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\ 2011


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()

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.

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20
40


PIC

12
36

32

4
44



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Oak Ridge .

19600

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Bluetooth 4.0

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Bluetooth 4.0
200 30


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SIG
:
( )Mobile-Health
.

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SIG

Bluetooth 4.0

Bluetooth v3.0+HS

.





:



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:

:
2500
17000

17000 .





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()

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SDO - Solar
- Dynamics Observatory


.

SDO

SDO


.

SDO
High-
Definition 1.5
MP3 .










.
OSD



).
SDO
( )Living with Stars - LWS

.

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.
LUCAS
Lensless Ultra-wide-field Cell Monitoring Array
platform based on Shadow Imaging



. LUCAS

LED

.

46
USB

.




.

HIV
.




.

sdg-gen@hotmail.com

eng_m5@hotmail.com

-
Wound-Field DC Motor




.
:
.
.
.

.1
Series-Field DC Motor

( )a-1

(
).

:

()c
[]rpm

[]rpm

()b

()a

1

( )c -
( )b

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()c

()b

[]N.m

( )a

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[]N.m

( )a

.3
Compound DC Motor

:
( )Long Shunt
( )Short Shunt .a-3





.


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Run Away






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c-1 -

( ) .


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( )

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( )
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2

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( )Cumulative Compound Motors



( )Differential Compound Motor


.
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.

(
)

[]rpm

()c

[]N.m

()b




. PMSM

.
.
PMSM

()a

( )a

-
Permanent-Magnet Motor

3

( )c -.
( )b

( )Rare-Earth Magnets

.
PMSM

- .
PMSM -

( ) .
PMSM .

5
BLDC
( )a BLDC

( )b

[]rpm

[]N.m


b-5 BLDC
(Hall
)Effect .

P1
A
A P2
A
B
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BLDC
.600hp

MOSFET


BLDC


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()b

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10




.
BLDC
.



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BLDC

. a-5 BLDC
()
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A, B, C
.
BLDC

()c

-
Brushless DC Motor

()a
4
PMSM
( )c -
( )b

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11

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: ( )

12

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1F


0.1F .


.

.
.


.

100 !.

.
100mV
2


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2



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( )Non-inverting Amplifier

.
-3
( ! ..


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VOUT=(1+R2/R1 ) VIN
R2
5k .25k
R1

.




.


- -
R1 .4
:

VOUT=-(R2/R1) VIN+(1+R2/R1) VBIAS

:
.
( )

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13


( )Buffer ( )Voltage follower

()

.

.



20mA


.
!

.
.


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!.

! .

-
! .
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CMOS
1013
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1MHz

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:
R2=10 k, R1=1 k, VBIAS=0V
100mV
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R1


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) VOUT=(V1+V2-V3-V4 )(R2R1


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VBIAS=225mV
. 2.475V
:
VOUT=2.475V - 1V=1.475 V
.

.

6
VSHIFT

)VOUT=VIN+(R4 (R1+R2))/(R1 (R3+R4))-VIN-(R2/R1


))+VSHIFT(R3 (R1+R2 ))/(R1(R3+R4


R1R2 : R3R4


! .


.
8

.
( CMOS )
ID1 R2
200pA
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()


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VOUT=(VIN+-VIN-)(R2/R1)+VSHIFT
14

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8

.



. 8
.

-
.

.

.

.

.
: !..

Analog Circuits: World Class Designs, Robert A. Pease, editor, 2008, by Elsevier Inc.
The Illustrated Dictionary of Electronics, eighth edition, Stan Gibilisco, editor-in-chief, 2001 by The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

www.noortronics.net

15



.5
!):
(


R1R2 R3R4
- -
.

VSHIFT

)b( 6



( )Precision Voltage References
)a) 6




MATLAB
LORD


http://www.4electron.com







.


.

16

Pr (A) = lim
` NA j
N"3
N




()

( ) .
%

Pr ^Ah
NA
%
Pr ^Ah

.

e = A-A


.


.MATLAB
: 1 :


1 :


:
\

:Unbiased A (
\
) A E {A } = A





( ) :
\ 2
lim
v
P = 0
N"3
E



.



1 0 .


N
A NA/N NA A

www.noortronics.net


:
.1 Monte Carlo Simulation
(
) Monte
.Carlo Estimator
.2

.
.3 Relative Frequency

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17



0,1 Ntot
Ncir
:
:

N
!N
= PE e o
!k!^N - kh
k

:PE :
:

Acir . Acir
Abox
Atot

M = 5;% Repeat num


N = 1000;% Points
;)z = zeros(1,M
;)data = zeros(N,M
for j = 1:M,
% Create Random points
;)x = rand(1,N
;)y = rand(1,N
k = 0;% Stores Na
% check if the point is in pi-slice
for i = 1:N,
if (x(i)^2 + y(i)^2) <= 1
k = k + 1;%
end
;data(i,j) = 4*k/i
end
;)z(j) = data(N,j
end
;error = pi - data
>z %#ok<NOPTS
)mean(z
)var(z
;)plot(data,k),title(Convergence of Estimation
;)figure, plot(error,k),title(Estimation Error

v 2Ne = NPE ^1 - PEh

Acir = 1 [rR2] R = 1 = r
4
4

E "Ne, = NPE

E "Ne,
= NPE = PE
N
N



:
.1 .
.2 :


.


.

AWGN



:

] z = [3.1840 3.2120 3.1560 3.2080 3.0840 ( )
mean(z) = 3.1688 N
Ne var(z) = 0.0027 ( )
:

(
)
.


.BPSK


.4

E {P
= }^E

. :
\2
PE ^1 - PEh
= v 2 P\ = v 2N e
N
N
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E

2
lim
v
=0
\
N"3
A


4

10 10000
.
.

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Ne
P
= E
:
N
BER = 0.2127

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( ).
2=4.6497e-010

\
P E = Ne
N



Ne N
Binomial .

:
= 3.1688 .-0.0272

18


PE Ne
. Ne
N :
e

N N
o P ^1 - PEhN -N
Ne E
e

pN^Neh= e

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19

PIC

Vss

0v

Vdd

+5v

Vee

0-Vdd

Rs

0
1

R/W

0
1

0
1
1 0

D0

0\1

Bit0 LSB

D1

0\1

Bit1

D2

0\1

Bit2

10

D3

0\1

Bit3

11

D4

0\1

Bit4

12

D5

0\1

Bit5

13

D6

0\1

Bit6

14

D7

0\1

Bit7 MSB

:
.



husain_m_ali@hotmail.com



..

20

LCD


HD44780
Hitachi 16





.




.
14



16

:

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16
5
8.


Vee


.Vee



.



.

:
:DDRAM
:CGRAM
:CGROM








LCD .PIC16F877A











.




.

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21

DDRAM



80 .

.

( )
( 00)
D0-D7
.
00
.
1 DDRAM

CGROM



.
CGROM
.ASCII N

01001110
N ASCII

01001110 CGROM N


CGROM 0
48 1 49
48

48 .

PIC
16

16

DDRAM 16

DDRAM .


.
RAM

.
DDRAM Memory

.
( )1

.3
CGROM
CGRAM

.


CGRAM
0000 0001 :


CGROM
. 5x8

CGRAM 64
1
CGRAM 8 CGROM

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CGRAM
0000 0111 :

CGRAM

22


CGRAM
0000 0000 :

CGRAM

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23

PIC

DDRAM .

D0-D7 :RS=0 D0-D7


.
RS :
:RS=1 D0-D7
. :

D0 RW RS

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

Clear display

Cursor home

1.64mS

Entry mode set

I/D

40uS

Display on/off control

40uS

Cursor/Display Shift

40uS

Function set

DL

40uS

Set CGRAM address

40uS

Set DDRAM address

DDRAM address

40uS

)Read BUSY flag (BF

DDRAM address

BF

Write to CGRAM or DDRAM

D0

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

D7

40uS

Read from CGRAM or DDRAM

D0

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

D7

40uS

CGRAM address

www.noortronics.net

Lcd_Out_Cp

mikroC
.

LCD Lcd_Cmd
:

: _LCD_CLEAR
.
: _LCD_CURSOR_OFF
_LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
LCD
_LCD_TURN_ON
PIC16F877A
_LCD_TURN_OFF
mikroC
_LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
.
CGRAM
mikroC LCD
_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT

CGRAM
.

. :

Lcd_Init
4

( .)1
Lcd_Out
.
.

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25






.D7

( )0V D7 (.)BF=0


15ms

:
4 8 .1 .
.2 . :
8.
8 D0-D7
.
.
5x8.
4
.3 D4- :
.
D7 D0-D3
.
.
.

.4 :
1 .
.
.

R/W

.



1.64ms
2ms .

24

D7
1.64mS

D/C R/L

PIC
. PORTD
: 2

Lcd_Chr
0 ( 48
.
.49 1 48 ASCII PORTC
//LCDmoduleconnections
sbitLCD_RSatRB4_bit;
sbitLCD_ENatRB5_bit;
sbitLCD_D4atRB0_bit;
sbitLCD_D5atRB1_bit;
sbitLCD_D6atRB2_bit;
sbitLCD_D7atRB3_bit;

//LCDmoduleconnections
sbitLCD_RSatRB4_bit;
sbitLCD_ENatRB5_bit;
sbitLCD_D4atRB0_bit;
sbitLCD_D5atRB1_bit;
sbitLCD_D6atRB2_bit;
sbitLCD_D7atRB3_bit;
sbitLCD_RS_DirectionatTRISB4_bit;
sbitLCD_EN_DirectionatTRISB5_bit;
sbitLCD_D4_DirectionatTRISB0_bit;
sbitLCD_D5_DirectionatTRISB1_bit;
sbitLCD_D6_DirectionatTRISB2_bit;
sbitLCD_D7_DirectionatTRISB3_bit;
//EndLCDmoduleconnections

sbitLCD_RS_DirectionatTRISB4_bit;
sbitLCD_EN_DirectionatTRISB5_bit;
sbitLCD_D4_DirectionatTRISB0_bit;
sbitLCD_D5_DirectionatTRISB1_bit;
sbitLCD_D6_DirectionatTRISB2_bit;
sbitLCD_D7_DirectionatTRISB3_bit;
//EndLCDmoduleconnections

chartxt1[]=NoorTronics.net;
chartxt2[]=PICTutorials;
chartxt3[]=LCDExample;
voidmain(){
Lcd_Init();//InitializeLCD
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);//Cleardisplay
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);//Cursoroff
Lcd_Out(1,2,txt3);//Writetextinfirstrow

voidmain(){
TRISC=0xFF;
TRISD=0xFF;

Lcd_Init();//InitializeLCD
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);//Cleardisplay
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);//Cursoroff

LCD_Out(1,2,LogicProbe);
LCD_Out(2,3,Example);
Delay_ms(1000);

Delay_ms(2000);

Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);//Cleardisplay
Lcd_Out(1,1,txt1);//Writetextinfirstrow
Lcd_Out(2,2,txt2);//Writetextinsecondrow
Delay_ms(2000);
}

LCD_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
LCD_Out(1,1,>PORTC:);
LCD_Out(2,1,>PORTD:);
while(1)
{
Lcd_Chr(1,9,PORTC.F7+48);
Lcd_Chr(1,10,PORTC.F6+48);
Lcd_Chr(1,11,PORTC.F5+48);
Lcd_Chr(1,12,PORTC.F4+48);
Lcd_Chr(1,13,PORTC.F3+48);
Lcd_Chr(1,14,PORTC.F2+48);
Lcd_Chr(1,15,PORTC.F1+48);
Lcd_Chr(1,16,PORTC.F0+48);
Lcd_Chr(2,9,PORTD.F7+48);
Lcd_Chr(2,10,PORTD.F6+48);
Lcd_Chr(2,11,PORTD.F5+48);
Lcd_Chr(2,12,PORTD.F4+48);
Lcd_Chr(2,13,PORTD.F3+48);
Lcd_Chr(2,14,PORTD.F2+48);
Lcd_Chr(2,15,PORTD.F1+48);
Lcd_Chr(2,16,PORTD.F0+48);
Delay_ms(1);
}
}

27

: 1

LCD



.

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26





bme.mazen@4electron.com

PHMS




28





AMON, MOBIHEALTH, :
MYHEART


1




ECG
( )


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:
.



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3.8%



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(
)PHMS: Personal Health Management System




(
GSM Bluetooth
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non-invasive .
[ ]1


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Multimicrosensor Arrays


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Electrophoresis Sonophoresis
Electrosonophoresis





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GlucoWatch G2
Biographer

10 13
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Ultrasonic Sensors RF
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CMUT:
Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducer

MEMS
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CMUT

AMON

MOBIHEALTH

MYHEART

LifeShirt, Vivometrics Inc.

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GlucoWatch G2
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2
GlucoWatch
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Ad Hoc BAN:
Body Area Sensor Networks

100Mb/s

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LifeShirt
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Loukianos Gatzoulis & Ilias Iakovidis Wearable and Portable eHealth Systems-IEEE Engineering in Medicine
and Biology Magazine, September/October 2007.

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31


.


()
CMUT

.








.



UWB:UltraWideBand
3.1GHz 10GHz
...


(
)
.

PDA



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.

!

.


husain_m_ali@hotmail.com

32

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info@4electron.com
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husain_m_ali@hotmail.com


( PIC )Ethernet


.

36

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HTTP
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JavaScript
( .)PORTD

ADC .
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20MHz
5V

ENC28j60
HTTP .
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SPI
3.3V 25MHz
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www.noortronics.net


( )

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TCP/IP
.
mikroC

()
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IP (.)192.168.1.61
PORTD

Toggle.



RJ-45!
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IP
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ENC28J60 3.3V 5V
.PIC16F877A
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.
:LM7805 5V
PIC16F877A .74HCT244
:REG1117 3.3V
( LM1117 ).. LT1117

37

38

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39


:
:


.


:

R=R1+R2

.
R1

R2



Potentiometer
.
Photoresistor

Rheostat


.





bme.mazen@4electron.com

:


.
: .

Resistor


Capacitor Inductor



...

: :







)
(




.

40

www.noortronics.net




.
R1

R2

1 = 1 + 1
R1 R2
R





V=I.R

R

.
.
..
1

.1 :Resistor
( )

R = R1 .R2
R1 + R2
:


www.noortronics.net

41

.2 :Capacitor

(
)
Capacity C F



.



.




.

Q
:V
Q
=C
V



:




.
Inductance L
Henry
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:







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C = C1 .C2
C1 + C2

C = C1 + C2

42

.3 :Inductors


10 -6 10 -9 10 -12




.



.


.

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43

.. !
:





bme.mazen@4electron.com

44



.
:

( b,c ):

ax2=bx
ax2=c
bx=c
ax2+bx=c
ax2+c=bx
bx+c=ax2

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.


( x2=40x-4x2 )5x2=40x
(
) (
x+5=14+x2 .)x=9+x2
:
10x=39+x2
:
10 39
:
1 .1 10
.5

www.noortronics.net

2 .2 .25
3 .3 39 .64=39+25
4 .4 8 .
5 .5 .3= 5-8
6 .6 9+ 32 :
...39 = 3*10 .


..
(

45



( ) .
781 847
.

.
.

.


()1956-1884
Introduction to History of Science :


!.


( ) 830


70

700
2000
.

.


Dixit algorizmi

[]3


.Google
:Electronic Commerce


:
...
Digital
.Signature






...

.



Input .Output

:


Instance

.






:
.




.

:
:Human Genome Project
100000
DNA
3
.


.
:Internet Surfing

....

.. 1983
1200
:

1 .1 http://en.wikipedia.org :
2 .2 : AlKhwarizmi: Father of Algebra
Louisville .
3 .3 Introduction to Algorithms LORD .
http://www.4electron.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?f=61&t=635 :

46

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