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Nguyn Hu Tr 1
He thu cam
Sensory System
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Nguyn Hu Tr 2
Chuong 2.2 HE THU CM
1. Cc th quan da v ni quan
a. Cc th quan da
b. Cc th quan ni quan
2. V[ gic v khu gic
a. V[ gic
b. Khu gic
3. Th[ gic
a. Cu trc ca mt ngui
b. S nhn cm nh sng v mu sc
4. Thnh gic
a. Cu trc ca tai ngui
b. Co ch thu nhn m thanh
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Nguyn Hu Tr 3
He tbu cam
+ He tbu cam bay con duoc goI bang cac ten
kbac nbau nbu co guan cam gIac, co guan
pban tIcb, gIac guan, tbu guan.
+ He tbu cam la co guan cbuyen tracb gom
nbung te bao da bIet boa de tIep nban kIcb
tbIcb tu moI truong ben ngoaI va ben trong
doI voI co tbe.
+ MoI truong song luon bIen doI (ca ben ngoaI
va ben trong) doI boI co tbe pbaI pban ung de
tbIcb ngbI.
+ Ieu do dam bao cbo tInb toan ven tbong
nbat cua co tbe doI voI moI truong, dam bao
su can bang cbo cac be tbong song de ton taI
va pbat trIen.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 4
Cam gIac
+ Cam gIac la su bat dau cua mot cbuoI cac
gua trInb sInb boc pbu c tap va tInb vI,
dem laI cbo nguoI va dong vat nbung boat
dong co tInb ba n nang, tap tInb trong gua
trInb pbat trIe n cbung loaI va pbat trIe n
ca tbe.
+ Nbo su boa n tbIe n ve cau tao cua be tbu
cam va be tban kInb cao bon, pbuc tap
bon so voI tbe gIoI dong vat, con nguoI
ngoaI ban na ng tap tInb con co gua trInb
tu duy truu tuong. ay la mot buoc nbay
vot cua gua trInb tIe n bo a ca ve luong va
cbat, lam cbo con nguoI tacb ra kboI tbe
gIoI dong vat.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 5
Cau tao co guan cam gIac
Co guan cam gIac dIen bInb tbuong co S pban:
Bo pban ngoaI bIen
Bo pban dan truyen
Bo pban trung uong
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Nguyn Hu Tr 6
Pban loaI co guan cam gIac
Tbeo v] trI cau tao: tbeo cacb nay co guan
cam gIac cbIa lam baI loaI:
Cac tbu guan trong: la cac te bao tbu cam nam
taI cac co guan cau tao ben trong co tbe de
tIep nban cac kIcb tbIcb cua noI moI.
Cac tbu guan ngoaI: gom nbung te bao tbu
cam cbuyen bIet va cac bo pban cau tao rIeng,
bInb tbanb mot co guan pban tIcb bay gIac
guan.
Cac tbu guan bay tbu guan ban tbe: cac tbu
guan nay nam sau trong ban tbe, nbat la pban
dau cac gan cac co bam xuong, cac kbop duoc
goI la tu tbu guan
2
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Nguyn Hu Tr 7
Pban loaI co guan cam gIac
Tbeo cacb tbuc tbu nba n kIcb tbIcb,
cbIa ra lam baI loaI:
Cac tbu guan truc tIep: cac kIcb tbIcb
tbuong tac dong truc tIep vao te bao tbu
cam nbu co guan pban tIcb v] gIac la
luoI, pban tIcb xuc gIac la da boac cac
tbu guan trong pbu tang.
Cac tbu guan gIan tIep: cac tbu guan nay
co tbe tIep nban tu nbung kboang cacb
xa nbu co guan pban tIcb tb] gIac la mat,
tbInb gIac la taI
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Nguyn Hu Tr 8
Pban loaI co guan cam gIac
Tbeo ban cbat kIcb tbIcb, co tbe cbIa ra:
Cac tbu guan boa boc tIep nban cac kIcb
tbIcb boa boc nbu muI, v], cac tbanb pban boa
boc, cac Ion... goI cbung la cbemoreceptor.
Cac tbu guan ly boc tIep nban cac kIcb tbIcb
vat ly. Nbom nay co tbe pban ra: Tbu guan co
boc, nbIet boc, am boc, guang boc.
Cac tu tbu guan
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Nguyn Hu Tr 9
Xuc gIac
0,725 0,425
H x P x 71,84 S
Xuc gIac bay co guan cam gIac da va noI
tang bao cbo co tbe nbung cam gIac va
cbam, tIep xuc, nong, la nb va dau.
ay Ia co guan cbIem dIe n tIcb lon nbat
co tbe (kboang 1,5 m
2
)

, mo I mnI no
cIIem kIoang 16 Irong Iuong co IIe
DIen IcI da o nguoI duoc InI IIeo cong
IIuc Du HoIs:
$ d|en I|ch (m
2
)
H ch|eu coo co Ihe (m)
F Irong |uong co Ihe (kg)
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Nguyn Hu Tr 10
Da nguoI
Cau tao gom ba lop:
Lop bIeu bI (epIdermIs):
Lop da cbInb tbuc (DermIs)
Lop duoI da (HypodermIs)
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Nguyn Hu Tr 11
Lop bIeu bI
Co nguon goc ngoaI bI. D ngoaI cung, duoc cau
tao tu bIeu mo det tang (4 lop).
Lop sung: tbuong tang tren cung boa sung, bong
ra tung pban.
Lop bat: gom mot so te bao det, te bao cbua
nbIeu bat KeratobyalIn va to truong luc
Lop MalpIgbI: goI la tang sInb truong, te bao tang
nay co cbua sac to melanIn tao mau da. Lop bIeu
bI day bay mong tuy tung vung da tren co tbe.
Lop bat: o sau nbat, gom mot bang te bao bInb
tru tbap tu vao mang day.
BIeu bI bau nbu kbong cbo nuoc tbam gua, ngan
can kbong cbo mat nuoc co tbe gua bIen tuong
boc boI
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Nguyn Hu Tr 12
Lop bIeu bI
3
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Nguyn Hu Tr 13
BIeu bI
BIeu bI la bIeu mo det tang co sung bao
pbu bao gom cbu yeu la cac te bao sung,
ngoaI ra con co ba loaI te bao so luo ng It
bon la te bao sac to, te bao Langerbans va
te bao Merkel.
Cac te bao bIeu mo co tInb boa sung goI la
te bao sung (keratInocyte).
NguoI ta tbuong pban bIe t da day kbo ng co
long voI da mong co lo ng co o nbIeu noI
trong co tbe
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Nguyn Hu Tr 14
Mau da
Pbu tbuoc vao S loaI sac to
HemoglobIn: do macb mau da cung
cap
MelanIn: do te bao sac to tong bop
Carotene: tbu duoc tu cac tbuc
pbam co nguon goc tbuc vat
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Nguyn Hu Tr 15
Lop bI bay da cbInb tbuc
Da la mo lIen ket co nguon goc trung bI
La lop gIua, o da nguoI va tbu kbo ng co
cac te bao tbu cam rIe ng bIet. Cac dau
mut tban kInb toa mot cacb tu do tren da.
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Nguyn Hu Tr 16
Ihe Me|ssner Ihu nhon kIch IhIch co hoc mo soI.
Ihe Focc|n| Ihu nhon kIch IhIch co hoc op |uc
Ihe krouse Ihu nhon kIch IhIch nh|eI do |onh
Ihe Puff|n| Ihu nhon kIch IhIch nh|eI do nong
Coc dou muI Ihon k|nh Ihu nhon kIch IhIch dou
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Nguyn Hu Tr 17
Tbe PaccInI
Tbe MeIssner
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Nguyn Hu Tr 18
Lop da chnh thuc
Ranb gIoI gIua bIeu
bI va da cbInb tbuc
kbong bang pbang,
cac pban bI nbu len
goI la nbu bI (dermal
papIlla) nam xen gIua
cac pban lom xuong
cua bIeu bI duoc goI
la nbu bIeu bI
(epIdemal rIdge).
4
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Nguyn Hu Tr 19
NIu b
NIu bIeu b
Lop nIu
Lop IuoI
HIeu b
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Nguyn Hu Tr 20
Van tay
Nbu bIeu bI
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Nguyn Hu Tr 21
Lop ba bI bay lop duoI da
uoc tao boI mo lIen ke t tbua co cbua
mot kboI cac te bao mo goI la mo mo
duoI da (pannIculus adIposus).
D tang duoI cung tIep xuc voI co guan
ben trong co tbe. Trong lop nay, co cac
cau tao nbu long (pIlI), mong (ungues)
va cac loaI tuyen nbo n, mo boI, sua.
Ha bI tbuong kbong duo c xem la tbanb
pba n cau tao cua da, co vaI tro gan ket
da vao mo ke can mot cacb lo ng leo.
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Nguyn Hu Tr 22
H
Ha b
Ha b
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Nguyn Hu Tr 23
Cac tuyen cua da
Tuyen ba (sebaceous gland)
Tuyen mo boI (sweat gland)
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Nguyn Hu Tr 24
Tuyen ba
Nam be n trong bI,
co o bau bet v] trI
da tren co tbe
nguoI.
Kbong co o cac
vung da kbong co
long, la da ng tuyen
nang voI vaI nang
tuyen do vao mot
ong baI xuat ngan
va nbo.
5
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Nguyn Hu Tr 25
Nang tuyen ba
Tuyen ba la tuyen toan buy
(bolocrIne), san pbam la mot
pbuc bop lIpId bao gom cac
trIglycerId, cbat sap, cbat vay,
cbolesterol va cac ester cua
no.
Tuyen ba bat dau boat dong tu
tuoI day tbI
Cbat ba lIen tuc duoc tong ra
ngoaI, kbI dong cbat ba kbong
duoc baI xuat bInb tbuong tbI
se la mot nguyen nban gay nen
mun trung ca, la tInb trang
vIem nang long man do ngben
tuyen ba, xay ra cbu yeu o tuoI
day tbI
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Nguyn Hu Tr 26
Tuyen mo boI
Tba nb pba n cbInb cua mo boI la nuoc,
sodIum cblorIde, urea, ammonIa va acId
urIc. Luong sodIum trong mo boI tba p
bon trong mau.
NgoaI cbuc nang mat da, cac tuyen mo
boI con gIu vaI tro nbu la co guan baI
tIet bo tro, tbaI loaI mot so cbat kbong
can tbIet cbo co tbe.
Tuyen Moll o rIa mI ma t va tuyen ray
taI la cac bIen tbe cua tuyen mo boI.
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Nguyn Hu Tr 27
Tuyen mo boI
Tuyen mo boI co
nbIeu vung co tbe,
ngoaI tru mot so
vung nbu guI dau.
CbIa lam baI loaI:
Tuyen mo boI toan
ven (MerocrIne)
Tuyen mo boI ban
buy (ApocrIne)
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Nguyn Hu Tr 28
Tuyen mo boI ban buy
Co o cac vung nacb, guang
vuva bau mon. Tuyen mo
boI ban buy co duong kInb
to bon (S-5mm).
Cac tuyen ban buy co o bu
va ba bI, ong baI xuat do vao
nang long.
Cac tuyen nay tIet ra muI
boI co tInb nbay, ban dau
kbong co muI song sau do co
muI kbo cb]u do b] pban gIaI
boI vI kbuan
MuI Ien do - cac Iuyen mo
IoI ban Iuy
MuI Ien xanI - Nang Iong
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Nguyn Hu Tr 29
Tuyen mo boI toan ven
Tuyen mo boI toan ven
kbong ket bop voI nang
long.
Tuyen mo boI toan ven
la tuyen ong don ,
xoan.Dng baI xuat truc
tIep ra be mat bIeu mo,
cac ong baI xuat kbong
pban nbanb.
Cbat tIet cua tuyen mo
boI tbuong kbong co
tInb nbay va tbuong It
proteIn.
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Nguyn Hu Tr 30
Cbuc nang cua da
Da co ba cbuc nang cbInb:
Cbuc na ng bao ve: cbong laI cac
tac dung co boc, cbong su xam
nba p cua vI kbuan va cbat doc.
Cbuc na ng trao doI cbat: nbu baI
tIet mo boI, dIeu boa tban nbIet,
lam nbIem vu bo bap.
Cbuc na ng cam gIac: da duoc coI la
co guan xuc gIac noI cbung, la co
guan cam gIac nbIet va dau
6
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Nguyn Hu Tr 31
Bon loaI cam gIac cbInb
1. Cam gIac dau
Cac tbu tbe tIep nban kIcb tbIcb gay ra cam gIac
dau la cac dau mut tban kInb kbong co bao
myelIn, pban bo o nbIeu noI trong co tbe.
Trung kbu dau cbInb nam o tbalamus, ngoaI ra
con co o bypotbalamus.
Cac kIcb tbIcb gay dau kbong dac bIeu, cam gIac
dau xuat bIen la mot co cbe tu ve, co y ngbIa
sInb guan trong. Pban ung tra loI cam gIac dau la
mot loat pban xa tu ve nbu tang nb]p tIm, tIet
mo boI, cbay nuoc mat, co dong tu....
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Nguyn Hu Tr 32
2) Cam gIac nbIet
ap ung laI su tbay doI nbIet do. Tbe
Krause tbu nban kIcb tbIcb nbIet do lanb,
tbe RuIIInI tbu nban kIcb tbIcb nbIet do
nong va co tbe dau mut tan cu ng cac
nba nb tban kInb da nban cac kIcb
tbIcb.
Tbu tbe la nb > tbu tbe nong
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Nguyn Hu Tr 33
S)Cam gIac co boc
Cam gIac co boc do cac tbu guan tIep nban
kIcb tbIcb ve ap luc, ma sat gay ra:
Tbu guan ma sat tIep xuc pban bo o bau mon.
Tbu guan ap luc pban bo trong mot so tang
rong nbu da day, ruot, bang guang, cung dong
macb cbu va xoang dong macb canb.
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Nguyn Hu Tr 34
4) Cam gIac boa boc
Vung nbay cam boa boc tbuoc
trung kbu bo bap o ba nb tuy
b] kIcb tbIcb boI Ion H+, gay
pba n xa tang bo bap; o xoang
dong macb cbu va do ng macb
canb, gay pban xa dIeu cbInb
pH mau. Tbu guan o da day
tIep nba n kIcb tbIcb cu a HCl
gay pban xa mo co vong ba v]
ong vaI tro rat guan trong
doI voI can bang noI moI
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Nguyn Hu Tr 35
Cac gIac guan dac bIet
Kbuu gIac (DlIactIon)
V] gIac (Taste)
Tb] gIac (VIsIon)
TbInb gIac (HearIng)
Trang tbaI can bang(EguIlIbrIum)
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Nguyn Hu Tr 36
Co guan kbuu gIac (MuI)
Kbuu gIac la mot trong nam be tbu
cam ngoaI. Cu ng voI v] gIac tIep nba n
cac kIcb tbIcb boa boc tbong gua mu I
va v]. La be tbu cam pbat trIen som
nbat trong gua trInb pbat trIen cbu ng
loaI
7
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Nguyn Hu Tr 37
8o Ihon k|nh khuu g|oc
Xuong buom
Mong khuu
Co quan khuu giac (Mui)
Kbuu gIac la mot
trong nam be tbu
cam ngoaI. Cung voI
v] gIac tIep nban cac
kIcb tbIcb boa boc
tbong gua muI va v].
La be tbu cam pbat
trIen som nbat trong
gua trInb pbat trIen
cbung loaI
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Nguyn Hu Tr 38
Cau tao
D dong vat noI cbung, co guan kbuu gIac nam trong bo
kbuu. en nbung dong vat bac cao, bo kbuu pbat trIen
tbanb kboang goI la muI.
D dong vat an tb]t, kboang mu I pbat trIen rat ma nb nbung
den lInb truong kboang kbuu ke m pbat trIen bon. Ie u nay
co lIen guan de n doI song sInb boc cua tung nbom.
Kboang muI co baI cbuc nang la kbuu gIac va bo bap. Pban
bo bap o kboang duoI, pban kbuu gIac o kboang tren va bep
bon pban bo bap.
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Nguyn Hu Tr 39
Cau tao
Bo pban tbu cam kbuu gIa c la ca c te bao kbuu nam o tbuong
bI cua mang nbay.
Cac te bao co soI tap bop tbanb da y kbu u gIa c (doI day so I)
xuyen gua lo sang cu a xuong buom, cbay vao banb kbuu roI
vao nao kbuu nam pbIa duoI daI nao, tren doI baI ma
(bIppocampus).
NgoaI ra mot so trung tam o nao trung gIan (vung tren tb],
duoI tb], tbe vu) cung tbam gIa dIe u boa cbuc nang kbuu gIac
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Nguyn Hu Tr 40
Su pbat trIen
Trong gua trInb pbat trIen cbung loaI, o
nbung dong vat bac tbap nbu con trung,
kbuu gIac rat guan trong va co y ngbIa sInb
boc rat lon doI voI doI song cua cbung.
D dong vat bac cao co guan kbuu gIac pbat
trIen kbong deu. Mot so nbom pbat trIen
rat kem nbu cbIm, lInb truong, traI laI mot
so nbom pbat trIen rat nbay nbu cbo, meo,
cbuot.
Te bao tbu cam kbuu gIac la nbung te bao
luong cuc co duong kInb (2-5 m) lam cbo
dIen tIcb tIep xuc voI muI tang len.
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Nguyn Hu Tr 41
Cam gIac kbuu gIac
Xuat bIen kbI cac te bao tbu cam nban duoc
kIcb tbIcb tbong gua su tIep xuc voI cac tbe
boI (do vat cbat boc boI) bay do cac bat rat
nbo duoc mang tbeo kbong kbI bo bap gua
duong muI. KbI tbo ra, kbong kbI tac dong
vao kboang sau cua muI cung gay kIcb tbIcb
nbung kbI bIt vao rat nbe gua muI bay gua
mIeng kbong gay ra cam gIac kbuu gIac.
Co cbe tac dong cua cac pban tu muI va co
cbe boat dong cua cac te bao tbu cam kbuu
con dang duoc tIep tuc ngbIen cuu
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Nguyn Hu Tr 42
o nbay cua kbuu gIac
Kbuu gIac co do nbay cam kba
cao, do nbay cam kbuu gIac tbay
doI tuy tbeo loaI, tbeo tuoI, tbeo
su luyen tap.
Cam gIac kbuu gIac pbu tbuoc vao
nong do cbat co muI trong kbong
kbI, toc do va cbam cua cac cbat
vao te bao tbu cam va tuy vao
trang tbaI sInb ly cua co guan
kbuu gIac.
8
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Nguyn Hu Tr 43
VaI tro cua kbuu gIac
oI voI dong vat, la pbuong tIen de tIm
moI, tranb ke tbu , tIm dong loaI.
D nguoI, kbuu gIac kbong gIu vaI tro
guan trong nbu o cac do ng vat kbac, kbI
an kbuu gIac se pboI bo p voI v] gIac se
cbo cbung ta y ngbIa day du ve v] ngon,
lau da n pba n xa co dIe u kIe n co duoc
tbanb la p, cbI can nguI muI gIup ta bInb
dung ra v] cua no.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 44
V] gIac
V] gIac cung voI
kbuu gIac la baI co
guan cam gIac boa
boc.
V] gIac la cam gIac
ve tInb vat cbat
cua v] le n nIem
mac luoI va
kboang mIe ng
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Nguyn Hu Tr 45
Cau tao
Co guan v] gIac la cac te bao cam
nban v] cua cac cbat nam tren mat
luoI, vom mIeng, bau, cbung tap
bop laI tbanb nbung don v] goI la
nu v] gIac. NoI tap trung nbIeu
tren luoI la dau mut, xung guanb
rIa luoI va goc luoI. Mat duoI luoI
va kboang gIua mat tren luoI
kbong co cac tbe tbu cam v] gIac.
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Nguyn Hu Tr 46
Cau tao
Nu v] gIac do cac te bao bIeu mo
bIet boa tbanb, moI nu v] gIac cao
kboang S0 m, rong 40 m, day
tua tren mang day cua bIeu mo,
tren co mot bo goI la bo v] gIac,
moI bo co kboang 40-S0 te bao
xep sat nbau gom:
Te bao v] gIac
Te bao cbo ng do
Te bao day
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Nguyn Hu Tr 47
Cau tao
Cac num v] gIac co
bInb cu banb. MoI
num co tu 2-S te bao
v] gIac luong cuc
nam xen ke voI cac
te bao tru.
D dau pbIa tren moI
te bao v] gIac co cac
nbung mao con dau
duoI la soI tban kInb
cam gIac v] gIac. MoI
num co 2-S soI tban
kInb
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Nguyn Hu Tr 48
Cau tao
D 2/S pbIa truoc luoI,
day luoI (nbanb cua
day so V) va mot
nbanb mang nbI cua
day mat (day so VII)
pban bo den.
D 1/S pbIa sau luoI la
nbanb cua day luoI
bau (day so IX) pban
bo toI. Mot pban nbo
o vom bong la nbanb
day me tau (day so
X). Day so VII nban
cam gIac v] gIac.
9
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Nguyn Hu Tr 49
L mt khi co vn, duc Ip bi mt Ip nim mac
dc bit, c cu trc khc nhau ty vng Iui.
Gip diu chinh thc n vo rng khi nhai
Trn Iui c cc Ioai gai Iui
Lui
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 50
Gai Iui
Gai chn (Circumvallate
papilla) cha khong 100
nu vj gic
Gai nm (Fungiform
papilla) cha khong 5
nu vj gic
Gai chi (Filiform papillae)
chc nng xc gic
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Nguyn Hu Tr 51
N v[ gic
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Nguyn Hu Tr 52
Cam gIac v] gIac
4 v] cbInb gay nen cam gIac v]
gIac la man, ngot, cbua, va
dang.
Cac v] kbac cbI la su ket bop
cua 4 v] co ban noI tren.
Cam gIac v] gIac noI cbung la
don gIan. Tuy nbIen kbI an
uong, cam gIac v] gIac tbuong
duoc tang cuong nbo su tbam
gIa cua cac gIac guan kbac nbu
tb] gIac, kbuu gIac...
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 53
Co guan tbInb gIac va tbang bang
2 other names??
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 54
TaI (bo tIen dInb-oc taI)
Co guan tbInb gIac va tbang bang nam
trong boc xuong tbaI duong goI la bo tIe n
dInb-oc taI (vestIbulococblear apparatus)
Co guan nay cau tao gom S pban:
TaI ngoaI: tIep nban song am
TaI gIua: da n truyen song am tu kbong
kbI den xuong va tu xuong de n taI
trong
TaI trong: la noI cac rung dong duoc
cbuyen doI tba nb cac xung tba n kInb
dac bIeu tbeo day tban kInb tbInb gIac
ve be tban kInb trung uong.
10
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 55
Vestibular Portion
Cochlear Portion
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 56
TaI ngoaI
TaI ngoaI (external ear) gom loa taI bay
vanb taI (aurIcle, pInna) cau tao boI tam
mo sun dan boI kbong deu co da pbu
ngoaI. D duoI baI vanb taI va daI taI.
Vanb taI co tac du ng do n am tbanb.
Dng taI ngoaI (external audItory meatus)
co dang ong det, xuat pbat tu be n ngoaI
va de n xuong tbaI duong daI; gIoI ban
trong cua taI ngoaI la ma ng nbI.
BIeu mo ong taI ngoaI la bIeu mo det
tang sung boa.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 57
TaI ngoaI
D tang duoI nIem cua ong taI ngoaI co
cac nang long, tuye n ba va cac tuyen
ray taI (cerumIous gland).
Cac tuyen ray taI la tuyen ong xoan cbe
tIet ra cbat ray taI (cerumen, erawax),
mau vang nau, boI kbo cung, la bo n bop
cua mo va sap.
Long taI va ray taI co tac dung bao ve
ong taI ngoaI.
1/S ngoaI cua tbanb o ng taI duoc nang
do boI mo sun dan boI, con doan trong
duoc nang do boI xuong tbaI duong.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 58
TaI gIua
TaI gIua (mIddle ear, tympanIc cavIty) la mot
kboang kbong deu, nam ben trong xuong tbaI
duong o doan gIua mang nbI va mat trong xuong
tbaI duong o doan gIua mang nbI va mat xuong
cua taI trong.
TaI gIua gom xoang nbI, voI eustacbe va nang
cbum
TaI gIua co pbIa truoc tbong voI bau gua voI nbI
(audItory tube) bay voI eustacb (eustacbIan tube),
pbIa sau tbong voI cac xoang cbua kbI nam trong
mom cbum xuong tbaI duong.
TaI gIua co bIeu mo det don, ben duoI co lop dem
mong gan cbat vao mang xuong.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 59
TaI gIua: xoang nbI
Co tbe tIcb kboang 1 cm
S
, xoang nbI tbong
voI voI eustacb
Mang nbI duoc noI vao cua so bau duc boI
mot cbuoI ba xuong taI (audItory ossIcle)
nbo la xuong bua (malleus), xuong de (Incus)
va xuong ban dap (stape) co vaI tro truyen
cac rung dong co boc tu mang nbI de n taI
trong.
Ben trong taI gIua co baI co nbo gan vao
xuong bua va xuong ba n dap, co cbuc nang
dIeu cbInb su dan truye n am tbanb.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 60
Ba xuong taI
xuong ban dap
xuong bua
xuong de
Xuong bua gan vao mang nhi va xuong ban
dap gan vao cua so bau duc. Cac xuong tai
duoc noi vao nhau boi cac khop hoat d|ch.
11
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 61
TaI gIua: VoI eustacbe
DaI kboang Scm, rong 2mm, noI xoang nbI voI
xoang mIeng
BInb tbuong doan pbIa mIeng xep xuong, dong
kIn, kbI nuot no duoc mo ra, lam kbong kbI lot
den xoang nbI, dIe do lam cbo ap suat trong
xoang nbI can bang voI ap suat kbong kbI
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 62
TaI trong
TaI trong (Internal ear) bay
con goI la me dao (labyrIntb)
cau tao gom baI me dao.
Me dao xuong (bony labyrIntb)
bao gom mot cbuoI cac te bao
(xoang).
Trong pban da xuong tbaI
duong co cbua me dao mang
(membranous labyrIntb) ben
trong.
TaI trong cbIa lam ba bo
pban: cac vong ban kbuyen,
tIen dInb va oc taI. Dc taI la
co guan cam gIac tbInb gIac,
tIen dInb va cac vong ban
kbuyen bop laI tbanb bo may
tIen dInb.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 63
Me dao xuong
Me dao xuong la cac boc trong tbaI
duong. Gom S pban cbInb la vo ng ban
kbuye n, tIe n dInb, oc taI
ay la mot kboang trung tam kbong deu,
goI la tIen dInb (vestIbule) taI, cbua tuI
bau duc va tuI nbo.
PbIa sau tIen dInb taI co S kenb ban
kbuyen (semIcIrcular canal) vay guanb cac
ong ban kbuyen,
PbIa truoc ngoaI oc taI co cac ong oc taI
(cocbelear duct)
Me dao tbo ng voI taI gIua tbong gua
cua so tron va cua so bau duc
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 64
Pbuc bop tIen dInb
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 65
Me dao mang
Me dao mang bao gom mot cbuoI cac boc tbong
nbau co lot boI bIeu mo xuat nguon tu ngoaI bI.
HaI vung dac bIet cua me dao mang la tuI bau
duc (utrIcle) va tuI nbo (saccule).
Cac ong ban kbuyen (semIcIrcular duct) co xuat
nguon tu tuI bau duc, con oc taI (cocblea) co
xuat nguon tu tuI nbo.
D cac vung ke tren, bIeu mo bIet boa tao ra cac
cau truc cam gIac la: vet tbInb gIac (maculae) o
tuI bau duc va tuI nbo, mao tbInb gIac (crIstae)
o ong ban kbuyen, va co guan CortI (organ oI
cortI) o ong ong taI
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 66
Dc taI
Dc taI co cbIe u daI kboang S5mm,
guan baI vong ruoI guanb mot mo
xuong goI la tru oc taI (modIolus).
Tru oc taI co cac boc cbua ma cb
mau, tban va cac soI nbanb cua cac
neuron nbanb tbInb gIa c cua day
tban kInb so VIII.
HaI ben tru oc taI nbo ra cac go
xuong manb goI la cac la xoan
(osseous spIral lamIna). Cac la xoan
dI gua oc taI den vung day nbIeu bon
vung dInb.
Me dao xuong cbua ngoaI d]cb
(perIlympb) co tbanb pban Ion gIong
cbat gIan bao o cac co guan kbac, me
dao mang cbua noI d]cb (endolympb)
co dac dIem la It Na+ va nbIeu K+, It
proteIn.
12
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 67
Kbe tbang
Dng tIen dInb
Dng taI gIu a
Cu so tron
Dc taI co cbua co
guan CortI
Cua so bau duc
Dc taI kbong cuon
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 68
Co guan
CortI
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 69
Cam gIac tbInb gIac
Dc taI co cac tbu guan am tbanb, cac te bao
nay bop voI mot mang mong bop tbanb co
guan CortI voI tong so bon 20 000 te bao.
SoI truc cua cac te bao tbu cam am tbanb
tap bop tbanb nbanb oc taI cua day so VIII.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 70
Con duong tbInb gIac
ToI baI cu sau cua cu nao
sInb tu o nao gIua
ToI doI nao
ToI vo tbInb gIac
Nbanb oc taI cua da y so VIII
Mot nhanh toi nhan
oc tai o hanh tuy,
mot nhanh nha n cam
giac o tien dnh
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 71
Su truyen song am
Cac xuong bua ap sat mang nbI, con
xuong ban dap tbI ap sat vao mang cua
so bau duc. Mang nbI rong kboang 72
mm
2
, mang cua so bau duc S,2 mm
2
. TI
le nay la 1/22 lam cbo song am duoc
tang cuong le n 22 lan o cua so bau duc.
VI vay, voI mot dao do ng nbe , cung lam
mang bau duc rung do ng. Cac song ap
luc nban duoc o cua so bau duc duoc
truyen toI ngoaI d]cb taI lam cbo mang
tIen dInb va noI d]cb trong oc taI lan
luot dao dong.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 72
Su truyen song am
Cam gIac ngbe pbuc tbuoc cbu yeu
vao mang nen, mang nay se kIcb
tbIcb cac te bao tbu cam co long
cua co guan CortI, va cac te bao co
long nay kbuecb daI tbanb nbung
xung tban kInb, xung nay tbeo day
tban kInb tbInb gIac len vung vo
nao tInb gIac o nao.
13
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 73
GIoI ban tbu nban am tbanb
on v] do tbInb luc la DecIbel. GIoI ban
tbInb luc cua nguoI kboang 10-120 Db,
gua gIoI ban 120Db se gay cam gIac dau
o taI va co tbe gay ton baI co guan
tbInb gIac.
NguoI bInb tbuo ng co kba nang tbu
nba n am tbanb co tan so tu 20-20 000
Hz, gIoI ba n tbu nba n gIam dan tbeo
tuoI, nguoI cang lon tuoI cang kbo ngbe
duoc am tbanb cao.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 74
o nbay cua tbInb gIac
Mot so dong vat co kba nang dac bIet ngbe
duoc ca sIeu am (tan so bon 20 000 Hz) nbu
cbo, meo, doI...nguoc laI, mot so loaI ngbe
duoc am rat tbap, duoI 20Hz nbu cuu.
TaI nguoI co tbe ngbe tot cac am co tan so
tu 1000 -4000Hz, nguong de pban bIet cac
am la 5Hz. Kboang cacb baI am co tbe pban
bIet duoc la 0,01 gIay.
Cac te bao tbu cam am tbanb co kba nang
tbIcb ngbI nbanb, am cang cao va cang
manb, su tbIcb ngbI cang nbanb. ay la mot
co cbe tu ve
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 75
Cam gIac tbang bang
KbI co tbe va n dong tbay doI v] trI trong
kbong gIan boac tbay doI tu tbe , bo may
tIen dInb (gom pban tIen dInb va cac
vong ban kbuye n cua taI trong) se xuat
bIe n cam gIac tba ng bang de bInb tbanb
nbu ng pban xa van do ng pboI bo p nbam
duy trI su tbang ba ng cua co tbe.
TIeu nao la trung kbu tban kInb cao cap
dIeu boa cbuc na ng tbang bang. Tuy
nbIe n vu ng vo nao cung tbam gIa vao
cbuc nang nay.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 76
Tb] gIac:
Cau mat + Cac cau truc pbu
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 77
Mat
Mat (eye) la mot co guan tIep nba n tb] gIac
co cau tao pbuc bop va pbat trIe n cao cbo
pbep pban tIcb cbInb xac dang, cuong do
va mau sac cua anb sa ng pba n boI tu cac
vat tbe.
Mat duoc bao ve boI cac xuong cua xuong
so, tao ne n boc mat (orbIt).
Mat gom cau mat (eyeball), tban kInb tb]
gIac va cac bo pban bo tro xung guanb tb]
gIac.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 78
Cau tao cua mat
Cau mat (eyebaII) Ia cau tao chnh cua mat,
nam Iot trong xuong o mat. Cau mat gom
nhung cau tao sau:
Mang soi (fibrous tunic)
Mang mach (vascuIar tunic)
Mang Iuoi hay vong mac (retina)
14
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 79
Mang soI
Mang soI la lop ngoaI cung de
bao ve cau mat. Mang soI gom:
Mang cung (sclera) bao boc xung
guanb va pbIa sau cau mat, cbIem
4/5 dIe n tIcb cau mat.
GIac mac (cornea) pbIa truoc la mot
mang trong suot cbIe m 1/5 dIe n
tIcb cau mat.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 80
Mang macb
Nam sat voI ma ng soI, ma ng macb
cbInb tbuc mem va co mang luoI macb
mau day dac xen ke boI mot so te bao
sac to.
Tbe mI (cIlIary body) la pban day le n
cua mang macb nam o ranb gIoI gIua
mang cung va gIac mac. Tbe mI gom
kboang 70 mau loI mI, trong co macb
mau. Tbe mI co cbuc nang tIet tbuy
d]cb (agueous bumor).
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 81
Tbe mI

A
P
1. Cac nbanb mI
Bao pbu boI bIeu mo
TIet ra tbuy d]cb
2. Co tbe mI
Lam cang mang macb
Lam gIan tbuy tInb tbe
S. Day treo tbuy tInb tbe
A= kboang pbIa truoc
P= kboang pbIa sau
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 82
Mang macb: Mng mt
(trong den - IrIs)
La pban truoc cua mang macb bInb dIa tron,
o cbInb gIua co lo tbung goI la dong tu (con
nguoI -pupIl ). Mng mt cau tao boI mo dem
lIen ket, cbua nbIeu sac to.
BInb tbuong duong kInb dng t vao kboang
2-5mm. Su co gIan tbu bep laI bay mo rong ra
co tac dung dIeu cbInb luong anb sang lot vao
ben trong.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 83
Cac co trong cua mong mat
Mng mt co baI loaI co tron la co co dng t
(spbIncter pupIllae muscle) o xung guanb con
nguoI va co gIan dng t (dIlator pupIllae
muscle) toa bInb tIa.
Day tban kInb pbo gIao cam lam co, day gIao
cam lam gIan dong tu
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 84
Vong mac
Vong mac (retIna) nam pbIa trong
cung, tIep xuc voI tbuy tInb d]cb,
cbua sac to, cac lop tIep tbeo co cac
te bao tbu cam anb sang la te bao
gay (rod cell) va te bao non (cone
cell).
15
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 85
Vong mac
C mat nguoi, co khoang 110-125 trieu te bao gay va 6-
T trieu te bao non.
Te bao non Ia cac te bao cam nhan mau sac, tiep nhan
nhung tia sang chieu thang, co cuong do Ion;
Te bao gay rat nhay voi anh sang co cuong do yeu,
tiep nhan cac tia sang chieu nghieng, co cuong do be
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 86
Vong mac
Noi chung, dong vat an dem co so Iuong te bao gay
Ion, dong vat an ngay co so Iuong te bao non tang Ien.
Cang xa diem vang ve hai pha cua vong mac, so te bao
gay cang tang va so te bao non cang giam.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 87
Tban kInb tb] gIac
Duoi Iop te bao cam quang Ia
cac te bao than kinh gom cac
Ioai: te bao hach, Iuong cuc,
nam ngang. Soi truc cua cac
te bao nay tap hop thanh day
than kinh thi giac (day so II).
Tai diem day than kinh so II
va d|ch the thoat ra khoi cau
mat duoc goi Ia diem mu. Tai
diem mu khong co cac te bao
cam quang phan bo.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 88
Ho Irung Iom
|em vong
|em mu
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 89
Tbuy tInb tbe
Tbuy tInb tbe (lens) trong gIong nbu
mot tbau kInb loI, co duong kInb
9mm, dIem loI cbInb gIua tuong ung
voI dong tu, truc noI baI dIe m loI
kboang 4mm. KbI nbIn xa, mat loI
det bot laI; kbI nbIn gan mat loI
pbo ng len.
Tbuy tInb tbe trong suot, co kba
nang kbuc xa a nb sa ng.
Tbuy tInb tbe duoc co d]nb nbo day
cbang tu tbe mI.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 90
Tbuy tInb d]cb
Tbuy tInb d]cb gIong nbu cbat
tbacb, la kboI lon cboang pban
rong cau mat, tIep xuc voI vong
mac.
Toan bo duoc boc trong mang
mong trong suot la mang tbuy
tInb.
Tbuy tInb d]cb trong suot co kba
nang kbuc xa anb sang.
16
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 91
Neu ke mot duong thang goc voi thuy tinh the di qua
con nguoi vao vong mac th diem cat vong mac chnh Ia
diem vang (macuIa) va do Ia truc quang hoc cua mat.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 92
Tbuy d]cb
Tbuy d]cb do macb mau trong
mong mat va tbe mI tIet ra,
cbua trong cac kboang o truoc
mat, gIua gIac mac, long den va
tbuy tInb tbe.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 93
Cau tao bo tro
Cac cau truc bo tro mat gom co:
MI mat
Tuyen le va duong dan
Cac co van dong cau mat
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 94
Tban kInb van dong mat
Ieu kbIen van dong cbung cua
mat gom ba day tban kInb:
Day so III: va n dong co cbeo
Day so IV: va n do ng co tbang
Day so VI: va n do ng cbung cua mat
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 95
He tbong guang boc cua mat
Su kbuc xa anb sang: cac tIa sang cbIeu vao
mat truoc kbI den vong mac pbaI vuot gua cac
cau tao cua mat co kba nang kbuc xa:
GIac mac va tbuy d]cb
Tbuy tInb tbe
Tbuy tInb d]cb
Su kbuc xa nay lam cbo anb sang tap trung vao
dIem vang o day mat va do do tbu nbo bInb
anb cua vat tbe, lam cbo bInb anb ro bon.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 96
Cac anb cua moI vat tbe deu la
anb nguoc o day mat
17
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 97
Tr] so kbuc xa
uong dI cua tIa sang pbu tbuoc vao cbI
so kbuc xa cung nbu do cong cua gIac
mac va tbuy tInb tbe .
Tr] so kbuc xa duoc do bang don v]
DIoptrI (D). Mot dIoptrI la tr] so kbuc xa
cua mot tbau kInb co tIeu cu la 100cm.
HaI gIa tr] nay co tuong guan tI le ngb]cb:
tr] so kbuc xa tang tbI tIeu cu gIam va
nguoc laI.
TIeu cu mat cua nguoI la 15mm va tr] so
kbuc xa tuong duong la 59D kbI nbIn xa
va 70,5D kbI nbIn ga n.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 98
Su dIeu cbInb tam nbIn
Su dIeu cbInb tIeu cu cua mat co tbe tbuc bIen
tbeo cacb nbu sau:
Tu tuoI 50 tro dI, can dIem tIen toI vIen dIem, ca
can dIem va vIen dIem deu xa dan, do vay, xuat
bIen cbung vIen tb] tuoI gIa
Mot so dong vat nbu tban mem, mot so ca, luong cu, ran
dIeu cbInb bang cacb tu day tbu y tInb tbe ra pbIa truoc
lam tang kboang cacb gIua tbu y tInb tbe va vong mac.
Mot so loaI bo sat va tbu dIeu cbInb bang cacb tang do
cong cua tbu y tInb tbe de ta ng do kbuc xa cua mat.
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 99
Su dIeu tIet
Mat bnh thuong
(Emmetropia)
Cau tao bnh thuong
cua mat cho phep nhn
ro cac vat cach xa tu
65m tro Ien voi anh
hien ro tren vong mac
va khong can su dieu
chnh nao.
Anh se tap trung tren
be mat vong mac
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 100
Su dIeu tIet
Kboang cacb S5m vI vay goI la vIen dIem cua mat.
KbI vat cang tIen laI gan, mat buoc pbaI tu dIeu
cbInb bang cacb tang do cong cua tbuy tInb tbe
de gIam tIeu cu cbo den kboang cacb gan nbat ma
tbuy tInb tbe kbong tbe dIeu cbInb duoc nua goI
la can dIem
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 101
Tat can tb] (MyopIa)
Benb can tb] do tbuy tInb tbe
gua cong boac do cau mat gua
dep tren-duoI lam duong kInb
mat gua daI, bInb anb bIen
truoc vong mac.
NguoI can tb] vI vay pbaI
mang kInb pban kI (baI mat
lom).
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 102
Can tb]
NguoI can luc tre ve gIa co tbe
bo kInb do cbung vIen tuoI gIa
trung boa pban nao benb can
tb].
Benb can tb] tbuong dI truyen,
cung co truong bop tang o tuoI
tbIeu nIen
18
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 103
IoI v|en Ih| (Hyperopia)
Benb vIe n tb] do tbuy tInb
tbe kbong co kba na ng cong
det tot va nbat la do cau tao
cua cau mat dep truoc -sau
lam duong kInb mat gua
ngan, bInb anb bIen sau
vong mac.
NguoI vIen tb] vI vay pbaI
mang kInb boI tu (baI mat
loI).
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 104
Loan tb] (AstIgmatIsm)
NgoaI tat can tb], vIen tb],
con co tbe gap benb loan
tb] trong do bInb anb cua
vat tbe b] meo mo kbong
ro.
Nguyen nban la do be
tbong guang boc co cau tao
kbong dong nbat, do cong
cua tbuy tInb tbe kbong
deu lam cbo anb sang kbuc
xa tbeo nbIeu buong, kbong
guy tu de tao anb..
04/01/2010 12:31 SA
Nguyn Hu Tr 105
Cac gua trInb guang boa
guang boa la cac gua trInb bIen doI sac to cam
guan RbodopsIn o te bao gay va IodopsIn o te
bao non.
RbodopsIn do sac to retInen ket bop voI opsIn.
RbodopsIn duoc tong bop trong toI su tong bop
can co vItamIn A.
KbI cbIeu sang se xay ra gua trInb nguoc laI la
retInen tacb kboI opsIn, retInen sau do cbuyen
tbanb vItamIn A.
MoI lan cbIeu sang, cbI co mot so It rbodopsIn
cua te bao gay b] pban buy cbu kbong pbaI tat
ca. RbodopsIn bap tbu manb cac tIa sang mau
luc (buoc song 5S5 nm).
IodopsIn cung tuong tu RbodopsIn, IodopsIn
bap tbu manb cac tIa sang mau vang (buoc
song 5S0 nm).