ess
next
nonethel ess
now
otherwi se
si mi l arl y
sti l l
then
therefore
thus
after al l
as a consequence
as a resul t
at any rate
at the same ti me
by the way
even so
for exampl e
i n addi ti on
i n fact
i n other words
i n the second pl ace
on the contrary
on the other hand
COMMA SPLICES
Comma spl i ces occur when two or more i ndependent cl auses are joi ned by a comma (1) when
some other punctuati on or (2) a coordi nati ng conjuncti on or (3) subordi nati ng conjuncti on
shoul d have been used. The fol l owi ng i s an exampl e of a comma spl i ce.
Euri pedes attempted to carry the reform further, i t was a task beyond hi s powers,
perhaps beyond any powers.
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Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 153
www.petersons.com
You coul d correct i t by any of the fol l owi ng:
1. Euri pedes attempted to carry the reform further; i t was a task beyond hi s powers,
perhaps beyond any powers.
(Macaul ays choi ce)
2. Euri pedes attempted to carry the reform further, but i t was a task beyond hi s
powers, perhaps beyond any powers.
3. While Euri pedes attempted to carry the reform further, the task was beyond hi s
powers, perhaps beyond any powers.
COORDINATING
CONJ UNCTIONS
SUBORDINATING
CONJ UNCTIONS
and
but
or
for
nor
so
yet
after
al though
as far as
as soon as
as i f
as though
because
before
even i f
even though
how
i f
i nasmuch as
i n case that
i nsofar as
i n that
no matter how
now that
once
provi ded that
si nce
so that
supposi ng that
than
though
ti l l , unti l
unl ess
when, whenever
where, wherever
whether
whi l e
why
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
(used to i ntroduce subordi nate cl auses that functi on as nouns)
that
what
whi ch
who, whoever
whom, whomever
whose
You can al so use subordi nati ng conjuncti ons, conjuncti ve adverbs, and transi ti onal phrases to
l i nk i deas between sentences and even paragraphs.
Now l et us compare wi th the exact detai l . . .
Once more, compare . . .
We venture to say, on the contrary, . . .
Mi l ton, John Babi ngton Macaul ay
154 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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www.petersons.com
Mechanics and Punctuation
What do you need to know about mechani cs and punctuati on for the AP Engl i sh Language &
Composi ti on Test? Enough to be abl e to wri te and punctuate grammati cal l y correct sentences.
(Thi s, by the way, i s a sentence fragment. I n your own wri ti ng, an occasi onal sentence
fragment works, but do not take the chance i n your essays. The reader may not understand
that you wrote a sentence fragment for a purpose, not as a mi stake.)
I f you fi nd any of the rul es i n the fol l owi ng bri ef revi ew unfami l i ar, go back to your Engl i sh
composi ti on text and revi ew the appropri ate secti on i n more depth. Do some of the practi ce
exerci ses that the text undoubtedl y has.
The test eval uators may not expect you to wri te a fl awl ess essay, but you want to make sure
that your mechani cs and punctuati on are as correct as possi bl e. Everythi ng you do wel l adds
to the favorabl e i mpressi on necessary for a hi gh score. The same i s true about punctuati on.
Usi ng the correct punctuati on makes a good i mpressi on on the readers. Remember, too, that
errors i n punctuati on may i nterfere wi th cl ari ty.
CAPITALIZATION
You have studi ed capi tal i zati on throughout your school years. The fol l owi ng l i st recaps the
rul es for capi tal i zati on you have l earned.
Nouns
Capi tal i ze the fi rst word i n i nterjecti ons and i ncompl ete questi ons.
Capi tal i ze the fi rst word i n a quotati on i f the quotati on i s a compl ete sentence.
Capi tal i ze the fi rst word after a col on i f the word begi ns a compl ete sentence.
Capi tal i ze geographi cal and pl ace names.
Capi tal i ze names of speci fi c events and peri ods of ti me.
Capi tal i ze the names of organi zati ons, government bodi es, pol i ti cal parti es, races,
nati onal i ti es, l anguages, and rel i gi ons.
Ad je c tive s
Capi tal i ze most proper adjecti ves; for exampl e African i n African American.
Do not capi tal i ze certai n frequentl y used proper adjecti ves; for exampl e, french fries,
venetian blinds.
Capi tal i ze a brand name used as an adjecti ve but not the common noun i t modi fi es; for
exampl e, J ello pudding.
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NOTE
Concentrate on
those rules that
you are most
likely to need for
your own writing.
NOTE
Do not capitalize
words that
indicate direction.
Do capitalize
them when they
name a section
of a larger
geographical
area.
Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 155
www.petersons.com
Do not capi tal i ze a common noun used wi th two proper adjecti ves; for exampl e, I ron
Agetools.
Do not capi tal i ze prefi xes attached to proper adjecti ves unl ess the prefi x refers to a
nati onal i ty; for exampl e, pre-Columbian art but Franco-American music.
C a p ita ls in Title s
Capi tal i ze ti tl es of peopl e when used wi th a persons name or when used i n
di rect address.
Capi tal i ze ti tl es showi ng fami l y rel ati onshi ps when they refer to a speci fi c person, unl ess
they are preceded by a possessi ve noun or pronoun.
Capi tal i ze the fi rst word and al l other key words i n the ti tl es of books, peri odi cal s, pl ays,
poems, stori es, pai nti ngs, and other works of art.
ABBREVIATIONS
Usual l y, you shoul d not use abbrevi ati ons when you are wri ti ng formal Engl i sh. However,
someti mes abbrevi ati ons are appropri ate. The fol l owi ng l i st revi ews gui del i nes for
usi ng abbrevi ati ons.
Na m e s a nd Title s of Pe op le
Use a persons ful l gi ven name i n formal wri ti ng, unl ess the person uses i ni ti al s as part
of hi s or her name; for exampl e, the poet A. E. Housman.
Abbrevi ati ons of soci al ti tl es before a proper name begi n wi th a capi tal l etter and end
wi th a peri od.
Abbrevi ati ons of other ti tl es used before proper names begi n wi th a capi tal l etter and end
wi th a peri od.
Abbrevi ati ons of ti tl es after a name begi n wi th a capi tal and end wi th a peri od.
I n formal wri ti ng, spel l out numbers or amounts l ess than 100 and any other numbers
that can be wri tten i n one or two words.
Spel l out al l numbers found at the begi nni ng of sentences.
Use numeral s when referri ng to fracti ons, deci mal s, and percentages, as wel l as
addresses and dates.
156 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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NOTE
Abbreviations for
both traditional
and metric
measurements
should only be
used in technical
and informal
writing and only
with numerals.
www.petersons.com
END MARKS
Use a peri od to end a decl arati ve sentence, a mi l d i mperati ve, or an i ndi rect questi on.
Use a questi on mark to end an i nterrogati ve sentence, an i ncompl ete questi on, or a
statement i ntended as a questi on.
Use an excl amati on mark to end an excl amatory sentence, a forceful i mperati ve sentence,
or an i nterjecti on of strong emoti on.
COMMAS
Use a comma before a conjuncti on that separates two i ndependent cl auses i n a
compound sentence.
Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or cl auses i n a seri es.
Use commas to separate adjecti ves of equal rank.
Do not use commas to separate adjecti ves that must stay i n a speci fi c order.
Use a comma after an i ntroductory word, phrase, or cl ause.
Use commas to set off parentheti cal expressi ons.
Use commas to set off nonessenti al expressi ons.
Use commas to set off a di rect quotati on from the rest of the sentence.
Use a comma to prevent a sentence from bei ng mi sunderstood.
SEMICOLONS AND COLONS
Use a semi col on to joi n i ndependent cl auses not al ready joi ned by a coordi nati ng
conjuncti on (and, or, but, nor, so, yet).
Use a semi col on to joi n i ndependent cl auses separated by ei ther a conjuncti ve adverb or
a transi ti onal expressi on.
Use a col on before a l i st of i tems fol l owi ng an i ndependent cl ause.
Use a col on to i ntroduce a formal or l engthy quotati on or one that i s mi ssi ng an
i ntroductory expressi on.
Use a col on to i ntroduce a sentence that summari zes or expl ai ns the sentence before i t.
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NOTE
Many writers
overuse commas.
Make certain that
you know why
you are adding a
comma to a
sentence.
Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 157
www.petersons.com
QUOTATION MARKS AND UNDERLINING
I f a word, a ti tl e, or a name woul d be i tal i ci zed i n pri nted materi al , then you need to underl i ne
i t when you wri te i t by hand. I f you were wri ti ng your essay on a computer, you woul d use the
italics functi on.
Use quotati on marks to encl ose a persons exact words.
Pl ace a comma or a peri od i nsi de the fi nal quotati on mark.
Pl ace a semi col on or col on outsi de the fi nal quotati on mark.
Pl ace a questi on mark or excl amati on mark i nsi de the fi nal quotati on i f the end
mark i s part of the quotati on.
Pl ace a questi on mark or excl amati on mark outsi de the fi nal quotati on i f the end
mark i s not part of the quotati on.
Use three el l i psi s marks i n a quotati on to i ndi cate that words have been omi tted.
Use si ngl e quotati on marks for a quotati on wi thi n a quotati on.
Use quotati on marks around ti tl es of short wri tten works, epi sodes i n a seri es,
songs, parts of musi cal composi ti ons, or col l ecti ons.
Underl i ne (i tal i ci ze) ti tl es of l ong wri tten works, shows, fi l ms, and other works
of art.
Underl i ne (i tal i ci ze) words and phrases from a forei gn l anguage when not used
commonl y i n Engl i sh.
Underl i ne (i tal i ci ze) numbers, symbol s, l etters, and words used as names
for themsel ves.
DASHES, PARENTHESES, AND BRACKETS
Use dashes to i ndi cate an abrupt change of thought, a dramati c i nterrupti ng i dea, or a
summary statement.
Use dashes to set off a nonessenti al apposi ti ve, modi fi er, or parentheti cal expressi on
when i t i s l ong, al ready punctuated, or especi al l y dramati c.
Use parentheses to set off asi des and expl anati ons onl y when the materi al i s not essenti al
or when i t consi sts of one or more sentences.
Pl ace al l punctuati on after the parentheses i n a sentence wi th a set-off phrase.
Use brackets to encl ose words you i nsert i nto a quotati on when you are quoti ng
someone el se.
158 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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TIP
Do not use
quotation marks
around an
indirect quotation
(a restatement of
someones
words).
NOTE
Do not underline
or place in
quotation marks
the titles of holy
books, such as
the Koran or the
Bible, or
their parts.
www.petersons.com
HYPHENS
Use a hyphen when wri ti ng out the numbers twenty-onethrough ninety-nine.
Use a hyphen wi th fracti ons used as adjecti ves.
Use a hyphen i n words wi th the prefi xes all-, ex-, and self- and words wi th the
suffi x -elect.
Use a hyphen to connect a compound modi fi er before a noun, unl ess i t i ncl udes a word
endi ng i n -ly or i s a compound proper adjecti ve; for exampl e, beautifully dressed, Native
American poem.
I f a word must be di vi ded at the end of a l i ne, pl ace a hyphen between syl l abl es.
APOSTROPHES
Add an apostrophe and an s to show the possessi ve case of most si ngul ar nouns; for
exampl e, cats dish, thetomatos flavor.
Add an apostrophe to show the possessi ve case of pl ural nouns endi ng i n s or es; for
exampl e, theboys club.
Add an apostrophe and an s to show possessi on wi th pl ural nouns that do not end i n s; for
exampl e, womens clothing, themices nests.
Add an apostrophe and an s or just an apostrophe (i f the word i s pl ural and ends i n s) to
the l ast word of a compound noun to form the possessi ve; for exampl e, the J oint
Committees decision, themutual funds investors.
To show joi nt ownershi p, make the fi nal noun possessi ve. To show i ndi vi dual ownershi p,
make each noun possessi ve; for exampl e, Marie and Leslies apartment, but Mikes and
Toms cars.
Use an apostrophe and an s wi th i ndefi ni te pronouns to show possessi on; for exampl e,
ones jacket, somebodys chair.
Use an apostrophe and an s to wri te the pl ural s of numbers, symbol s, and l etters; for
exampl e, 8s, &s, ps.
Diction
Word choi ce speaks vol umes about you. (That phrase i s a cl i ch that woul d be best to avoi d.)
The fol l owi ng are some suggesti ons to hel p you refi ne your wri ti ng and pol i sh your choi ce
of words.
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NOTE
Do not use an
apostrophe with
the possessive
forms of personal
pronouns; for
example, hers,
not hers.
Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 159
www.petersons.com
REPLACE CLICHS WITH FRESHER IMAGES AND WORDS
A cl i ch i s any stal e, worn-out phrase that has been used so often i t has become vi rtual l y
meani ngl ess. Cl i chs make your wri ti ng seem commonpl ace and secondhand. Some common
cl i chs and tri te expressi ons i ncl ude the fol l owi ng:
CLICHS AND TRITE EXPRESSIONS
Ugl y as si n
Pretty as a pi cture
Happy as a l ark
Hard as a rock
Fresh as a dai sy
Ski nny as a rai l
Sl y as a fox
Sti ff as a board
Ol d as the hi l l s
Mad as a hornet
Soft as si l k
Warm as toast
Dumb as a doorknob
Smart as a whi p
Crazy as a l oon
Honest as the day i s l ong
As much fun as a barrel of monkeys
Qui et as a mouse
Loose as a goose
Phony as a three-dol l ar bi l l
Pure as the dri ven snow
Crystal cl ear
True bl ue
Li ke pul l i ng teeth
Li ke a fi sh out of water
Li ke fi ndi ng a needl e i n a haystack
Li ke a bump on a l og
Li ke a hot potato
Sky hi gh
Sparkl i ng cl ean
Fi l thy ri ch
Di rt cheap
Costi ng an arm and a l eg
Heart of gol d
One i n a mi l l i on
Between a rock and a hard pl ace
Out of the fryi ng pan and i nto the fi re
When push comes to shove
Worki ng fi ngers to the bone
Come out smel l i ng l i ke a rose
Tooti ng my/your/ones own horn
I n a New York mi nute
Vari ety i s the spi ce of l i fe.
Stand up and be counted.
Rai ni ng cats and dogs
The si xty-four-dol l ar questi on
Day i n and day out
Have a ni ce day.
Repl ace cl i chs and tri te expressi ons wi th l i vel i er, more concrete l anguage; for exampl e:
Clich: I was shaking in my boots before the i ntervi ew, but I was happy as a lark when
the personnel manager offered me the job.
Improved: I was terrified before the i ntervi ew, but I was ecstatic when the personnel
manager offered me the job.
Clich: Whether the author r eal l y bel i eved what he wr ote was the
sixty-four-dollar question.
Improved: Whether the author real l y bel i eved what he wrote was difficult todetermine
from the answers he gave the i ntervi ewer.
160 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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www.petersons.com
AVOID EUPHEMISMS
A euphemi sm i s a word or phrase that i s l ess di rect but that may be consi dered l ess offensi ve
than another word or phrase wi th the same meani ng; for exampl e, sayi ng someone i s no
longer with us i nstead of dead. Euphemi sms can l ead to wordi ness, as i n the above exampl e,
because you may need several words to say what one di rect word coul d convey. Euphemi sms
al so l essen the i mpact of a thought or i dea, and they can mi sl ead your readers. Occasi onal l y,
you may choose to use a euphemi sm to protect someones feel i ngsyours, the subject of your
wri ti ng, or your audi encebut el i mi nate euphemi sms whenever possi bl e so your wri ti ng does
not seem i nsi ncere.
Euphemism: Ami t coul d not attend the meeti ng Thursday because he was indisposed.
Improved: Ami t coul d not attend the meeti ng Thursday because he was sick.
Euphemism: Because she was constantl y l ate to work, Lesl i e was let go.
Improved: Because she was constantl y l ate to work, Lesl i e was fired.
AVOID SELF-IMPORTANT LANGUAGE
A wri ter who tri es to i mpress readers wi th unnecessari l y obscure words and l engthy,
compl i cated sentences often adopts sel f-i mportant l anguage. The resul t i s bad tone and a
confused message. When you wri te, avoi d that type of l anguage. El i mi nate vague, general
nouns and l ong verbs that end i n -ateor -ize.
Self-important: To faci l i tate i nput by the maxi mum number of potenti al purchasers,
questi onnai res were desi gned and posted wel l i n advance of the l aunch of the
promoti onal marketi ng campai gn.
Improved: Before we began adverti si ng, we desi gned and mai l ed a marketi ng survey to
fi nd out what consumers were l ooki ng for.
AVOID FLOWERY LANGUAGE AND EMOTIONALLY LOADED WORDS
Good wri ti ng shoul d i ncl ude vi vi d modi fi ers and i nteresti ng phrases. However, your wri ti ng
shoul d never become overl oaded wi th unnecessary adjecti ves and adverbs that serve onl y as
decorati on. Usual l y, a si mpl er way of expressi ng yoursel f i s more effecti ve.
Flowery: The gl i mmeri ng, gol den rays of the bri l l i ant orb of the sun shi mmered above
the whi te-hot sands of the vast desert, sere and l i fel ess.
Improved: The rays of the sun shi mmered above the hot, dry desert.
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NOTE
Polysyllabic,
high-sounding
words can make
your writing sound
pretentious rather
than erudite.
Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 161
www.petersons.com
Si mi l arl y, overl y emoti onal l anguage can produce a harsh tone and make your readers reject
your poi nt of vi ew. Avoi d emoti onal l anguage and substi tute more rati onal di cti on.
Emotional: The i di ot who wrote that essay shoul d have hi s head exami ned.
Improved: The wri ter who devel oped that argument based i t on a faul ty assumpti on.
AVOID WORDS THAT MAY NOT BE UNDERSTOOD
You shoul d use onl y vocabul ary and expressi ons that your readers wi l l understand. No matter
what your tone, some types of l anguage can be confusi ng. I n general , avoi d sl ang words and
expressi ons because you cannot be sure that your audi ence i s fami l i ar wi th current i di oms.
Al so, remember that sl ang qui ckl y becomes dated.
Slang: Bri ans mother repri manded hi m for bombi ng hi s physi cs test.
Improved: Bri ans mother repri manded hi m for fai l i ng hi s physi cs test.
Si mi l arl y, jargon can confuse readers and destroy your tone. Use i t onl y i f you are wri ti ng a
hi ghl y techni cal report and must use speci al terms for the topi c. Your readers may easi l y
become l ost i f you do not repl ace jargon wi th concrete, understandabl e phrases.
J argon: Cl ose-support, transport, and reconnai ssance assi stance i s provi ded by the
S-3X hel i copter, whi ch i s the most cost effecti ve i n a crane confi gurati on.
Improved: The S-3X hel i copter provi des support, transportati on, and reconnai ssance.
However, the hel i copter i s most cost effecti ve when i t works as a crane.
ELIMINATE DEADWOOD
Check your essay for words that contri bute nothi ng to your i deas. Di scard these empty words
that pad your sentences and create roundabout constructi ons. You wi l l fi nd some of the most
common empty words i n the fol l owi ng box.
COMMONLY USED EMPTY WORDS AND PHRASES
a great deal of
i s the one who i s
there i s
there are
by way of
due to
i t i s a fact that
the thi ng that
of the opi ni on that
to the extent that
whi ch i s to say
the area of
what I mean i s
for the reason that
i n a manner that
Deadwood: I t i s a fact that sunburn can cause ski n cancer.
Improved: Sunburn can cause ski n cancer.
162 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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NOTE
Jargon is
language aimed
at specialists.
www.petersons.com
Other deadwood you shoul d el i mi nate are hedgi ng words and phrases, or qual i fi ers. Wri ters
use qual i fi ers to be noncommi ttal , but usi ng them resul ts i n a vague and i ndefi ni te essay.
However, dont el i mi nate al l hedgi ng words i n your wri ti ng. For exampl e, Everyone i n the
stadi um cheered the touchdown needs to be qual i fi ed unl ess you know that the opposi ng
team had no supporters i n the stands. The fol l owi ng l i st contai ns words and phrases that
unnecessari l y qual i fy what you want to say:
COMMONLY USED HEDGING WORDS AND PHRASES
al most
tends to
somewhat
rather
i n a way
ki nd of
i t seems
sort of
that may or may not
Hedging: A major earthquake that may or may not occur i n thi s regi on can cause a
great deal of damage.
Improved: I f a major earthquake occurs i n thi s regi on, i t wi l l cause a great deal
of damage.
AVOID REDUNDANCY
Redundancy occurs when you repeat an i dea unnecessari l y. I t prevents wri ti ng from bei ng
conci se. Sayi ng the same thi ng repeatedl y not onl y sounds awkward but adds deadwood to
your essay. To el i mi nate redundancy i n your wri ti ng, l ook for words or phrases that repeat the
meani ng of another word.
Redundant: Tami ko prefers the wri tten l etter to the tel ephone.
Improved: Tami ko prefers l etters to tel ephone cal l s.
Redundant: The consensus of opi ni on i n our communi ty i s that commerci al bui l di ng
shoul d be restri cted.
Improved: The consensus i n our communi ty i s that commerci al bui l di ng shoul d
be restri cted.
BE SUCCINCT
Less obvi ous than deadwood and redundant l anguage are wordy phrases and cl auses that can
weaken the i mpact of your wri ti ng. Shorten wordy phrases and cl auses i f you can wi thout
changi ng the meani ng of your sentence. Sentences can be rewri tten by usi ng apposi ti ves,
preposi ti onal phrases, adjecti ves, adverbs, or possessi ve nouns. Someti mes you can repl ace a
phrase wi th a si ngl e word.
Wordy: Denee sang every Chri stmas carol i n a l oud voi ce.
Improved: Denee sang every Chri stmas carol l oudl y.
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NOTE
Be careful that
you dont
eliminate all
hedging words in
your writing.
Sometimes you
need to qualify
what you are
saying.
Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 163
www.petersons.com
Wordy: Touri sts from Germany and Canada l ove to vacati on i n the Cari bbean.
Improved: Many German and Canadi an touri sts l ove to vacati on i n the Cari bbean.
I f your essay has a great many adjecti ve cl auses, you can si mpl i fy sentences by droppi ng the
cl auses subject, verb, and other unnecessary words. Al so substi tute apposi ti ves, parti ci pi al
phrases, and compounds for wordy cl auses.
Wordy: The pai nti ng, whi ch hangs on the museums thi rd fl oor, accuratel y portrays the
si gni ng of the Decl arati on of I ndependence.
Improved: The pai nti ng, on the museums thi rd fl oor, accuratel y portrays the si gni ng of
the Decl arati on of I ndependence.
CREATING AN IDEA BANK
Before you begi n practi ci ng for the essay secti on of the test, brai nstorm al l the words and
phrases you can thi nk of to descri be a l i terary work of nonfi cti oncri ti cal essay,
autobi ography, bi ography, opi ni on pi ece, sci ence arti cl e, and so on. Make categori es under
each. You mi ght do the exerci se wi th a fri end, and then share l i sts to gather as many words as
you can. Use thi s as your i dea bank and your word bank, and consul t i t before you begi n each
practi ce essay. Here i s a start to your l i st.
AUTOBIOGRAPHY
Diction Style
verbose convol uted
wordy el egant
fl owery preci se
164 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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NOTE
To review more
about combining
sentences, see
p. 150 in this
chapter.
NOTE
Having this list in
mind will keep
you from having
writers block
during the test.
www.petersons.com
98 COMMON USAGE PROBLEMS
Many usage errors resul t from usi ng col l oqui al i sms, the l anguage of everyday use, i n formal
wri tten Engl i sh. Others occur because words that are si mi l ar i n meani ng or spel l i ng are
confused. The fol l owi ng i s a l i st of 98 common usage probl ems that you shoul d avoi d i n
your wri ti ng.
1. a, an
Use the arti cl e a before consonant sounds and the arti cl e an before vowel sounds.
Words begi nni ng wi th h, o, and u can have ei ther sound.
2. accept, except
Accept i s a verb meani ng to recei ve, and except i s a preposi ti on meani ng other
than or l eavi ng out.
3. accuse, allege
Accusemeans to bl ame, whereas allegemeans to state as fact somethi ng that has
not been proved.
4. adapt, adopt
Adapt means to change, but adopt means to take as ones own.
5. advice, advise
Advice, a noun, means an opi ni on. Advisei s a verb that means to express an
opi ni on to.
6. affect, effect
Affect i s normal l y a verb meani ng to i nfl uence. Effect i s usual l y a noun that means
resul t. Someti mes, effect i s a verb that means to cause.
7. aggravate
Aggravatemeans to make somethi ng worse; i t shoul d not be used to refer to
an annoyance.
8. aint
Aint i s nonstandard Engl i sh.
9. allot, a lot, alot
The verb allot means to di vi de i n parts or to gi ve out shares. A lot i s an i nformal
phrase meani ng a great many, so you shoul d not use i t i n formal wri ti ng. Alot i s
nonstandard spel l i ng. I t shoul d never be used.
10. all ready, already
All ready, whi ch functi ons as an adjecti ve, i s an expressi on meani ng ready. Already,
an adverb, means by or before thi s ti me or even now.
11. all right, alright.
Alright i s a nonstandard spel l i ng. Use the two-word versi on.
12. all together, altogether
All together means al l at once. Altogether means compl etel y.
13. A.M., P.M.
A.M. refers to hours before noon, P.M. to hours after noon. Numbers are not spel l ed
out when you use these abbrevi ati ons, nor shoul d you use phrases such as i n the
morni ng or i n the eveni ng wi th them.
14. among, between
Among and between are preposi ti ons. Among i s used wi th three or more i tems.
Between i s general l y used wi th onl y two i tems.
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Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 165
www.petersons.com
15. amount, number
Amount i s used wi th quanti ti es that cannot be counted. Use number when i tems can
be counted.
16. anxious
Anxious means worri ed or uneasy. I t shoul d not be used to mean eager.
17. anyone, any one, everyone, every one
Anyoneand everyonemean any person and every person. Any onemeans any
si ngl e person or thi ng, and every onemeans every si ngl e person or thi ng.
18. anyway, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere
These adverbs shoul d never end i n s.
19. as
As shoul d not be used to mean because or si nce.
20. as to
As to i s awkward. Substi tute about.
21. at
El i mi nate at when used after where.
22. at about
El i mi nate at or about i f you fi nd them used together.
23. awful, awfully
Awful i s used i nformal l y to mean extremel y bad. Awfully i s al so i nformal ,
meani ng very.
24. awhile, a while
Awhilei s an adverb, meani ng for a whi l e. A whilei s an arti cl e and a noun and i s
usual l y used after the preposi ti on for.
25. beat, win
Beat means to overcome. Win means to achi eve vi ctory i n. Repl ace win i f the
sentence sense i s beat.
26. because
El i mi nate becausei f i t fol l ows the reason, or rephrase the sentence.
27. being as, being that
Repl ace ei ther phrase wi th sinceor because.
28. beside, besides
Besidemeans at the si de of or cl ose to. Besides means i n addi ti on to. They are
not i nterchangeabl e.
29. bring, take
Bring means to carry from a di stant pl ace to a nearer one. Takemeans the opposi te,
to carry from a near pl ace to a more di stant pl ace.
30. bunch
Bunch means a number of thi ngs of the same ki nd. Do not use bunch to
mean group.
31. burst, bust, busted
Burst i s the present, past, and past parti ci pl e of the verb to burst. Bust and busted
are nonstandard Engl i sh.
32. but what
But what i s nonstandard Engl i sh. Use that.
33. can, may
Use can to mean to have the abi l i ty to. Use may to mean to have permi ssi on to.
34. cant help but
Use cant help pl us a gerund i nstead of cant help but; for exampl e, cant help crying.
166 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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NOTE
In formal writing,
awful should be
used to mean
only inspiring
fear or awe.
www.petersons.com
35. condemn, condone
These words have nearl y opposi te meani ngs. Condemn means to express di sapproval
of. Condonemeans to pardon or excuse.
36. continual, continuous
Continual means occurri ng over and over i n successi on, but continuous means
occurri ng wi thout stoppi ng.
37. different from, different than
The expressi on different fromi s more accepted.
38. doesnt, dont
Use doesnt wi th thi rd-person si ngul ar subjects.
39. done
Done, the past parti ci pl e of the verb to do, fol l ows a hel pi ng verb.
40. dove
Use dived i nstead of dovefor the past tense of the verb dive.
41. dueto
Use dueto onl y when the words caused by can be substi tuted.
42. dueto thefact that
Use sinceor becausei nstead.
43. each other, oneanother
Most of the ti me these expressi ons are i nterchangeabl e. Someti mes each other i s used
when onl y two peopl e or thi ngs are i nvol ved, and oneanother i s used when more than
two are i nvol ved.
44. emigrate, immigrate
These are opposi tes. Emigratemeans to l eave a country, and immigratemeans to
enter a country. I n both cases, i t i s a reference to establ i shi ng a resi dency.
45. enthused, enthusiastic
Enthused i s nonstandard Engl i sh; therefore, use enthusiastic.
46. farther, further
Farther i s a reference to di stance, but further means to a greater degree.
47. fewer, less
Fewer i s properl y used wi th thi ngs that are counted, and less i s used wi th qual i ti es or
quanti ti es that are not counted.
48. former, latter
I n referri ng to two i tems, former desi gnates the fi rst and latter, the second.
49. get, got, gotten
Al though these verbs are acceptabl e, i t i s better to sel ect di fferent verbs i f possi bl e,
such as become, became, havebecome.
50. gone, went
Gone, the past parti ci pl e of the verb to go, requi res a hel pi ng verb. Went i s the past
tense of go, and no hel pi ng verb i s requi red.
51. good, lovely, nice
Try to use more speci fi c adjecti ves i n thei r pl ace.
52. hanged, hung
Hanged means executed, and hung means suspended.
53. healthful, healthy
Healthful i s used wi th thi ngs (healthful diet), and healthy refers to peopl e.
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Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 167
www.petersons.com
54. if, whether
These conjuncti ons are i nterchangeabl e, except when the i ntenti on i s to gi ve equal
stress to al ternati ves, i n whi ch case if wont work, and whether must be used wi th or
not. I l l go whether you come wi th me or not i s not the same as I l l go i f you come
wi th me.
55. in, into
I n i s a posi ti on reference (thekitten drank themilk in thebowl), but into i mpl i es
movement (thekitten stepped into thebowl of milk).
56. irregardless
Thi s i s nonstandard Engl i sh. Use regardless i nstead.
57. judicial, judicious
J udicial refers to a l egal system. J udicious means to show wi sdom.
58. just
Pl ace just, when i t i s used as an adverb meani ng no more than, i mmedi atel y before
the word i t modi fi es.
59. kind of, sort of
Do not use these words to mean rather or somewhat.
60. kind of a, sort of a
Do not use a fol l owi ng kind of or sort of.
61. lay, lie
Lay means to set or put somethi ng down, and i t i s usual l y fol l owed by a di rect
object. Liemeans to recl i ne, and i t i s never fol l owed by a di rect object.
62. learn, teach
Learn refers to gai ni ng knowl edge, whereas teach means to gi ve knowl edge.
63. leave, let
Leavemeans to al l ow to remai n, and let means to permi t.
64. like
Likei s a preposi ti on and shoul d not be used i n pl ace of as.
65. loose, lose
Loosei s commonl y an adjecti ve. Losei s al ways a verb meani ng to mi ss from
ones possessi on.
66. mad
When used i n formal l anguage, mad means i nsane. When i t i s used i n i nformal
l anguage, i t means angry.
67. maybe, may be
Maybei s an adverb that means perhaps. May bei s a verb.
68. number, numeral
Use number to mean quanti ty and numeral to mean the fi gure representi ng the
number, that i s, thenumeral that comes after 3 is 4.
69. of
Do not use of after the verbs should, would, could, or must. Use havei nstead. Al so
el i mi nate of after the words outside, inside, off, and atop.
70. OK, O.K., okay
Do not use these words i n formal wri ti ng.
71. only
Make sure to pl ace only i mmedi atel y precedi ng the word i t l ogi cal l y modi fi es. You only
say you loveme, that i s, you say i t but you dont mean i t; You say you loveonly me,
that i s, I am the onl y one you l ove.
168 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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NOTE
The principal
parts of lay are
lay, laying, laid,
and laid. The
principal parts of
lie are lie, lying,
lay, and lain.
www.petersons.com
72. ought
Do not use haveor had wi th ought. Ought i s used wi th an i nfi ni ti ve; for exampl e,
ought to wash, ought not to cry.
73. outsideof
Do not use outsideof to mean besi des or except.
74. parameter
Use parameter onl y i n mathemati cal contexts to desi gnate a vari abl e.
75. persecute, prosecute
Persecutemeans to subject to i l l treatment, whereas prosecutemeans to bri ng a
l awsui t agai nst.
76. plurals that do not end in s
Some nouns are made pl ural i n the same way that they were i n thei r ori gi nal
l anguage. For exampl e, criteria and phenomena are pl ural . Make sure that you treat
them as pl ural , not si ngul ar, nouns.
77. poorly
Do not use poorly to mean i l l i n formal wri ti ng.
78. precede, proceed
Precedemeans to go before, and proceed means to go forward.
79. principal, principle
Principal can be a noun or an adjecti ve. As a noun, i t means a person who has
control l i ng authori ty, and as an adjecti ve, i t means most i mportant. Principlei s
al ways a noun, and i t means a basi c l aw.
80. raise, rise
Raisenormal l y takes a di rect object, but risenever takes a di rect object, as i n I
raised the fl ag, but I riseevery morni ng at 6.
81. real
Do not use real to mean very or real l y i n formal l anguage.
82. says
Do not use says i n pl ace of said.
83. seen
Seen requi res a hel pi ng verb, as i n I was seen at the movi es, not I seen hi m at
the movi es.
84. set, sit
Set i s usual l y fol l owed by a di rect object and means to put somethi ng i n a speci fi c
pl ace. Sit means to be seated, and i t i s never fol l owed by a di rect object.
85. shape
I n formal l anguage, do not use the word shapeto mean condi ti on, as i n Theboxer
was in good shape.
86. since, because
Use sincewhen ti me i s i nvol ved and becausewhen a reason i s i nvol ved. SinceI last
saw them, I read a book, but Becausethey camelast Saturday, I did not finish the
book I was reading.
87. slow, slowly
I t i s preferabl e to use slow as the adjecti ve and slowly as the adverb.
88. than, then
Than i s a comparati ve and i s not to be confused wi th then, whi ch refers to ti me.
89. that, which, who
These pronouns refer to the fol l owi ng: thatpeopl e and thi ngs, whichonl y thi ngs,
and whoonl y peopl e.
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ALERT!
If a word ends in
a or i, be careful.
It may be plural.
NOTE
You can
remember the
difference by
thinking of your
princiPAL as
your PAL.
TIP
Careful writers still
use slow only as
an adjective.
Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 169
www.petersons.com
90. their, there, theyre
Their i s a possessi ve pronoun. Therei s an expl eti ve or an adverb. Theyrei s a
contracti on of they are.
91. themthere, thesehere, this here, that there
These are nonstandard expressi ons and shoul d not be used. Repl ace wi th theseor
thosei f an adjecti ve i s requi red.
92. till, until
These words are i nterchangeabl e, but they are often mi sspel l ed.
93. to, too, two
To i s a preposi ti on. Too i s an adverb used to modi fy adjecti ves and adverbs. Two i s
a number.
94. unique
Uniquemeans one of a ki nd; therefore, i t shoul d not be modi fi ed by words such as
very or most.
95. want in, want out
These are nonstandard expressi ons and shoul d not be used.
96. ways
Ways i s pl ural . Do not use the arti cl e a i mmedi atel y precedi ng ways.
97. when, where
Do not use these words di rectl y after a l i nki ng verb. Al so, do not use whereas a
substi tute for that.
98. -wise
Do not use thi s suffi x to create new words.
Be sure to use
but that, not but what
becauseof, not dueto
because, not on account of
rarely or hardly ever, not rarely ever
kind or kind of a, not sort, sort of
170 PART IV: English Usage and Grammar Review
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NOTE
To correct a
sentence
containing them
there, these here,
this here, or that
there, delete here
or there.
www.petersons.com
SUMMING IT UP
Any grammar questi ons on the test are real l y di sgui sed comprehensi on questi ons. They
wi l l ask you to i denti fy one of the parts of speech or they wi l l ask you to cl assi fy parts of
a sentence.
Remember to use the present tense when wri ti ng about the authors i ntenti on i n
l i terary works.
Wri ti ng ti med essays, eval uati ng them, and then worki ng to i mprove the weaknesses you
i denti fy are the best ways to prepare for the test.
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Chapter 5: Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Review 171
www.petersons.com
P
ART V
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TWO PRACTICE TESTS
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PRACTICE TEST 2
PRACTICE TEST 3
ANSWER SHEET PRACTICE TEST 2
SECTION I
1. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
2. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
3. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
4. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
5. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
6. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
7. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
8. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
9. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
10. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
11. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
12. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
13. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
14. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
15. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
16. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
17. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
18. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
19. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
20. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
21. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
22. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
23. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
24. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
25. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
26. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
27. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
28. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
29. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
30. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
31. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
32. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
33. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
34. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
35. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
36. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
37. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
38. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
39. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
40. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
41. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
42. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
43. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
44. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
45. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
46. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
47. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
48. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
49. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
50. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
51. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
52. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
53. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
54. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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-
-
-

a
n
s
w
e
r
s
h
e
e
t
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Practice Test 2 175
www.petersons.com
S
E
C
T
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O
N
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I
Q
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1
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Practice Test 2
SECTION I
54 Q UESTIO NS 60 M INUTES
Directions: Thi s secti on consi sts of sel ecti ons of l i terature and
questi ons on thei r content, styl e, and form. After you have read each
passage, sel ect the response that best answers the questi on and mark
the correspondi ng space on the answer sheet.
QUESTIONS 115 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE. READ THE PASSAGE
CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
From the Preface of M od e rn Am e ric a n Poe try, a C ritic a l Antholog y
Line I t may be di ffi cul t, i f not i mpossi bl e, to determi ne the boundari es as
wel l as the begi nni ngs of moderni sm, but onl y a few apprai sers wi l l
deny that Ameri can l i terature became modern as wel l as Ameri can
wi th the advent of Mark Twai n, Herman Mel vi l l e, and Wal t Whi tman.
I n the hi story of poetry the l i ne may be drawn wi th a measure of
certai nty, and i t i s wi th the Ci vi l War and the publ i cati on of the thi rd
edi ti on of Leaves of Grass that modern Ameri can poetry i s defi ned.
Aftermath of the Ci vi l War
The Ci vi l War i nspi red vol umes of i ndi gnant, mi l i tary, rel i gi ous, and
patri oti c verse wi thout addi ng more than four or fi ve memorabl e pi eces
to the anthol ogi es; the confl i ct produced a vast quanti ty of poems but
practi cal l y no i mportant poetry. I ts end marked the end of an epoch
pol i ti cal , soci al , and l i terary. The arts decl i ned; the New Engl and group
began to di si ntegrate. The poets had overstrai ned and outsung them-
sel ves; i t was a ti me of surrender and swan-songs. Unabl e to respond
to the new forces of pol i ti cal nati onal i sm and i ndustri al reconstructi on,
the Brahmi ns (that famous group of i ntel l ectual s who had domi nated
l i terary Ameri ca) wi thdrew i nto thei r l i brari es. Such poets as Longfel -
l ow, Bryant, Tayl or, turned thei r eyes away from the nati ve scene, or
l eft creati ve wri ti ng al together and occupi ed themsel ves wi th transl a-
ti ons. They had been borne i nto an era i n whi ch they had no part,
wri tes Fred Lewi s Pattee (A History of American LiteratureSince
1870), and they contented themsel ves wi th rechoi ngs of the ol d
musi c. For them poetry ceased to be a refl ecti on of actual i ty, an
extensi on of experi ence. Wi thi n a peri od of si x years, from 1867 to
1872, there appeared Longfel l ows Divina Commedia, C. E. Nortons
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Vita Nuova, T. W. Parsons I nferno, Wi l l i am Cul l en Bryants I liad and Odyssey, and
Bayard Tayl ors Faust.
Suddenl y the break came. Ameri ca devel oped a nati onal consci ousness; the West
di scovered i tsel f, and the East di scovered the West. Grudgi ngl y at fi rst, the ari sto-
crati c l eaders made way for a new expressi on; crude, jangl i ng, vi gorousl y democrati c.
The ol d order was changi ng wi th a vengeance. Al l the precedi ng wri terspoets l i ke
Emerson, Lowel l , Longfel l ow, Hol meswere not onl y products of the New Engl and
col l eges, but typi cal l y Boston gentl emen of the earl y Renai ssance. To them, the new
men must have seemed l i ke a regi ment recrui ted from the ranks of vul gari ty. Wal t
Whi tman, Mark Twai n, Bret Harte, John Hay, Joaqui n Mi l l er, Joel Chandl er Harri s,
James Whi tcomb Ri l eythese were men who had graduated from the farm, the
fronti er, the mi ne, the pi l othouse, the pri nters shop! For a whi l e, the movement
seemed of l i ttl e consequence; the i mpact of Whi tman and the Westerners was averted.
The poets of the transi ti on, wi th a del i berate art, i gnored the surge of a spontaneous
nati onal expressi on. They were even successful i n hol di ng i t back. But i t was a
gatheri ng force.
Loui s Untermeyer
1. What i s the meani ng of the expres-
si on, overstrai ned and outsung
themsel ves (l i nes 1415)?
(A) Ti red out
(B) Lost creati vi ty
(C) Worked too hard
(D) Gone beyond thei r knowl edge
(E) Sought new i nsi ghts
2. Thi s sel ecti on i s an exampl e of whi ch
mode of wri ti ng?
(A) Descri pti ve
(B) Narrati ve
(C) Persuasi ve
(D) Exposi tory
(E) Argument
3. What i s the best expl anati on of the
expressi on, an extensi on of experi -
ence (l i nes 2425)?
(A) A reference to exi stenti al i sm
i n poetry
(B) Poetry as a refl ecti on of the
real worl d
(C) A defi ni ti on of modern poetry
(D) A refl ecti on of the uni versal
nature of poetry
(E) Poetry as an art form
4. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the thesi s
that the author expl ores?
(A) The Ci vi l War i nspi red vol umes
of i ndi gnant, mi l i tary, rel i gi ous,
and patri oti c verse wi thout
addi ng more than four or fi ve
memorabl e pi eces to
the anthol ogi es.
(B) I t may be di ffi cul t, i f not
i mpossi bl e, to determi ne the
boundari es as wel l as the
begi nni ngs of moderni sm.
(C) Onl y a few apprai sers wi l l deny
that Ameri can l i terature
became modern as wel l as
Ameri can wi th the advent of
Mark Twai n, Herman Mel vi l l e,
and Wal t Whi tman.
(D) The concl usi on of the Ci vi l War
marked the end of an epoch
pol i ti cal , soci al , and l i terary.
(E) The Brahmi ns wi thdrew from
the l i terary scene because they
coul d not respond to the
changes made by the Ci vi l War.
184 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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5. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng changed the
rol e of the Brahmi ns?
(A) The Ci vi l War and Reconstruc-
ti on
(B) Rel i gi ous freedom and pol i ti cs
(C) Pol i ti cal nati onal i sm and
i ndustri al reconstructi on
(D) I ndustri al growth and the
westward movement
(E) Phi l osophi cal creati vi ty and the
sci enti fi c revol uti on
6. Longfel l ows Divina Commedia i s an
exampl e of the authors contenti on that
(A) moderni sm began wi th the end
of the Ci vi l War
(B) the New Engl and poets no
l onger created vi brant, ori gi nal
verse, but turned to
transl ati ons
(C) moderni sm devel oped al ong
pol i ti cal l i nes
(D) modern l i terature grew sl owl y
i n most areas
(E) the New Engl and wri ters
provi ded a more studi ed vi ew
of l i fe
7. What i s meant by the expressi on,
rechoi ngs of the ol d musi c
(l i nes 2324)?
(A) Ti red ol d songs
(B) Rewri ti ng ol d materi al
(C) Heari ng i nfl uences from
the past
(D) Metaphori cal sounds of the past
(E) Redone phi l osophi cal treati ses
8. The author contends that the
Brahmi ns vi ewed the new poets as
(A) vul gar
(B) i ntel l ectual
(C) uneducated
(D) si mpl e
(E) i nsi ghtful
9. What does the author mean i n the
fi rst l i nes of the fi nal paragraph,
Suddenl y the break came. Ameri ca
devel oped a nati onal consci ousness;
the West di scovered i tsel f, and the
East di scovered the West.?
(A) Peopl e i n the East were
movi ng west.
(B) There was a break i n thought
between the East and West.
(C) Ameri can modern poetry
found i tsel f.
(D) The Brahmi ns and modern
poets were i n confl i ct.
(E) Poetry from the West became
the domi nant verse.
10. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
characteri zati on of the tone of
thi s passage?
(A) Harsh and scathi ng
(B) Schol arl y and i nformati ve
(C) Condescendi ng and i rri tati ng
(D) Humorous and wi tty
(E) Dry and pretenti ous
11. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best summa-
ri zes the thoughts of the author i n
thi s pi ece?
(A) The Brahmi ns poetry, al though
superi or to modern poetry, was
l ost after the Ci vi l War.
(B) The more l i berated modern
Ameri can poetry outshone the
ol der styl es.
(C) The Brahmi ns were essenti al l y
the creators of modern
Ameri can poetry.
(D) The Ci vi l War marked the
begi nni ng of modern
Ameri can poetry.
(E) The experi ences of the Ci vi l
War formed the basi s of some of
the Brahmi ns work.
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Practice Test 2 185

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


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12. The author woul d agree wi th whi ch
of the fol l owi ng statements about the
Ci vi l War?
(A) I t produced a great number of
poems, but l i ttl e poetry.
(B) I t produced many poets.
(C) I t devel oped the ski l l s of
the Brahmi ns.
(D) I t created new advocates
of poetry.
(E) I t produced a number of forums
for poets.
13. What i s the meani ng of the sentence
begi nni ng The poets of the transi -
ti on, wi th a del i berate art, (l i ne 40)?
(A) The transi ti onal poets were
del i berate i n thei r poetry.
(B) The Brahmi ns worked to
prevent changes i n
Ameri can poetry.
(C) The Brahmi ns pai d l i ttl e
attenti on to the changes
i n poetry.
(D) The spontaneous growth of
modern Ameri can poetry
overwhel med the Brahmi ns.
(E) There was l i ttl e support for the
Brahmi ns poetry.
14. The author characteri zes the new
poets as
(A) brash and arrogant
(B) spi ri tual and phi l osophi cal
(C) mal l eabl e and whi msi cal
(D) forceful and i nventi ve
(E) crude and cutti ng edge
15. The author characteri zes the
Brahmi ns as
(A) educated and mercuri al
(B) stuffy and i ntransi gent
(C) l i ght-hearted and i ntrospecti ve
(D) seri ous but easygoi ng
(E) bri l l i ant and forgi vi ng
QUESTIONS 1630 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY
AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS. THIS PIECE WAS WRITTEN IN 1780
WHEN BENJAMIN FRANKLIN WAS RESTRICTED TO HIS HOUSE DURING AN ATTACK OF GOUT.
From Dialogue Between Gout and Mr. Franklin
Line Franklin. How can you so cruel l y sport wi th my torments?
Gout. Sport! I am very seri ous. I have here a l i st of offenses agai nst your own
heal th di sti nctl y wri tten and can justi fy every stroke i nfl i cted on you.
Franklin. Read i t, then.
Gout. I t i s too l ong a detai l , but I wi l l bri efl y menti on some parti cul ars.
Franklin. Proceed. I am al l attenti on.
Gout. Do you remember how often you have promi sed yoursel f, the fol l owi ng
morni ng, a wal k i n the grove of Boul ogne, i n the garden de l a Muette, or
i n your own garden, and have vi ol ated your promi se, al l egi ng, at one
ti me, i t was too col d, at another, too warm, too wi nd, too moi st, or what
el se you pl eased, when i n truth i t was too nothi ng but your i nsuperabl e
l ove of ease?
Franklin. That I confess may have happened occasi onal l y, probabl y ten ti mes i n a
year.
186 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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Gout. Your confessi on i s very far short of the truth. The gross amount i s one
hundred and ni nety-ni ne ti mes.
Franklin. I s i t possi bl e?
Gout. So possi bl e, that i t i s fact. You may rel y on the accuracy of my statement.
You know M. Bri l l ons gardens and what fi ne wal ks they contai n, you
know the handsome fl i ght of a hundred steps whi ch l ead from the terrace
above to the l awn bel ow. You have been i n the practi ce of vi si ti ng thi s
ami abl e fami l y twi ce a week, after di nner, and i t i s a maxi m of your own
that a man may take as much exerci se i n wal ki ng a mi l e up and down
stai rs as i n ten on l evel ground. What an opportuni ty was here for you
to have had exerci se i n both these ways! Di d you embrace i t, and how
often?
Franklin. I cannot i mmedi atel y answer that questi on.
Gout. I wi l l do i t for you: not once.
Franklin. Not once?
Gout. Even so. Duri ng the summer you went there at si x ocl ock. You found the
charmi ng l ady wi th her l ovel y chi l dren and fri ends eager to wal k wi th
you and entertai n you wi th thei r agreeabl e conversati on, and what has
been your choi ce? Why to si t on the terrace, sati sfyi ng yoursel f wi th the
fi ne prospect and passi ng your eye over the beauti es of the garden bel ow,
wi thout taki ng one step to descend and wal k about i n them. On the
contrary, you cal l for tea and the chessboard, and l o! You are occupi ed i n
your seat ti l l ni ne ocl ock, and that besi des two hours pl ay after di nner;
and then, i nstead of wal ki ng home, whi ch woul d have besti rred you a
l i ttl e, you step i nto your carri age. How absurd to suppose that al l thi s
carel essness can be reconci l abl e wi th heal th wi thout my i nterposi ti on!
Franklin. I am convi nced now of the justness of poor Ri chards remark that Our
debts and our si ns are al ways greater than we thi nk for.
Gout. So i t i s. You phi l osophers are sages i n your maxi ms and fool s i n your
conduct.
Franklin. But do you charge among my cri mes that I return i n a carri age from M.
Bri l l ons?
Gout. Certai nl y, for, havi ng been seated al l the whi l e, you cannot object the
fati gue of the day and cannot want therefore the rel i ef of a carri age.
Franklin. What then woul d you have me do wi th my carri age?
Gout. Burn i t i f you choose, you woul d at l east get heat out of i t once i n thi s
way; or, i f you di sl i ke that proposal , heres another for you: observe the
poor peasants who work i n the vi neyard and grounds about the vi l l ages
of Passy, Auteui l , Chai l l ot, etc., you may fi nd every day among these
deservi ng creatures four or fi ve ol d men and women bent and perhaps
cri ppl ed by wei ght of years and too l ong and too great l abor. After a most
fati gui ng day these peopl e have to trudge a mi l e or two to thei r smoky
huts. Order your coachman to set them down. Thi s i s an act that wi l l be
good for your soul ; and, at the same ti me, after your vi si t to the Bri l l ons,
i f you return on foot, that wi l l be good for your body.
Franklin. Ah! How ti resome you are!
Gout. Wel l , then, to my offi ce, i t shoul d not be forgotten that I am your physi -
ci an. There . . .
Franklin. Oh! Oh!for Heavens sake l eave me! And I promi se fai thful l y never
more to pl ay at chess but to take exerci se dai l y and l i ve temperatel y.
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Practice Test 2 187
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Gout. I know you too wel l . You promi se fai r, but, after a few months of good
heal th, you wi l l return to your ol d habi ts; your fi ne promi ses wi l l be
forgotten l i ke the forms of l ast years cl ouds. Let us then fi ni sh the
account, and I wi l l go. But I l eave you wi th an assurance of vi si ti ng you
agai n at a proper ti me and pl ace, for my object i s your good, and you are
sensi bl e now that I am your real friend.
Benjami n Frankl i n
16. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best summa-
ri zes the theme of thi s excerpt?
(A) A statement on the heal th of
weal thy i ndi vi dual s
(B) A del i neati on of the reasons
to exerci se
(C) A fanci ful di scussi on between a
man and hi s di sease
(D) A l amentati on of a man who
i s hurti ng
(E) A di al ogue for a moral i ty pl ay
17. What i s the l i terary process that
gi ves Gout voi ce?
(A) Al l i terati on
(B) Metaphor
(C) Al l egory
(D) Personi fi cati on
(E) Si mi l e
18. What i s the tone of the di al ogue?
(A) Cl i ni cal , sci enti fi c
(B) Reasoned, yet humorous
(C) Formal and structured
(D) Si l l y and fri vol ous
(E) Objecti ve
19. When Frankl i n acknowl edges the
justness of the statement, Our debts
and our si ns are al ways greater than
we thi nk for, (l i nes 4142) whi ch of
the fol l owi ng i s he confi rmi ng?
(A) We bel i eve that many of our
debts are too great.
(B) We bel i eve that we shoul d not
have any debts.
(C) We bel i eve that our debts and
our si ns are al ways smal l er
than they turn out to be.
(D) We bel i eve that commi tti ng a
si n shoul d not create a debt
that we must pay.
(E) We bel i eve that others do not have
to pay as heavi l y for thei r si ns.
20. What i s the best defi ni ti on for the
word i nterposi ti on (l i ne 40)?
(A) I ntercessi on
(B) I nterdi cti on
(C) I nvol vement
(D) Absence
(E) I ntervi ew
21. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
characteri zati on of Gouts reacti on to
Frankl i ns statement that Gout i s
sporti ng wi th hi m (l i ne 1)?
(A) I ndi gnati on
(B) Pl eased
(C) Chasti sed
(D) Contri te
(E) Obl i vi ous
22. From thi s di al ogue, what assumpti on
can be made about what
Frankl i n advocates?
(A) Wal ki ng when i n a
forei gn country
(B) Hel pi ng the poor and
l ess fortunate
(C) Reasonabl e and responsi bl e
behavi or on the part of
the i ndi vi dual
(D) I nvol vement i n the heal th
practi ces of others
(E) Li mi ti ng ti me pl ayi ng games
23. Gouts atti tude toward Frankl i n i s
best descri bed as
(A) di sgusted
(B) conci l i atory
(C) superfi ci al
(D) stern
(E) pedanti c
188 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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24. Why does the author el ect to express
hi s i deas wi th a di al ogue between
Gout and Frankl i n?
(A) I t al l ows cl ari ty between Gouts
thoughts and Frankl i ns reacti on.
(B) I t makes i t easi er for Frankl i n
to di spute the mi si nterpretati on
of Gout.
(C) The authors onl y purpose was
to be l i ght-hearted.
(D) I t chal l enges the reader to take
the si de of ei ther Gout
or Frankl i n.
(E) I t l eaves ambi gui ty as to the
moti ves of Gout and Frankl i n.
25. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng statements
most accuratel y characteri zes the
i nterests of Frankl i n?
(A) He l i kes wal ki ng i n
the gardens.
(B) He enjoys bei ng wi th fri ends.
(C) He l i kes to be outsi de i n
the sun.
(D) He enjoys a sedentary l i festyl e.
(E) He puts hi s work second
to pl easure.
26. What i s the meani ng of the word
object (l i ne 47)?
(A) Feel
(B) Di spute
(C) Argue
(D) Si l ence
(E) Save
27. The sentence You found the charm-
i ng l ady wi th her l ovel y chi l dren and
fri ends eager to wal k wi th you and
entertai n you wi th thei r agreeabl e
conversati on, and what has been
your choi ce? contai ns
I . A parti ci pi al phrase
I I . A compound verb i n the
past tense
I I I . An i nfi ni ti ve
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I I onl y
(E) I , I I , and I I I
28. What does the sentence I cannot
i mmedi atel y answer that questi on
(l i ne 27) say about Frankl i ns state
of mi nd?
(A) He i s argumentati ve.
(B) He i s forgetful .
(C) He i s feel i ng gui l ty.
(D) He i s not bei ng seri ous.
(E) He i s ti red of Gout.
29. How does the di al ogue refl ect the
ei ghteenth centurys i nterest
i n sci ence?
(A) The menti on of gardens
(B) Recogni ti on that wal ki ng i s
i mportant exerci se
(C) Use of sci enti fi c reasons for
medi cal condi ti ons
(D) Use of sci enti fi c l anguage
(E) I ncl usi on of quotati ons from an
i mportant sci enti fi c work
30. What i s Frankl i n the author suggest-
i ng by Gouts statement, So i t i s.
You phi l osophers are sages i n your
maxi ms and fool s i n your conduct.
(l i nes 4344)?
(A) Phi l osophers are i gnorant.
(B) Wi se peopl e are i nfal l i bl e.
(C) Peopl e can make wi se state-
ments and take unwi se acti ons.
(D) I ntel l i gent comments arent
al ways used.
(E) Peopl e can make i l l -consi dered
statements.
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Practice Test 2 189

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QUESTIONS 3143 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY
AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
From The We a lth of Na tions
Line The di scovery of Ameri ca, and that of a passage to the East I ndi es by the Cape of
Good Hope, are the two greatest and most i mportant events recorded i n the hi story of
manki nd. Thei r consequences have al ready been very great: but, i n the short peri od of
between two and three centuri es whi ch has el apsed si nce these di scoveri es were made,
i t i s i mpossi bl e that the whol e extent of thei r consequences can have been seen. What
benefi ts or what mi sfortunes to manki nd may hereafter resul t from those great
events, no human wi sdom can foresee. By uni ti ng, i n some measure, the most di stant
parts of the worl d, by enabl i ng them to rel i eve one anothers wants, to i ncrease one
anothers enjoyments, and to encourage one anothers i ndustry, thei r general tendency
woul d seem to be benefi ci al .
I n the meanti me, one of the pri nci pal effects of those di scoveri es has been to rai se
the mercanti l e system to a degree of spl endour and gl ory whi ch i t coul d never other-
wi se have attai ned to. I t i s the object of that system to enri ch a great nati on rather by
trade and manufactures than by the i mprovement and cul ti vati on of l and, rather by
the i ndustry of the towns than by that of the country. But, i n consequence of those
di scoveri es, the commerci al towns of Europe, i nstead of bei ng the manufacturers and
carri ers for but a very smal l part of the worl d, (that part of Europe whi ch i s washed
by the Atl anti c ocean, and the countri es whi ch l i e round the Bal ti c and Medi terranean
seas), have now become the manufacturers for the numerous and thri vi ng cul ti vators
of Ameri ca, and the carri ers, and i n some respects the manufacturers too, for al most
al l the di fferent nati ons of Asi a, Afri ca, and Ameri ca. Two new worl ds have been
opened to thei r i ndustry, each of them much greater and more extensi ve than the ol d
one, and the market of one of them growi ng sti l l greater and greater every day.
The countri es whi ch possess the col oni es of Ameri ca, and whi ch trade di rectl y to the
East I ndi es, enjoy, i ndeed, the whol e show and spl endour of thi s great commerce.
Other countri es, however, notwi thstandi ng al l the i nvi di ous restrai nts by whi ch i t i s
meant to excl ude them, frequentl y enjoy a greater share of the real benefi t of i t. The
col oni es of Spai n and Portugal , for exampl e, gi ve more real encouragement to the
i ndustry of other countri es than to that of Spai n and Portugal . I n the si ngl e arti cl e of
l i nen al one the consumpti on of those col oni es amounts, i t i s sai d, but I do not pretend
to warrant the quanti ty, to be more than three mi l l i on sterl i ng a year. But thi s great
consumpti on i s al most enti rel y suppl i ed by France, Fl anders, Hol l and, and Germany.
Spai n and Portugal furni sh but a smal l part of i t. The capi tal whi ch suppl i es the
col oni es wi th thi s great quanti ty of l i nen i s annual l y di stri buted among, and furni shes
a revenue to, the i nhabi tants of those other countri es.
31. The authors tone i n the passage i s
best descri bed as
(A) objecti ve
(B) di dacti c
(C) pedanti c
(D) persuasi ve
(E) reasoned
32. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best descri bes
the authors atti tude toward expan-
si oni sm?
(A) Ambi val ent
(B) Sympatheti c
(C) Very posi ti ve
(D) Conservati ve
(E) Progressi ve
190 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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33. I n the sentence begi nni ng Other
countri es, however, notwi thstandi ng
al l the i nvi di ous restrai nts (l i ne 26),
the best meani ng for the word
i nvi di ous i s
(A) ensnari ng
(B) decepti ve
(C) treacherous
(D) offensi ve
(E) i nvi nci bl e
34. Thi s sel ecti on i s an exampl e of whi ch
of the fol l owi ng modes of di scourse?
(A) Narrati ve
(B) Descri pti on
(C) Exposi ti on
(D) Argument
(E) Persuasi on
35. The fi rst sentence i n the fi rst
paragraph, The di scovery of
Ameri ca, and that of a passage to the
East I ndi es by the Cape of Good
Hope, are the two greatest and most
i mportant events recorded i n the
hi story of manki nd, presents the
authors vi ew of
I . Hi story
I I . Expansi oni sm
I I I . Economi cs
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I , I I , and I I I
36. Thi s passage reads most l i ke whi ch
of the fol l owi ng?
(A) A l etter
(B) A hi story l esson
(C) A current events l esson
(D) A statement of opi ni on
(E) An essay supporti ng
expansi oni sm
37. I n the fi rst paragraph, the sentence
begi nni ng By uni ti ng, i n some
measure, the most di stant parts of
the worl d (l i nes 78) contai ns whi ch
of the fol l owi ng el ements?
(A) A gerund phrase
(B) An i nfi ni ti ve phrase
(C) A preposi ti onal phrase
(D) An adverb phrase
(E) Al l of the above
38. I n the sentence begi nni ng I n the
meanti me, one of the pri nci pal effects
of those di scoveri es (l i ne 11), the
wri ter empl oys whi ch of the fol l owi ng
rhetori cal devi ces?
(A) Overstatement
(B) Hyperbol e
(C) Concei t
(D) Oversi mpl i fi cati on
(E) I magery
39. Thi s passage i s pri mari l y concerned
wi th the wri ters vi ews on the
(A) benefi ts of gl obal commerce
(B) effects of col oni al i sm on
Ameri ca and the East I ndi es
(C) effects of gl obal commerce
on col oni es
(D) effects of l ai ssez-fai re economi cs
(E) effects of revenues on
i mperi al i st nati ons
40. Accordi ng to thi s passage, what does
the wri ter bel i eve about
European expansi oni sm?
I . I t i s i mpossi bl e to
eval uate ful l y.
I I . I t represents expl oi tati on of
nati ve popul ati ons.
I I I . I t creates gl obal commerce,
whi ch i s good for al l .
I V. I t enri ches countri es other than
those possessi ng the col oni es.
(A) I and I I onl y
(B) I , I I , and I I I onl y
(C) I I and I I I onl y
(D) I I , I I I , and I V onl y
(E) I , I I I , and I V onl y
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Practice Test 2 191

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41. I n the l ast paragraph, the wri ter
empl oys whi ch of the fol l owi ng
styl i sti c devi ces to support
hi s arguments?
(A) General i zati on
(B) Causal rel ati on
(C) Anal ogy
(D) Anecdote
(E) Exampl e
42. What i s the antecedent of thei r i n
the fol l owi ng i ndependent cl ause
from the fi rst paragraph?
. . . but, i n the short peri od of
between two and three centuri es
whi ch has el apsed si nce these
di scoveri es were made, i t i s
i mpossi bl e that the whol e extent
of thei r consequences can have
been seen.
(A) The di scovery of the Ameri cas
and the passage to the
East I ndi es
(B) The short peri od
(C) These di scoveri es
(D) I mportant events
(E) Whol e extent
43. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s the best
rephrasi ng of thi s sentence from the
fi nal paragraph?
I n the si ngl e arti cl e of l i nen
al one the consumpti on of those
col oni es amounts, i t i s sai d, but
I do not pretend to warrant the
quanti ty, to be more than three
mi l l i on sterl i ng a year.
(A) I n the si ngl e arti cl e of l i nen
al one the consumpti on of those
col oni es amounts, i t i s sai d, but
I do not pretend to warrant the
quanti ty, to be more than three
mi l l i on sterl i ng a year.
(B) The consumpti on of those
col oni es amounts of l i nen al one
may be more than three mi l l i on
sterl i ng a year, al though I
cannot warrant the quanti ty.
(C) Regardi ng the consumpti on of
l i nen al one, those col oni es
amounts of that arti cl e, i t i s
sai d, to be more than three
mi l l i on sterl i ng a year, but I do
not pretend to warrant
the quanti ty.
(D) Not pretendi ng to warrant the
quanti ty, i n the si ngl e arti cl e of
l i nen al one the consumpti on of
those col oni es amounts, I have
heard sai d, to be more than
three mi l l i on sterl i ng a year.
(E) I n the si ngl e arti cl e of l i nen
al one the consumpti on of those
col oni es amounts bei ng more
than three mi l l i on sterl i ng a
year, but I do not confi rm
that quanti ty.
192 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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QUESTIONS 4454 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION.
Directions: Read the passage careful l y and then choose the answers to the questi ons.
This p a ssa g e is a n e xc e rp t from a n a rtic le on South Am e ric a n C ic hlid s.
Line When many peopl e thi nk of fi sh tanks i n the home, they thi nk of tropi cal , sal twater
fi sh. And there i s no doubt that sal twater fi sh are some of the most col orful , unusual
creatures on Earth. However, i f aquari sts si mpl y focus on sal twater fi sh, they are
mi ssi ng out on a wonderful worl d of freshwater tropi cal fi sh. I n parti cul ar, an aquari st
l ooki ng for l ots of acti on i n a tank i n addi ti on to l ots of col or shoul d consi der keepi ng a
tank of ei ther South Ameri can or Afri can Ci chl i ds, or perhaps one tank of each. These
wonderful fi sh are fi l l ed wi th personal i ty and provi de hours of pl easure and rel ax-
ati on to aquari sts.
1
But, before one embarks on the wonderful worl d of ci chl i ds, one
must ful l y understand the nature of these breathtaki ng creatures, because to l ove a
creature i s to understand a creature.
As graceful as bal l et dancers and at ti mes as aggressi ve as sharks, South Ameri can
Ci chl i ds are perhaps the most i nteresti ng fi sh a freshwater aquari st can have. South
Ameri can Ci chl i ds are l ake fi sh. More speci fi cal l y, they are found i n the l akes of South
Ameri ca and Central Ameri ca. Wi th the excepti on of South Ameri can Ci chl i ds that are
consi dered dwarf fi sh, most South Ameri can Ci chl i ds can grow to si zes of up to a few
feet. I n a home aquari um, the fi sh wi l l grow as much as the tank al l ows, and a ci chl i d
may need to be moved to a l arger tank i n order to avoi d stunti ng i ts growth. Li ve
feedi ng, usi ng feeder gol dfi sh, i s often recommended for South Ameri can Ci chl i ds, but
aquari sts shoul d be aware that l i ve feedi ng greatl y i ncreases the growth rate of these
fi sh. Accordi ng to Stanl ey Al mi ra, l i ve feedi ng i s perhaps the most exci ti ng part of
owni ng S.A. Ci chl i ds, however, one shoul d be warned of the excessi ve growth that can
resul t. One must moderate l i ve feedi ng to control si ze and al so keep i n mi nd the
aggressi on l i ve feedi ng can cause.
2
As wel l as keepi ng si ze i n control , as Al mi ra menti ons, l i ve feedi ng can contri bute
to the natural aggressi on seen i n many South Ameri can Ci chl i ds. I n fact, regardl ess of
feedi ng habi ts, the aquari st must be aware of the i nnate aggressi ve (or non-aggres-
si ve) tendenci es of these fi sh. Reputabl e deal ers of S.A. Ci chl i ds wi l l al ways l et a
buyer know about the l evel of aggressi veness of the fi sh they wi sh to buy. Certai n
types of S.A. Ci chl i ds are cl assi fi ed as extremel y aggressi ve, and these types of fi sh
often have probl ems l i vi ng i n a communi ty tank. The most aggressi ve of the fi sh are
Managuense Ci chl i ds (Parachromis managuensis) and Red Devi l Ci chl i ds (Amphilo-
phus labiatus). These two types of S.A. Ci chl i ds are so hi ghl y aggressi ve that even one
Managuense or Red Devi l dropped i nto a tank of l ess aggressi ve ci chl i ds wi l l l i kel y
qui ckl y set to work ki l l i ng every l ess aggressi ve fi sh i n the tank. Coul d there be more
evi l fi sh than these devi l fi sh? They seek to destroy everythi ng i n thei r path and are
best l eft to the wi l d,
3
i s the observati on made by Gregori Anessi upon compl eti on of
hi s 10 year study i nto the aggressi ve habi ts of Red Devi l s and Managuense.
The Managuense, al so cal l ed the Jaguar Ci chl i d, ori gi nated i n Ni caraguaLake
Managua, speci fi cal l y. I t i s gol d wi th bl ack marki ngs and hi nts of red and bl ue i n the
fi ns of the adul t mal e. As they mature, Managuenses devel op two cani ne type teeth
protrudi ng from thei r bottom jaw. These teeth are used to tear through the del i cate
fl esh of other fi sh. Si nce a Managuense can grow to up to 2 feet l ong, fi sh of al l
smal l er si zes are i n danger of becomi ng di nner for the great fi sh. The Managuense i s
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Practice Test 2 193
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al so known as one of the smartest freshwater fi sh. I n fact, for a fi sh, the eyes di spl ay
a depth of understandi ng counter to most peopl es i mpressi ons of fi sh as unthi nki ng
creatures.
1
Fri eshman, Gene R. TheAmazingAquatic World of theCichlid. (New York: Brown and Brown, I nc.,
2001), p. 305.
2
Al mi ra, Stanl ey. Feedingand Caringfor Your South American Cichlids. (Phi l adel phi a: Creatures of
the Sea Publ i shi ng Co. 1999), Chapter 11, Li ve Feedi ng and I ts Ti es to Growth/Aggressi on, p. 311.
3
Anessi , Gregori . The Managuense, Brains, Brawn, and a Killer I nstinct in Parachromi s
managuensi s and Amphi l ophus l abi atus. (Cal i forni a: Aquari sts Press, 1961), p. 111
44. What best descri bes thi s passage?
(A) A passi onate pl ea for i ncreased
ownershi p of South Ameri can
Ci chl i ds
(B) A di re warni ng of the danger
presented by Managuense and
Red Devi l Ci chl i ds
(C) An i nformati ve gui de to the
cari ng and feedi ng of tropi cal
sal twater fi sh
(D) An i nstructi ve arti cl e for
choosi ng and rai si ng South
Ameri can Ci chl i ds
(E) A presentati on of stati sti cs
about South Ameri can Ci chl i ds
45. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng rhetori cal
devi ces i s used i n the fol l owi ng
sentence?
Coul d there be more evi l fi sh than
these devi l fi sh?
(A) Parody
(B) Rhetori cal questi on
(C) Emoti ve l anguage
(D) Hyperbol e
(E) Anecdote
46. What i s the meani ng of the word
i nnate as used i n l i ne 26?
(A) Natural
(B) Ungrateful
(C) Learned
(D) Extraordi nary
(E) Strange
47. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s an accurate
readi ng of the i nformati on i n foot-
note 2?
(A) Stanl ey Al mi ra wrote a book
cal l ed Li ve Feedi ng and I ts
Ti es to Growth/Aggressi on.
(B) Stanl ey Al mi ra i s the edi tor of
Feedi ng and Cari ng for Your
South Ameri can Ci chl i ds.
(C) Creatures of the Sea Publ i shi ng
publ i shed Feedi ng and Cari ng
for Your South Ameri can
Ci chl i ds i n 1999.
(D) Chapter 11 of Feedi ng and
Cari ng for Your South Ameri can
Ci chl i ds begi ns on page 311.
(E) Stanl ey Al mi ra wrote hi s book
i n Phi l adel phi a i n 1999.
48. What word best descri bes the
atti tude of the author toward South
Ameri can Ci chl i ds?
(A) Condescendi ng
(B) I ndi fferent
(C) Fearful
(D) Reproachful
(E) Fondness
49. What i s true about the footnotes as a
whol e?
(A) They are al l provi ded to show
how the author researched the
arti cl e.
(B) They are al l ci ted as sources of
di rect quotes i n the arti cl e.
(C) They are used to hel p promote
the books wri tten by Fri esh-
man, Al mi ra, and Anessi .
(D) None of the above
(E) Al l of the above
194 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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50. Based on the i nformati on i n the l ast
paragraph, what i s the most l i kel y
reason that the Managuense i s cal l ed
a Jaguar Ci chl i d?
(A) Because i t has many teeth
(B) Because i t has bl ue and red
marki ngs
(C) Because i t i s aggressi ve
(D) Because i t i s gol d wi th bl ack
marki ngs
(E) Because i t i s the smal l est
ci chl i d
51. The phrase to l ove a creature i s to
understand a creature i n l i nes 910
i s an exampl e of
(A) Paral l el constructi on
(B) Onomatopoei a
(C) Al l i terati on
(D) Personi fi cati on
(E) Anal ogy
52. Whi ch book was wri tten by Gene R.
Fri eshman?
(A) TheManaguense, Brains,
Brawn, and a Killer I nstinct in
Parachromi s managuensi s and
Amphi l ophus l abi atus
(B) Feeding and Caring for Your
South American Cichlids
(C) TheAmazing Aquatic World of
theCichlid
(D) Creatures of theSea
(E) LiveFeeding and I ts Ties to
Growth/ Aggression
53. What word woul d Gregori Anessi
most l i kel y use to descri be Red
Devi l s and Managuenses?
(A) Remarkabl e
(B) Pl aci d
(C) I ncorri gi bl e
(D) Moral
(E) Mal evol ent
54. What word i s cl osest to the meani ng
of the word great i n the sentence
Si nce a Managuense can grow to up
to 2 feet l ong, fi sh of al l smal l er si zes
are i n danger of becomi ng di nner for
the great fi sh.
(A) Wonderful
(B) Huge
(C) Famous
(D) Magni fi cent
(E) Heroi c
S T O P
I f you fi ni sh before ti me i s cal l ed, you may check your work on thi s
secti on onl y. Do not turn to any other secti on i n the test.
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Practice Test 2 195
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SECTION II
3 Q UESTIO NS 2 HO URS 15 M INUTES
Directions: Read the passage bel ow careful l y. Wri te a wel l -devel oped essay anal yzi ng
how the author uses rhetori c and styl e to engage the reader. Pay speci al attenti on to
such el ements as di cti on, tone, styl e, and narrati ve pace.
Question 1
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
Line The Publ i shers of the Standard Novel s, i n sel ecti ng Frankenstein for one of thei r
seri es, expressed a wi sh that I shoul d furni sh them wi th some account of the ori gi n of
the story. I am the more wi l l i ng to compl y, because I shal l thus gi ve a general answer
to the questi on, so very frequentl y asked me: How I , then a young gi rl , came to thi nk
of, and to di l ate upon, so very hi deous an i dea? I t i s true that I am very averse to
bri ngi ng mysel f forward i n pri nt; but as my account wi l l onl y appear as an appendage
to a former producti on, and as i t wi l l be confi ned to such topi cs as have connecti on
wi th my authorshi p al one, I can scarcel y accuse mysel f of a personal i ntrusi on. . . .
I busi ed mysel f to think of a story, a story to ri val those whi ch had exci ted us to thi s
task. One whi ch woul d speak to the mysteri ous fears of our nature and awaken
thri l l i ng horrorone to make the reader dread to l ook round, to curdl e the bl ood, and
qui cken the beati ngs of the heart. I f I di d not accompl i sh these thi ngs, my ghost story
woul d be unworthy of i ts name. I thought and ponderedvai nl y. I fel t that bl ank
i ncapabi l i ty of i nventi on, whi ch i s the greatest mi sery of authorshi p, when dul l
Nothi ng repl i es to our anxi ous i nvocati ons. Haveyou thought of a story? I was asked
each morni ng, and each morni ng I was forced to repl y wi th a morti fyi ng negati ve. . . .
Many and l ong were the conversati ons between Lord Byron and Shel l ey, to whi ch I
was a devout but nearl y si l ent l i stener. Duri ng one of these, vari ous phi l osophi cal
doctri nes were di scussed, and among others the nature of the pri nci pl e of l i fe and
whether there was any probabi l i ty of i ts ever bei ng di scovered and communi cated. . . .
Perhaps a corpse woul d be reani mated: gal vani sm had gi ven token such thi ngs.
Perhaps the component parts of a creature mi ght be manufactured, brought together,
and endured wi th vi tal warmth.
Ni ght waned upon thi s tal k, and even the wi tchi ng hour had gone by, before we
reti red to rest. When I pl aced my head on my pi l l ow, I di d not sl eep, nor coul d I be
sai d to thi nk. My i magi nati on, unbi dden, possessed and gui ded me, gi fti ng the succes-
si ve i mages that arose i n my mi nd wi th a vi vi dness far beyond the usual bounds of
reveri e. I sawwi th shut eyes but acute mental vi si onI saw the pal e student of
unhal l owed arts kneel i ng besi de the thi ng he had put together. I saw the hi deous
phantasm of a man stretched out, and then, on the worki ng of some powerful engi ne,
show si gns of l i fe and sti r wi th an uneasy, hal f vi tal moti on. Fri ghtful must i t be, for
supremel y fri ghtful woul d be the effect of any human endeavor to mock the stupen-
dous mechani sm of the Creator of the worl d. Hi s success woul d terri fy the arti st; he
woul d rush away from hi s odi ous handi work, horror-stri cken he woul d hope that, l eft
to i tsel f, the sl i ght spark of l i fe that he had communi cated woul d fade; that thi s thi ng,
whi ch had recei ved such i mperfect ani mati on, woul d subsi de i nto dead matter; and he
mi ght sl eep i n the bel i ef that the si l ence of the grave woul d quench forever the
transi ent exi stence of the hi deous corpse that he had l ooked upon as the cradl e of l i fe.
He sl eeps; but he i s awakened; he opens hi s eyes; behol d the horri d thi ng stands at
196 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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hi s bedsi de, openi ng hi s curtai ns, and l ooki ng on hi m wi th yel l ow, watery, but
specul ati ve eyes.
I opened mi ne i n terror. The i dea so possessed my mi nd, that a thri l l of fear ran
through me, and I wi shed to exchange the ghastl y i mage of my fancy for the real i ti es
around. I see them sti l l : the very room, the dark parquet, the cl osed shutters, wi th the
moonl i ght struggl i ng through, and the sense I had that the gl assy l ake and whi te hi gh
Al ps were beyond. I coul d not so easy get ri d of my hi deous phantom: sti l l i t haunted
me. I must try to thi nk of somethi ng el se. I recurred to my ghost storymy ti resome
unl ucky ghost story! O! i f I coul d onl y contri ve one that woul d fri ghten my reader as I
mysel f had been fri ghtened that ni ght!
Swi ft as l i ght and as cheeri ng was the i dea that broke i n upon me. I have found i t!
What terri fi ed me wi l l terri fy others, and I need onl y descri be the specter that
haunted my mi dni ght pi l l ow. On the morrow I announced that I had thought of a
story. I began that day wi th the words, I t was on a dreary night of November, maki ng
onl y a transcri pt of the gri m terrors of my waki ng dream.
Mary Shel l ey
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Practice Test 2 197
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Directions: Read careful l y thi s passage from Ral ph Wal do Emersons speech, The
Ameri can Schol ar, gi ven as the Phi Beta Kappa address at Harvard i n 1837. Wri te a
wel l -organi zed, wel l -reasoned essay that cri ti cal l y anal yzes how Emerson used the
Engl i sh l anguage and conventi ons to promote hi s i deas.
Question 2
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
Line The theory of books i s nobl e. The schol ar of the fi rst age recei ved i nto hi m the worl d
around: brooded thereon; gave i t a new arrangement of hi s own mi nd, and uttered i t
agai n. . . . I t can stand, and i t can go. I t now endures, i t now fl i es, i t now i nspi res.
Preci sel y i n proporti on to the depth of mi nd from whi ch i t i ssued, so hi gh does i t soar,
so l ong does i t si ng.
Or, I mi ght say, i t depends on how far the process had gone, of transmuti ng l i fe i nto
truth. I n proporti on to the compl eteness of the di sti l l ati on, so wi l l the puri ty and
i mperi shabl eness of the product be. But none i s qui te perfect. . . . Each age, i t i s
found, must wri te i ts own books; or rather, each generati on for the next succeedi ng.
The books of an ol der peri od wi l l not fi t thi s.
Yet hence ari ses a grave mi schi ef. The sacredness whi ch attaches to the act of
creati on, the act of thought, i s i nstantl y transferred to the record. The poet chanti ng,
was fel t to be a di vi ne man. Henceforth the chant i s di vi ne al so. The wri ter was a just
and wi se spi ri t. Henceforward i t i s settl ed, the book i s perfect; as l ove of the hero
corrupts i nto worshi p of hi s statue. I nstantl y, the book becomes noxi ous. The gui de i s
a tyrant. . . . The sl uggi sh and perverted mi nd of the mul ti tude, al ways sl ow to open
to the i ncursi ons of Reason, havi ng once so opened, havi ng once recei ved thi s book,
stands upon i t, and makes an outcry, i f i t di sparaged. Col l eges are bui l t on i t. Books
are wri tten on i t by thi nkers, not by Man Thi nki ng; by men of tal ent, that i s, who
start wrong, who set out from accepted dogmas, not from thei r own si ght of pri nci pl es.
Meek young men grow up i n l i brari es, bel i evi ng i t thei r duty to accept the vi ews whi ch
Ci cero, whi ch Locke, whi ch Bacon, have gi ven, forgetful that Ci cero, Locke and Bacon
were onl y young men i n l i brari es when they wrote these books.
Hence, i nstead of man thi nki ng, we have the book worm. . . .
Books are the best of thi ngs, wel l used; abused, among the worst.
Ral ph Wal do Emerson
198 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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Directions: The fol l owi ng prompt i s based on the fol l owi ng si x sources. The
assi gnment requi res that you synthesi ze a number of the sources i nto a coherent,
wel l -wri tten essay that takes a posi ti on. Use at l east three of the sources to support your
posi ti on. Do not si mpl y paraphrase or summari ze the sources. Your argument shoul d be
the focus of your essay and the sources shoul d support thi s argument. Remember to
attri bute both di rect and i ndi rect ci tati ons.
Question 3
SUG G ESTED TIM E15 M INUTES FO R READING AND 40 M INUTES FO R WRITING
Introduction: I n recent years, government censorshi p of content del i vered over publ i c
ai rwaves has become an i ssue. Satel l i te radi o del i vers content to l i steners who are pai d
subscri bers. Because satel l i te radi o i s a pai d servi ce, i t i s not regul ated by government.
Tradi ti onal radi o (terrestri al radi o) i s subject to censorshi p. Because of i ts abi l i ty to del i ver
uncensored content, mi ght satel l i te radi o eventual l y repl ace terrestri al radi o?
Assignment: Read the fol l owi ng sources (i ncl udi ng any i ntroductory i nformati on) careful l y.
Then, writean essay that supports, qualifies, or disputestheargument that satellite
radio will replace terrestrial radio because of government censorship. Synthesize
at least three of the sources to support your position.
You may refer to the sources by thei r ti tl es (Source A, Source B, etc.) or by the descri pti ons i n
parentheses.
Source A (Al l sworth)
Source B (Jones and Brooks)
Source C (Gates)
Source D (McDonal d)
Source E (Chart)
Source F (Lopez)
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Practice Test 2 199

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SOURCE A
Al l sworth, El i ssa. New Gadgets, Pastimes MagazineMonthly, May 22, 2001
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le tha t ta lks a b out sa te llite ra d io a s a
ne w op tion for ra d io liste ning .
The communi cati ons i ndustry i s buzzi ng about a new product that some say may
revol uti oni ze the way peopl e l i sten to the radi o. That product i s satel l i te radi o. Unl i ke
tradi ti onal radi o, whi ch works by broadcasti ng content over l ocal frequenci es, satel l i te radi o
content i s del i vered vi a satel l i te. Satel l i te radi o has an advantage over tradi ti onal radi o i n
that you coul d dri ve across the country and never have to change your radi o stati on! You coul d
pi ck up the same stati on, at the same number on your di al , i n Massachusetts and i n Al aska!
For anyone who takes l ong car tri ps, thi s i s a wonderful product.
I n addi ti on to the techni cal di fferences between satel l i te and tradi ti onal radi o, there are
si gni fi cant content di fferences. Because satel l i te radi o i s del i vered to pai d subscri bers, there
i s a l ot of freedom i n the content offered. For exampl e, musi c stati ons can devote themsel ves
to one very speci fi c type of musi c, such as a stati on that pl ays onl y El vi s tunes. Because
satel l i te radi o i s a pai d servi ce, commerci al s are not needed, so l i steners can al so recei ve
commerci al -free radi o. I n addi ti on, those who do not agree wi th government censorshi p of
musi c can l i sten to uncensored musi c and tal k radi o vi a satel l i te radi o. Radi o hosts who have
been fi red i n recent years due to questi onabl e content may fi nd new homes on satel l i te radi o.
200 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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SOURCE B
Jones, Janna, and Dana Brooks. DJ Extreme Takes Hi s Show on the Road Avai l abl e at
http://tal kradi omagazi ne.com, August 2003
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a n online a rtic le a b out a DJ who wa s fire d
from tra d itiona l ra d io a nd b e g a n a ne w show on sa te llite ra d io.
Fans of DJ Extreme were extremel y di sappoi nted l ast year when the popul ar afternoon DJ
was fi red from hi s job at WWCB radi o for a questi onabl e bi t on hi s show. The bi t caused the
stati on to have to pay al most a mi l l i on dol l ars i n fi nes to the government for ai ri ng content
that i s agai nst regul ati ons. Says a stati on empl oyee who asked not to be named, DJ Extreme
was warned numerous ti mes about hi s on-ai r behavi or, and he conti nued to try to push i t as
far as he coul d go. Due to thi s, hi s tenure wi th thi s radi o stati on, and possi bl y hi s radi o career,
i s over.
And for a whi l e, i t l ooked l i ke the career of DJ Extreme was, i ndeed, over. After an i ni ti al
fl urry of tal k show appearances fol l owi ng hi s ouster from the stati on, the DJ appeared to
di sappear. But l ast month, wi th al most no fanfare, he was backbut thi s ti me, on satel l i te
radi o. The l ack of fanfare di d not l ast l ong, though, as word spread that DJ Extreme was on
the ai rwaves once agai n. And i n the two weeks that fol l owed hi s debut, sal es of hi s brand of
satel l i te radi o i ncreased by 1 mi l l i on subscri pti ons. Thats ri ght1 mi l l i on! And accordi ng to
the satel l i te company, the subscri pti on numbers conti nue to grow. Maybe fi ri ng DJ Extreme
was not such a good i dea after al l , because at l east 1 mi l l i on peopl e have made the swi tch to
satel l i te radi o, possi bl y l eavi ng thei r tradi ti onal radi os i n the dust.
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Practice Test 2 201

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SOURCE C
Gates, Juan. Terrestri al Radi o I s Not Dead Radio Weekly, February 15, 2005.
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le tha t re fute s the id e a tha t sa te llite
ra d io will re p la c e te rre stria l ra d io.
Satel l i te radi o seems to be the new fad. Thats ri ght, I sai d fad. Sure, i ts a new product and
seems to offer some exci ti ng broadcasti ng possi bi l i ti es, but there i s a catchyou have to pay
for thi s great content. And some peopl e wi l l pay for satel l i te radi o; many al ready have. I ts a
neat al ternati ve to radi o, as l ong as you want to pay for i t. I t seems si l l y to pay for radi o, si nce
i t i s avai l abl e for free across the nati on. Sure, you have to l i sten to commerci al s, and
someti mes your favori te song i s censored, but i s that real l y a probl em? Who woul d di sagree
wi th not al l owi ng foul l anguage on publ i c ai rwaves? I t seems strange that peopl e woul d get so
hung up on such a smal l amount of censorshi p.
Satel l i te radi o provi ders woul d l i ke you to bel i eve that soon satel l i te wi l l be your onl y
opti on because terrestri al radi o wi l l become a thi ng of the past. Pl ease! I n the few years that
satel l i te radi o has been avai l abl e, there have been l arge numbers of i ni ti al subscri bers. But
what the satel l i te compani es dont want you to know i s that a hi gh percentage of subscri bers
do not renew thei r subscri pti ons because they do not want to pay for them. I n addi ti on, of al l
peopl e who have won satel l i te recei vers and free one-year subscri pti ons i n nati onwi de
contests, al most 60 percent do not renew thei r subscri pti on after thei r free year i s up. Thi s
says that al though many peopl e may enjoy the content, when i t comes down to i t, they dont
want to pay for i t. And for thi s reason, tradi ti onal radi o wi l l never di e. And I predi ct that as
the years go by, more and more peopl e wi l l come to thei r senses and stop payi ng for somethi ng
you can get for free.
202 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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SOURCE D
McDonal d, Aurora. We Are Hi di ng from the I ssue I ssues Digest, Apri l 2006
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a le tte r to the e d itor of Issues Digest
a b out the ne c e ssity of c e nsorship in som e c a se s.
Satel l i te radi o versus terrestri al radi o seems to be an ongoi ng theme i n the communi cati ons
i ndustry l atel y. Wi l l satel l i te repl ace terrestri al radi o? Shoul d we l et that happen? I dont
thi nk so. The battl e between satel l i te and terrestri al radi o has become a broad battl e about
supposedl y free speech. Proponents of uncensored free radi o seem to thi nk that regul ati ng
the ai rwaves i s a free speech i ssue. And whi l e i t i s true that free speech i s protected, not all
speech i s protected. I t i s not l egal to sl ander someone. I t i s not l egal to yel l fi re! i n a crowded
theater, and everyone seems to agree wi th these regul ati ons. But when i t comes to bl eepi ng
out a di rty word on publ i c ai r, some peopl e get al l up i n arms.
We are hi di ng from the i ssue that censorshi p i s si mpl y necessary i n some cases. The advent
of satel l i te radi o i s si mpl y cl oudi ng the i ssue. I t shoul d not even come up i n censorshi p
di scussi ons. Peopl e pay for satel l i te radi o. I f they do not l i ke the content, they can stop payi ng.
Now, some may tel l you that i f you dont l i ke the content on a publ i c radi o stati on, you shoul d
si mpl y change the stati on. But these peopl e perhaps have never been ri di ng i n a van ful l of
chi l dren and been a bi t to sl ow to change the stati on before a chorus of what does that mean,
or ohhh, she sai d a bad word fi l l s the car. Yes, one can si mpl y change the stati on. However,
i snt i t ni ce that the government makes i t possi bl e that we dont have to? The i ssue i s our
chi l dren bei ng protected from unsui tabl e content. Whi l e parents of course share i n thi s
responsi bi l i ty, i t i s wonderful to know that there i s a government agency on our si de.
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Practice Test 2 203

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SOURCE E
Adapted from Satellite Versus Terrestrial: Who Listens to What. I l l i noi s: The Research
Group, 2006
Satel l i te Radi o vs. Terrestri al Radi o: Numbers for al l four quarters of 2005. Numbers are
percentages of peopl e who l i sten to terrestri al radi o, satel l i te radi o, or both. 19,000 peopl e
responded to the pol l .
35
JanMar AprJun JulSep OctDec
30
25
20
15
10
5
0*
Terrestrial Radio
Listeners
Satellite Radio
Listeners
Listeners to Both
Satellite and
Terrestrial
*Numbers represent 035 percent of 19,000 people polled.
204 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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SOURCE F
Lopez, Angel o. The Radi o Renai ssance ThePast Magazine, October 1, 2004
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le a b out how sa te llite ra d io
p rog ra m m ing is b ring ing m ore p e op le to ra d io.
The best thi ng that coul d happen to radi o happened: the advent of satel l i te radi o. Satel l i te
radi o has saved a dyi ng medi um. Who l i stens to the radi o for anythi ng but musi c, anymore?
Sure, there are some successful tal k stati ons, but not too many, and there i s a l ack of vari ety
at that. The gol den days of radi o, where a fami l y mi ght gather around the l i vi ng room to
l i sten to a show, seemed to be over, compl etel y repl aced by tel evi si on. And then, tel evi si on
seemed to be repl aced by vi deo games, excl udi ng adul ts al together. Thi s i s the di recti on fami l y
entertai nment has taken, I often thought to mysel f.
But then, somethi ng amazi ng happened. My son won a satel l i te radi o recei ver and
subscri pti on a few months ago. I have to admi t I was at fi rst worri ed about the ki nd of content
he woul d fi nd, and the fact that the content i s not regul ated di d gi ve me pause. But I trusted
my son, and I turned out to be ri ght. After pl ayi ng wi th the radi o for a few weeks, he
di scovered a wonderful stati on that repl ays ol d radi o shows from the 1930s. Who woul d thi nk
a 13-year-ol d woul d be i nterested i n ol d radi o shows? I t turns out, my son i s. And better yet,
he got hi s l i ttl e si ster i nterested as wel l . Now, every Wednesday, our whol e fami l y gathers
around the radi o to l i sten to a radi o show! Not the TV, the radi o! I t has been a wonderful
experi ence. TV and vi deo games have not been repl aced, but, somehow, more fami l y ti me has
been added to our week due to the radi o show. I t i s ni ce to know that my fami l y i s spendi ng
the ki nd of ti me together that my parents and grandparents di d.
S T O P
I f you fi ni sh before ti me i s cal l ed, you may check your work on thi s
secti on onl y. Do not turn to any other secti on i n the test.
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Practice Test 2 205
www.petersons.com
ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS
Section I
1. B
2. D
3. B
4. C
5. A
6. B
7. B
8. A
9. C
10. B
11. D
12. A
13. B
14. E
15. B
16. C
17. D
18. B
19. C
20. B
21. A
22. C
23. D
24. A
25. D
26. C
27. C
28. C
29. C
30. C
31. D
32. C
33. D
34. E
35. A
36. E
37. E
38. A
39. A
40. E
41. E
42. C
43. B
44. D
45. B
46. A
47. C
48. E
49. B
50. D
51. A
52. C
53. E
54. B
1. Thecorrect answer is(B). The context i s that the New Engl and group was begi nni ng
to fal l apart. As poets, thi s means that they were begi nni ng to l ose thei r creati vi ty.
Al though choi ces (A), (C), (D), and (E) may express some of the feel i ngs and experi ences
of the New Engl and group, none addresses the core probl em of these poets i n the
manner that choi ce (B) does.
2. The correct answer is (D). Thi s sel ecti on i s not descri pti ve, so the mode cannot be
descri pti on, choi ce (A). I t does not attempt to argue or persuade, so i t cannot be
persuasi ve, choi ce (C), or argumentati ve, choi ce (E), wri ti ng. Nor does i t tel l a story;
therefore, i t i s not a narrati ve, choi ce (B). I t si mpl y presents the factsexposi ti on,
choi ce (D).
3. Thecorrect answer is (B). The sentence ci ted contai ns the statement, a refl ecti on of
actual i ty, an extensi on of experi ence. Choi ce (B) cl osel y matches that thought. There
i s no devel opment of an exi stenti al subject, choi ce (A). Modern poetry i s not defi ned,
choi ce (C). Choi ces (D) and (E) are si mi l arl y not di scussed i n the excerpt.
4. Thecorrect answer is(C).Al l of these statements are true. The tri ck here i s to fi gure
out whi ch gi ves the authors mai n i dea. The wri ter i s di scussi ng the begi nni ng of
modern Ameri can wri ti ng. That i s what choi ce (C) i s presenti ng. The other choi ces, (A),
(B), (D), and (E), are facts that support and i l l umi nate the wri ters thesi s.
5. The correct answer is (A). The correct answer i s devel oped i n the fi rst paragraph
wi th the observati on that the Ci vi l War marked the start of modern poetry. I n the
second paragraph, a l i nk i s shown between the cl ose of the Ci vi l War and the decl i ne of
the New Engl and group, al so known as the Brahmi ns. Rel i gi ous freedom and pol i ti cs,
choi ce (B), were never shown to be an i ssue. Pol i ti cal nati onal i sm, i ndustri al growth,
and phi l osophi cal creati vi ty were al so never devel oped as an i nfl uence on the Brahmi ns,
choi ces (C), (D), and (E).
6. The correct answer is (B). I n the second paragraph, Loui s Untermeyer states that
some of the Brahmi ns occupi ed themsel ves wi th transl ati ons. Divina Commedia i s
such a transl ati on. Thi s makes choi ce (B) the correct answer. Choi ce (A) i s true, but
i ncorrect because i t i s not rel evant to the questi on. Choi ces (C), (D), and (E) are not
rel ated to the questi on, and the author does not expl ore them.
206 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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7. The correct answer is (B). The context of thi s expressi on i s another way that
Untermeyer shows that the creati vi ty of the Brahmi ns had been l ost. I n thi s case, he i s
sayi ng that the Brahmi ns were sati sfi ed wi th the sounds of ol d musi c, an al l usi on to
thei r focus on transl ati ons of ol d wri ti ngs. The author i s not speaki ng of sounds per
sethat el i mi nates choi ces (A), (C), and (D). The author i s not speaki ng of phi l osophi cal
concepts, choi ce (E).
8. The correct answer is (A). Thi s questi on i s from the poi nt of vi ew of the Brahmi ns,
not the author. I t probabl y does not refl ect the thoughts of the author. I n the thi rd
paragraph, Untermeyer wri tes, To them [the Brahmi ns], the new men must have
seemed l i ke a regi ment recrui ted from the ranks of vul gari ty. Thi s passage i s a di rect
response to the questi on and i s represented by choi ce (A). Choi ces (B), (C), (D), and (E)
do not express the poi nt of vi ew of the New Engl and poets.
9. Thecorrect answer is (C). The passage from the fi nal paragraph i s the i denti fi cati on
by the author of the change from the Brahmi n-i nfl uenced era to modern Ameri can
poetry. Thi s can be most readi l y seen by Untermeyers comment that Ameri ca
devel oped a nati onal consci ousness. Choi ces (A) and (D) are true but do not refl ect the
wri ters thoughts i n thi s passage. Choi ces (B) and (E) are nei ther true nor rel evant.
10. The correct answer is (B). Al though the Brahmi ns mi ght have been harsh and
scathi ng i n thei r commentary about modern Ameri can poets, the passage i tsel f does not
have that tone; therefore, choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. There i s no wi t or humor contai ned i n
the excerpt, maki ng choi ce (D) i ncorrect. The remai ni ng three answers have some
el ements that may seem to be true. A reader may see the arti cl e as dry or even
i rri tati ng, but not condescendi ng, choi ce (C), or pretenti ous, choi ce (E). Onl y one of
these three answer choi ces has both el ements that are true. Choi ce (B), schol arl y and
i nformati ve, correctl y answers the questi on.
11. The correct answer is (D). The author never made a judgment about whi ch type of
poetry was superi or, so choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. The same can be sai d of choi ce (B). The
Brahmi ns were not i denti fi ed as the creators of modern Ameri can poetry, choi ce (C).
The author speci fi cal l y sai d that the Ci vi l War produced l i ttl e qual i ty poetry,
el i mi nati ng choi ce (E). The author devel ops the Ci vi l War as the starti ng poi nt of
modern Ameri can poetry i n the fi rst two paragraphs, choi ce (D).
12. The correct answer is (A). The author says i n the fi rst sentence of the second
paragraph the confl i ct . . . produced a vast quanti ty of poems but practi cal l y no
i mportant poetry. Choi ce (A) mi rrors Untermeyers commentary. I f Untermeyer says
that no poetry was produced, that i mpl i es that no poets were produced, so choi ce (B)
cannot be correct. Choi ces (C), (D), and (E) do not accuratel y refl ect thi s passage.
13. The correct answer is (B). The sentence taken from the end of the concl udi ng
paragraph i s a reference to the Brahmi ns attempt to keep thei r styl e of poetry the
domi nant form. Untermeyer does not suggest that the poets of transi ti on were
del i berate i n the executi on of thei r art as i ndi cated i n choi ce (A). The author proposes
that the poets of transi ti on resi sted the change; therefore, they were aware of i t, maki ng
choi ce (C) i ncorrect. The author states nei ther of the meani ngs descri bed i n choi ces (D)
and (E).
14. The correct answer is (E). I n the thi rd sentence of the fi nal paragraph, Untermeyer
i denti fi es the new poeti c expressi on as crude, jangl i ng, vi gorousl y democrati c. Choi ce
(E) repeats the descri pti on as crude, and i t rel i es on the reader to recogni ze that a
democrati c form of poetry i s cutti ng edge. The descri pti ons of the poets i n choi ces (A),
(B), (C), and (D) are not consi stent wi th the descri pti on or even menti oned by
the author.
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Practice Test 2 207
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15. The correct answer is (B). Untermeyer descri bes the Brahmi ns as educated, but he
does not contend that they are mercuri al , choi ce (A). The author l eaves the reader wi th
the i mpressi on that the Brahmi ns are anythi ng but l i ghthearted or easygoi ng, choi ces
(C) and (D). They are portrayed as bri l l i ant but not forgi vi ng; thus, choi ce (E) i s
i ncorrect. Thi s l eaves (B) as the correct answer. Untermeyer does gi ve the i mpressi on
that the Brahmi ns were stuffy and i ntransi gent.
16. The correct answer is (C). Each of the choi ces has a smal l el ement of correctness.
The characters do make comments about heal th, choi ce (A), and some di scussi on about
exerci se takes pl ace, choi ce (B). Frankl i n does menti on the pai n of the gout attack,
choi ce (D). Di al ogue occurs, al though not sui ted for a moral i ty pl ay, choi ce (E). However,
because the questi on asks for the theme of the passage, onl y choi ce (C) i s correct.
17. Thecorrect answer is(D).An al l i terati on i s the repeti ti on of i ni ti al consonant sound,
choi ce (A). A metaphor i s a fi gure of speech i n whi ch one thi ng i s spoken of as though i t
were somethi ng el se, choi ce (B). An al l egory i s a l i terary work wi th two or more l evel s of
meani ng; one of whi ch i s l i teral and others symbol i c, choi ce (C). A si mi l e i s a fi gure of
speech that compares two unl i ke thi ngs by usi ng words such as like or as, choi ce (E).
None of these appl i es to the sel ecti on. Al l owi ng the di sease to speak i s personi fi cati on,
the gi vi ng of human characteri sti cs to nonhuman thi ngs, choi ce (D).
18. The correct answer is (B). Choi ces (A), (C), and (E), but not choi ce (D), seem
reasonabl e. However, onl y choi ce (B) i ncl udes both el ements of the tonethe humor
and the reasoned presentati on of the medi cal i nformati on gi ven.
19. Thecorrect answer is (C). Frankl i n i s l amenti ng the thought that peopl es debts and
si ns are al ways greater than peopl e i magi ne them to be. Choi ce (A) restates part of the
maxi m, whi l e choi ces (B), (D), and (E) are not accurate restatements.
20. The correct answer is (B). I f you di d not know what interposition means, you coul d
try your knowl edge of prefi xes to determi ne that i t means to be pl aced between; i ts the
noun form of the verb interpose. Choi ce (A) means an i nterventi on between parti es wi th
a vi ew to reconci l i ng di fferences; thi s does not fi t Gouts rol e i n the pi ece. Choi ce (B)
means the act of prohi bi ti ng or restrai ni ng someone from doi ng somethi ng; i t i s much
stronger than choi ce (C), i nvol vement. Gout i s very much i n evi dence, so choi ce (D),
absence, i s i l l ogi cal . Based on the contextGout has just reci ted a l i st of Frankl i ns
transgressi onschoi ce (E), i ntervi ew, seems too mi l d a meani ng. Choi ce (B) i s the
strongest word and seems to best match Gouts tone.
21. The correct answer is (A). (The character of Gout i s femal e i n the di al ogue.) Gout
states that she i s very seri ous and she can justi fy every acti on (l i nes 23). She i s
i ndi gnant, or ri ghteousl y angry, choi ce (A), and i s not pl eased, choi ce (B), or feel i ng
chasti sed, choi ce (C), or contri te, choi ce (D). Gout certai nl y i s not obl i vi ous, choi ce (E),
but very concerned about Frankl i ns heal th.
22. The correct answer is (C). On the surface, al l these choi ces seem correct because
each i s menti oned i n the sel ecti on. However, choi ces (A), (B), (D), and (E) are speci fi c
detai l s of Frankl i ns poi nt that reasonabl e and responsi bl e behavi or cures the gout,
choi ce (C).
23. The correct answer is (D). The chal l enge of determi ni ng the correct answer i s
between choi ces (D) and (E) because the other choi ces do not express the tone of Gouts
comments. I f Gout were di sgusted, choi ce (A), she woul d not bother tryi ng to reason
wi th Frankl i n. There i s no conci l i ati on i n her tone, choi ce (B), nor are her arguments
superfi ci al , choi ce (C). Gout i s not deal i ng wi th tri vi al i deas i n a narrow booki sh
manner, so choi ce (D) i s the correct descri pti on.
208 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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24. Thecorrect answer is(A). Choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect because Gout i s not mi si nterpreti ng
Frankl i n the characters acti ons; Frankl i n agrees wi th Gout. The topi c i s seri ous
Frankl i n the character agrees wi th Goutso Frankl i n the authors purpose i s more
than to wri te some l i ghthearted prose, choi ce (C). The theme i s devel oped i n such a way
as to make Gouts argument more persuasi ve, thus el i mi nati ng choi ce (D) as untrue.
Choi ce (E) i s i naccurate because the moti ves are cl earl y devel oped. Choi ce (A) i s the
best answer i n that the use of di al ogue permi ts Frankl i n the wri ter to focus on Gouts
comments and easi l y refute Frankl i n the characters defense.
25. Thecorrect answer is (D). The key here i s to noti ce that the word interests i s pl ural .
Frankl i n does enjoy bei ng wi th fri ends, choi ce (B), but that i s onl y one i nterest. He says
he l i kes wal ki ng i n the gardens, choi ce (A), but does not act as i f he does. There i s no
i nformati on i n the sel ecti on to support choi ce (C). Knowi ng Frankl i n as a hi stori cal
fi gure woul d hel p you see that choi ce (E) i s i ncorrect. Therefore, the statement that best
characteri zes what we do know about Frankl i n from the sel ecti on i s that he enjoys
those i nterests that do not requi re hi m to do anythi ng more than si t, choi ce (D).
26. The correct answer is (C). Fi rst, read the sentence. Whi l e object may be a noun or a
verb, i t i s used as a verb i n thi s sentence. The answer choi ces are ei ther verbs or may be
used as verbs (dispute and silence), so you cant el i mi nate any choi ces i mmedi atel y.
Next, substi tute each answer choi ce i n the sentence to see whi ch best fi ts the context. I f
you real i ze the sentence means that Frankl i n cannot use the fati gue of the day as an
excuse (argument) for needi ng a carri age, choi ce (C) i s cl earl y the answer. Whi l e object
can mean dispute, choi ce (B), i t does not have that meani ng i n thi s passage. Choi ces (A),
(D), and (E) make l i ttl e or no sense i n context.
27. The correct answer is (C). Fi rst, you need to determi ne whi ch poi nts are true about
the sentence. The sentence has nei ther a parti ci pi al phrase (I ) nor a compound verb i n
the past tense, so poi nts I and I I are i ncorrect. There i s an i nfi ni ti ve (I I I ). Then
determi ne whi ch answer choi ce has onl y I I I choi ce (C).
28. The correct answer is (C). Frankl i n wi l l not answer because he knows he di d not
fol l ow hi s own advi ce. At thi s poi nt i n the di al ogue, he i s not argui ng wi th Gout nor i s
there any si gn that he has ti red of the conversati on, so choi ces (A) and (E) are i ncorrect.
Frankl i n has not shown hi msel f to be forgetful , thus el i mi nati ng choi ce (B). Whi l e the
tone of the passage i s amusi ng, the Frankl i n of the di al ogue i s seri ous, thus el i mi nati ng
choi ce (D).
29. The correct answer is (C). Use of sci enti fi c reasoni ng, rather than supersti ti ons or
rel i gi ous bel i efs, for medi cal condi ti ons was a di scovery of the ei ghteenth century.
Nei ther choi ce (D) nor choi ce (E) i s true of the sel ecti on. Choi ce (A) i s i rrel evant, and
al though choi ce (B) i s true, choi ce (C) i s a better overal l statement.
30. The correct answer is (C). The statement i n questi on contrasts two sets of
ci rcumstances. The correct answer must then have two sets of answers as wel l . Onl y
choi ce (C) ful fi l l s the requi rement (sages/fool s; wi se statements/unwi se acti ons).
Choi ces (A), (B), (D), and (E) al l deal wi th si ngl e concepts.
31. The correct answer is (D). The passage i s not objecti ve, but strongl y one-si ded, so
choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. The author i s not attempti ng to teach you about hi s posi ti on;
therefore, choi ces (B) and (C) are i ncorrect. The passage i s reasoned, but the wri ter
presents hi s arguments to convi nce the reader of hi s posi ti on. Thi s makes the better
choi ce (D) rather than choi ce (E).
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Practice Test 2 209
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32. The correct answer is (C). A revi ew of the fi rst sentence of the l ast paragraph of the
passage contai ns the phrase the whol e show and spl endour of thi s great commerce.
The wordi ng cl earl y i ndi cates that the author i s very posi ti ve, choi ce (C), about
commerce and expansi oni sm. The essays purpose i s to persuade you of the greatness of
expansi oni sm. Choi ce (B) has the ri ght senti ment but i s not strong enough. Choi ce (A)
i s contrary to the tone of the sel ecti on, as i s choi ce (D). Choi ce (E) i s a di stracter.
33. Thecorrect answer is(D). The word invidious means to create i l l wi l l or envy or to
gi ve offense. I f you di d not know that, you coul d use the context to real i ze that choi ce
(E) makes no sense. Whi l e the author i s obvi ousl y expressi ng the opi ni on that the
restrai nts are negati ve, he does not i mpl y that they are entrappi ng, decei tful , or
untrustworthy, choi ces (A), (B) and (C), respecti vel y.
34. The correct answer is (E). Thi s questi on i s si mi l ar to, but not the same as, questi on
31. The author i s not rel ati ng a story, so choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. He i s not merel y
descri bi ng an event or pl ace, so choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect. Choi ce (C) i s i ncorrect because
the author i s not si mpl y expl ai ni ng a topi c. Argument, choi ce (D), i s wri ti ng that
attempts to prove a poi nt wi th a wel l -reasoned di scussi on. The wri ter of thi s passage i s
doi ng more than that; he i s attempti ng to persuade the reader to accept hi s posi ti on,
choi ce (E).
35. The correct answer is (A). The openi ng sentence of the fi rst paragraph i denti fi es
what the wri ter bel i eves to be the most i mportant events i n hi story (I ). The sentence
does not menti on expansi oni sm (I I ) or economi cs (I I I ), so choi ces (B), (C), (D), and (E)
are i ncorrect. The onl y answer that i denti fi es onl y the el ement of hi story i s choi ce (A).
36. Thecorrect answer is(E). Wi th no sal utati on, di rect address, or cl osi ng, the sel ecti on
gi ves no evi dence of correspondence, el i mi nati ng choi ce (A). Si nce the sel ecti on
di scusses hi story, choi ce (C) i s unl i kel y. Choi ces (B), (D), and (E) al l appl y to the
passage, but the correct answer i s the most preci se, choi ce (E).
37. The correct answer is (E). You coul d determi ne the answer to thi s questi on even i f
you coul d not remember what al l the grammati cal terms mean. Once you recogni zed
two of the grammati cal el ements, perhaps an i nfi ni ti ve, choi ce (B), and a preposi ti onal
phrase, choi ce (C), you know that the answer must be choi ce (E), si nce onl y choi ce (E)
al l ows for mul ti pl e answers.
38. Thecorrect answer is(A).Al though you may not recogni ze overstatement, choi ce (A),
as a rhetori cal devi ce, you coul d establ i sh that i t i s the correct answer through the
process of el i mi nati on. Choi ce (B) may seem to appl y, but hyperbol e i s not i ntended to be
taken l i teral l y, so choi ce (B) cannot be correct. Li kewi se, a concei t may seem to be
correct, but i t i s an anal ogy and there i s none i n the sentence, thus maki ng choi ce (C)
i ncorrect. The sentence certai nl y i s not an oversi mpl i fi cati on nor i s there any i magery,
so choi ces (D) and (E) do not appl y.
39. The correct answer is (A). At fi rst gl ance, al l the choi ces may seem to pertai n to the
passage, so you must deci de whi ch most accuratel y appl i es to the enti re essay. The
passage deal s more wi th the effects of the col oni al producti on than the effects of
col oni al i sm on the col oni es, so choi ces (B) and (C) are not the best al ternati ves. Choi ces
(D) and (E) are di stracters.
40. The correct answer is (E). The passage does not recogni ze the expl oi tati on i nvol ved
i n col oni zati on (I I ), so any answer that i ncl udes I I shoul d be el i mi natedchoi ces (A),
(B), (C), and (D).
210 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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41. Thecorrect answer is(E). The wri ter uses the exampl e of l i nen producti on to support
hi s poi nt, maki ng choi ce (E) correct. The use of exampl es to support hi s argument
makes the pi ece speci fi c, so choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect. There i s no compari son or story,
el i mi nati ng choi ces (C) and (D). You mi ght have thought that the wri ter empl oys causal
rel ati on by argui ng that expansi oni sm resul ts i n economi c weal th for noncol oni al
nati ons, choi ce (B), but that i s an organi zati onal techni que, not a method of support.
42. The correct answer is (C). An antecedent i s the noun or noun phrase to whi ch a
pronoun refers. Onl y choi ces (A) and (C) make sense i n the context of the cl ause. You
need to pi ck the al ternati ve that exactl y refl ects the words of the sentence, whi ch woul d
el i mi nate choi ce (A). The other possi bi l i ti es, choi ces (B), (D), and (E), are di stracters.
43. Thecorrect answer is (B). Choi ce (A) corrects the possessi ve, colonies, but otherwi se
i s i denti cal to the convol uted ori gi nal . Choi ce (C) moves one cl ause but does l i ttl e el se to
cl ari fy the sentences meani ng. Choi ce (D) i s grammati cal l y i ncorrect. Choi ce (E) i s a
l engthy but i ncompl ete sentence.
44. The correct answer is (D). To answer thi s questi on correctl y, you must sel ect the
answer choi ce that provi des the best summary or descri pti on of the contents of the
passage. Choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect; the author states that peopl e shoul d consi der owni ng
South Ameri can Ci chl i ds, but does not make a passi onate pl ea to i ncrease ownershi p.
The author does i ncl ude warni ngs about the aggressi ve nature of Managuenses and Red
Devi l s, choi ce (B), but thi s i s not the central focus of the passage. Choi ce (C) i s i ncorrect
because the arti cl e i s about South Ameri can Ci chl i ds, not sal twater fi sh. Choi ce (E) i s
i ncorrect because the arti cl e presents al most no stati sti cal i nformati on. Thi s l eaves
choi ce (D), whi ch i s the best answer among the choi ces gi ven.
45. Thecorrect answer is(B). Thi s sentence i s an exampl e of rhetori cal questi on, that i s,
a questi on that does not requi re an answer but i s asked to make a poi nt. Choi ce (A) i s
i ncorrect, because a parody i s a humorous i mi tati on. Choi ce (C) i s al so i ncorrect. The
sentence does not contai n emoti ve l anguage. The sentence does not use exaggerati on to
make a poi nt, so choi ce (D) i s i ncorrect. An anecdote i s a story tol d to i l l ustrate a poi nt,
so you can el i mi nate choi ce (E).
46. The correct answer is (A). The word i nnate i s found i n the sentence I n fact,
regardl ess of feedi ng habi ts, the aquari st must be aware of the i nnate aggressi ve (or
nonaggressi ve) tendenci es of these fi sh. Use context cl ues to hel p you determi ne the
answer. Choi ce (A), natural , i s correct. The sentence speaks about the aggressi ve
tendenci es of fi sh regardless of feedi ng habi ts. Thi s shoul d ti p you off that the
aggressi ve tendenci es may not be affected by outsi de sti mul i and al so rul es out choi ce
(C). Choi ce (B) si mpl y does not make sense. There i s no i ndi cati on from the context that
the aggressi ve tendenci es are extraordi nary, choi ce (D). Tendenci es are by defi ni ti on
ordi nary.
47. The correct answer is (C). To answer thi s questi on, careful l y read footnote 2. The
footnote references a book ti tl ed Feedi ng and Cari ng for Your South Ameri can
Ci chl i ds, wri tten by Stanl ey Al mi ra. You can i mmedi atel y el i mi nate choi ce (A), because
i t substi tutes the chapter ti tl e that appears i n the reference wi th the ti tl e of the book.
Choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect, because Stanl ey Al mi ra i s the author, not the edi tor. I f he were
the edi tor, i t woul d be i ndi cated wi th ed. Choi ce (C) i s correct; the ti tl e i s correct and
Creatures of the Sea Publ i shi ng i s the publ i sher of the book. Choi ce (D) i s i ncorrect
because the footnote i ndi cates that the quote can be found on page 311 i n Chapter 11,
but there i s no i ndi cati on that page 311 i s the fi rst page of Chapter 11. Choi ce (E) i s
i ncorrect because the footnote i ndi cates that the publ i sher, Creatures of the Sea, i s
l ocated i n Phi l adel phi a and that the book was publ i shed, not wri tten, i n 1999.
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Practice Test 2 211
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48. Thecorrect answer is(E). The author recommends owni ng South Ameri can Ci chl i ds,
whi ch he refers to i n the fi rst paragraph as breathtaki ng creatures. Condescendi ng
i mpl i es that the author l ooks down on the fi sh, and thi s i s untrue, so choi ce (A) i s not
correct. The author cl earl y has strong feel i ngs about South Ameri can Ci chl i ds, so you
can el i mi nate choi ce (B). The author does not express fear, so choi ce (C) i s i ncorrect.
Fi nal l y, choi ce (D) i s i ncorrect, because the author does not di sapprove of the fi sh.
49. The correct answer is (B). To answer thi s questi on, l ocate the footnote references i n
the passage. The footnotes that are i ncl uded i n the arti cl e al l rel ate di rectl y to quotes
used i n the arti cl e, so choi ce (B) i s correct. I t i s reasonabl e to assume that the author
used the books for research because the author quotes the books. However, the footnotes
are not i ncl uded to show research but as sources for quotes.
50. The correct answer is (D). To answer thi s questi on correctl y, i t i s hel pful to know
what a jaguar l ooks l i ke, but not necessary. A jaguar i s gol d wi th bl ack spots, so choi ce
(D) i s correct. The paragraph states that the fi sh i s gol d wi th bl ack marki ngs.
Remember that you are l ooki ng for the most likely answer. Choi ce (A) i s i ncorrect,
because the passage states that Managuense have two teeth, not many teeth. Even i f
you are not sure of the marki ngs of a jaguar, i t i s reasonabl e to assume that a bi g cat i s
not bl ue and red, so el i mi nate choi ce (B). The fi sh i s aggressi ve, choi ce (C), and jaguars
may be aggressi ve, but thi s i s a general descri pti on and woul d not be the best answer
among the choi ces. Choi ce (E) i s si mpl y untrue. There i s nothi ng i n the passage to
suggest that the Managuense i s the smal l est ci chl i d.
51. Thecorrect answer is(A). Paral l el constructi on i s when si mi l ar words or phrases are
kept i n the same form, i n order to show a si mi l ar rel ati onshi p between two or more
thi ngs. I n thi s case, paral l el constructi on i s the repeti ti on of verb phrases usi ng to: to
l ove . . . i s to understand . . . Onomatopoei a, choi ce (B), occurs when a word i s used to
represent a sound, so el i mi nate choi ce (B). Al l i terati on i s a l i terary devi ce i n whi ch
words i n a phrase al l begi n wi th the same l etter, such as Al l Around An Al l i gator. That
i s not evi dent, so el i mi nate choi ce (C). Personi fi cati on, choi ce (D), i s the attri buti on of
human characteri sti cs to ani mal s or i nani mate objects, so di scard that answer. An
anal ogy, choi ce (E), draws a compari son, and does not make sense as an answer to
thi s questi on.
52. The correct answer is (C). Choi ce (A) i s the ti tl e of the book wri tten by Gregori
Anessi . Choi ce (B) i s the book wri tten by Stanl ey Al mi ra. Choi ce (D) i s the name of one
of the publ i shi ng compani es menti oned i n the footnotes. Choi ce (E) i s a chapter ti tl e, not
a book ti tl e.
53. The correct answer is (E). Anessi descri bes Managuenses and Red Devi l s as evi l , so
l ook for a synonym for evi l among the answer choi ces. Choi ce (E), mal evol ent, fi ts and i s
the correct answer. Remarkabl e, choi ce (A), has a posi ti ve connotati on and i s i ncorrect.
The fi sh are aggressi ve, not pl aci d, so choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect. I ncorri gi bl e, choi ce (C), i s
i ncorrect. There i s no evi dence the fi sh are unmanageabl e. Moral i ty i s not a
characteri sti c that i s appl i ed to fi sh, so choi ce (D) i s i ncorrect.
54. Thecorrect answer is(B). I n thi s sentence, great i s used to mean huge or l arge. You
can determi ne thi s from the context of the sentence, whi ch menti ons that the fi sh can
grow to be up to two feet l ong and smal l er fi sh are i n danger of bei ng di nner for the
Managuense. The words i n the other answer choi ces are al l synonyms for great, but
none fi ts i n the context of the sentence.
212 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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Section II
SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 1
You mi ght have chosen the fol l owi ng poi nts to i ncl ude i n your essay on Mary Shel l eys
I ntroduction to Frankenstein. Consi der them as you compl ete your sel f-eval uati on. Revi se
your essay usi ng poi nts from the l i st to strengthen i t.
Form or M od e
Prose; an i ntroducti on to the thi rd edi ti on of Frankenstein
Narrati ve
The m e
Ori gi ns of the horror novel
Aspects of wri ti ng a horror novel
C ha ra c te rs/ Ind ivid ua ls
Mary Shel l ey, the speaker
Percy Bysshe Shel l ey
Lord Byron
Audi ence, readers of the novel
C onflic t/ Issue / C ha lle ng e
Chal l enge from wi thout: to wri te a horror story equal to those previ ousl y wri tten
Chal l enge from wi thi n: to thi nk of a story
C onte nt/ Im p orta nt Points
Chal l enge among fri ends
I nspi red by conversati ons wi th Byron and Shel l ey
Vi vi d dreams
Gothi c tradi ti on
Dangers of technol ogy/sci ence i n the wrong hands
De ve lop m e nt
Chronol ogi cal
Sl owl y bui l ds pace
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Practice Test 2 213
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Lite ra ry C onve ntions
Poi nt of vi ew: fi rst person
Setti ng: Swi tzerl and duri ng a rai ny summer; confi ned to the house
Tone: emoti onal , personal , somewhat dark
Dic tion/ Synta x/ Style
Use of both i nternal and external di al ogue
Vi vi d l anguage
Speci fi c detai l s
Fi gurati ve l anguage
Compl ex sentence structure
Chronol ogi cal devel opment; musi cal
Word choi ce: sophi sti cated but comprehensi bl e
SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 2
You mi ght have chosen the fol l owi ng poi nts to i ncl ude i n your essay anal yzi ng Emersons
speech on books. Consi der them as you compl ete your sel f-eval uati on. Revi se your essay usi ng
poi nts from the l i st to strengthen i t.
Form or M od e
Speech
Persuasi ve/argument
The m e
Books can be the best of thi ngs or the worst of thi ngs
C onflic t/ Issue / C ha lle ng e
To overcome ri gi d reverence of great books
To prevent transferri ng of respect for acts of creati on (thought) to an i mperfect outcome of
that thought
C onte nt/ Im p orta nt Points
I ndi ctment of bookworms
Greatest thi nkers were once students
Shoul d not worshi p profound works to the extent that thei r creators are forgotten
Respect books i n moderati on
214 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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I ndi vi dual thought paramount (an argument mi sused to deny the i mportance of the past)
Wri te books of own truths
Undertake own acts of creati on
I mpl i es i deas are not great i n and of themsel ves
Lite ra ry C onve ntions
Poi nt of vi ew: fi rst person
Audi ence: students
Setti ng: uni versi ty campus
Tone: stri dent, argumentati ve
Dic tion/ Synta x/ Style
Sentences fai rl y short and not extremel y compl ex; strai ghtforward
Language overstated; tyrant, sl uggi sh, perverted, Meek men grow up i n l i brari es
Use of acti ve and passi ve voi ce
Sentence vari ety
Some paral l el structure: Col l eges are bui l t on i t. Books are wri tten on i t . . .
SUGGESTIONS FOR QUESTION 3
Thi s questi on asks for a synthesi s essay that supports, qual i fi es, or di sputes the argument
that satel l i te radi o wi l l repl ace terrestri al radi o because of government censorshi p. I t does not
matter whi ch posi ti on you take as l ong as you provi de adequate support for your argument
usi ng your own opi ni ons al ong wi th i nformati on from the sources. Consi der the fol l owi ng as
you compl ete your sel f-eval uati on. Revi se your essay usi ng poi nts from the l i st to strengthen
i t i f necessary. Remember to proofread your response and make sure your grammar, syntax,
and spel l i ng are correct.
The sis sta te m e nt/ introd uc tion
Cl ear defi ni ti on of the i ssuei n thi s case, terrestri al radi o bei ng made obsol ete by
satel l i te radi o
Cl ear statement of your posi ti on on the i ssue: statement of the reason you agree or
di sagree wi th the statement that satel l i te radi o wi l l repl ace terrestri al radi o because
satel l i te radi o does not have to conform to government regul ati ons
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Practice Test 2 215
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Sup p orting d e ta ils
Support i s based on your own opi ni ons about the posi ti on you take but i nformati on i n the
sources shoul d al so be used
Show a cl ear connecti on among the sources you choose to ci te
Sources are seaml essl y i ntegrated wi th appropri ate transi ti ons
At l east three of the si x sources are used
Expl ai n the l ogi c of how you arri ved at the concl usi on you di d based on the i nformati on
provi ded i n the sources
Acknowl edge opposi ng arguments and refute them
Attri bute both di rect and i ndi rect ci tati ons
C onc lusion
I ncl udes a restatement of your thesi s ti ed i nto the supporti ng evi dence you used. (ex: I n
sum, there can be no other concl usi on drawn from the evi dence except to say that peopl e
wi l l al ways accept a bi t of censorshi p i n exchange for free entertai nment.)
Concl usi on neatl y sums up your argument.
216 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE FREE RESPONSE ESSAYS
89 67 5 34 12 0
O
v
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r
a
l
l
I
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
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Demonstrates
excel l ent control of
the l i terature and
outstandi ng
wri ti ng
competence;
thorough and
effecti ve; i nci si ve
Demonstrates good
control of the
l i terature and good
wri ti ng
competence; l ess
thorough and
i nci si ve than the
hi ghest papers
Reveal s si mpl i sti c
thi nki ng and/or
i mmature wri ti ng;
adequate ski l l s
I ncompl ete
thi nki ng; fai l s to
respond adequatel y
to part or parts of
the questi on; may
paraphrase rather
than anal yze
Unacceptabl y bri ef;
fai l s to respond to
the questi on; l i ttl e
cl ari ty
Lacki ng ski l l and
competence
U
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
o
f
t
h
e
T
e
x
t
Excel l ent
understandi ng of
the text; exhi bi ts
percepti on and
cl ari ty; ori gi nal or
uni que approach;
i ncl udes apt and
speci fi c references
Good
understandi ng of
the text; exhi bi ts
percepti on and
cl ari ty; i ncl udes
speci fi c references
Superfi ci al
understandi ng of
the text; el ements
of l i terature vague,
mechani cal ,
overgeneral i zed
Mi sreadi ngs and
l ack of persuasi ve
evi dence from the
text; meager and
unconvi nci ng
treatment of
l i terary el ements
Seri ous
mi sreadi ngs and
l i ttl e supporti ng
evi dence from the
text; erroneous
treatment of
l i terary el ements
A response wi th no
more than a
reference to the
l i terature; bl ank
response, or one
compl etel y off the
topi c
O
r
g
a
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
D
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
Meti cul ousl y
organi zed and
thoroughl y
devel oped;
coherent and
uni fi ed
Wel l organi zed and
devel oped;
coherent and
uni fi ed
Reasonabl y
organi zed and
devel oped; mostl y
coherent and
uni fi ed
Somewhat
organi zed and
devel oped; some
i ncoherence and
l ack of uni ty
Li ttl e or no
organi zati on and
devel opment;
i ncoherent and
voi d of uni ty
No apparent
organi zati on or
devel opment;
i ncoherent
U
s
e
o
f
S
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n
t
e
n
c
e
s
Effecti vel y vari ed
and engagi ng;
vi rtual l y error free
Vari ed and
i nteresti ng; a few
errors
Adequatel y vari ed;
some errors
Somewhat vari ed
and margi nal l y
i nteresti ng; one or
more major errors
Li ttl e or no
vari ati on; dul l and
uni nteresti ng;
some major errors
Numerous major
errors
W
o
r
d
C
h
o
i
c
eI nteresti ng and
effecti ve; vi rtual l y
error free
General l y
i nteresti ng and
effecti ve; a few
errors
Occasi onal l y
i nteresti ng and
effecti ve; several
errors
Somewhat dul l and
ordi nary; some
errors i n di cti on
Mostl y dul l and
conventi onal ;
numerous errors
Numerous major
errors; extremel y
i mmature
G
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a
m
m
a
r
a
n
d
U
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a
g
e
Vi rtual l y error free Occasi onal mi nor
errors
Several mi nor
errors
Some major errors Severel y fl awed;
frequent major
errors
Extremel y fl awed
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SELF-EVALUATION RUBRIC FOR THE SYNTHESIS ESSAYS
89 67 5 34 12 0
O
v
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a
l
l
I
m
p
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s
s
i
o
n
Demonstrates excel -
l ent control of effec-
ti ve wr i ti ng tech-
ni ques, sophi sti -
cated ar gumenta-
ti on, and wel l i nte-
grated synthesi s of
source i nformati on;
uses ci tati ons con-
vi nci ngl y
Demonstrates good
control of effecti ve
wri ti ng techni ques;
somewhat
thorough and
i nci si ve; uses
ci tati ons
appropri atel y
Demonstrates
general
competence i n
stati ng and
defendi ng a
posi ti on; some
i nconsi stenci es and
weaknesses i n
argumentati on
Demonstrates
some ski l l but
l acks
understandi ng of
questi on and
sources
Demonstrates l i ttl e
ski l l i n taki ng a
coherent posi ti on
and defendi ng i t or
i n usi ng sources
Lacks ski l l and
competence
U
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
o
f
t
h
e
T
e
x
t
Takes a cl ear
posi ti on that
defends,
chal l enges, or
qual i fi es the
questi on accuratel y
Demonstrates a
somewhat
superfi ci al
understandi ng of
the sources
Di spl ays some
mi sreadi ng of the
sources or some
stretchi ng of
i nformati on to
support the chosen
posi ti on
Takes a posi ti on
that may mi sread
or si mpl i fy the
sources; may
present overl y
si mpl e argument
Mi sreads sources,
or l acks an
argument, or
summari zes the
sources rather
than usi ng them to
support a posi ti on
Posi ti on does not
accuratel y refl ect
the sources; no
more than a l i sti ng
of the sources
O
r
g
a
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
D
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
Cl earl y states a po-
si ti on; uses at l east
thr ee sour ces to
suppor t that posi -
ti on convi nci ngl y
and effecti vel y; co-
herent and uni fi ed
Cl earl y states a po-
si ti on; uses at l east
three sources to sup-
por t that posi ti on;
adequate devel op-
ment of i deas but
l ess convi nci ng; co-
herent and uni fi ed
General l y cl earl y
stated posi ti on and
l i nks between
posi ti on and ci ted
sources; some
weaknesses i n
l ogi c; ci tes three
sources
Creates weak
connecti ons
between argument
and ci ted sources;
ci tes onl y two
sources
Lacks coherent
devel opment or
organi zati on; ci tes
one or no sources
No apparent
organi zati on or
devel opment;
i ncoherent; ci tes no
sources
U
s
e
o
f
S
e
n
t
e
n
c
e
s
Effecti vel y vari ed
and engagi ng; cl ose
to error free
Vari ed and
i nteresti ng; a few
errors
Adequatel y vari ed;
some errors
Somewhat vari ed
and margi nal l y
i nteresti ng; one or
more major errors
Li ttl e or no
vari ati on; dul l and
uni nteresti ng; some
major errors
Numerous major
errors
W
o
r
d
C
h
o
i
c
e
Uses the vocabul ary
of the topi c as evi -
dent i n the sources;
i nter esti ng and ef-
fecti ve; vi rtual l y er-
ror free
Demonstrates ease
i n usi ng vocabul ary
from the sources
Occasi onal use of
vocabul ary from
the sources;
occasi onal l y
i nteresti ng and
effecti ve
Somewhat dul l and
or di nar y; some er-
rors i n di cti on; no at-
tempt to i ntegr ate
vocabul ary from the
sources
Mostl y dul l and
conventi onal ; no
attempt to
i ntegrate
vocabul ary from
the sources
Numerous major
errors; extremel y
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Vi rtual l y error free Occasi onal mi nor
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Usi ng the rubri cs on the previ ous pages, rate yoursel f i n each of the categori es bel ow for each
essay on the test. Enter on the l i nes bel ow the number from the rubri c that most accuratel y
refl ects your performance i n each category. Then cal cul ate the average of the si x numbers to
determi ne your fi nal score. I t i s di ffi cul t to score yoursel f objecti vel y, so you may wi sh to ask
a respected fri end or teacher to assess your wri ti ng for a more accurate refl ecti on of i ts
strengths and weaknesses. On the AP test i tsel f, a reader wi l l rate your essay on a scal e of 0
to 9, wi th 9 bei ng the hi ghest.
Rate each category from 9 (hi gh) to 0 (l ow).
Question 1
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
Question 2
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
Question 3
SELF-EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION
Overall Impression
Understanding of the Text
Organization and Development
Use of Sentences
Word Choice (Diction)
Grammar and Usage
TOTAL
Di vi de by 6 for fi nal score
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Practice Test 2 219
www.petersons.com
ANSWER SHEET PRACTICE TEST 3
SECTION I
1. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
2. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
3. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
4. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
5. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
6. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
7. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
8. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
9. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
10. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
11. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
12. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
13. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
14. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
15. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
16. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
17. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
18. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
19. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
20. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
21. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
22. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
23. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
24. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
25. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
26. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
27. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
28. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
29. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
30. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
31. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
32. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
33. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
34. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
35. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
36. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
37. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
38. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
39. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
40. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
41. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
42. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
43. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
44. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
45. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
46. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
47. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
48. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
49. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
50. O
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
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Practice Test 3 221
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Practice Test 3
SECTION I
50 Q UESTIO NS 60 M INUTES
Directions: Thi s secti on consi sts of sel ecti ons of l i terature and
questi ons on thei r content, styl e, and form. After you have read each
passage, sel ect the response that best answers the questi on and mark
the correspondi ng space on the answer sheet.
QUESTIONS 113 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTIONA SPEECH BY
QUEEN ELIZABETH I TO PARLIAMENT. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND
THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
Line To be a Ki ng, and wear a Crown, i s a thi ng more gl ori ous to them that
see i t, than i t i s pl easant to them that bear i t: for my sel f, I never was
so much i nti ced wi th the gl ori ous name of a Ki ng, or the royal author-
i ty of a Queen, as del i ghted that God hath made me Hi s I nstrument to
mai ntai n Hi s Truth and Gl ory, and to defend thi s ki ngdom from
di shonor, damage, tyranny, and oppressi on. But shoul d I ascri be any of
these thi ngs unto my sel f, or my sexl y weakness, I were not worthy to
l i ve, and of al l most unworthy of the merci es I have recei ved at Gods
hands, but to God onl y and whol l y al l i s gi ven and ascri bed.
The cares and troubl es of a Crown I cannot more fi tl y resembl e than
to the drugs of a l earned physi ci an, perfumed wi th some aromati cal
savour, or to bi tter pi l l s gi l ded over, by whi ch they are made more
acceptabl e or l ess offensi ve, whi ch i ndeed are bi tter and unpl easant to
take, and for my own part, were i t not for consci ence sake to di scharge
the duty that God hath l ai d upon me, and to mai ntai n Hi s gl ory and
keep you i n safety, i n mi ne own di sposi ti on I shoul d be wi l l i ng to
resi gn the pl ace I hol d to any other, and gl ad to be freed of the gl ory
wi th the l abors, for i t i s not my desi re to l i ve nor to rei gn l onger than
my l i fe and rei gn shal l be for your good. And though you have had and
may have many mi ghti er and wi ser Pri nces si tti ng i n thi s Seat, yet
you never had nor shal l have any that wi l l l ove you better.
Thus Mr. Speaker, I commend me to your l oyal l oves, and yours to
my best care and your further councel s, and I pray you Mr. Control l er,
and Mr. Secretary, and you of my Councel l , that before these Gentl e-
men depart unto thei r countri es, you bri ng them al l to ki ss my hand.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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229
1. I t can be i nferred from her use of the
words my sexl y weakness (l i ne 7)
that El i zabeth bel i eves
(A) she hersel f i s weak
(B) she i s unworthy of
Gods merci es
(C) she i s too emoti onal
(D) women are the weaker sex
(E) ki ngs make better monarchs
2. The passage as a whol e can best be
descri bed as whi ch of the fol l owi ng
modes of di scourse?
(A) Narrati ve
(B) Argument
(C) Exposi ti on
(D) Descri pti on
(E) Persuasi on
3. El i zabeths use of the phrase pi l l s
. . . whi ch i ndeed are bi tter and
unpl easant to take (l i nes 1214) i s
an exampl e of whi ch of the fol l owi ng
fi gures of speech?
(A) Si mi l e
(B) Metaphor
(C) I magery
(D) Personi fi cati on
(E) Hyperbol e
4. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best descri bes
the tone of thi s passage?
(A) Rel i gi ous
(B) Regal
(C) Persuasi ve
(D) Powerful
(E) Benevol ent
5. I n the second paragraph, El i zabeth
says . . . i n mi ne own di sposi ti on I
shoul d be wi l l i ng to resi gn the pl ace I
hol d to any other (l i nes 1617) i n
order to
I . gi ve credence to the i dea that
she rul es because of Di vi ne Wi l l
I I . confi de that she i s ti red of the
responsi bi l i ti es of the monarchy
I I I . suggest that she i s wi l l i ng to
resi gn and l et another rul er
take over
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I I and I I I onl y
6. What does El i zabeth i mpl y when she
says To be a Ki ng, and wear a
Crown, i s a thi ng more gl ori ous to
them that see i t, than i t i s pl easant
to them that bear i t (l i nes 12)?
(A) The monarchy i s a gl ori ous
thi ng to behol d.
(B) The responsi bi l i ti es of a rul er
are a heavy burden.
(C) I t i s someti mes pl easant to
be queen.
(D) Do not chal l enge my
royal authori ty.
(E) The Crown bri ngs wi th i t both
good thi ngs and bad.
7. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng defi ni ti ons
best sui ts the words fi tl y resembl e
(l i ne 10) i n the context?
(A) Cl osel y approxi mate
(B) Aptl y descri be
(C) Accuratel y compare
(D) Perfectl y mi rror
(E) Cl osel y rel ate to
230 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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8. I n the fi rst paragraph, by choosi ng
the word I nstrument El i zabeth
wi shes to emphasi ze speci fi cal l y
(A) the nature of her pol i ti cal power
(B) an al most musi cal del i ght wi th
bei ng the Queen
(C) her promi se to God that she
wi l l rul e fai rl y
(D) her obedi ence to Gods wi l l
(E) that her authori ty comes from
the l i ne of successi on
9. I n thi s address, what does El i zabeth
say are her duti es as monarch?
(A) To rei gn wi th truth and gl ory
(B) To overcome her sexl y weakness
(C) To l ove her subjects better than
her predecessors di d
(D) To take her medi ci ne duti ful l y
(E) To defend Engl and from
tyranny and oppressi on
10. Rhetori cal l y, the l ast sentence i n the
second paragraph (l i nes 1921) i s
best descri bed as
(A) an extended metaphor support-
i ng the antecedent metaphor
(B) reducti o ad absurdem
(C) a promi se to care for
her subjects
(D) argumentum ad homi nem
(E) an attempt to bal ance possi bl e
weakness wi th a greater vi rtue
11. I n the context of her speech, what
does El i zabeth mean when she says
Thus . . . I commend me to your
l oyal l oves (l i ne 22)?
(A) I want you to remember me to
your fami l i es.
(B) I conti nue to be devoted to you.
(C) I demand your conti nued
al l egi ance.
(D) I ask for your conti nued
affecti on.
(E) I wi l l l ove those of you who are
l oyal to me.
12. Gi ven the speakers rhetori c, what
can one i nfer i s the pri mary purpose
of El i zabeths address?
(A) To curry favor wi th her subjects
by expressi ng her affecti on
(B) To el i ci t compassi on for hersel f
as a woman
(C) To expl ai n that she rul es by
di vi ne wi l l
(D) To convi nce parl i ament that her
moti ves are purel y al trui sti c
(E) To di spel any i l l wi l l that
may exi st
13. The metaphor that El i zabeth devel -
ops i n the second paragraph i s an
attempt to i nform Parl i ament that
(A) the burdens of bei ng queen
have made her i l l
(B) she i s no l onger wi l l i ng to
accept the yoke of power
(C) monarchs who rul e i rresponsi -
bl y are an offense to God
(D) the pri vi l eges of power do not
compensate for i ts burdens
(E) she rul es onl y from her con-
sci ence and her duty to God
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Practice Test 3 231

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QUESTIONS 1426 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY
AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS.
Whites Chocolate House, June 6
Line A l etter from a young l ady, wri tten i n the most passi onate terms, wherei n she l aments
the mi sfortune of a gentl eman, her l over, who was l atel y wounded i n a duel , has
turned my thoughts to that subject and i ncl i ned me to exami ne i nto the causes whi ch
preci pi tate men i nto so fatal a fol l y. And as i t has been proposed to treat of subjects of
gal l antry i n the arti cl e from hence, and no one poi nt i n nature i s more proper to be
consi dered by the company who frequent thi s pl ace than that of duel s, i t i s worth our
consi derati on to exami ne i nto thi s chi meri cal groundl ess humor, and to l ay every other
thought asi de, unti l we have stri pped i t of al l i ts fal se pretenses to credi t and reputa-
ti on amongst men.
But I must confess, when I consi der what I am goi ng about and run over i n my
i magi nati on al l the endl ess crowd of men of honor who wi l l be offended at such a
di scourse, I am undertaki ng, methi nks, a work worthy an i nvul nerabl e hero i n
romance, rather than a pri vate gentl eman wi th a si ngl e rapi er; but as I am pretty wel l
acquai nted by great opportuni ti es wi th the nature of man, and know of a truth that
al l men fi ght agai nst thei r wi l l , the danger vani shes, and resol uti on ri ses upon thi s
subject. For thi s reason, I shal l tal k very freel y on a custom whi ch al l men wi sh
expl oded, though no man has courage enough to resi st i t.
But there i s one uni ntel l i gi bl e word, whi ch I fear wi l l extremel y perpl ex my di sser-
tati on, and I confess to you I fi nd very hard to expl ai n, whi ch i s the term sati sfac-
ti on. An honest country gentl eman had the mi sfortune to fal l i nto company wi th two
or three modern men of honor, where he happened to be very i l l treated, and one of
the company, bei ng consci ous of hi s offense, sends a note to hi m i n the morni ng, and
tel l s hi m he was ready to gi ve hi m sati sfacti on. Thi s i s fi ne doi ng, says the pl ai n
fel l ow; l ast ni ght he sent me away cursedl y out of humor, and thi s morni ng he fanci es
i t woul d be a sati sfacti on to be run through the body.
As the matter at present stands, i t i s not to do handsome acti ons that denomi nates
a man of honor; i t i s enough i f he dares to defend i l l ones. Thus you often see a
common sharper i n competi ti on wi th a gentl eman of the fi rst rank; though al l man-
ki nd i s convi nced that a fi ghti ng gamester i s onl y a pi ckpocket wi th the courage of an
hi ghwayman. One cannot wi th any pati ence refl ect on the unaccountabl e jumbl e of
persons and thi ngs i n thi s town and nati on, whi ch occasi ons very frequentl y that a
brave man fal l s by a hand bel ow that of a common hangman, and yet hi s executi oner
escapes the cl utches of the hangman for doi ng i t. I shal l therefore hereafter consi der
how the bravest men i n other ages and nati ons have behaved themsel ves upon such
i nci dents as we deci de by combat; and show, from thei r practi ce, that thi s resentment
nei ther has i ts foundati on from true reason nor sol i d fame: but i s an i mposture, made
of cowardi ce, fal sehood, and want of understandi ng. For thi s work, a good hi story of
quarrel s woul d be very edi fyi ng to the publ i c, and I appl y mysel f to the town for
parti cul ars and ci rcumstances wi thi n thei r knowl edge, whi ch may serve to embel l i sh
the di ssertati on wi th proper cuts. Most of the quarrel s I have ever known have
proceeded from some val i ant coxcombs persi sti ng i n the wrong, to defend some
prevai l i ng fol l y, and preserve hi msel f from the i ngenui ty of owni ng a mi stake.
By thi s means i t i s cal l ed gi vi ng a man sati sfacti on to urge your offense agai nst
hi m wi th your sword; whi ch puts me i n mi nd of Peters order to the keeper, i n The
Taleof a Tub. I f you negl ect to do al l thi s, damn you and your generati on forever: and
so we bi d you hearti l y farewel l . I f the contradi cti on i n the very terms of one of our
chal l enges were as wel l expl ai ned and turned i nto downri ght Engl i sh, woul d i t not run
after thi s manner?
232 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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Si r,
Your extraordi nary behavi or l ast ni ght and the l i berty you were pl eased to take
wi th me makes me thi s morni ng gi ve you thi s, to tel l you, because you are an
i l l -bred puppy, I wi l l meet you i n Hyde Park an hour hence; and because you
want both breedi ng and humani ty, I desi re you woul d come wi th a pi stol i n your
hand, on horseback, and endeavor to shoot me through the head to teach you
more manners. I f you fai l of doi ng me thi s pl easure, I shal l say you are a rascal ,
on every post i n town: and so, si r, i f you wi l l not i njure me more, I shal l never
forgi ve what you have done al ready. Pray, si r, do not fai l of getti ng everythi ng
ready; and you wi l l i nfi ni tel y obl i ge, si r, your most obedi ent humbl e servant,
etc. . . .
14. I n the second sentence of the fi rst
paragraph, what i s the best meani ng
for the word chi meri cal ?
(A) Meri tl ess
(B) I magi nary
(C) Monstrous
(D) Unjusti fi ed
(E) Musi cal
15. The passage as a whol e i s an ex-
ampl e of whi ch of the fol l owi ng
modes of di scourse?
(A) Descri pti on
(B) Exposi ti on
(C) Narrati on
(D) Argument
(E) Persuasi on
16. What does the wri ter say i s the
purpose of hi s essay?
(A) To educate hi s readers
about duel i ng
(B) To offer al ternati ves to duel i ng
(C) To wri te amusi ng essays for
hi s readers
(D) To di scredi t the practi ce
of duel i ng
(E) To change a barbari c custom
17. What i s meant by the phrase gi vi ng
a man sati sfacti on (l i ne 43)?
(A) To ki l l or wound another man
(B) To repay a debt
(C) To offer the opportuni ty to
restore ones honor
(D) To chal l enge a man wi th swords
(E) To di scredi t an enemy
18. I n the fourth paragraph, what does
the author mean when he says a
brave man fal l s by a hand bel ow that
of a common hangman
(l i nes 3132)?
I . Duel i ng i s a cri me puni shabl e
by hangi ng.
I I . Gentl emen and commoners
al i ke di e by duel i ng.
I I I . A gentl eman coul d be ki l l ed by
a person of a l ower cl ass.
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I I and I I I onl y
19. What l i terary devi ce does the wri ter
empl oy i n the thi rd paragraph to
attack the practi ce of duel i ng?
(A) Anecdote
(B) Sati re
(C) I magery
(D) Al l egory
(E) Parabl e
20. Accordi ng to thi s passage, what does
the wri ter bel i eve about the practi ce
of duel i ng?
(A) I t i s a ti me-honored custom.
(B) I t i s agai nst the nature of man.
(C) Men of honor have
no al ternati ve.
(D) Men of honor must defend
thei r reputati on.
(E) I t i s understandabl e i n
certai n ci rcumstances.
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Practice Test 3 233
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21. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best descri bes
the wri ters styl e?
(A) Formal di cti on, compound-
compl ex sentences
(B) I di omati c vocabul ary,
sentence fragments
(C) Col l oqui al di cti on, si mpl e
decl arati ve sentences
(D) Col l oqui al di cti on,
rambl i ng sentences
(E) I di omati c vocabul ary,
i di omati c punctuati on
22. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best charac-
teri zes the tone of thi s sel ecti on?
(A) Persuasi ve, reasonabl e
(B) Seri ous, i ntrospecti ve
(C) Sati ri cal , wi tty
(D) I mpassi oned, ardent
(E) Educated, schol arl y
23. What i s the rhetori cal functi on of the
fi rst paragraph?
I . To present the mai n purpose of
the arti cl e
I I . To tel l readers the genesi s of
the arti cl e
I I I . To expl ai n why the author has
chosen thi s subject
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I , I I , and I I I
24. The fi rst sentence of the fi rst para-
graph begi nni ng A l etter from a
young l ady, wri tten i n the most
passi onate terms (l i ne 1) contai ns al l
of the fol l owi ng el ements
EXCEPT a(n)
(A) adjecti val phrase
(B) gerund phrase
(C) adverbi al phrase
(D) preposi ti onal phrase
(E) parti ci pi al phrase
25. I n the fi rst sentence of the l ast
paragraph, the phrase you are an
i l l -bred puppy (l i nes 5152) i s an
exampl e of a(n)
(A) si mi l e
(B) metaphor
(C) personi fi cati on
(D) anal ogy
(E) overstatement
26. What i s the rhetori cal functi on of the
l ast paragraph?
I . I t i l l ustrates the contradi ctory
nature of gi vi ng sati sfacti on.
I I . I t paraphrases a chal l enge to
a duel .
I I I . I t pokes fun at the custom
of duel i ng.
(A) I onl y
(B) I I onl y
(C) I I I onl y
(D) I and I I onl y
(E) I , I I , and I I I
234 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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QUESTIONS 2737. READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE CAREFULLY BEFORE YOU CHOOSE
YOUR ANSWERS.
This p a ssa g e is a n e xc e rp t a b out the history of the Am e ric a n jud ic ia ry b y Sim e on E.
Ba ld win, L.L.D.
Line The col oni al charters, whether of the propri etary, provi nci al or republ i can type, were
al l equal l y charters for Engl i shmen, based on the common l aw of the Engl i sh peopl e.
So far as they granted l egi sl ati ve power, i t was general l y decl ared that i t shoul d be
exerci sed i n conformi ty, so far as mi ght be practi cabl e, wi th the l aws of Engl and. The
provi so to thi s effect i n the rovi ng patent gi ven by Queen El i zabeth to Si r Wal ter
Ral ei gh may be taken as a type: so al ways as the sai d statutes, l awes, and ordi nances
may be, as neere as conveni entl y may be, agreeabl e to the forme of the l awes, stat-
utes, government, or pol l i ci e of Engl and.
1
I n the Southern New Engl and col oni es, when fi rst settl ed, the common l aw of
Engl and was di sowned. They made the l i ttl e l aw whi ch they needed for themsel ves,
and as cases whi ch thi s mi ght not provi de for arose, they were to be deci ded by such
rul es as the magi strates mi ght thi nk ri ght and warranted by the precepts found i n the
Bi bl e. Connecti cut conti nued to i nsi st on thi s vi ew, wi th general consi stency, unti l the
days of the Stamp Act, when i t became the i nterest of her peopl e to cl ai m the benefi t
of the pri nci pl es of the Engl i sh consti tuti on and of the common l aw, on whi ch i t was
bui l t up.
2
I n earl y Massachusetts the wri tten pl eadi ngs often referred to the Bi bl e, quoti ng a
text from i t as an authori ty, just as ci tati ons now mi ght be made i n a l awyers bri ef
from a l egal treati se or reported case.
3
As was anti ci pated i n the Ral ei gh patent, i t was found from the fi rst and every-
where that i f the common l aw was to be appl i ed to the rough condi ti ons of col oni al l i fe
some modi fi cati ons were necessary. These, the col oni sts were, i n the mai n, l eft free to
make at thei r pl easure. Much of thi s work came to be done by thei r l egi sl ati ve assem-
bl i es; more by thei r courts. The assembl i es sat but for a few days i n the year: the
courts were al ways open to sui tors, and sessi ons of the i nferi or ones were frequent.
The assembl i es, however, were themsel ves courts. At fi rst they kept i n thei r own
hands a l arge share of judi ci al power. They acted as the earl y parl i aments of Engl and
had acted, both as a l egi sl ature and a judi ci al tri bunal . I n several col oni es they l ong
kept to themsel ves the ri ght of deci di ng pri vate controversi es on equi tabl e pri nci pl es.
They sat as a court of revi ew, to grant new tri al s or revi ew judgments. They passed
acts of attai nder. They settl ed i nsol vent estates.
4
Thi s mi ngl i ng of judi ci al wi th l egi sl ati ve functi ons i s a thi ng to be tol erated onl y
whi l e the foundati ons of a government are bei ng l ai d. As the Roman pl ebei an, i n the
days before the Twel ve Tabl es, cl amored for a known and certai n l aw, so the common
peopl e of the earl y col oni es i nsi sted that from a si mi l ar want they hel d thei r ri ghts too
much at the wi l l of thei r rul ers. I n the col ony of New Haven a code was earl y framed;
but there they bui l t on a wri tten l awthe Bi bl e.
5
I n Massachusetts, where they were
more anxi ous to avoi d confl i ct wi th the common l aw, the probl em was a seri ous one.
1
Poore, Charters and Consti tuti ons, I I ,1381.
2
Col oni al Records of Conn., 16891706, 261; Conn. Stat., ed. of 1769, 1. Cf. ci tati ons by D. Davenport,
arguendo, i n Fl ynn v. Morgan, 55 Connecti cut Reports, 132134, from MSS. i n the State archi ves.
3
Publ i cati ons of the Col oni al Soci ety of Mass., I I I , 324.
4
Wheel ers Appeal , 45 Connecti cut Reports, 306, 314.
5
New Haven Col ony Records, I , 12, 115, 116; I I , 569, 570.
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Practice Test 3 235
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27. The second paragraph can best be
summari zed by whi ch of the fol l ow-
i ng statements?
(A) The Southern New Engl and
col oni es al ways based thei r l aw
on Engl i sh common l aw.
(B) The Southern New Engl and
col oni es ori gi nal l y based thei r
l aws on the Bi bl e but saw the
benefi t of usi ng Engl i sh com-
mon l aw around the ti me of the
Stamp Act.
(C) The Southern New Engl and
col oni es al ways based thei r l aw
on the Bi bl e.
(D) The Southern New Engl and
col oni es ori gi nal l y based thei r
l aw on an equal combi nati on of
Engl i sh common l aw and the
Bi bl e.
(E) The Stamp Act caused the
Southern New Engl and col oni es
to become di si l l usi oned wi th
l aw based on Engl i sh common
l aw.
28. The number 1381 i n footnote 1 most
l i kel y represents
(A) the year Charters and Consti -
tuti ons was publ i shed
(B) the total number of pages i n
Charters and Consti tuti ons
(C) the page number i n Charters
and Consti tuti ons where the
ci tati on can be found
(D) the number of charters men-
ti oned i n the book
(E) the year that the fi rst charter
was publ i shed
29. I n the fol l owi ng sentence from the
fourth paragraph, what word does
these refer to?
These, the col oni sts were, i n the
mai n, l eft free to make at thei r
pl easure.
(A) Modi fi cati ons
(B) Condi ti ons
(C) Laws
(D) Col oni sts
(E) Patents
30. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s cl osest i n
meani ng to the word di sowned as
used i n the fi rst sentence of the
second paragraph?
(A) I gnored
(B) Sol d
(C) Adhered to
(D) Presented
(E) Revi sed
31. What i s the purpose of footnote 3?
(A) To credi t a di rect quotati on
(B) To show the reader the basi s for
the i nformati on i n the thi rd
paragraph
(C) To provi de the reader wi th
sources for further readi ng
(D) None of the above
(E) Al l of the above
32. Thi s excerpt i s most l i kel y taken
from
(A) a hi stori cal novel
(B) a sci enti fi c journal
(C) a bi ography
(D) an encycl opedi a
(E) a hi story book
33. I t i s reasonabl e to concl ude from the
footnotes as a whol e that
(A) the author gi ves l i ttl e credence
to ori gi nal documents
(B) the author used as many
pri mary sources as possi bl e to
research the i nformati on i n the
passage
(C) the passage i s based on l i ttl e
fact
(D) the passage i s si mpl y a compi l a-
ti on of facts from the ci ted
sources
(E) the author was an i mportant
government offi ci al
34. The l anguage used i n l i nes 3031 i s
an exampl e of
(A) Si mi l e
(B) Foreshadowi ng
(C) Sarcasm
(D) Paral l el constructi on
(E) I magery
236 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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35. Wi th whi ch statement woul d the
author of the passage most l i kel y
agree?
(A) The judi ci ary and l egi sl ature
shoul d al ways be mi ngl ed.
(B) The judi ci ary i s more i mportant
than the l egi sl ature as a part of
government.
(C) Government works best when
the judi ci ary and l egi sl ature are
kept separate.
(D) Engl i sh common l aw i s the best
way to govern al l soci eti es.
(E) The col oni es shoul d not have
protested the Stamp Act.
36. The word type as used i n l i ne 6 of
the fi rst paragraph most l i kel y
means
(A) ki nd
(B) font
(C) category
(D) exampl e
(E) manner
37. The authors tone can best be
descri bed as
(A) stri dent
(B) pl eadi ng
(C) emoti onal
(D) col d
(E) schol arl y
QUESTIONS 3850 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING SELECTION. IN THIS EXCERPT FROM M Y
BO NDAG E AND M Y FREEDO M BY FREDERICK DOUGLASS, THE AUTHOR SPEAKS ABOUT HIS
YOUTH AS A SLAVE. READ THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY AND THEN CHOOSE THE ANSWERS TO
THE QUESTIONS.
Line When I was about thi rteen years ol d and had succeeded i n l earni ng to read, every
i ncrease of knowl edge, especi al l y respecti ng the free states, added somethi ng to the
al most i ntol erabl e burden of the thoughtI am a sl ave for l i fe. To my bondage I saw
no end, i t was a terri bl e real i ty, and I shal l never be abl e to tel l how sadl y that
thought chafed my young spi ri t. Fortunatel y, or unfortunatel y, about thi s ti me i n my
l i fe, I had made enough money to buy what was then a very popul ar school book, the
Columbian Orator. I bought thi s addi ti on to my l i brary, of Mr. Kni ght, on Thames
street Fel l s Poi nt, Bal ti more, and pai d hi m fi fty cents for i t. I was fi rst l ed to buy thi s
book, by heari ng some l i ttl e boys say they were goi ng to l earn some l i ttl e pi eces out of
i t for the Exhi bi ti on. Thi s vol ume was, i ndeed, a ri ch treasure, and every opportuni ty
afforded me, for a ti me, was spent i n di l i gentl y perusi ng i t. . . . The di al ogue and the
speeches were al l redol ent of the pri nci pl es of l i berty and poured fl oods of l i ght on the
nature and character of sl avery. As I read, behol d! The very di scontent so graphi cal l y
predi cted by Master Hugh had al ready come upon me. I was no l onger the l i ght-
hearted, gl eesome boy, ful l of mi rth and pl ay, as when I l anded fi rst at Bal ti more.
Knowl edge had come. . . . Thi s knowl edge opened my eyes to the horri bl e pi t and
reveal ed the teeth of the fri ghtful dragon that was ready to pounce upon me, but i t
opened no way for my escape. I have often wi shed mysel f a beast, or a bi rdanythi ng,
rather than a sl ave. I was wretched and gl oomy. Beyond my abi l i ty to descri be. I was
too thoughtful to be happy. I t was thi s everl asti ng thi nki ng whi ch di stressed and
tormented me; and yet there was no getti ng ri d of the subject of my thoughts. Al l
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Practice Test 3 237
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nature was redol ent of i t. Once awakened by the si l ver trump* of knowl edge, my spi ri t
was roused to eternal wakeful ness. Li berty! The i nesti mabl e bi rthri ght of every man,
had, for me, converted every object i nto an asserter of thi s great ri ght. I t was heard i n
every sound, and behel d i n every object. I t was ever present, to torment me wi th a
sense of my wretched condi ti on. The more beauti ful and charmi ng were the smi l es of
nature, the more horri bl e and desol ate was my condi ti on. I saw nothi ng wi thout
seei ng i t. I do not exaggerate, when I say, that i t l ooked from every star, smi l ed i n
every cal m, breathed i n every wi nd, and moved i n every storm.
Frederi ck Dougl ass
38. Thi s passage i s pri mari l y
concerned wi th
(A) the i mportance of readi ng for
Frederi ck Dougl ass
(B) Dougl asss concl usi on that
sl avery i s i ntol erabl e
(C) the authors experi ences at the
hands of whi te boys
(D) the wri ters knowl edge of the
consti tuti on of the
Uni ted States
(E) reasons why he was no l onger a
happy youngster
39. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng descri bes the
tone of the passage?
(A) Li ght and humorous
(B) I roni c
(C) Academi c
(D) Si ncere and powerful
(E) Angry and vi ol ent
40. Thi s passage i s an exampl e of a
(A) sl ave narrati ve
(B) pi caresque novel
(C) bi ography
(D) hi stori cal text
(E) secondary source
41. The styl e of thi s excerpt can best be
descri bed as
(A) el aborate, compl ex,
and ci rcumspect
(B) poeti c
(C) pl ai n, forceful , and di rect
(D) obscure and di ffi cul t
(E) El i zabethan
42. Accordi ng to the author, why i s
educati on i ncompati bl e wi th sl avery?
(A) The system keeps sl aves from
l i vi ng i n harmony wi th
thei r soul s.
(B) Educati on makes sl aves di ssat-
i sfi ed wi th thei r posi ti on.
(C) Sl aves l earn about the Consti tu-
ti on and the Bi l l of Ri ghts.
(D) Educati on makes sl aves danger-
ous to thei r masters.
(E) Owners do not want sl aves
wasti ng work ti me by readi ng
and l earni ng.
43. What effect does readi ng the
Columbian Orator have upon
young Dougl ass?
(A) He deci des to buy the book for
fi fty cents.
(B) Dougl ass deci des to enter the
Exhi bi ti on and compete agai nst
whi te boys.
(C) The book i ncreases hi s l ongi ng
for freedom.
(D) He di scovers that he i s a vi cti m
of an oppressi ve system.
(E) He devel ops a pl an to
escape north.
* trumpet
238 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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25
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44. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng i s not an
accurate anal ysi s of thi s passage?
(A) Dougl asss descri pti ons
are strai ghtforward.
(B) The author offers l i ttl e i nterpre-
tati on of the si gni fi cance
of events.
(C) The passage i s factual .
(D) The author empl oys many
l i terary al l usi ons.
(E) Dougl ass al l ows readers to draw
thei r own concl usi ons.
45. When Dougl ass wri tes Thi s knowl -
edge opened my eyes to the horri bl e
pi t and reveal ed the teeth of the
fri ghtful dragon that was ready to
pounce upon me, (l i nes 1617) he
was referri ng to
(A) Mr. Hugh, hi s owner
(B) the effects of educati on
(C) the Columbian Orator
(D) the i nsti tuti on of sl avery
(E) events that had happened
to hi m
46. What structure does Dougl ass
empl oy i n the sentence The more
beauti ful and charmi ng were the
smi l es of nature, the more horri bl e
and desol ate was my condi ti on.
(l i nes 2627)?
(A) Metaphors
(B) Paral l el i sm
(C) Exaggerati on
(D) El oquence
(E) Cacophony
47. I n the sentence I t was thi s everl ast-
i ng thi nki ng whi ch di stressed and
tormented me; and yet there was no
getti ng ri d of the subject of my
thoughts (l i nes 2021), the word
thi nki ng i s whi ch of the fol l owi ng?
(A) Parti ci pl e
(B) Verb
(C) I nfi ni ti ve
(D) Adverbi al phrase
(E) Gerund
48. What si gni fi cant change does Dou-
gl ass descri be i n the l i nes As I read,
behol d! The very di scontent so
graphi cal l y predi cted by Master
Hugh had al ready come upon me
(l i nes 1314)?
(A) The young Dougl ass came to
the concl usi on that sl avery
was wrong.
(B) Dougl ass deci ded he woul d
pursue a hi gher educati on.
(C) The wri ter deci ded he woul d act
l i ght-hearted and mi rthful
whi l e pl anni ng hi s escape.
(D) Hi s spi ri t awakened.
(E) Dougl ass found hi s soul .
49. Dougl ass uses the word redol ent
twi ce (l i ne 12 and l i ne 22).What does
the word mean?
(A) Fi l l ed wi th
(B) Sweet-smel l i ng
(C) Evocati ve
(D) Excessi ve
(E) Exudi ng
50. Whi ch of the fol l owi ng best descri bes
the mode of di scourse of thi s arti cl e?
(A) Exposi ti on
(B) Narrati ve
(C) Argument
(D) Descri pti on
(E) Persuasi on
S T O P
I f you fi ni sh before ti me i s cal l ed, you may check your work on thi s
secti on onl y. Do not turn to any other secti on i n the test.
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Practice Test 3 239
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SECTION II
3 Q UESTIO NS 2 HO URS 15 M INUTES
Directions: Read the fol l owi ng passage careful l y. Wri te a wel l -organi zed essay i n
whi ch you expl ai n how Thoreau devel oped and supported hi s core theme, or argument.
Be sure to consi der rhetori cal and styl i sti c devi ces such as di cti on, i magery, tone, theme,
and mode of di scourse.
Question 1
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
From C ivil Disob e d ie nc e
Line I hearti l y accept the motto, That government i s best whi ch governs l east; and I shoul d
l i ke to see i t acted up to more rapi dl y and systemati cal l y. Carri ed out, i t fi nal l y amounts
to thi s, whi ch al so I bel i eve: That government i s best whi ch governs not at al l ; and
when men are prepared for i t, that wi l l be the ki nd of government whi ch they wi l l have.
Government i s at best but an expedi ent; but most governments are usual l y, and al l
governments are someti mes, i nexpedi ent. The objecti ons whi ch have been brought
agai nst a standi ng army, and they are many and wei ghty, and deserve to prevai l , may
al so at l ast be brought agai nst a standi ng government. The standi ng army i s onl y an
arm of the standi ng government. The government i tsel f, whi ch i s onl y the mode whi ch
the peopl e have chosen to execute thei r wi l l , i s equal l y l i abl e to be abused and perverted
before the peopl e can act through i t. Wi tness the present Mexi can war, the work of
comparati vel y a few i ndi vi dual s usi ng the standi ng government as thei r tool ; for i n the
outset, the peopl e woul d not have consented to thi s measure.
Thi s Ameri can governmentwhat i s i t but a tradi ti on, though a recent one, endeav-
ori ng to transmi t i tsel f uni mpai red to posteri ty, but each i nstant l osi ng some of i ts
i ntegri ty? I t has not the vi tal i ty and force of a si ngl e l i vi ng man; for a si ngl e man can
bend i t to hi s wi l l . I t i s a sort of wooden gun to the peopl e themsel ves; and, i f ever they
shoul d use i t i n earnest as a real one agai nst each other, i t wi l l surel y spl i t. But i t i s not
the l ess necessary for thi s; for the peopl e must have some compl i cated machi nery or
other, and hear i ts di n, to sati sfy that i dea of government whi ch they have. Govern-
ments show thus how successful l y men can be i mposed on, even i mpose on themsel ves,
for thei r own advantage. I t i s excel l ent, we must al l al l ow; yet thi s government never of
i tsel f furthered any enterpri se, but by the al acri ty wi th whi ch i t got out of i ts way. I t
does not keep the country free. I t does not settl e the West. I t does not educate. The
character i nherent i n the Ameri can peopl e has done al l that has been accompl i shed; and
i t woul d have done somewhat more, i f the government had not someti mes got i n i ts way.
For government i s an expedi ent by whi ch men woul d fai n succeed i n l etti ng one another
al one; and, as has been sai d, when i t i s most expedi ent, the governed are most l et al one
by i t. Trade and commerce, i f they were not made of I ndi a rubber, woul d never manage
to bounce over the obstacl es whi ch l egi sl ators are conti nual l y putti ng i n thei r way; and,
i f one were to judge these men whol l y by the effects of thei r acti ons, and not partl y by
thei r i ntenti ons, they woul d deserve to be cl assed and puni shed wi th those mi schi evous
persons who put obstructi ons on the rai l roads.
But, to speak practi cal l y and as a ci ti zen, unl i ke those who cal l themsel ves no-
government men, I ask for, not at once no government, but at oncea better government.
Let every man make known what ki nd of government woul d command hi s respect, and
that wi l l be one step toward obtai ni ng i t. . . .
240 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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Directions: Read the passage bel ow careful l y. Wri te a wel l -organi zed essay presenti ng
a l ogi cal argument for or agai nst Woodrow Wi l sons Appeal for Neutral i ty. Address your
personal posi ti on regardi ng U.S. i nvol vement i n forei gn confl i ct. I ncl ude evi dence from
your own observati on, experi ence, or readi ng to support your posi ti on.
Question 2
SUG G ESTED TIM E40 M INUTES
Line The peopl e of the Uni ted States are drawn from many nati ons, and chi efl y from the
nati ons now at war. I t i s natural and i nevi tabl e that there shoul d be the utmost
vari ety of sympathy and desi re among them wi th regard to the i ssues and ci rcum-
stances of the confl i ct. Some wi l l wi sh one nati on, others another, to succeed i n the
momentous struggl e. I t wi l l be easy to exci te passi on and di ffi cul t to al l ay i t. Those
responsi bl e for exci ti ng i t wi l l assume a heavy responsi bi l i ty, responsi bi l i ty for no l ess
a thi ng than that the peopl e of the Uni ted States, whose l ove of thei r country and
whose l oyal ty to i ts Government shoul d uni te them as Ameri cans al l , bound i n honor
and affecti on to thi nk fi rst of her and her i nterests, may be di vi ded i n camps of hosti l e
opi ni on, hot agai nst each other, i nvol ved i n the war i tsel f i n i mpul se and opi ni on i f not
i n acti on.
Such di vi si ons amongst us woul d be fatal to our peace of mi nd and mi ght seri ousl y
stand i n the way of the proper performance of our duty as the one great nati on at
peace, the one peopl e hol di ng i tsel f ready to pl ay a part of i mparti al medi ati on and
speak the counsel s of peace and accommodati on, not as a parti san, but as a fri end.
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Practice Test 3 241
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Directions: The fol l owi ng prompt i s based on the fol l owi ng si x sources. The
assi gnment requi res that you synthesi ze a number of the sources i nto a coherent,
wel l -wri tten essay that takes a posi ti on. Use at l east three of the sources to support your
posi ti on. Do not si mpl y paraphrase or summari ze the sources. Your argument shoul d be
the focus of your essay and the sources shoul d support thi s argument. Remember to
attri bute both di rect and i ndi rect ci tati ons.
Question 3
SUG G ESTED TIM E15 M INUTES FO R READING AND 40 M INUTES FO R WRITING
Introduction: Adverti si ng on tel evi si on used to consi st of commerci al s onl y. That changed
wi th the advent of product pl acement, i n whi ch adverti sers pay tel evi si on shows to
promi nentl y di spl ay thei r products. Some feel that thi s form of adverti si ng i s sneaky. Some
feel that i t i s the most effecti ve form of adverti si ng. I s one form of adverti si ng on tel evi si on
more effecti ve than another?
Assi gnment: Read the fol l owi ng sources (i ncl udi ng any i ntroductory i nformati on) careful l y.
Then, writean essay that supports, qualifies, or disputestheargument that product
placement is the most effective form of television advertising. Synthesize at least
three of the sources to support your position.
You may refer to the sources by thei r ti tl es (Source A, Source B, etc.) or by the descri pti ons i n
parentheses.
Source A (Jennworth)
Source B (Al l i son)
Source C (chart)
Source D (Wi l son and Mari no)
Source E (Ad Adverti si ng)
Source F (Zuckerman)
242 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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SOURCE A
Jennworth, Davi d. The New Generati on of Adverti si ng Advertising Yearly, 2006.
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le a b out p rod uc t p la c e m e nt a s a n
e ffe c tive form of a d ve rtising .
Product pl acement has created a revol uti on i n tel evi si on adverti si ng. By no means has i t
repl aced tradi ti onal tel evi si on commerci al s, but recent studi es show i t has as much effect as
commerci al s, i f not more. The probl em wi th commerci al s has al ways been the abi l i ty of a
vi ewer to change the channel duri ng commerci al s and watch somethi ng el se. Many peopl e do
not l i ke to watch commerci al s, and thi s presented a probl em for adverti sers. Asi de from
produci ng compel l i ng commerci al s that peopl e want to watch, how el se coul d adverti sers
reach vi ewers? After al l , even i f a commerci al i s compel l i ng, i f i t i s not the fi rst commerci al of
the break, the vi ewer may have al ready changed the channel . Enter product pl acement.
The concept i s si mpl e: di spl ay products promi nentl y on popul ar tel evi si on shows. Thi s
di spl ay of products i s effecti ve i n two ways. Fi rst, si mpl y showi ng the product exposes vi ewers
to i t. Second, and even more effecti ve (and expensi ve), havi ng a popul ar character on a show
use a product even more overtl y exposes vi ewers to i t. Adverti sers reason that i f a popul ar
character uses a product, vi ewers wi l l , too. Thi s effect i s i ntensi fi ed i f the product i s used by
a character on a real i ty tel evi si on show. Peopl e may be more l i kel y to buy a product i f a real
character i s usi ng i t.
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Practice Test 3 243

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SOURCE B
Al l i son, James. You Cant Fool MeOr My Fri ends Advertising Watch, Apri l 2004.
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le tha t d isc usse s the e ffe c ts of p rod uc t
p la c e m e nt on the vie wing p ub lic .
You cant fool me wi th product pl acement adverti si ng. You cant fool my fri ends, ei ther. Weve
been watchi ng TV for too l ong. We know al l about adverti si ng and, frankl y, we are ti red of
bei ng sol d to. Regul ar commerci al s were bad enough, but product pl acement i s downri ght
i nsul ti ng! Do adverti sers thi nk that by si mpl y havi ng a character dri nk a certai n dri nk, or eat
a certai n food, or wear a certai n outfi t that vi ewers wi l l be compel l ed to use those products?
Pl ease! A note to adverti sers: we know what you are up to, and we wont l et i t work.
Product pl acement may be begi nni ng to have the an effect opposi te what was ori gi nal l y
i ntended. I nstead of a successful soft sel l , adverti sers have actual l y created ani mosi ty
among vi ewers. I t seems that adverti sers thi nk that vi ewers are too stupi d to real i ze they are
bei ng sol d to. Surel y, tri cki ng vi ewers i nto subconsci ousl y wanti ng products was the ori gi nal
moti vati on behi nd product pl acement. I t i s as i f adverti sers are sayi ng you cant avoi d us by
changi ng the channel anymore; we are al ways sel l i ng to you. Wel l , who watches TV to be sol d
to? Peopl e just want to be entertai ned. Thats i t. I f I want to watch commerci al s, I wi l l . But
dont force me to.
244 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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SOURCE C
Adapted from the Adverti si ng on TV Counci l Annual Effecti veness Survey.
Tradi ti onal Adverti si ng Versus Product Pl acement.
Yummy Soft Dri nk Adverti si ng Effecti veness for 2005
GoFast Auto Company Adverti si ng Effecti veness for 2005
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Practice Test 3 245

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SOURCE D
Wi l son, Amy, and Joanne Mari no. Product Pl acement i n Adverti si ng Discussion
Magazine, 2005.
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le tha t d isc usse s p rod uc t p la c e m e nt a s
a n e ffe c tive form of a d ve rtising .
How effecti ve i s product pl acement? How fai r i s product pl acement? How cost-effecti ve i s
product pl acement? These are al l questi ons adverti sers and agenci es must ask themsel ves
when formul ati ng an adverti si ng campai gn. Product pl acement i s an i ntri gui ng way to
adverti se, but there i s a fear i n the i ndustry that i ts effecti veness i s overbl own. These
numbers can be hard to determi ne, as most compani es do not share thei r i nternal adverti si ng
effecti veness numbers. I t i s much easi er to gauge the effecti veness of tradi ti onal commerci al
adverti si ng. The numbers that are avai l abl e show that commerci al s are very effecti ve means
of adverti si ng, especi al l y to targeted audi ences. Why then, has product pl acement become so
popul ar wi th so l i ttl e proof of i ts effecti veness?
The answer i s that product pl acement i s popul ar ri ght now. I n fact, i t seems that the i dea
that product pl acement i s the wave of the future has been created by product pl acement i tsel f.
Compani es reason that i f other compani es are usi ng so much product pl acement, i t must be
worki ng. I n addi ti on, even i f a company has doubts as to the effecti veness, they feel that i f
thei r competi tors use i t, they must, too. I n thi s way, product pl acement seems to be
sel l i ng i tsel f!
More research i s needed i nto the effect of product pl acement before i t can be offi ci al l y
crowned the best way to adverti se. I n addi ti on, the phenomenon i s so new that i t woul d
behoove compani es to wai t and see how i t devel ops. There i s a trend i n many compani es to
forego a l arge amount of tradi ti onal commerci al adverti si ng i n favor of product pl acement.
Thi s i nvestment i n a sti l l -unproven form of adverti si ng coul d end up hurti ng compani es i n the
l ong run.
246 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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SOURCE E
The Ad Adverti si ng Agency memo to Tasty Potato Chi ps, I nc., 2006.
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a m e m o from a n a d ve rtising a g e nc y to try to
c onvinc e the c lie nt, Ta sty Pota to C hip s, to use p rod uc t p la c e m e nt on a p op ula r TV show.
To: The Board of Tasty Potato Chi ps
From: Ad Adverti si ng
Re: Product Pl acement on TheStress House
TheStress Housei s one of the most popul ar real i ty seri es on tel evi si on today. I t consi stentl y
ranks tops i n rati ngs for i ts ti me sl ot on both days that i t ai rs: Mondays and Fri days. I n
addi ti on, i t i s most popul ar wi th our targeted age group of 18 to 25. I nformal di scussi ons wi th
other adverti sers have reveal ed that product pl acement on The Stress House has i ncreased
thei r profi ts i n the target age group by 25 percent. I f we pl ace Tasty Potato Chi ps on The
Stress House, we bel i eve that we can i ncrease your revenue by at l east that percentage,
as wel l .
Ad Adverti si ng has secured a commi tment from the producers of The Stress House to
feature onl y Tasty Potato Chi ps on thei r show. For an addi ti onal fee, the producers promi se to
feature Tasty Potato Chi ps i n one of the shows chal l enges.
We strongl y urge you to take advantage of thi s deal . We are sure that pl aci ng Tasty Potato
Chi ps on TheStress Housewi l l i ncrease your sal es from tel evi si on adverti si ng. I n addi ti on, by
usi ng product pl acement rather than purchasi ng your tradi ti onal 30-second adverti si ng spot
from the network, you can save al most 30 percent of your tel evi si on adverti si ng dol l ars.
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Practice Test 3 247

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SOURCE F
Zuckerman, Deena. The Product Pl acement Revol uti on CollegeMagazine, 2004.
The following p a ssa g e is e xc e rp te d from a n a rtic le a b out the p rom ine nc e of p rod uc t
p la c e m e nt.
Not si nce the i nventi on of tel evi si on commerci al s has a form of adverti si ng taken the worl d
by storm the way product pl acement has. And no topi c i n adverti si ng has been more
pol ari zi ng. I t seems that for every person who supports product pl acement, there i s one who
i s vehementl y opposed. Why does thi s i ssue contri bute to such i ntense feel i ngs i n peopl e?
Those who support product pl acement tend to be the adverti sers themsel ves. For l ess
money and l ess ti me than they woul d spend on tradi ti onal 30-second commerci al s, compani es
can often see the same resul ts from product pl acement adverti si ng. Not everyone who
supports product pl acement i s an adverti ser, though. There are a surpri si ng number of
vi ewers who prefer product pl acement to regul ar commerci al s. I n fact, one person I spoke to
expressed the hope that product pl acement woul d compl etel y repl ace commerci al s. Woul dnt
i t be great i f there werent any commerci al breaks? asked one student, Chri s Rose. He
conti nued, That way, there woul d be more ti me for the actual show. You coul d get to see a
whol e 30 mi nutes of your favori te si t-com i nstead of the 20 mi nutes of show and 10 mi nutes of
breaks that you seem to see now.
Opponents of product pl acement take a di m vi ew of the moti ves of adverti sers. The 18-to-24
generati on has been sol d to by tel evi si on si nce thei r chi l dhood, and some seem to resent
addi ti onal i ntrusi on by adverti sers. I ts bad enough I have to suffer through commerci al s,
says Beck Borenstei n, now I have to see commerci al s i nsi de my favori te shows. I ts just not
fai r. I t makes me not want to buy a product.
Becks comments notwi thstandi ng, the product pl acement revol uti on conti nues. I t seems
adverti sers are wi l l i ng to bet (or are si mpl y hol di ng out hope) that more peopl e out there
agree wi th Chri s than Beck.
S T O P
I f you fi ni sh before ti me i s cal l ed, you may check your work on thi s
secti on onl y. Do not turn to any other secti on i n the test.
248 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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ANSWER KEY AND EXPLANATIONS
Section I
1. D
2. E
3. B
4. C
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. D
9. E
10. E
11. A
12. D
13. D
14. B
15. E
16. D
17. C
18. C
19. A
20. B
21. A
22. A
23. E
24. B
25. B
26. E
27. B
28. C
29. A
30. A
31. B
32. E
33. B
34. D
35. C
36. D
37. E
38. B
39. D
40. A
41. C
42. B
43. C
44. D
45. D
46. B
47. E
48. A
49. C
50. B
1. The correct answer is (D). Whenever a seri es of answer choi ces i ncl udes broad
statements or general i zati ons, check to see i f the general i zati on may be the best
response. I n thi s case, choi ces (D) and (E) refer to concepts rather than to speci fi c
i nstances. Choi ce (D) rel ates di rectl y to the phrase El i zabeth uses i n her speech,
whereas choi ce (E) does not rel ate to the content of the paragraph. El i mi nate choi ce (E).
A careful rereadi ng of the sentence, i n the context of the paragraph, wi l l tel l you that
choi ces (A), (B), and (C) can be el i mi nated. El i zabeth does not say she i s weak, choi ce
(A), nor too emoti onal , choi ce (C). She woul d consi der hersel f unworthy of Gods merci es
onl y i f she bel i eved that she rul ed based on her own ri ght rather than through Gods
wi l l . Because she does not bel i eve thi s, choi ce (B) i s i ncorrect. Choi ce (D), the noti on of
women as the weaker sex, a bel i ef wi del y hel d at the ti me, i s the best answer.
2. Thecorrect answer is (E). I f you di d not know i mmedi atel y that thi s i s a persuasi ve
speech, usi ng the process of el i mi nati on woul d tel l you. You coul d rul e out choi ce (A),
because El i zabeth i s not tel l i ng a story. El i zabeth i s not presenti ng a wel l -reasoned
argument, so cross off choi ce (B). Choi ce (C) i s not correct because El i zabeth i s not
expl ai ni ng somethi ng, and choi ce (D) can be el i mi nated because El i zabeth i s not
descri bi ng somethi ng to her audi ence. Choi ce (E) i s the best answer because judgi ng
from her tone, di cti on, and content, El i zabeth i s attempti ng to persuade her audi ence of
somethi ng, to convi nce them of her posi ti on or poi nt of vi ew.
3. The correct answer is (B). Thi s questi on asks you to i denti fy a fi gure of speech.
El i zabeth i s compari ng pi l l s to the cares and troubl es of a Crown, so that rul es out
choi ces (C), (D), and (E), that have nothi ng to do wi th compari son. A si mi l e must use
likeor as, whi ch el i mi nates choi ce (A). That l eaves choi ce (B), a metaphor.
4. The correct answer is (C). Al though the passage has a bi t of each of the choi ces,
overal l , gi ven the speakers rhetori c and purpose, the best answer i s choi ce
(C), persuasi ve.
5. The correct answer is (A). El i zabeths purpose i n thi s paragraph i s to rei nforce the
premi se that she rul es by vi rtue of di vi ne wi l l (I ), not by her own wi l l . El i zabeth may
i ndeed be ti red of the burden of rul i ng (I I ), but that i s not stated or i mpl i ed here. She i s
sayi ng that she cannot resi gn because God has gi ven thi s burden to her, so i tem I I I i s
i ncorrect. Onl y i tem I i s correct, and onl y choi ce (A) has i tem I .
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Practice Test 3 249
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6. The correct answer is (B). Thi s i s an i nference questi on. I f you dont know the
answer ri ght away, then try educated guessi ng. I t i s easy to rul e out choi ces (D) and (E),
because they are obvi ousl y wrong. Do not be di stracted by choi ces (A) and (C) si mpl y
because they contai n words that you see i n the sentence. Choi ce (B) i s the best i nference
from the sentence.
7. The correct answer is (C). Remember that you are deal i ng wi th defi ni ti on and
context. Remember al so that El i zabeth i s maki ng a compari son. Al ways substi tute the
answer choi ces i n the sentence to see whi ch one makes the most sense. Choi ces (B), (C),
and (E) seem l i kel y possi bi l i ti es, but choi ces (A) and (D) dont make sense. El i zabeth can
nei ther approxi mate nor mi rror the cares and burdens of a Crown . . . than to the drugs
of a l earned physi ci an. Because of the words than to, choi ce (C), accurately compare,
fi ts wi thi n the constructi on and makes sense.
8. Thecorrect answer is (D). Go back to the passage and read the enti re sentence. The
cl ue i s i n the cl ause that God hath made me Hi s I nstrument to mai ntai n Hi s Truth and
Gl ory. Choi ce (D) states the general i dea that bei ng Gods i nstrument i s synonymous
wi th bei ng obedi ent to God. Choi ce (B) has nothi ng to do wi th the passage. Choi ces (A)
and (C) rel ate to El i zabeths acti ons, whereas choi ce (D) restates Gods acti on and i s a
truer statement of the cl ause. Choi ce (E) i s the di rect opposi te of the cl ause.
9. The correct answer is (E). Thi s i s a recal l questi on, that i s, the answer i s stated
di rectl y i n the fi rst paragraph of the passage. Of the answer choi ces, onl y choi ce (E) i s
contai ned there. The other choi ces are not.
10. The correct answer is (E). I f you dont know the Lati n terms, ski p them and try to
fi nd the answer i n another way. I f you do know the Lati n terms, you know that they are
i ncorrect and do not appl y here. Reducti o ad absurdem, choi ce (B), i s a proposi ti on that
proves to be absurd when carri ed to i ts l ogi cal concl usi on. Argumentum ad homi nem,
choi ce (D), i s an argument that appeal s to the emoti ons rather than the i ntel l ect (a
secondary meani ng of ad homi nem i s the manner i n whi ch one attacks an opponents
character rather than addresses the persons contenti ons). Dont be fool ed by choi ce (C).
Love i s menti oned, but i ts not the poi nt. That l eaves choi ces (A) and (E). There i s no
compari son i n the sentence, so there can be no metaphor, thus el i mi nati ng choi ce (A).
Choi ce (E) i s the best answer.
11. The correct answer is (A). Once i n a whi l e you may get a seemi ngl y easy questi on.
Thi s i s one such questi on, and dont read too much i nto i t. I t i s just what you thi nk i t i s
at fi rst gl ance. El i zabeth wants to be remembered to her hearers l oved ones. A cl ue i s i n
the next phrase when she commends yours to my best care. The yours refers to the
l oved ones agai n.
12. Thecorrect answer is (D). Remember that tone and styl e are cl ues to purpose. I f you
answered questi on number 4 correctl y, you know that the tone of the passage i s
persuasi ve. Choi ce (D) contai ns the word convince, whi ch i s part of the purpose of
persuasi on. Dont be di stracted by the other choi ces. Choi ce (A) does not refl ect the tone
accuratel y; El i zabeths expressi on of affecti on i s secondary to her mai n poi nt. Choi ce (B)
i s a mi sreadi ng of El i zabeths character, based on her speech. Choi ce (C) i s one pi ece of
support for her thesi s. Choi ce (E) asks you to make an assumpti on wi thout any basi s i n
the passage and can be el i mi nated.
13. The correct answer is (D). Choi ces (A), (B), and (C) are not stated or i mpl i ed i n thi s
paragraph. I n fact, choi ce (B) i s the opposi te of what El i zabeth i s sayi ng. Choi ce (E) does
not represent a compari son, l eavi ng choi ce (D) as the answer.
14. The correct answer is (B). Thi s i s a strai ghtforward vocabul ary questi on. Choi ces
(A), (D), and (E) are di stracters. You may remember that the chi mera was a mythi cal
250 PART V: Two Practice Tests
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monster, but i n the context of the sel ecti on, the connotati on i s on the word mythical.
I magi nary then, choi ce (B), i s a better answer than choi ce (C). A bi t l ater on, the author
rei nforces thi s i dea by tal ki ng about the fal se pretenses that go wi th duel i ng.
15. The correct answer is (E). Choi ces (A), (B), and (C) are easi l y rul ed out, because the
wri ter i s not si mpl y descri bi ng, expl ai ni ng, or tel l i ng a story. Choi ce (D) can be
el i mi nated because an argument i mpl i es a premi se/concl usi on rel ati onshi p, whi ch i s not
the case here. The wri ter seeks to persuade the reader to thi nk as he does; therefore,
choi ce (E) i s the correct answer.
16. The correct answer is (D). The wri ter states i n the fi rst paragraph that i t i s worth
our consi derati on to exami ne i nto thi s chi meri cal groundl ess humor [duel i ng], and to
l ay every other thought asi de, unti l we have stri pped i t of al l i ts fal se pretenses . . .
Thi s statement i ndi cates that choi ces (B), (C), and (E) are i ncorrect. The author says
nothi ng about al ternati ves or changes i n duel i ng, and the tone of the pi ece i s not
amusi ng. The process of el i mi nati on then l eaves choi ces (A) and (D). Whi l e the arti cl e
may i ndeed educate the reader, choi ce (A), the stated purpose i s to di scredi t the practi ce
of duel i ng, choi ce (D).
17. Thecorrect answer is (C). Thi s i s one of those questi ons i n whi ch each of the answer
choi ces seems a l i ttl e bi t true. Go back to the passage. The wri ter makes repeated use of
the word honor, whi ch shoul d gi ve you a cl ue. I n addi ti on, choi ce (B) woul d be correct
onl y i f the wri ter were speaki ng metaphori cal l y about a debt of honor, whi ch he i snt.
Choi ce (E) i s i ncorrect because the l ast sentence i n paragraph 4 i ndi cates that the real
purpose of the duel i s to al l ow some fool hardy coxcomb to avoi d havi ng to admi t he was
wrong. That l eaves choi ces (A), (C), and (D). Whi l e both choi ces (A) and (D) are true
statements about duel s, they do not answer the questi on, l eavi ng choi ce (C) as the
correct answer.
18. The correct answer is (C). A brave man i s a gentl eman, and a hand bel ow that of
a common hangman means a person of a l ower soci al cl ass than a hangman. I tem I i s
not stated or i mpl i ed i n the passage, whi ch rul es out choi ces (A) and (D). I tem I I i s true,
but i t does not rel ate to the statement from the passage, el i mi nati ng choi ces (B), (D),
and (E). Onl y poi nt I I I rel ates to the statement, so choi ce (C), i tem I I I onl y, i s correct.
19. Thecorrect answer is (A). I n the thi rd paragraph, the wri ter gi ves us an anecdote of
a country gentl eman to strengthen hi s posi ti on. Choi ce (B), sati re, i s a l i terary work
that uses sarcasm and ri di cul e to expose vi ces and fol l i es; thi s work i s too seri ous i n
tone to be sati re. There i s l i ttl e i magery, choi ce (C), i n the thi rd paragraph. I n an
al l egory, characters and events represent abstract qual i ti es, whi ch i s not true of the
country gentl eman. A parabl e, choi ce (E), i s a short tal e that teaches a moral . The
purpose of the tal e of the country gentl eman i s not to teach a moral but to i l l ustrate the
authors poi nt.
20. The correct answer is (B). Thi s i s a recal l questi on, meani ng that the answer i s
stated di rectl y i n the text. I n the second paragraph, the wri ter states that al l men fi ght
agai nst thei r wi l l . Choi ce (A) can be el i mi nated because the questi on asks onl y about
what the wri ter bel i eves. Choi ce (C) i s i ncorrect because the author i s offeri ng an
al ternati venot to duel . The author skewers choi ce (D) i n hi s essay, and choi ce (E) i s
not stated i n the text.
21. The correct answer is (A). I n l i ne 5, the author i mpl i es that he i s wri ti ng an arti cl e,
so he must be wri ti ng for a newspaper or magazi ne. (Thi s pi ece i s by Ri chard Steel e of
Tatler and Spectator fame.) Therefore, thi s i s a professi onal pi ece wi th formal di cti on,
qui ckl y and easi l y el i mi nati ng choi ces (B), (C), (D), and (E).
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Practice Test 3 251
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22. Thecorrect answer is (A). Looki ng for consi stency among answers wi l l hel p you rul e
out choi ce (C), because we al ready el i mi nated sati re i n questi on 19, and al though the
wri ter uses humor, the pi ece i s not parti cul arl y wi tty. The pi ece i s seri ous but not
i ntrospecti ve, that i s, tol d from the deep feel i ngs of the author, choi ce (B). Nei ther i s the
pi ece i mpassi oned or ardent, choi ce (D). Whi l e the author i s obvi ousl y educated, the
pi ece i s not fi l l ed wi th al l usi ons or factual references, thus el i mi nati ng choi ce (E). The
pi ece i s wri tten to be persuasi ve usi ng a reasonabl e tone, choi ce (A).
23. The correct answer is (E). I n checki ng poi nts I , I I , and I I I agai nst the fi rst
paragraph, you can see that al l three are true about the rhetor