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HOWARD GARDNERS THEORY OF

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Brown. Escolano. Lawenko. Matias. EDFD 201
INTELLIGENCE
For the better part of the twentieth
century, scholars, policymakers, and
laypeople have debated the definition and
nature of intelligence.
Many psychologists believe that
intelligence is best defined by measuring
cognitive abilities, which is what most
intelligence tests measure.

INTELLIGENCE
While other psychologists argue that a
definition of intelligence based entirely on
cognitive abilities is much too narrow.
Instead, they believe that there are many
kinds of intelligence.
POPULAR THEORIES OF
INTELLIGENCE
Spearmans Two-Factor Theory
g factor the ability to reason and solve
problems, or general intelligence.
s factor the ability to excel in certain
areas, or specific intelligence.
Today, many psychologists believe that
g, as represented by IQ scores, is a good
measure of a persons general
intelligence.
Spearmans Two-Factor Theory
Mental tests may be designed to
measure different aspects of cognition.
Specific domains assessed by tests
include mathematical skill, verbal
fluency, spatial visualization, and
memory, among others.
Spearmans Two-Factor Theory
Using factor analysis, a single common
factor that can be regarded as a
summary variable characterizing the
correlations between all the different
tests in a test battery, can be computed.
Spearman referred to this common factor
as the general factor, or simply g.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score
derived from one of several standardized
tests designed to assess intelligence.

Normal Distribution
Deviation IQ scores - a type of
intelligence measure that assumes that
IQ is normally distributed around a
mean of 100 with a standard deviation
of about 15.
Norms
LO 8.9 How intelligence tests are constructed
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Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
This type of intelligence measure is best
illustrated in a bell-curve, whereby
approximately 95% of the population
scores within two SDs of the mean, 1-2%
on the extreme left are labeled as
mentally retarded, and the other 1-2% on
the extreme right of the curve are labeled
as gifted.


Mental Retardation
Developmentally delayed - condition in
which a persons behavioral and
cognitive skills exist at an earlier
developmental stage than the skills of
others who are the same chronological
age. A more acceptable term for mental
retardation.
Borderline; Mildly/ Moderately; and
Severely/ Profoundly Mentally Retarded.
LO 8.10 Mental retardation and what causes it
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Giftedness
Gifted - the 2 percent of the population
falling on the upper end of the normal
curve and typically possessing an IQ of
130 or above.
LO 8.11 Giftedness
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Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Provides for a more comprehensive
description of intellectual competence
than traditional differential or cognitive
theories of human ability.
intelligence is defined in terms of the
ability to achieve success in life based on
one's personal standards - and within
one's sociocultural context.
Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
The ability to achieve success depends
on the ability to capitalize on one's
strengths and to correct or compensate
for one's weaknesses. Success is
attained through a balance of analytical,
creative, and practical abilities - a balance
that is achieved in order to adapt to,
shape, and select environments.
Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternbergs theory that there are three
kinds of reasoning processes:
Analytical/Logical- the ability to break
problems down into component parts,
or analysis, for problem solving.
Problem-solving requires creative
thinking and the ability to learn from
experience.
Practical thinking the ability to use
information to get along in life and
become successful.
Gardners Multiple-Intelligence Theory
Howard Gardner has questioned the idea
that intelligence is a single entity, that it
results from a single factor, and that it can
be measured simply via IQ tests.
The ideas of independent domains
(components or modules) of cognitive
ability, are referred to as frames of mind.
These are separate areas of ability in the
sense that a person can do well in one
area but not in another.

Gardners Multiple-Intelligence Theory
The most compelling evidence supporting
the existence of independent intelligence
comes from cases of people with special
talents (e.g. musical prodigies who are
otherwise average) or with a
circumscribed loss or limitations of
abilities (e.g. savants, mentally retarded,
pervasively disabled).
Frames of Mind
TRADITIONAL
Linguistic
Spatial
Logical-mathematical




Forms of intelligences
that are most directly
assessed by IQ tests
NON-TRADITIONAL
Bodily-kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist
Existentialist

Forms of intelligences
unlikely to be measured in a
meaningful way by current
IQ tests

According to Gardner, what kind of
intelligence is being shown here?
Movement

According to Gardner, what kind of
intelligence is being shown here?
Logical-Mathematical
Albert
Einstein

According to Gardner, what kind of
intelligence is being shown here?
Visual-spatial

According to Gardner, what kind of
intelligence is being shown here?
Musical
Traditional Intelligences
Type of
Intelligence
Description Sample
Occupation
Verbal/linguistic Ability to use
language
Writers, Speakers
Logical-
mathematical
Ability to think
logically and solve
mathematical
problems
Scientists,
Engineers
Visual-spatial Ability to
understand how
objects are
oriented in space
Pilots, astronauts,
artists, navigators
Non-traditional Intelligences
Type of
Intelligence
Description Sample
Occupation
Musical Ability to compose
and/or perform
music
Musicians,
Singers
Movement Ability to control
ones body
motions
Dancers, Athletes
Interpersonal Sensitivity to
others,
Understanding
motivation of
others
Psychologists,
Managers
Non-traditional Intelligences
Type of Intelligence Description Sample Occupation
Intrapersonal Understanding of
ones emotions and
how they guide
actions
Various people-
oriented careers
Naturalist Ability to recognize
the patterns found in
nature
Farmers,
landscapers,
biologists, botanists
*Existentialist Ability to see the big
picture of the human
world, asking
questions about life,
death, reality
Philosophers
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
AND EDUCATIONAL
PRACTICE
Positive Reception
MI has met with a strongly positive
response from many educators, and has
inspired calls for dramatic changes in
education, to wit:
The scope of education should be
expanded to value and nurture the
development of the other intelligences,
beyond linguistic and logical-mathematic
intelligences;
Inspired Calls for Changes in Education
Non-marginalization of children whose
talents fall within the non-traditional
intelligences;
Traditional psychometric methods of
assessment should be replaced by more
product-oriented methods, i.e., student
portfolios;
Inspired Calls for Changes in Education
Education must extend beyond the
classroom and include non-traditional
experiences;
Education should be structured to allow
students to make discoveries on their
own and to construct their own
knowledge. To be student-centered, and
less teacher-centered;
Inspired Calls for Changes in Education
Students may differ in how they approach
the same academic content. Those
differences should be honored and even
encouraged.

Critical Reception
Although the response from educators
have been largely positive, some have
been critical of Gardners claims and
have wondered whether or not the theory
really has any significant implications for
educational practice.
ISSUE
Can Howard Gardners
Theory of Multiple
Intelligences Transform
Educational Practice?
YES
Orchestrating Multiple
Intelligences
Seana Moran, Mindy Kornhaber, and Howard Gardner
NO
Multiplying the Problems of
Intelligences by Eight
Perry D. Klein
Concept of Intelligence
YES NO
There are no smart
or dumb people
There are
independent
domains of
cognitive ability

MI correlates to IQ
and therefore are
specific factors of
general intelligence
MI may be interpreted
as simply cognitive
styles
Modules are not really
independent from one
another
Assessment of intelligence/s
YES NO
Profile students,
dont score them
Project Spectrum:
an interactive assessment
process for preschool children
which evaluates each
intelligence directly, rather than
funneling the information
through linguistic paper-and-
pencil test

MI Researchers have
not yet developed
reliable methods for
assessing
intelligences
One ability or disability
may not always be
mapped to one
specific intelligence
Guideline/s for teaching
YES NO
Identify specific
strengths and
weaknesses of the
students
Provide rich
experiences to
students
Promote collaboration

Transfer of learning
across domains is
problematic
Some practices
based on the theory
are
misinterpretations
Practicality
YES NO
Does not
require the
teacher to
design a lesson
in all areas

Balanced
programming is not
practical
School need not be
the institution
responsible for
developing all
intelligences
equally
Goals
YES NO
Help individuals
perceive
themselves as
potentially
smart

The idea of
knowing your own
area of strength
may backfire
MI is intended as
theory to explain
the human mind,
not a pedagogy
GROUPS RESOLUTION
NOT YET
Can Howard Gardners
Theory of Multiple
Intelligences Transform
Educational Practice?
Resolution
MI theory was designed as a theory of
learning rather than a theory of pedagogy
MI theory is misinterpreted as learning
styles
( Dunn, Denig and Lovelace 2001) Multiple
intelligences and learning styles are two
distinct but not competing concepts that
contribute to learning. The similarities
between the two concepts often generate
confusion and misinterpretation.

Resolution
MI theory is a relatively new learning
theory that is still evolving. From seven
intelligences , two more domains were
added by Gardner.
Resolution
There is a lack of sufficient theoretical
and empirical proof to back up the MI
theory .
Lynn Waterhouse in her article in 2006
stated that there the MI theory concepts of
learning is not consistent with cognitive
neuroscience findings. ( Inadequate
Evidence for Multiple Intelligences, Mozart
Effect and Emotional Intelligences Theory)

Resolution
For MI to transform the educational
practice, it would take a lot of changes in
the philosophy of teacher education and
curriculum development.