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Water Systems

Grade Eight Science

Water in Your Life
Water . It is something that we often take for
granted. How many things do you do each day
that require water? Sometimes we are not very
careful about our water use.
Make a list of all the times youve encountered or
used water today. Now sort the list into two
categories, Essential use and Non-essential use.
What could you do to replace some of the
activities that are Non-essential uses of water?
How do you use water in your daily routine??
Essential Uses Non-Essential Uses
Where does water come from??

Water Distribution
About 71% of the Earths surface is covered in
Most of this is salt water in the oceans. Salt
water makes up 97% of the water on the
Earths surface.
How is water distributed on the Earths surface?
Water Distribution
Only 3% of the Earths water is fresh water.
Most of the fresh water on the Earths surface is in a
solid form. Ice sheets and glaciers make up about
69% of the fresh water on Earth.
The majority of fresh liquid water is found as
groundwater below the Earths surface. It makes up
about 30% of Earths fresh water.
Only about 1% of the Earths fresh water is actually
liquid water which is found in rivers, lakes, ponds, and
in the soil and atmosphere.
Water Distribution
Water Distribution video
The Water Cycle
The water that is on the Earths surface today has
been here for millions and millions of years.
The water cycle continuously moves water
around the Earth and recycles it. The glass of
water you drink today may contain some water
that was used by the dinosaurs!!!
Round and Round it Goes!!
The Water Cycle
Hydrologic Cycle
Water in Our World
The Earths oceans contain salt water. The
salinity, or average concentration of salt, is about
3.5%. In one litre of water there would be about
35 grams of salt.
Salt water can also be found in some swamps,
marshes, lakes and estuaries.
Salt Water
Salt Water Around the World
The salinity of the oceans is different depending on location.
Near the equator, water is saltier because of high rates of
evaporation. Water molecules evaporate leaving the salt

The water is also saltier at the North and South poles because
when the water freezes the salt is left in the liquid water.

Near the continents (land), the water is usually less salty
because the fresh water from rivers empties into the ocean and
dilutes the salt water.
Where does salt come from?
Some of the salt in the oceans comes from
underground. As the water runs along underground,
it picks up materials called dissolved solids.

Volcanoes and underwater volcanoes also add
chemicals such as sulphur, fluorine, chlorine and
hydrogen to the ocean water.

The most common chemical added to the oceans is
sodium chloride, which is the chemical name for salt.
Water in Our World
Fresh water is water that contains low
concentrations of salt. Be careful though. The
word fresh does not necessarily mean that the
water is alright to drink. Most fresh water
contains dissolved chemicals and living
organisms that could make you very sick if you
drank it.
Water that is safe to drink is called potable
Fresh Water
Fresh Water Availability
Density of Salt Water vs. Fresh Water
Density is the amount of mass of a substance in a certain unit volume. Salt
water is more dense than fresh water. Ocean water has a density of 1027 kg/L.
Fresh water has a density of 1000kg/L.

It is much easier to float in salt water than in fresh water. The higher density of
salt water helps to hold the weight of your body up.
The Dead Sea is 9 times saltier
than ocean water. This makes it
very easy to float in it.
Freezing Points of Salt Water and Fresh
Both salt and fresh water have a freezing point.

The freezing point of a liquid is the temperature at which it
freezes, changing state from a liquid to a solid.

The freezing point of fresh water is 0 degrees Celsius.

The dissolved salt in the ocean water causes it to have a
different freezing point. Salt water freezes at 1.9 degrees
Celsius .
Salt Water vs. Fresh Water
Draw a Venn diagram to compare and contrast salt water and fresh water.
1. What is salinity?
2. Why is the ocean saltier near the equator?
3. Name two sources of ocean salt.
4. What is density?
5. Why is ocean water more dense than fresh water?
Sources of Fresh Water
Liquid fresh water that we can use comes from the
following sources:

Lakes and Ponds

Rivers and Streams


Lakes and Ponds
Lakes and ponds are both basins in the ground that filled with water. There is little
difference between them. Lakes do tend to be a little it larger and deeper.
Bens Lake
Macdonalds pond
McClures Pond
Lake Formation
Lakes are formed when water collects in low
lying areas . They are bodies of water trapped
in a basin.
Lake Formation
A lake basin can be formed in several different

A) Craters or basins form at the top of volcanoes
as the lava cools. Water collects in these
craters and a volcanic lake is formed.

Lake Formation
Lake Formation
B) Glaciers moving along the Earths surface
created many basins. As the ice melted, the
basins were filled with melt water and lakes
were formed.

Lake Formation
C) Lakes can be formed when a river is blocked
by a dam. These dams may be natural or man

Land Locked Lakes
Some lakes are land locked . This means that
there are no rivers leading into the lake and no
rivers leading out of it. Sometimes, these lakes
can be even saltier than the ocean because
ground water dissolves
salts and minerals from the soil and rocks and
carries it into the lake. As the water evaporates
from the lake, it leaves behind the salts and
minerals and the lake becomes very salty.
Wetlands are exactly what they say they are:
areas of very wet land!
Marshes, swamps and bogs are all types of
wetlands. They are all very important because
they clean and filter the water on the Earths
surface and they help to moderate water levels
in times of floods and droughts.
Wetlands have three very important jobs to do:

1. Clean and filter water

2. Control water levels during times of flooding

3. Provide a home to many species of plants and
Rivers begin in highlands from springs or small
streams of glacier melt water. The water is
pulled downward by the force of gravity.

Many small rivers or streams join larger rivers
adding more water to the river. These smaller
feeders are called tributaries.
Young fast flowing rivers carve out steep banks.
Older rivers are surrounded by gently sloping
land called flood plains.
Groundwater and the Water Table
Precipitation that falls onto the Earths surface
will be absorbed into the ground. It will
continue to move downward until it reaches a
layer of rock which it cannot pass through. The
water will build up until the soil becomes
saturated. The top layer of this saturated zone
is called the water table.
We drill wells into this saturated zone in order to
get our water supply.
The Water Table
The Water Table
The amount of water stored underground changes
through the seasons. As winter and spring rains
soak into the ground, stored groundwater
increases and the water table rises. When the
rains stop, the water table falls as groundwater
leaks into streams and the ocean. Well pumping
also removes water and lowers the water table.
Excessive pumping of groundwater can result in
long-term depletion of groundwater storage.ge.
A glacier is a mass of ice and snow that has built
up over thousands of years. There are two
different types of glaciers.
Rivers of Ice
An Alpine glacier is a glacier that is found in the
high altitudes of the mountains.
Rivers of Ice
A Continental glacier is a glacier that is found on
the lands near the Earths poles.
There are two major continental glaciers. One
continental glacier covers Antarctica and the
other covers most of the island of Greenland.
It covers 1.8 million square kilometres and is
2700 metres thick.
Rivers of Ice
The cold air flowing off the continental glaciers
cool the surrounding area. These winds are
called polar easterlies. Because the air is so
cold, there is very little precipitation over the
glaciers. Antarctica is actually considered a
desert. It has the harshest conditions on
Earth. The average temperature is -50 degrees
celsius and there is only about 3 cm of
precipitation each year.and there is only 3 cm
of precipitation per year.
Rivers of Ice
The large sheet of ice that covers the Arctic
ocean is not a true glacier. Because it actually
covers water, it is called a polar ice cap.
Rivers of Ice
Glaciers store huge amounts of fresh water in
the form of ice and snow. Some of the ice at
the edges of the glaciers melts and rejoins the
water cycle as a source of liquid water. When
the pieces break away from the glaciers, they
form icebergs in the oceans.
Rivers of Ice
Icebergs can be very dangerous to ships because
most of the ice is under the water and is not
easily seen.
Rivers of Ice
One benefit of icebergs is that they are
composed of fresh water and could possibly be
used as a source of drinking water. People
may start towing icebergs to places where
drinking water is needed.
Rivers of Ice
Global Warming and Glaciers
Global warming is having an effect on the worlds
glaciers. Warmer temperatures are causing
the ice to melt more quickly. People are
concerned that if the glaciers and polar icecaps
melt too quickly, coastal lands may be covered
with water as the sea level rises, and rivers in
the mountains may flood or dry up completely
if the glacier melts altogether.

Rivers of Ice
1. What is a glacier?
2. Describe the size and thickness of the glacier that covers the
island of Greenland.
3. What are polar easterlies?
4. Describe the conditions in Antarctica that make it a desert.
5. Explain why the large sheet of ice on the Arctic Ocean is not a
6. Name one benefit that icebergs might provide and one
problem they may cause.
7. Explain how global warming may affect glaciers and the world
in the future.
A watershed is an area , surrounded by high land,
in which all water runs to a common
destination. It is sometimes called a drainage
basin. Watersheds have been created over
millions of years as the Earths surface has
changed with the movement of the plates of
the Earths crust. In Canada there are many,
many watersheds. All Canadian waters will
eventually flow into one of three oceans: the
Atlantic, the Pacific, or the Arctic.

Canadas Drainage Basins
Runoff is water that flows across the surface of
the Earth. It does not evaporate or soak into the

Gravity pulls this water down to the lowest
point. Runoff will flow along the ground until it
hits a low point on the surface or finds its way
into a stream.
Factors Affecting Runoff
The amount of runoff in an area is affected
by the following:

The type of ground material
The amount of rain
The length of time it rains
The slope of the land
The amount of vegetation
The amount of development in the area

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