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Theodolite

Traversing with
theodolite
Er Raju Sharma
Department - civil engineering
Chandigarh University


Traversing with theodolite
Traverse may be define as series of connected lines
from the frame work having the direction and
length.theodolite is used to find out direction of lines
and measuring tape is used for measuring length in case
of theodolite traversing.
There are mainly two method for plotting traversing.
By measurement of angles between two successive lines
(by direct observation of angle)

By direct observing the bearing of the survey line.
Traversing by direct angles
In this method the angle between the successive
line are measured and the bearing of the starting
line is observed. The bearing of the remaining
lines are then found from the observed bearing
and the measured angles. Traversing by this
method is done either
By the method of included angles.
By the method of direct angles
By the method of deflection angles
(a) Traversing by method of included
angles
In a closed traverse the angle measured either
interior or exterior according as the traverse is
run in a counter clockwise direction .genrally
closed traverse in anti counter clockwise
direction. the angle can be measured by
repetition so as to desired degree of accuracy is
obtained.
Procedure : for running the traverse ABCDEFG
Set up the theodolite at 1
ST
station A and
observed the bearing of the line AB.
`
2. then measure the angle GAB. Shift
the instrument to each of the
successive station B,C etc. and
measure the angles ABC,BCD etc.
3. Measure the line AB,BC,CD etc. and
take offset to locate the required
detail
after this check is applied for interiors
angles it is (2n-4)x90,
And for exterior angles it is (2n+4)x90
n = number of sides of the traverse


A
G
F
E
D
C
B
N
S

By the method of direct angles : this method is
used for open traverse. set up the theodolite at the starting station
P and observe the bearing of line PQ . Shift the theodolite to Q.
set the venier A to zero, take a back sight on the preceding
station P.unclamp the upper plate, turn the telescope clockwise,
take a foresight on the following station R, and read both
verniers. the mean of two vernier reading is the required angle
PQR. take other angles in the similar manner. chain the line and
take the necessary offsets.
P
S
N
Q
R
S
T

By the method of deflection angle:
This method is also used in open traverse. this is ,much suitable
when the survey line makes small deflection angles with each
other survey roads railway, pipe line etc .set up the thedolite at
the starting point P and observed the bearing of line PQ. shift
the instrument to station Q. set the vernnier A to zero and take a
back sight on P. then transit the telescope ,loosen the upper
clamp ,turn the telescope clockwise and take a foresight on R.
read both verniers, the mean of these readings is the required
deflection angles of QR from PQ. Also note down its direction.
then set up the theodolite at each successive station R,S,T etc.
and observe the deflection angles.
P
N
S
Q
R
T
S
1 R
1 R
Traversing by direct observation of bearing
There are following three method
direct method when the telescope is transited
Direct method when the telescope is not
transited
Back bearing method

(a) Direct method when the telescope is transisited
Set up the theodolite at A and level it. set the
vernier A to zero. point the telescope towards
the north
Loosen the upper clamp and bisect B by using
the upper clamp. read the vernier A which gives
the bearing of AB.
Shift the instrument and set up at B.
With the help of lower clamp and tangent screw
,back sight on A. transit the telescope ,loosen the
upper clamp and turn the telescope and bisect C
,with the help of upper clamp and tangent screw
,read both verniers which gives the bearing of
line BC
Sift the instrument at c and repeat the whole
process.
For check at the end FB and BB of line EA
differ exactly by 180.this will show the correct
observation
N
S
A
N
N
S
B
C
E D
Direct method when telescope is not transited
This is the same method as discussed in the above
the difference is that the telescope is rotated
about horizontal plane.
Back bearing method : set up the instrument at
A and observe the fore bearing of line AB
Shift the instrument and set it up at B
Set the vernier A to back bearing of AB
With the vernier A kept clamped at the same
reading, back sight on A by using the lower clamp
and its tangent screw. when the line of sight is
directed towards the BA ,the instrument is in
correct orientation.
Unclamp the upper plate and turn the telescope
until c is sighted. bisect C exactly by using the
upper clamp and its tangent screw.
Read the vernier A which gives the bearing of BC
Repeat the process at each of the subsequent
station
A
E D
N
N
N
S S
B
C
Latitude and departure
Both terms are introduced with plotting the
traverse. latitude and departure both are required
for plotting the position of different point w.r.t
y-axis and x- axis. y axis and x axis are known as
reference line and are also known as the co-
ordinates.
N
S
E W
Reference axis- x axis
Reference axis- y axis
Departure
Easting = +
Latitude
northing=+
Latitude
Southing= -ve
Departure
Westing= -ve

Latitude and departure
Latitude of line =l cos
Departure of line = l sin

If N 30 S is the bearing of a any given line N
show that its latitude and S shows departure of
the line.
The following rules will be much useful while solving problems on
traverse surveying
If l is the length of a line and is its reduced
bearing. Then

l
N
S
W E
L

c
o
s

=

l
a
t
i
t
u
d
e

L sin
=departure


(i) Latitude = l cos
Departure = l sin

(ii) Tan = departure
latitude
= tan1 departure
latitude

(iii) l = (latitude)+(departure)
(a) l = latitude x sec
(c) l = departure x cosec





Q: 1 The coordinates of two points A
and B are as follows. Find the length
and bearing of AB

Let l = length of AB
= the reduced bearing of AB.
LATITUDE of AB = 840.78 500.25= 340.53
DEPARTURE of AB = 315.60-640.75= -325.15

tan = departure 325.15 = .9548
latitude 340.53

= 4341
Since the latitude is +ve and the departure is
ve ,the line AB lies in the fourth (N.W)
quadrant.
R.B of AB = N 4341W
W.C.B of AB = 360-4341= 31619 (ANS)
length of AB = (L)+(D)
470.83 m (ans)
points Co-ordinates
Northing Easting
A 500.25 640.75
B 840.78 315.60
a
b
500.25,640.75
840.78,315.60 N
S
E
W

Q : 2 the following are the
length and bearing of the
sides of a closed traverse
ABCD
Calculate the length and bearing
of line DA.
Let length of DA= l ,R.B of line-

(i) Convert the W.C.B to the
R.B
R.B of AB= 180-140 12=S39
48E
R.B of BC=3624 =N3624E
R.B of CD=
360-33848=N2112W

Line Length
in meters
bearing
AB 78.2 14012
BC 198.0 36 24
CD 37.8 338 48
DA ? ?

(ii) find the latitude and departures of the lines from the
known length and bearing of the lines.

latitude of AB = 78.2 x cos3948 = -60.08(S)
latitude of BC =198XCOS 36 24= +159.37 (N)
latitude of CD = 37.8x COS 21 12= 35.24 (N)
latitude of DA = l x cos = l cos
Algebraic sum of the latitude( )
= l cos+35.24+159.37-60.08
= l cos+ 134.53
The traverse being closed ( ) should equal zero
lcos+134.53 = 0
lcos= -134.53

Departure of AB = 78.2xsin 3948= +50.06 (E)
Departure of BC = 198xsin 3624 = +117.49 (E)
Departure of CD = 37.8x sin 2112 = -13.6 (w)
Departure of DA = lxsin

Algebric sum of departure ( )
= l sin+50.06+117.49-13.67
= lsin + 153.88
But D =0
lsin + 153.88 = 0
lsin = -153.88

(iii) since the latitude and departure of DA are both
ve therefore, the line DA lies in the iii (SW)
quardent
now tan= departure 153.88
latitude 134.53
=1.1438
=4850
hence reduced bearing of DA= S4850W
W.C.B of DA = 180+ 4850=228 50
length of DA = (lat) +(dep) = 204.40m(ans)

Error in theodolite surveying
These may be classified into 3 groups
Instrumental error
Personal error or observation error
Natural error
Instrumental error : (i) non adjustment of plate
level:
if the adjustment of a plate is not proper as a result, the
horizontal circle is inclined and the angles are measured in
an inclined plane instead of horizontal plane. The error are
introduced in the measurement of both horizontal and
vertical angles. the error is serious when the horizontal
angles between points at considerably different elevation
are to be measured. the error can be minimized by levlling
the instrument with reference to be altitude bubble.

(ii) The line of collimation not being perpendicular to the
horizontal axis:
if line of collimation not perpendicular to the
horizontal axis ,as a result of this the horizontal
angles when measured between points at widely
different elevation will be incorrect
the error can be
eliminated by reading angles on both the faces and
taking the mean of the observed reading

(iii) the horizontal axis not being perpendicular
to the vertical axis
if the horizontal axis is not perpendicular to the
vertical axis, the line of collimation not revolved in a
vertical plane when the telescope is raised or lowerd.
This causes an angular error both in horizontal and
vertical angles.
the error can be eliminated by
reading angles on both the faces and taking mean of
the two values.


(iv) the line of collimation and the axis of
telescope level not being parallel to each other
if this type of condition occurred ,the zero line of
vertical verniers is not a true line of reference and as
a result ,an error is introduced in the measurement
of vertical angle
the error can be eliminated by taking
two observation of the angles, one with the
telescope normal and the other with the telescope
inverted ,and taking mean of the two values

The inner and outer axis i.e the axis of both
upper and lower plate not being concentric
the error can be eliminated by reading both
verniers and averaging the two values.
The graduation being unequal
The error is eliminated by measuring the angles
several times on different parts of the circle and
taking mean of all.
Vernier being eccentric
The zero of the vernier will not be diametrically
opposite to each other. an error will be introduced
if only one vernier is read ,but it will cancel itself ,if
both verniers are read and the mean taken.

The vertical hair not being exactly vertical
The error is minimised by using the portion of the
hair near the horizontal hair for bisecting the signal.
Personal error :
Inaccurate centering
Inaccurate leveling
Working wrong tangent screw
Slip
Parallax
Inaccurate bisection of the point sighted and
non-verticality of the ranging rod

Other error such as
mistake in setting the vernier
Mistake in reading the scale and the vernier
Mistake in reading wrong vernier
Mistake while booking the reading
Natural error : this error are due to
High temperature causing irregular refraction
Wind storm causing vibration of the instrument
The sun shining on the instrument
These are negligible for ordinary survey. but the precise work is usually
performed under the most favorable atmosphere condition

Er Raju Sharma (Lecturer)
Department- Civil Engineering