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_________________________________________ CHAPTER 1

Vector Analysis
and Electromagnetic Fields
in Free Space
The introduction of vector analysis as an important branch of mathematics dates back
to the midnineteenth century. Since then, it has developed into an essential tool for
the physical scientist and engineer. The object of the treatment of vector analysis as
given in the first two chapters is to serve the needs of the remainder of this book. In
this chapter, attention is confined to the scalar and vector products as well as to certain
integrals involving vectors. This provides a groundwork for the Lorentz force effects
defining the electric and magnetic fields and for the Maxwell integral relationships
among these fields and their chargc and current sources. The coordinate systems em-
ployed are confined to the common rectangular, circular cylindrical, and spherical
systems. To unifY their treatment, the generalized coordinate system is used. This time-
saving approach permits developing the general rules for vcctor manipulations, to
enable writing the desired vector operation in a given coordinate system by inspection.
This avoids the rederivation of the desired operation for each new coordinate system
employed.
Next arc postulated the Maxwell integral relations for the electric and magnetic
fields produced by charge and current sources in free space. Applying the vector rules
developed earlier, their solutions corresponding to simple classes of symmetric static
charge and current distributions are considered. The chapter concludes with a discus-
sion of transformations among the three common coordinate systems.
11 SCALAR AND VECTOR FIELDS
A field is taken to mean a mathematical function of space and time. Fields can be
classified as scalar or vector fields. A scalar field is a function having, at each instant in
1
lJ i' 2 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
F
time, an assignable magnitude at every point of a region in space. Thus, the tem-
perature field t) inside the block of material of Figure 1-1 (a) is a scalar field.
To each point there exists a corresponding temperature T(x,]!, z, t) at any
instant t in time. The velocity of a fluid moving inside the pipe shown in Figure 1-1 (b)
illustrates a vector field. A variable direction, as well as magnitude, of the fluid velocity
occurs in the pipe where the cross-sectional area is changing. Other examples of scalar
fields are mass, density, pressure, and gravitational potential. A force field, a velocity
field, and an acceleration field are examples of vector fields.
The mathematical symbol for a scalar quantity is taken to be any letter: for
example, A, T, Il, f. The symbol for a vector quantity is any letter set in boldface
roman type, ff)!' A, H, a, g. Vector quantities are represented graphically by
6
(x)
Heat source
(a)
FIGURE 1-1. Examples of
material. (b) Fluid velocity field ill,ide
(z)
6
200
Temperature field
at x = 4 em
fidd inside a block of
m-
Id.
ny
(b)
ity
lar
ity
for
lce
by
I
3--

----...

Unit

B=C
vector a
y
FIGURE 1-2. Graphic representations of a vector, equal vectors,
a uni t vector, and the representation of magnitude or length of a
vector.
means of arrows, or directed line segments, as shown in Figure 1-2. The magnitude or
length of a vector A is written \A\ or simply A, a positive real scalar. The negative of a
vector is tbat vector taken in an opposing direction, with its arrowhead on the opposite
end. A unit vector is any vector having a magnitude of unity. The symbol a is used to
denote a unit vector, with a subscript employed to specify a special direction. For
example, ax means a unit vector having the positive-x direction. Two vectors are said
to be equal if they have the same direction and the same magnitude. (They need not
be collinear, but only parallel to each other.)
12 VECTOR SUMS
The vector sum of A and B is defined in relation to the graphic sketch of the vectors,
as in Figure 1-3. A physical illustration of the vector sum occurs in combining dis-
placements in space. Thus, if a particle were displaced consecutively by the vector
distance A and then by B, its final position would be denoted by the vector sum
A + B = C shown in Figure 1-3 (a). Reversing the order of these displacements pro-
vides the same vector sum C, so that
A+B=B+A ( 1-1)
the commutative law of the addition of vectors. If several vectors are to be added, an
associative law
(A + B) + D = A + (B + D)
follows I'om the definition of vector sum and from Figure 1-3(b).
B
(a)
I
I
I
I
:A + B = C
I
I
I
I
(b)
FIGURE 1-3. (a) The graphic definition of the sum of two vectors. (b) The associa-
(1-2)
13 PRODUCT OF A VECTOR AND A SCALAR
If a scalar
same direction
The f()lIowing laws hold
u and if B denotes a vector quantity, their produc
a magnitude u times the magnitude of B, and having tht
a positive scalar, or the opposite direction if u is negative
IiII' the products of vectors and scalars.
uB Bu Commutative law ( 1-3)
(uv)A Associative law ( 1-4)
(u o)A = uA + vA Distributive law (1-5)
u(A +B) uA + uB Distributive law ( 1-6)
14 COORDINATE SYSTEMS
The solution of physical problems often requires that the framework of a coordinate
system be introduced, particularly if explicit solutions are being sought. The system
most familiar to engineers and scientists is the cartesian, or rectangular coordinate sys-
tem, although two other ii'ames of reference often used are the circular cylindrical and the
spherical coordinate systems, The symbols employed for the independent coordinate
variables of these orthogonal systems are listed as follows.
1. Rectangular coordinates: (x,y, z)
2. Circular cylindrical coordinates: (p, cj>, z)
3. Spherical coordinates: (r, 8, cj
In Figure 1-4(a), the point P in space, relative to the origin 0, is depicted in
terms of the coordinate variables of the three common orthogonal coordinate systems:
as P(x,y, z) in the rectangular system, as P(p, cj>, z) in the circular cylindrical (or just
"cylindrical") system, and as P(r, 8, cj in the spherical coordinate system. In the
cylindrical and spherical systems, it is seen that the rectangular coordinate axes,
labeled (x), and ,are retained to establish proper angular references. You
should observr that. the coordinate variable cj> (the azimuth angle) is common to both
(x)
: (zi
I
I
P(x, y, z)
z
--
y
Rectangular
FIGURE 1-4. Notational convcnlions
(a) Location of a point P in space, (Ii) The
Circular cylindrical
(a)
Spherical
in the three nnnmoll coordinate systems.
p"im P Ie) The resolution
of a vector A into its orthogonal COmpOllt'nts.
-
, ,
s
("l) ("l) , S '"" i:
(.n

(x) --
x=Constant
(z)
z = Constant
--(y)
z= Constant (plane)
(x)
p=Constant
(circular cylinder)
(b)
(z)
0
d> = Constant
(plane)
(y)
r= Constant
(sphere)
I
I
I
I
,
:(z) :(z) :(z)
I I '
: i
r::::"- ... A ... "",,-- I I ,,/ .. " I , --"" a A I
, __ _. P " ' , n! I 4' ' q, <I> I
t I ' I A f - r; I :::,-_...... I
, I' ' a I ,," I
ayAy i : / q,A<I>1 A " ::'>w' O/,

aeAo' "-t':
z _-'-_ p p z :
_- ----- 0 ----_ Jy) _- - --- -
(x) _--- - _---- <I> - _---- : <1>/
_- y x (x) p (x) r--'
Rectangular
FIGURE 1-4 (continued)
Circular cylindrical
(c)
Spherical
-

(z)
(y)
M- "'''I 0..
:;:."'" .:
("l) :::r- (")
("l) ...
d> = Constant
. (plane)
,
\
.-,1
(yl
...
c:

?:
I:
:2
:>-
...
to'
u

u

to'
::
"

the cylindrical and tbe spherical systems, with the x-axis taken as the </> = 0 reference,
</> generated in the positive sense from (x) toward (y). (By the "right-hand rule,"
if the thum b of the right hand points in the positive z-dircction, the fingers will indicate
the sense.) The radial distance in the cylindrical system is p, measured
perpendicularly from the to the desired point P; in the spherical system, the
radial distance is 1, measured from the origin 0 to the point P, with denoting the
desired declination angle measured positively from the reference z-axis to 1, as shown
1-4( a). The th ree coordinate systems shown are so-called "right-handed"
properly definable after first discussing the unit vectors at P.
A. Unit Vectors and Coordinate Surfaces
To enable expressing any vector A at the point P in a desired eoordinate system,
three orthogonal unit vectors, denoted by a and suitably subscripted, are defined at
P in the positive-increasing sense of each of the coordinate variables of that system.
Thus, as noted in Figure 1-4(b), ax, a
y
, a
z
are the mutually perpendicular unit vectors
of the rectangular coordinate system, shown at P(x,y, z) as dimensionless arrows of unit
length originating at P and directed in the positive X,], and;;; senses respectively. Note
that the disposition of these unit vectors at the point P corresponds to a right-handed
coordinate system, so-called because a rotation from the unit vector ax through thc
smaller angle toward a
y
and denoted by the fingers of the right hand, corresponds to
the thumb pointing in the direction of a
z
. Similarly, in the cylindrical coordinate
system of that figure, the unit vectors at P(p, </>, z) are a
p
' aq,' a
z
as shown, pointing
in the positive p, </>, and;;; senses; at P(r, 0, <j in the spherical system, the unit vectors
an ao, aq, are shown in the positive directions of the corresponding coordinates there.
These are also right-handed coordinate systems, since on rotating the fingers of the
right hand from the first-mentioned unit vector to the second, the thumb points in the
direction of the last unit vector of each triplet.
Notice from Figure 1-4(b) that the only constant unit vectors in these coordinate
systems are ax, a
y
, and a
z
. The unit vectors a
p
and aq, in the circular cylindrical system,
II)r example, will change (in direction, not magnitude) as the angle </> rotates P to a new
location. Thus, in certain differentiation or integration processes involving unit vectors,
most unit vectors should not be treated as constants (see Example I-I in Section 1-6).
I n Figure I , it is instructive to notice how the point P, in any of the co-
ordinale systems, can be looked on as the intersection of three coordinate suifaces. A
coordinate surf;tcC necessarily planar) is defmed as that surface formed by simply
Ihe desired coordinate variable equal to a constant. Thus, the point P(x,], z)
in the is the intersection of the three coordinate surfaces x = constant, y =
constallt, constant (in this case planes), thosc constants depending on the desired
location fe)r P. two such coordinate surfaces intersect orthogonally to define a
line;whiIe the perpt'IHlicular intersection of the line with the third surface pinpoints P.)
The unit vectors at z) are thus perpendicular to their corresponding coordinate
surfaces .g., ax is perpendicular to the surface x = constant). Because the coordinate
surfaces are mutually perpendicular, so are the unit vectors.
Similar observations at in the cylindrical coordinate system are appli-
cable. P is the intersection or the three orthogonal coordinate surfaces p = constant
(a right circular cylindrical </> constant (a semi-infinite plane), and ,(;
constant (a plane), to each of which thee corresponding unit vectors are perpendicular,
thus making a
p
' aq" a
z
welL comments apply to the unit
vectors an ao, aq, at P(r,O, coordinate system of Figure 1-4(b),
lce,
le, "
;ate
red
the
the
'wn

at
:m.
ors
nit
ote
ded
the
to
ate
ng
Drs
reo
he
.he
He
m,
ew
,rs,
5).
:0-
A
)Iy
z)
==
ed
a

lte
Ite
li-
nt
If,
lit
I) ,
wherein the coordinate suriltces defining the intersection P in this instance become
r = constant (a spherical surface), () = constant (a conical j and 4> = constant
(a semi-infinite plane).
B. Representations in Terms of
Vector Components
A use[ill application of the product of a vector and a scalar as described in
Section 1-3 occurs in the representation, at any poin t P in space, of the vector A in
terms of its coordinalf components. In the rectangular system of Figure 1-4(c) is shown
the typical vector A at the point P(x,y, z) in space. The perpendicular projections of
A along the unit vectors ax, a
y
and a
z
yield the three vector components of A in rec-
tangular coordinates, seen from the geometry to be the vectors axAx, ayAy, and azA
z
in that figure. Their vector sum, axAx + ayAy + azA
z
= A, thus provides the desired
representatioIl of A in the rectangular coordinate system. Similar manipulations into
circular cylindrical and spherical coordinate components yield the other two corre-
sponding diagrams depicted in Figure 1-4(c), whence the representations of A in terms
of its components: 1
A = axAx + ayAy + azA
z
Rectangular
A = apAp + a.pA.p + azA
z
Circular cylindrical
A = arAr + aoAo + a.pA.p Spherical (1-7)
Because of the mutual perpendicularity of the components of any of these representa-
tions, it is clear that the geometrical figure denoted by each dashed-line representation
of Figure is a parallelepiped (or box), with A appearing as a principal diagonal
within each. The magnitude (or length) of each A in (1 thus becomes
A = + A; + A;) 1/2 Rectangular
A = [A; + + A; 11/2 Circular cylindrical
A = [A; + + Spherical
C. Representation in Terms of Generalized
Orthogonal Coordinates
(1-8)
Noting the several similarities in the charaeterizations of the unit vectors and the
vector A in the three common coordinate systems just described, and to permit unifying
and shortening many discussions later on relative to scalar and vector fields, the system
or generalized orthogonal coordinates is introduced. In this system, u
I
, u
2
, U3 denote the
generalized coordinate variables, as suggested by Figure i-5(a). The generalized ap-
proach to developing properties of fields in terms of (UI' 112, 113) has the advantage of
making it unnecessary to rederive certain desired expressions each time a new coordi-
nate system is encountered.
Just as I(x the three common coordinate systems already described relative to
Fignre 1-4, the point P(uj, 112) 113) in generalized coordinates, as seen in Fignre 1-5(a),
lThus, the components of A in the rectangular coordinate system are the vectors axA" ayAy, and azA
z
'
Another usage is to rekr to only the scalar multipliers (lengths) AX' and A
z
as the components of A,
althongh these are more properly the of A onto the unit vectors.
8 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
Increasing u 1
I
I (z)
,
y== x=
Constant Constant
a
z
Rectangular
(b)
/llncreaSing u:l
I
I
Generalized orthogonal coordinates
(a)
Circular cylindrical
(e)
Increasing 112
Spherical
(d)
FIGURE 1-5. The coordinate surfaces defining the typical point P and the unit vectors at P.
is the intersection of three perpendicular coordinate surfaces, Ul = constant, U2 =
constant, U3 = constant. The intersections of pairs of such surfaces moreover define
coordinate lines. The unit vectors, denoted aI, a2, a3, are mutually perpendicular, tan-
gent to the coordinate lines, and intersect the coordinate surfaces perpendicularly. The
one-to-one correspondence of the:;e generalized coordinate variables Ill' U2, U
3
to their
coordinate surfaces, and the generalized unit vectors aI, a
2
, a3 to the equivalent vec-
tors of the three common coordinate systems, can be better appreciated on making a
direct visual comparison of the generalized sketch of Figure 1-5(a) with (b), (e), and (d)
of that figure.
If the vector A were
components alAI, and
expression for A would he
A
I ts magnitude is
The scalars AI, A2l and A
specialized to the three COllllllOII
and (1-8).
the point P(uI' U2, in Figure 1-5(a), with the
in the directions of the unit vectors shown, the
( 1-9)
construction for (1-9).
( 1-10)
'"''I'IJI''''"''''' lIf A. Kxarnples of these expressions
z=
fine
an-
fhe
1eir
lec-
19 a
(d)
the
the
[-9)
-9).
10)
Ions
1-7)
1-5 DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENTS OF SPACE 9
15 DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENTS OF SPACE
In the processes of integration in space to be considered shortly, the differential ele-
ments of volume, surface, and line are frequently needed. A differential element of
volume dv is generated in the vicinity of a point P(Ub U2, U3) in space by means of the
displacements dtb dt
2
, and dt3 on the coordinate surfaces, through the differential
changes dUll duz, and dU3 in the coordinate variables. This situation is represented
geometrical! y in Figure 1-6 (a). Thus, a volume-elemen t dv is represented in generalized
orthogonal coordinates by means of the product of the differential length-elements as
follows
(1-11 )
The relation or the length-elements to differential changes in the coordinate variables
Ul' U2' and U3 is provided by the relations
(x)
113 + clu3 = Constant
113 = Constant
Generalized (curvilinear) coordinates
(al
(z)
,
I
I
/
I _
(z)
Rectangular
(6)
(z)
--"':: -
(;j- -------
Spheric;,i
(<I)
FIGURE 1-6. The generation of a volume-element dv = dt
1
dt
2
dl'} at
orthogonal coordinate systems.
( 1-12)
I
10 VECTOR ANALVSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
so that (I-II) is written

The coefllcients hi'
dt of (1-12) their
geometry of dv in each
! and h3 are called metric codfieients, needed to give the
dimension of length (meter). From a consideration of tht
of Figure 1-6(b), (e), and (d), it is evident that tht
and metric coefficients are applicable to the three commor: following
systems.
dx dt
z
= dy dt3 = dz
hi = h3 = I
Rectangular (1-14)
dp dt
z
= pdp dt3 = dz
hi p, h3 = I Circular cylindrical ( I IS)
= rdO dt3 = r sin Odp
hi I, h2 r, h3 = r sin 0 Spherical ( 1-16)
The substitution of these results into (1-13) therefore provides the volume-element dL
in each system as follows.
do dx
dv II
dv
Rectangular
Circular cylindrical
sin OdrdOdp Spherical (1-17)
S in space may be left in its scalar f(nm ds, although
for some purposes it a vector characterization, ds, if desired. Suppose
ds coincides with a cOIlrdillatt' surface Ul = constant, as shown in Figure I-7(a).
ds = at
FIGURE 1-7. Typical
as a vector element through
011 the coordina te
ds on the coordinate
I (z)
I
i r = Constant
(0)
Iht, characterization of ds
(a) A surface element ds
(b) A surface element
-13)
Lents
fthe
the
mon
-14)
-15)
-16)
it dv
-17)
ugh
[lose
'(a).
1-6 POSITION VECTOR 11
Expressed as a scalar element, ds = dt
2
dt3 = h2h3 du
z
dU3 for that example. An illustra-
tion in spherical coordinates is shown in Figure 1-7 (b); on the r = constant coordinate
surface, ds = r2 sin 0 dO d. A vector quality is given dol' through multiplying it with
either the positive or the negative of the unit vector normal to ds. Thus, in Figure 1-7 (b),
the vector surface-element ds = a
r
ds is illustrated; ds = a
r
ds is the other possible
choice on the coordinate surface r = constant exemplified. These concepts are partic-
ularly useful in the flux-integration techniques discussed in Section 1-9.
Differential line-elements are frequently of interest in applications to vector
integration. This subject is introduced in terms of the position vector r of spatial points
treated in the next section.
*16 POSITION VECTOR
2
In field theory, reference may be made to a point P(Ub Ul, U3) in space by use of the
position vector, denoted by the symbol r. The position vector of the point P in Figure
1-4, for example, is the vector r drawn from the origin 0 to the point P. Thus in
rectangular coordinates, r is written
(1-18)
and in circular cylindrical coordinates
( 1-19)
while in spherical coordinates
r = arr ( 1-20)
A further application of the position vector r occurs in the symbolic designation
of points in space. Instead of using the symbol P(Ul' U
z
, U3) or P(x,y, z), you may
employ the abbreviated notation P(r). By the same token, a scalar fielel F(ub U2, U
3
, t)
can be more compactly represented by the equivalent symbol F(r, I), if desired.
The differential element of length separating the points P(r) and P(r + dr) in
space is denoted by the vector differential displacement dr. The differential change
dr does not in general occur in the same direction as the position vector r; this is
exemplified in Figure 1-8 (a). (The vector symbol de is sometimes used interchangeably
with dr, particularly in line-integration applications.) The difierential displacement
dr (or de) is written in terms of its generalized orthogonal components as follows.
dr == de = al dt
l
+ a
2
dt
2
+ a3dt3
alh
l
dU
l
+ a2h2 dU2 + a3h3 dU
3
(1-21 )
(1-22)
It is illustrated graphically in Figure I-8(b) by means of the usual rectangular paral-
lelepiped construction for a vector in terms of its components. Furthermore, the
magnitude dt of the vector dt is given by the diagonal of the rectangular parallelepiped;
thus,
(1-23)
2Throughout the text, sections marked with an asterisk (*) may be omitted to conserve time if desired.
12 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
Pathf
\
,
(a)
o
(y)
(b)
FIGURE 1-8. The position vector r used in defining points of space and its differential dr. (aJ
The position vector r and a difrerenlial position change dr along an arbitrary path. (b) Showing
the components of dr in generalized orthogonal coordinates.
For example, in spherical coordinates hl = 1, h2 = r, and h3 r sin 8, so that (1-2:
and (1-23) are written
with
( 1-2.
The simplest expression for a differential vector displacement dt occurs in tl
rectangular coordinate system, for which, from (1-14), with hi = 112 = h3 = 1 and wi
at = ax, a2 = a
y
and a
3
= a
z
, the general form (1-22) becomes
(1-2
while its magnitude dt is written, from the generalized (1-23), as
dt ( 1-2
Similarly, in the circular coordinate system, the substitution of (1-1
into (1-22) and (I and with at a
p
' a2 = a4> and a
3
= a
z
, the vector displa,
ment dt and its magIlitude hecoltw
ell ( 1-:
2
d</J)2 + ( 1-:
The position vector r has usdi.ll applications in the dynamics of particles sud
electrons and ions, fiJI' A of Figure 1-8 reveals that if the vector t
placement dr of a particle occurs in the time interval dt, then the ratio dr/dt dell(
the vector velocity of the at Per). This particle velocity v is defined by
1-22)
1-24)
:1-25)
in the
1 with
(1-26)
( 1-27)
(1-15)
splace-
(1-28)
( 1-29)
such as
tor dis-
::lenotes
by the
1-6 POSITION VECTOR 13
derivative of the position vector r(t)
v
dr
dt
. r(t + lit) - r(t)
hm --'------:--'----'-
At-+O lit
( 1-30)
A second such derivative of r(t) provides the vector acceleration <L = dv/dt of the
particle.
Because the vector displacement dr of the particle is tangent to its path t as
shown in Figure 1-8, the velocity v = dr/dt will also be tangent at every point on t.
This property of tangency does not hold for acceleration, however, except in purely
straight-line motion. The velocity at the point P(r) can be expressed systematically in
terms of its generalized orthogonal coordinate velocity components by means of
( 1-31)
For example, in a rectangular coordinate system, the notations Vb 1}2, and V3 mean
tf", v
Y
' and V
z
respectively.
In all orthogonal coordinate systems except the rectangular system, some of or
all the unit vectors may change direction as their location P moves in space. A graphical
approach to obtaining the spatial derivatives of the unit vectors in an explicit coordi-
nate system is described in the following example.
EXAMPLE 11. Find the following partial derivatives of the unit vector a
r
: (a) Oar/Br;
(b) Bar/BO; (c) oa,/ocp.
(a) The partial derivative oar/Br equals zero, since the unit vector a
r
does not vary in
direction with r (nor does it vary in magnitnde, by the definition of a unit vector).
(b) The partial derivative oa,/oa can be found graphically from the accompanying
figure. If a
r
is allowed only the differential change dar in the a sense, then dar has
(a) (b)
EXAMPLE 1-1. (a) Differential dar generated by rotating a
r
8-wise. (b) Differential dar gen-
erated by rotating a
r
8-wise.
I
14 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
the direction of the unit vector aoo The length of dar is given precisely by the
dO, irom the dc1inition of angle divided by radius, and the radius is unit
make day become
whence the desired result is
dar] r constant = ae dB
\$ = constant
dar]
dO r constant
=constant
The partial derivative 8aJikp is found sim.ilarly from (b) of the figmeo All
only the changoe d4> in the position ofa
y
generates the diHcrential vector dan r
a direction specified by the unit vector a.p and a magnitude given by dq, sin (;
makes day (for r = constant, () = constant) become a,,> sin 8 dq, as shown, '"
By means of graphic techniques simila,o to those used in Example 1-1, 011
show for spherical coordinates that all the spatial partial derivatives of the unit v
in that system are zero except for
Ja,o [)
J = aq, 3m tJ
a
y
sin ()
while in the circular cylindrical system, all are zero except for
17 SCALAR AND VECTOR PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
Besides the simple product of a vector with a scalar quantity discussed in Secli(
two other kinds of products involving only vector quantities are now discussel
lirst of these, called the scalar product (or dot product), is defined as followso
A B == AB cos ()
in which () signifies the angle between the vectors A and B. Noting from (1-3
A B may be written either (A cos 8)B or A(B cos 0) makes it evident that th,
product A . B denotes the product of the scalar projection of either vector 0'
other, times the magnitude of the other vector. The definition of A . B makes th,
the angle
unity), to
. Allowing
Ian having
sin O. This
Il, whence
, one can
lit vectors
( 1-32)
( 1-33)
eclioll 1-3,
ussed. The
(1-34)
(1-34) that
t the scalar
)r onto the
s the scalar
1-7 SCALAR AND VECTOR PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 15
useful, tor example, in computing the work done by a constant force acting
a distance expressed as a vector. A generalization of this idea extended to the
expression for work is taken up in the next section.
Definition (1-34) permits the conclusion that if A and B are perpendicular, cos ()
zero, making their scalar product zero. Again, if A and B happen to lie in the same
then A B denotes the product of their lengths. These observations lead to
results involving the scalar products of the orthogonal unit vectors a
l
, a2, and
8
3
coordinate systems illustrated in Figure 1-5. For example, a
l
a2 a2 a3 =
8:\ a
l
= 0, while at at = a
z
. a2 = a3 a3 = l.
From the definition (1-34), and since B A means BA cos 0, the commutative
fhr the dot product follows.
AB=BA (1-35)
distributive law for the dot product of the sum of two vectors with a third vector
A . (B + C) = A . B + A . C ( 1-36)
also be proved.
IXAMPLE 12. Vector analysis can be used to shorten a number of of g-eometry. Sup-
pose one is to show that the diagonals of a rhombus arc perpendicular. Represent its
sides and diagonals by means of the veetors shown in the diagram. The diagonals are
A + B C and A B D. Form the dot product of C and D.
(A + B) . (A - B) = A A - B . B = A2 - B2
which must equal zero because A B for a rhombus. C and D are perpendicular.
1 f rhe vectors A and B are expressed in terms of their generalized orthogonal
c:omponents in the manner of (1-9), their scalar product can be written
expanding this expression by means of the distributive law (1-36) and applying
results obtained earlier fix the dot products of the unit vectors, one obtains
(1-37a)
EXAMPLE 1-2
if
F
II.
16 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
For example, the expansion of the dot product of two vectors in rectangular COOl
nates is
( 1-3'
and in circular cylindrical coordinates
(1-3
EXAMPLE 1-3. (a) At the point P(3, 5, 6), shown in (a) of the figure, are given the two veet
D = - 50a
x
+ 60a
y
+ 100a
z
and E = 12a
x
- 24ay- Find the vector magnitudes and
dot product D . E. Use these to determine the projection D cos e of D onto E, and
angk e between the vectors. (b) In (b) of the figure, at point P(5, 60, 9) are given
two vectors F = IOa
p
+ Ba", 4a
z
and G = - 20a
p
+ BOa
z
in cylindrical coord ina
Find the vector magnitudes and F . G as well as the angle 0 between the vectors.
(2)
(xl ~ -
5
(al
(xl
EXAMPLE I
G
D= 50a.,
+603.,+ 1003,
~ (yl
F
coordi-
1-37b)
vectors
and the
md the
ven the
:Iinates.
1-7 SCALAR AND VECTOR PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 17
(a) By usc of (I the vector magnitudes are
while the dot product is found from expansion (1-37b)
50(12) + 60( -24) 2040
The latter, by (1-34), also means DE cos 0, whence the projection D cos 8 becomes
J) cos (J
DE
E
-2040
26.833
76.03
This nCl-iative result shows that the projection D cos 0 alonl-i E is in the negative-E
sense (meaninl-i that 0 exceeds 90). The value of 0 is found from the definition
(1-34), yieldinl-i
.. 1 D . E .. 1 2040 , . ,0
0= cos ~ - = cos - ~ - .. ----- = 126.82
DE 126.886(26.883)
(b) The mal-iniludcs and dot product, from (1-7) and
coordinates, arc
in circular cylindrical
F [ F ~ + ~ + 1';]112 [10
2
+ 8
2
+ 4
2
] = 13.416
G = [20
2
+ 80
2
F
I
2 = 86.462
F' G = 10(-20) - 4(80 = -520
The anl-ik () between F and G is found from definition (1-34), obtaining
.. 1 F . G .. 1 520 , 0
0= cos = cos - - ~ ' - ' - - - = 117.93
FG 13.416(82.462)
From this result you may determine that the projection of F
ncgativc-G sellSe.
G is in the
The second kind or product of one vector with another is called the vector product
cross product), defined as l()Uows
A x B = a"AB sin 0 ( 1-38)
in which e is the angle measured between A and B, and a" is a unit vector taken to be
perpendicular to both A and B and having a direction determined {i-om the right-
hand rule provided that the rotation is taken {i'om A to B through the angle O. The
vector product A x B is illustrated graphically in Figure 1-9. One may show from the
diagram that
A X B -B X A (I
18 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
AxB

()
B
A
--
",

(J sense
from A to B
FIGURE 1-9. Illustrating the cross product.
AxB
,f.
which means that the vector product does not obey a commutative law. In forming t1:
cross product, the ordering of the vectors, therefore, is an important consideratiOl
If A and B are parallel vectors, sin e is zero to make their cross product zen
If A and B happen to be perpendicular vectors, then A X B is a vector having a lengt
AB and a direction perpendicular to both A and B, with the ambiguity in the directio
resolved by means of the right-hand rule. These observations applied to the crm
products of the orthogonal unit vectors of Figure 1-5, for example, lead to the sped"
results: al X a
l
= az X az = a3 X a3 = 0; a
l
X az = a
3
, az X a
3
= al, and a3 >
a
l
= az. However, note that a
i
X a3 az.
A distributive law can be shown to hold for the cross product
A X (B + C) = A X B + A X C (1-40
Because of the noncommutativity of the cross product as expressed by (1-39), the orde
of the factors in (1-40) is important.
If the vectors A and B are given in terms of their orthogonal components il
the manner of (1-9), then their vector product is written
The use of the distributive law (1-40) and the special results obtained for the cros
products of the orthogonal unit vectors provides the following expansion.
which can alternatively be put into the compact determinentaI form
a
l
a
z
a
3
A X B = Ai A
z
A3
Bl B2 B3
(I -41)
Ig the
Hion.
zero.
~ n t h
'ction
cross
)ecial
a
3
X
1-40)
)rder
Its in
cross
-41 )
1-7 SCALAR AND VECTOR PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 19
Pivot
P
EXAMPLE 1-4
EXAMPLE 14. The definition of the cross product can be used to express the moment of a
force F about a point P in space. Suppose R is a vector connecting the point P with
the point of application Qofthe force vector F, as shown in the diagram. Then the vector
moment M has the magnitude M = RF sin (} = IR X Fl. The turning direction of the
moment, as well as its magnitude, are thus expressed by the vector product
M RxF (1-42)
EXAMPLE 15. A force F = !Oa
y
N is applied at a point Q(O, 3, 2) in space. Find the moment
ofF about the point P(2, 0, 0).
The vector distance R between P and Q)s
The vector moment at P is found by means of (l-42) and the determinant (1-41).
ax ay a
z
M=RxF= -2 3 2 = -20a
x
-20a
z
N-m
o 10 0
M, shown at P in the sketch, is a vector perpendicular to the plane formed by F and R.
EXAMPLE 16. Given the two vectors F and G in (b) of the figure in Example 1-3, determine
their vector cross product F x G, as well as the magnitude of the latter. Find the unit
veetor an in the direction of the vector F X G. Verify that an is perpendicular to F and
to G.
1
1 (z)
21
d-,.
/1 ---_9(0,3,2)
I I F = lOay
I I 1
/ I R
/ I
P(2 0 0) I ---0 --_ 1
, , - "-
_(-)---M --3'--_
x --
(y)
EXAMPLE 1-5
20 VECTOR ANALYSIS ANI) ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
From (I I) in circular cylindrical coordinates, F x G becomes
a
p
a", a
z
FxG IO 8 -4
20 0 80
+ a",[ -4( -20) - 10(80)] + a
z
[IO(O) 8( 20)]
160a
z
The F G is IF X GI = [640
2
+ 720
2
+ 160
2
] 1/2 = 976.5, while the uni
vector an in the directioll of the vector F x G is given by
FxG
a =
n 'iF x Gi
0.655a
p
0.737a", + 0.1638a
z
The dot an' F [wcnmes, from (l-37b), the zero result
10 0.737(8) + 0.1638( -4) = 0
verifying frorn til!' definition (I that an and F are perpendicular vectors. You ma)
similarly show that an and G are perpendicular.
18 VECTOR INTEGRATION
Vector integration, f()f the purposes of field theory, encompasses integrals in space
along lines, over surfaces, or throughout volume regions, as well as integrals in the
time domain and the domain. The subject of the present discussion concerns
only integrations in space.
Tne vector notation embodies compactness as an important feature, so it is always
worthwhile to examine the integrand ofa vector integral carefully. The integrand may
be either a scalar or a vector Thus, the integrals
possess scalar
hand, the
[
A' Bdt
~ I
Line integral
J, (C X D) ds Surface integral
J: F' Gdll Volume integTal
amI produce scalar results on integration. On the other
G Line integral
Hx Surfilce in tegral
J X K Volume
and t1H'IT/ill'C vector results. In the last three examples,
acroullt the different directions assumed by the
on the surhce ,,)', or in the volume V defined.
, unit
may
)ace
the
erns
vays
nay
her
es,
he

Patht
dt (Scalar
displacement)
1-8 VECTOR INTEGRATION 21
Typical di (Vector
displacement) '"
P2 "" P2

.l-----R
Pl
(b)
\-7. (a) Integration of the scalar dt over a path t. (b) Integration
the vector dt over the path t.
EXAMPLE 17. The difterent results provided by scalar and vector integrands is exemplified
by simple integrals of scalar and vector displacements dt or dt along some prescribed
path in space. The integral
summed over the path t shown in (a) of the figure, provides its true scalar length d. On
the other hand, the integral of the vector displacement dt on the same path
R= r dt
Jt
produces quite a diftercnt answer, a vector result R determined only by the endpoints
P
l
and P2 of that path rather than by the form of the path between the endpoints.
This vector R is illustrated in (b) of the accompanying figure. So the line integral of dt
about a closed path is zero, whereas if dt is the integrand, the perimeter of the closed
pa th is the result.
An integral flllding extensive utility in work or energy calculations is the scalar
line integral
L F . dt == L F dt cos e (1-43)
This integral sums the scalar product F . dt over the path t, as suggested by Figure 1-10.
Only the projection ofF along de at each point on the path contributes to the integral
result. The line integral (1-43) can be expressed in terms of the generalized orthogonal
components of F and of de in the following way, making use of (l-9), (1-21), and
1-37 a)
(1-44)
In the rectangular coordinate system, in which hi = h2 = h3 = 1, (1-44) is written
(1-45)
j'
(
22 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
-
--
11----""'-F
(a) (b) (c)
FIGURE J-lO. A palh and the field F in space. (0) Division of t into vector
elements dt. (c) product F dt (to be summed over the path) shown at the
typical point P on the path.
assuming (Xi,_Vl' .::tl and
of the path t.
are the coordinates of the endpoints P
1
and P
EXAMPLE 18. Evaluate the line integral (1-43) between the points PI(O, 0,1) and P
2
(2, 4,1
ovcr a path t defined the intersection of the two surfaces y = x
2
and z = 1, if F is thl
v(,ctor fidd
The path t is illustrated ill the
Inserting = lOx,
dz = 0 from the definitiD!!
.')x
2
y, and f ~
it {()llows that
(1
into (1-45) and since x
2
= y all(
F . dt f x ~ O lOx dx - f
y
4=O 5y2 dy + 0
20 106.7 = 86.7
the desired resnlt.
(2,0,
EXAMPLE I
4, I)
is the
(I)
, and
1-9 ELECTRIC CHARGES, CURRENTS, AND THEIR DENSITIES 23
This answer can also be obtained by expressing the dificrential displacement dx
along the path in terms of From the definition of l, dy = 2x dx and dz O. Thus
r F . dt: = r
2
lOx dx
Jt Jo
j
'4
o 5y2 dy 4y = -36.7
IXAMPlE 19, A line integral such as (1-43) in gcncral has a value depending on the shape
of the path connecting the endpoints PI and P
2
. Evaluate the integral of Example 1-3
for the same function F and the same endpoints PI(O, 0,1) and P2(2, 4,1), but deform
t: into the straight-line path given by the intersection of the surElCes y = 2x and z = I.
Integral (1-43) now becomes
dy + 0 60
obviously dilll'rent from the result obtained over the parabolic path in the last example.
F is f()r tbis reason called a nonconservalive field. A vector field fell' which the line integral
(1-43) is independent of the shape of the path connecting a fixed pair of emlpoints is
said to be conservative. More is said later of such fields in connection with static electric
charge distributions in Chapter 4.
19 ELECTRIC CHARGES, CURRENTS,
AND THEIR DENSITIES
The physical and the chemical properties of matter are known to be governed by the
eitcctric and magnetic forces that act among the particles comprising all material sub-
whether inorganic or living cells. The fundamental electric panicles of matter
of two varieties, commonly called positive and negative electric charges. Many
experiments have provided the following conclusions concerning electric charges.
1. The algebraic sum oCthe positive and negative electric charges in a closed system
never changes; that is, the total electric charge of a defined aggregate of matter
is consewed.
2. Electric charge exists only in positive or negative integral multiples of the mag-
nitude of the elect mnic charge, e = 1.60 X 10 - 19 C; this implies that electric
charge is quantized.
From the viewpoint of classical electromagnetic theory, an electric charge aggre-
gate will be treated as though it were capable of being indefinitely divisible, such that
a volume electric-charge density, denoted by the symbol Pv is defined as follows
3
Aq , 3
P =-- elm
v Ali
( 1-46a)
This limit of this ratio is taken such that the volume-element in space does not be-
come so small that it contains so few charged particles that the relatively smooth
property of the density quantity p" is lost, although Ali is kept small enough thal thl'
integration or the quantities containing Av becomes a meaningful process.
I-II (a) illustrates the meaning of these quantities relative to a volume eiemellt
3It is dear thaI Ihe symbol p, for volume ('haq;;" density should not be confused with the lIn.l11/" ,
the radial variahle of the circular cylindrical coordinales (p, 4>, 'c).
:!i I
24 VECTOR
(a)
FIGURE I-IL
point in a
ANn ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
(b)
de
ex.
.. ~
dq = p{ dt
on dt
(c)
used in ddining volume, surface, and line charge densities in space.
Qualltit;t, defining Ps' (el Quantities defining pt.
Aq residing within any element Av may vary from pOil
function of space as
Pv(ur, U2' U
3
, t) or p,,(r,
it is evident from (1-46a) that charge density
possibly of time. Thus Pv is a .field, written in ger
In some physical the charge I1q is identified with an element of su
or line instead of a volume. The limiting ratio (1-46a) should then be defined as foil
Aq 2
pS=AC/m
L.l.S
( 1-'
Aq
Pc = 111' C/m
(1-
The quantltles associated with these definitions of volume, surface, and line ch.
densities are illustrated in 1-11.
In some systems
densities may be
aggregates, two species of positive and negative ch:
simultaneously. A net charge density p" (volume, sud
such an instance defined or line density) is
p"
p,; + pv C/m
3
( 1
in which P: and denote limiting ratios defined due to the positive
negative charges + ami Aq respectively in Av. occurrence of both pos:
metallic ions and mobile electrons in a conductor is an example to which (1-47) rna
applied. The ill this being of eqnal magnitudes but opposite s
41n some physical
ent simultaneously
characterized by
if a total of
discharge, electrons and several kinds of ions maybe
Their net density at any point in the region may th,
(I
to be (lUnd there.
point to
lsity is a
general
)f surface
follows.
(1-46b)
(1-46e)
charge
e charge
surface,
( 1-47)
rive and
positive
maybe
te signs
ly be pres-
y then be
(1-47a)
1-9 ELECTRIC CHARGES, CURRENTS, AND THEIR DENSITIES 25
P;; = - p;;), cancel, providing the net density Pv 0 in such a compensated charge
system.
. The total amount of charge contained by a volume, surface, or line region is
obtained from the integral of the appropriate density function (1-46a), (1-46b), or
1-46c). Thus in some volume region, each element dv contains the charge dq = Pvdv,
making the total charge in 1) the integral
q = Iv dq = Iv Pv du C
Similar integral expressions may be constructed to yield the total charge on a given
surface or a line in space.
EXAMPLE 110. (a) The radially dependent volume charge density Pv = 50r2 C/m
3
exists
within a sphere of radius r 5 cnL Find tlfe total charge if contained by that sphere.
(b) The same sphere of is now covered with the angularly dependent surface charge
density Ps 2 x 3 0 C/m
2
Find the total charge on the spherical surface.
(a) Making usc of( 1-47) and dv of (1-17) obtains
q = Sv p" dv SSS (50r2)r2 sin 0 dr dO dcjJ = 50 s:n d(p S: sin 0 dO S:os r
4
dr
,5 JO.os
= 50(2n)2 -- = 3.927 x 10 - 5 = 39.27 j1C.
5
Attention is called to the "product separability" of the integrand in this example,
enabling the expression of the triple integrand as the product of three separate
integrals in r, 0, and cjJ.
(b) Using q = Is Ps lis in this case, along with the scalar surhrce clement ds = r2 sin 0 dO dcjJ
on this sphere or radius r = OJ)5 m, as suggested by ds shown in Figure 1-7(b),
yields on the complete sphere
If = f p"d.1 = ff(2 X 10-
3
cos
2
0)r2 sin OdO r/cjJ]
S r-O.OS
2 x 3(0.05)2 r.
2n
dcjJ In (OS2 0 sin 0 dO = 5 x 10-
.0 Jo [
_
3 0
= 20.9 /lC
A vector field F(Ul' U2, U,' t) at some given instant t, can be represented graphi-
by use of a myriad of vectors of appropriate lengths and directions at many
in a region of space. A vector field plotted in this way is shown in Figure 1-12 (a).
is, however, a cumbersome way to graph a vector field; usually a much more
representation is by use of a/lux plot, a method replacing the vectors with
lines (called jlux lines) drawn in accordance with the i()llowing rules.
1. The directions of the flux lines agree with the directions of the field vectors.
The transverse densities of the flux lines are the same as the magnitudes of the
fidd vectors.
The flux plot of the vector field of Figure 1-12 (a), sketched in accordance with these
is noted in (b) of that figure. If a surhlce S is, moreover, drawn in the region
26 VECTOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
(a) (b) (c)
FIGURE 1-12. A veCWr field F, its flux and the flux through typical surfaces (a) A
vector field F, denoted by "farrows. The flux map of the vector field F, showing
an open surface S through a net flux passes. (e) A closed surface S, showing zero net
flux emergent from it.
of space embracing that flux, then the net lines of flux r/J passing through S can be a
measure of some physical quantity (such as charge,current, or power flow), depending
on the physical meaning ofF. The differential amount of flux dr/J passing through any
surface-element ds in space is defined by the scalar dr/J = F ds cos e = F ds, a positive
or negative l-esuit, depending on the angle between F and ds. The net (positive or
negative) flux of F through S is therefore the integral of dr/J over S
Is F' ds
(1-48)
in which ds is taken to emerge from that side of S assumed positive, as shown in Figure
1-12 (b). If S is a dosed surface, the net flux through it is given by
(1-49)
as noted in Figure \-12 The la Her will integrate to zero (an indication that just
as many flux Jines leave S' as enter it) unless the interior volume of S contains sources
or sinks offlux lines. This view will be amplified later in the discussion of the divergence
of a vector field.
The current flow through a surb.ce embodies a good illustration of the flux COIl-
cept. Supr:iose that there are electric charges of density Pv(Ul, U
2
, U3, t) in a region,
and imagine that the cllarges have velocities averaging to the function v(ul' U2, U3, t)
within the elements dv with which the densities Pv are identified. A current density func-
tion J may then be defined at any point P in the region by
or C/sec/m
2
( 1-50a)
This function is a measure, in the vicinity of any point P in space, of the instantaneous
rate of flow of charge per unit cross-sectional area. If two species of charge density
be a
:ling
any
ltive
e or
48)
-ure
49)
ust
ces
Ice
)0-
)n,
t)
IC-
a)
us
ty
l-9 ELECTRIC CHARGES, CURRENTS, AND THEIR DENSITIES 27
of opposite kinds, designated by P;; and Pv , exist simultaneously in a region of space,
then their total current density J at each point is written
( 1-50b)
In general, for n species with densities Pi and velocities Vi (e.g., electrons plus a mixture
of ions)
( 1-50c)
The differential current flux di flowing through a surface element ds at which
the current density J exists, is di J . ds amperes, to make the net current i (current
through S
i = S ~ J . ds C/sec or A (I-51 )
IXAMPLE 111. An electron bcam of circular cross-section 1 mm in diameter in a cathode ray
tube (CRT) has a measured current of I itA, and a known average electron speed of
10
6
m/sec. Calculate the average current density, charge density, and rate of mass transport
in the beam.
Assuming a constant current density J = azJz in the cross-section (I-51), yields the
following current through any cross-section.
in which A denotes the cross-sectional area of the beam. Thus the average current density
is
i 10-
6
4 2
Jz= A = n(1O-3)2 = n Aim
~
4
The charge density in the beam, from (1-50a) in which J a
z
4/n imd v--a
z
I0
6
,
becomes
Jz
ds = azds
1 mm i = l/1A
Cross-section A -----------l>-'(z)
I':XAMPLE I-II
I
il
28 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
The rate of mass transport in the heam is the current times the electronic mass-to-charge
ratio; this yields 5.7 x 10-
18
kg/sec, assuming an electron mass of9.! x 10 31 kg.
110 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
IN TERMS OF THEIR FORCES
Electric and magnetic fields are fundamentally fields of force that ongmate from
electric charges. Whether a force field may be termed electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic
hinges on the motional state of the electric charges relative to the point at which the
field observations arc. made. Electric charges at rest relative to an observation point
give rise to an electrostatic (time-independent) field there. The relative motion of the
charges provides an additional force field called magnetic. That added field is magneto-
static if the charges are moving at constant velocities relative to the observation point.
Accelerated motiolls, on the other hand, produce both time-varying electric and
magnetic fields termed electromagnetic fields.
The connection of the electric and magnetic fields to their charge and current
sources is provided by an elegant set of relations known as Maxwell's equations,
attributed historically to the work of many scientists and mathematicians well before
Maxwell's time,5 but to which he made significant contributiohs. They are introduced
in the next section. Suppose that electric and magnetic fields have been established
in some region of space. The symbol for the electric field intensity (or just electric
intensity) is the vector E; its units are force per unit charge (newtons per coulomb).
The magnetic field is represented by means of the vector B called magnetic flux density;
it has the unit weber per square meter. If the fields E and B exist at a point P in space,
their presence may be detected physically by means of a charge q placed at that point.
The force F acting on that charge is given by the Lorentz force law
in which
F = q(E + v x B)
=FE+FBN
q is the charge (coulomb) at the point P
v is the velocity (meter per second) of the charge q
E is the electric intensity (newton per coulomb) at P
B is thc magnetic flux density (weber per square meter or tesla) at P
FE = qE, the electric field force acting on q
F B = qv x B, the magnetic field force acting on q
(1-52a)
(1-52b)
In Figure 1-13, these quantities are illustrated typically in space. The force FE has
the same direction as the applied field E, whereas the magnetic field force F B is at right
angles to both the applied field B and the velocity v of the charged particle.
The Lorentz force expression (1-52) may be used for discussing the ballistics of
charged particles traveling in a region of space on which the electric and magnetic
fields E and B are imposed. The deflection or the focusing of an electron beam in a
cathode ray tube are common examples.
5James Clerk Maxwell (1331-1379).
B flux
---
---".,--
fa) (b)
I
I
FE
,I
I
I
I
~
: B
I
I
I
t
FB
(c)
:FIGURE 1-13. Lorentz forces acting on a moving charge q in the presence of
(a) only an E field, (b) only a B Geld, and (e) both electromagnetic Gelds,
EXAMPLE 112. An electron at a given instant has the velocity v (3) I05ay + 105
az
m/see
at some position in empty space. At that point, the electric and magnetic fields are known to
be E = 400a
z
V/m and B = O.005a
y
WbJm
2
, Find the total force acting on the electron.
The total force is found from the Lorentz reaction (1-52a)
F = q[E + v X B) = -1.6(10-19)[a
z
400 + (a
y
3' 105 + a
z
4' 105) X a
y
O.005)
= (a
x
32 - a
z
6.4)IO-17 N
Although this is quite a small force, the very small mass of the electron charge provides a
tremendous acceleration to the partiele, namely a F 1m = (a
x
3.51 - azO. 7) 10
14
m/sec
2
.
The relationships among the electric and magnetic force fields and their associated
charge and current distributions in space are provided by Maxwell's equations, postu-
lated here in integral form for the fields E and B in free space.
~ s (EoE) . ds Iv pv
dv
C
J. B ds = 0 Wb
:Vs
J, E. dt = - ~ r B . ds V
'Ji dt Js
( 1-53)
(1-54)
( 1-55)
( 1-56)
30 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
in which
E = E(Ul' U
2
, U
3
, t) is the electric intensity field
B B(ul' U2, U3, t) is the magnetic flux density field
Iv p" do = q(t) is the net charge inside any dosed surface S
itt) is the net current flowing through any open surface S
bounded by the closed line t
Eo is the permittivity offi-ee space 9/36n F/m)
110 is the permeability of free space (= 4n x 10 7 Him)
The Maxwell equatious
6
(I-53) through (1-56) must be simultaneously
by the field solutions E and B for all possible closed paths t and surfaces S in the
region of space occupied by these fields. This strict requirement might appear to limit
severely the number of practical problems that can be solved by means of these in-
tegrals. Indeed, their application to the discovery offield solutions E(u
l
, U
2
, U
3
, t) and
B(ul' 11
2
, 11
3
, t) is restricted, in the present treatment, to problems in which the charge
or current distributions have particular symmetries that serve simplify the solutions.
The equivalent differential forms of Maxwell's equations, developed in the next chapter,
have a somewhat wider range of application in problem solving at the introductory
level.
The reader is to be assured that only a low-level introduction to methods for
obtaining electric and magnetic field solutions of Maxwell's integral relations (1-53)
through (I-56) is attempted here. For the purposes of this introductory treatment,
the Maxwell relations are simplified by considering only the field solutions of a few
simple, symmetrical geometries of static charge or current distributions. In Examples
1-13 through 1-17 that follow, these simplifications are shown to enable, in one or
two steps, solving for the electric or magnetic field of a given charge or current dis-
tribution. The symmetry of the distribution will be seen to be the key to providing
quick solutions for the desired field. Symmetries about a point, a line, or a plane are
considered.
A. Gauss's Law for Electric Fields in Free Space
Maxwell's integral law (1-53)
[I-53 J
is also known as Gauss's law for electric fields in free space. The meanings of the
quantities are illustrated in Figure 1-14. Thus, suppose that there is in free space an
electric field E(Ub U2, U3, t) (denoted by the E-field flux line distribution in that figure),
plus some related electric charge distribution of density Pv(Ul> U2, U3, t) as shown. Con-
struct in this region a closed surface S, with S having any desired shape and enclosing
6 Although given the collective name Maxwell's equations, historically they were in a gradual process of
evolution over many years before Maxwell's time. For an enjoyable and first-rate account of the details,
you are encouraged to read the historical surveys at the beginning of each chapter in R. S. Elliott,
Electromagnetics. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1966.
FIGURE 1-14. Typical closed surface S in a region containing an electric
field and a related electric charge. Gauss's law must hold [or all closed
surfaces constructed in the region, whether charges are contained or not.
all or any part of the electric charge in the region, or no charge at all, as desired.
Then the Maxwell-Gauss law (I-53) means that the integral of the quantity (EoE) . ds
over that closed surface S (the net, outward flux of EoE emanating from S) is a measure
of the amount of electric charge Iv Pv dv = q that is contained only within the volume V
bounded by that surface S. The dosed-surface integral of (EoE) . ds thus automatically
excludes any charge that happens to lie outside S. (The surface element ds on S is
by convention taken as positively outward from S, as shown in Figure 1-14, or away
from its interior volume v.) The constant Eo in this Maxwell-Gauss law, called the
permittivity oIfree space, is approximately 1O-9/36n F/m in the mks system of units.
7
To evaluate the amount of electric charge q within some volume V surrounded
by the dosed surface S, Gauss's law (1-53) can be employed to do this two ways: (1)
from the right side of (1-53), by use of the volume integral of the charge density Pv con-
tained within the volume V; or (2) from the left side of (1-53), by integrating (EoE) ds
over the closed surhtee S that bounds the volume V of interest. If a known charge
distribution is static (motionless) and happens to possess a particular symmetry in free
space, then Gauss's integral law (1-53) can even be used to evaluate the electric field
E produced by that charge. The small class of symmetric, static charge problems that
can easily be solved by use of Gauss's law are illustrated in the following example.
EXAMPLE 113. Find the electric field intensity E of the following static charge distributions
in free space: (a) a point charge Q; (b) a spherical cloud of radius 10 containing a uniform
volume density Pu; (c) a very long line charge of uniform linear density PI; (d) a very
large planar (surface) charge of density Ps'
These charge distributions arc illustrated in Figure 1-15. Closed surfaces S arc
shown, appropriately chosen to permit solving for E by the usc of Gauss's law (I-53).
(a) Field of a charge (symmetry about a point). To evaluate the field E of the
static point charge Q, choose S in Gauss's law (I-53) to be the sphere with Qat
its center, as in Figure l-15(a). To show that E has only a radial component about
7The significance or the units of Eo is clarified in Chapter 4 in the discussion of capacitance. A correct
interpretation of the factor Eo in (1-53) is that it is a proportionality factor accounting for the proper units
(mks) of the equation.
i i 32 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
I
,I
= arE
r
- ,
" "-
/ "-
/ Point P, ds
/ charge /,- \
r \
l Qr'JJI
\ -,
\ -,
"
',, ___ -,' Spherical
(a)
'''"- closed
surface S
Circular cylindrical
closed surface S
(e)
Spherical
charged
cloud
Sphere 81 ,\
Sphere 82 -t

'\ ':;
\ ... :.:.,,'.
\ 3 ds
" Pv Clm ,,/
',-------/
(b)
Uniform surface
charge density Ps

(d)
E (r> ro)
FIGURE 1-15. Static charge distributions having symmetries such that Gauss's law applied to
appropriate closed surfaces will lead to solutions lor E. (a) Static point charge; spherical surface
S constructed to evaluate E(r). (b) Charged cloud of uniform density, showing SI and 8
2
used to
evaluate E(r). (t) Uniform line charge. (d) Uniform suriace charge.
the charge, obsfTve that for this time-static problem (did! 0, for all fields), (I-55)
reduces to f E . de' = 0 for all closed Jines e'. Then integrating E de' about any
circumferential path of radius r over the sphere in Figure 1-15(a) yields the con-
clusion that Eo and E</> are zero. Furthermore, assuming Q positive, E must be
directed radially outward if the integral of E" oE over S is to yield a positive answer.
Thus (I-53) yields
Since a
r
a
r
and from the symmetry Er is constant on S, Er may be extracted
from the integral to obtain
(1-57a)
or, in vector form
E (1-57b)
Coulomb's law {Cll' the force acting on another point charge Q: in the presence of
Qis deduced by combining (1-57b) with the Lorentz force relation (1-52a). In the
absence of a B field, the force on Q: when immersed in the E field (1-57b) of the
charge Qis
, Q:Q
FE = Q:E = a
r
--
z
4nEor
(I-58)
(b) Field of a charged cloud (symmetry about a point). For the spherical cloud containing
a uniform charge density p" C/m
3
, two cases arise. The field outside the cloud (r > TO)
can be obtained from Gauss's law (I-53) applied to a concentric sphere S1 of radius
r, as shown in Figure 1-15(b). That E bas only an Er component is shown as in
part . Then the charge q enclosed by Sl is obtained by integrating p" dv through-
out sphere, so (I-53) becomes
Solving lor Er (constant 011 S 1) yields
(I-59)
an inverse-square result. It is ofthe form of the point-charge result (1-57a), assuming
the field point outside the charge cloud (r> ro).
inside the cloud (r < ro), applying (I-53) to the closed surface S2 of Figure
1-15 (b) yields
in which the volume integration is carried out only throughout the interior of S2,
obtaining . With l , ~ constant on S2,
E = p"r
r 3Eo
r < TO (1-60)
E inside the uniformly charged cloud is theref(Jre zero at its center and varies
linearly to the samc valuc as (1-59) at the sllrface r roo
(c) Field o/a long line (symmetry about a line). Construct a closed right circular
cylinder of length t and radius p concentric about the line charge as in Figure
1-15(c). From symmetry, E is radially directed (apEp) and of constant magnitude
over the peripheral surface So. The left side of Gauss's law (1-53) is zero over the
endeaps of S because E . ds is zero on them. Thus (I-53) becomes
in which the right side reduces to a line integral over the linear charge distribution.
Solving for Ep on Sp yields, with ft Pt dl = ptt and Js ds = 2npt
E
p
Pc
2nEop
. (1-61)
Thus, the electric intensity of an inflflitely long, uniform line charge varies inversely
with p. .
34 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
(d) Field an planar charge (symmetry about a plane). A closed surface 8 is
constructed in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped extending equally on both
sides of the planar charge, as in Figure 1-15(d). The symmetry of the infinitely
extensive charge requin:s that E be directed normally away from both sides of the
charge as shown (E = a,h'x)' Flux emanates only from the ends 8
1
and 8
2
of the
parallelepiped, whence Gauss's law becomes
A denoting the area of the ends of the parallelepiped. The two integrals over 8
1
and 8
2
provide exactly the same amount of outward electric flux, whence
E =
x 2Eo
~ - - - - ~ - - - - ~ ~ r
o - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ r
ro
(a) (b)
(c) fd)
FIGURE 1-16. Flux plots of the fields of Example I-II. (a) Point charge. An inverse r2 field.
(b) Uniformly charged spherical volume. The graph depicts variations with r. (c) Unilormly
charged infinite line. An inverse p field. (d) Uniformly charged infinite plane. E is uniform
everywhere.
Writing this in vector form to include the fleldB on both sides of the planar charge
distribution gives
E=a
x 2Eo
E
Ps
=-a -
x 2Eo
x>o
x<o (1-62)
It is evident that the electric field to either side of a uniform, infinite planar charge
is everywhere constant.
Flux plots of the electric fields of the four charge distributions covered in
this example are shown in Figure 1-16.
B. Ampere's Circuital Law in Free Space
Maxwell's integral law (1-56)
J. B . dt
'it flo
S
d S difte
J
. ds + - (EoE) ds = i + -
s dt S \ dt
[ 1-56)
often called Ampere's circuital law for free space. Figure 1-17 illustrates the meanings
the field quantities relative to any closed line t that bounds a two-sided surface S.
positive direction of the typical element ds may be taken to either side of S, but
positive integration sense about t must agree with the right-hand rule relative to
The relation (1-56) means that the line integral of the B field (modified by fl,o 1)
aw'und any arbitrary closed path t must, at any time t, equal the sum of the net electric
current i plus the time rate of change of the net electric flux ift e passing through the
lurface S bounded by t.
--

t
/
__ J
- .}/\ j..'. r ..[\ ds --""' - -
- \ foE
-
--

--
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 1-17. Induced magnetic flclds ilnd Ampere's law. Any dosed line t such as that of
(a) may be superposed anywhere on the example of (b); Ampere's law must be true for it.
(a) Typical closed line t boundiug a surface S, relative \0 the fields in Ampere's law. (b) A sym-
metric example showing the B field induced by electric currents and displacement currents.
36 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
The two terms on the right side of (I-56) denote the two kinds of electric currents
that occur physically in free space. The first, i, has already been discussed in relation
to (I-50) and is given the name convection current when it is comprised of one or more
species of moving charges in free space; it is also called conduction current if it pertains
to electric charges drifting or transported within a solid, liquid, or gas. The second
term, dt/! e/dt, is called displacement current and denotes the time rate of change of the net,
instantaneous electric fiux t/! e that passes through the surface S. The displacement
current term is the history-making contribution of Maxwell, who provided that missing
link to unify the theories of electricity and magnetism and predicted the propagation
of electromagnetic waves in empty space in the absence of charges and currents. The
quantity fto is calJed the permeability oJJree space; it has the value 4n x 10-
7
H/m in the
mks system of units. 8
A comparison of (I-56) with Gauss's law (I-53) shows that Ampere's circuital
law is more comprehensive; it involves both the magnetic field B and the time-varying
electric field E, as well as electric currents that might be fiowing in a region. Indeed,
it specifies that either electric currents or time-varying electric fields in a region, or
both, will give rise to a magnetic field B such that (I-56) must be satisfied for all
possible closed lines constructed in the region.
The direct application of Ampere's circuital law (1-56) to obtaining time-varying
field solutions E(r, t) and B(r, t) whenever, for instance, a current distribution J(r, t)
is somehow specified is not, in general, feasible. The difficulty lies in part in not
accompanying fields; the intricacies may be appreciated more fully on recognizing that
the field solutions must satisfy simultaneously all four of Maxwell's integral relations,
(I-53) through (I-56).
No field solutions of the complete law (1-56) are attempted at this time.
Instead, consider for a moment only the magnetic B field of a static (direct) current
distribution i, in which event the Maxwell-Ampere law (1-56) reduces to the form
A: dt = {' J' ds == i Ampere's law for static fields
':Yt flo Js
( 1-63)
To evaluate tbe amount of static electric current i passing through some surface S, tbe
static Ampere law (1-63) can be employed to do this two ways: (1) from the right side
of (1-63), using the surface integral ofJ' ds over any desired surface S (a fiux integral);
or (2) from the left side of (1-63) by integrating (B/flo) dt about the closed path t
that bounds the surface S (a closed line integral). If a known static current distribution
also happens to possess a simple symmetry in free space, then the static Ampere integral
law (1-63) can even be employed to evaluate the magnetic B field produced by that
current. Simple illustrations of these uses of Ampere's law (1-63) are described in the
following examples.
EXAMPLE 1-14. Find the net sta-tic electric current i that flows through each of the surfaces S
bounded by the paths t chosen for the three direct current systems of Figure 1-18.
8The significance of the units of flo is clarified in Chapter 5, in the discussion of inductance. In (I-56), flo
is the factor that properly adjusts the units of the term in which it appears, to yield an equality that is
dimensionally correct.
ds
J
FIt
sur
cir
IA
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 1-18. Three examples of direct current systems showing closed paths t' that bound
surfaces S through whir h net currents i flow. (a) Infinitely Ion" wire carrying I A. (b) A two-mesh de
circuit. (e) A four-turn coil carrying I A.
For the long, straight wire of Figure 1-18(a), the path t( shown yields a net current
i = 0 through S\; while t2 embraces i = I A, a positive result if ds on S2 is taken to
be positive in the upward direction.
(b) Assume a positive ds in the upward direction on S. Then, by inspection of Figure
1-18(h), the net conduction current i through S becomes
i = r J. ds = 21 + 1 - 31 = 0
Js
(el For the path t constructed about the coil in Figure l-lS(e) such that the coil pierces
S four times, the net current becomes
if ds is assumed positive in the direction shown.
EXAMPLE 115. Field DIa long, round wire (symmetry about a line). Use Ampere's circuital law
(1-63) to find the B field of the static current 1 in an infmite, straight, round wire of
radius 11, shown in Figurc l-19(a). Find B both inside and outside the wire.
As in Figure 1-19(11), assume a symmetric, closed integration path t\ having the
radius p sbown. From (1-63), the B field must be -directed if the line integration counter-
clockwise (looking ii'om above) is to yicld the positive current 1 emerging from St. With
B = a</>B</> and dt = a</>pd on the closed contour, (1-63) yields
but B", is of constant magnitude on t}, obtaining exterior to the wire
110
1
2np
p>a
If P < a, the closed line t2 shown in the inset of Figure 1-19(a) bounds a surface
S2 intercepting only a fraction of 1, as determined by the ratio of the area of S2 to the
38 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN F'REE SPACE
Ii (z)
!it{W
I
(a)
L..L __ = - ' - _ ~ P
o a
(b)
FIGURE 1-19, A long, straight wire carrying a static current of 1 A, and the associated
magJ1("tic held. (a) Portion of long, straight currcnt-carrying wirc showing symmetric
dosed paths for used with Ampere's law to find B. (b) External magnetic flux field of
the long, straight wire. The graph depicts the flux .density variations with p.
cross-sectional area 7W
2
. Then (1-63) becomes
yielding
Thus the B field of the infinitely long, round wire carrying a static current 1 is directed,
varying inversely with p outside the conductor aud directly with p inside it as follows.
Pol
B=a --
"'2np
B
p>a
p<a (1-64)
EXAMPLE 1-16. Held of a flat current sheet (symmetry about a plane), Use Ampere's circuital
law to find B on both sides of a thin, infinite current sheet in the x = 0 plane and carrying
the constant, static surface current density J8 = aJsz A/m,
The infinite sheet can be viewed as pairs of thin current filaments located aty, - y,
canying the diHerential current di = Jsz4Y as in Figure 1-20(a), On recalling the exterior
i ~
(z)
di = Jsz dy
,-<,
i:
2
(a) (b)
FIGURE 1-2()' An inlinite, thill current sheet carrying a comtant surface current of cknsity
J, a,],z A/m. Showing [,aind current f,laments, and rcsultalll dB-held. (b) Symmetric closed
path about which circuital law is taken.
fleld result (1-64) of Example 1-15, one may conclude that the paired cnrrents produce
a net,}-dirccted, difkrential fidd dB at any point on the x-axis as shown. The superposed
d!(:ct orthe whole current sheet is therefor\" a]-directed B field on the positive x side of
the sheet, and a negative }-directed field on the other side. Then Ampere's law (1-63)
becomes, fiJl' the symmetric, rectangular path shown ill Figure 1-20(h)
with the surface intq:.;ral on the right side reducing to a linr integral over any}o width
of the sheet. Because both Bv and Jsz arc constants over the indicated paths, this becomes
'2By}o = to yield ~ = It
o
J,)2. In vector form, therefore
B
JioJsz
x>O a ---
y 2
B
JioJsz
x<o (1-65) a--
y '2
EXAMPLE 117. Find the magnetic ficlds of the l()llowing coil configurations, each carrying a
static current J: (a) an n turn, closely wound toroid of circular cross-section; (b) an
infinitely long, closely wound solenoid having n turns in every length d. The coils are
illnstrated in Figure 1-21.
(a) Thc magnetic flux developed by I in the toroid is q'>-directed as in Figure 1-21 (a),
a result t()llowing {i'om symmetry and the application of the right-hand rnle to the
positive current sense shown. Thus, inside the toroid, B = a",B"" exact if the winding
is idealized into a current sheet. The application of the time-static Ampere's circuital
law to the symmetric closed line t of radius p shown therefore yields
t (a",8",) alp dt = Jion1, in which B,p, from the symmetry, is constant around t, and
nl is the nct current passing through S bounded by t. Thus
Jion1
B",= ._--
2np
(1-66)
40 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
(a)
Closed path
f
1
(b)
FIGURE 1-21. Two coil configurations, the magnetic fields of which can be found using
Ampere's circuital law. (a) Toroidal winding ofT! turns, showing symmetric path t. (b) Infinitely
long solenoid, showing a typical rectangular closed path t.
an inverse p-dependent field inside the region bounded by the current sheet. If the
radius p of t in Figure 1-21 (a) were chosen to cause t to 'fall outside the torus (with
p < a, for example), then S would no longer intereept any net current i. Then from
the symmetry, the B field outside the idealized toroid must be zero.
(b) The infinitely long solenoid of Figure 1-21 (b) may be regarded as a toroid !if infinite
radius; its magnetic field is thus also completely contained within the coil if the
winding is idealized into an uninterrupted current sheet. The symmetry requires
a z-directed field, B azB" independent of z. Ampere's circuital law (1-63) is
applied to the rectangular elosed path shown in Figure 1-21 (b), two sides lying
parallel to the z-axis. A nonzero contribution to the line integral is obtained only
over the interior path parallel to the z-axis, whence
B
z
is constant over the path, whence
n
J1
1-
a d
( 1-67)
the ratio nld denoting the turns per meter length. B is thus constant everywhere
inside the infinitely long solenoid.
Maxwell's integral law (1-55)
!!..- r B ds =
dtJs
dl/l
m
dt
[1-55 ]
is attributable to tbe work of Faraday, and is called the induced electromotive force (emf)
Law. The essence of this law of electro magnetics is expressed in the symbolism of Figure
IndLl(
abou
I
/
/
Fl
m,
(a
~
a
t
s
(a)
integration
by
(b)
1/Jm enclosed
by e
FlGURE 1-22. Indnced electric fields and Faraday's law. Any closed line t such as that of (a)
may be superposed anywhere on the example of (b), such that .Faraday's law must be trne for it.
(a) Typical dosed line bounding a snrface S, relative to the Gelds in Faraday's law. (h) A symmetric
example showing tbe E field indun:d by a time-varying magnetic field.
1-22(a). The relationship of the positive line-integration sense to the positive direction
assumed for ds is the same as for Ampere's circuital law. Faraday's law (1-55) states
that the time rate of decrease of the net magnetic flux t/I m passing any arbitrary
surface S equals the integral of the E field around the dosed line bounding S. This is
tantamount to saying that an E field is generated by a time-varying magnetic flux.
The E field, in general, must also be time-varying if ( 1-55) is to be satisfied at every
instant.
Faraday's law tor strictly time-static fields is (I-55) with its right side reduced to
zero
f. E . dt = 0 Faraday's law for time-static fields (1-68)
which states that the line integral of a static E field about any closed path is always
zero. A field obeying (1-68) is called a conservative field; all static electric fields are
conservative.
If the electric charges that produce an electric field are fixed in space, that electric
field must obey Faraday's law in time-static form, (1-68). Several examples of the electric
fields of charges at rest have been treated in Example 1-13. All static distributions of
ekctric charges in space may be regarded as superpositions of point-charge concentra-
tions = p" dv in the volume-elements dv in space. The electric field of a point charge
Q., on the other hand, has been shown to be (1-57b)
[1-57b]
It is easily shown that this electric field obeys Faraday'S law (1-68) for a time-static
field. If any dosed path, such as t = ta + tb shown in Figure 1-23, is chosen in the
42 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
Direction j
of
integration
Q
(a) (b)
Closed
path f
FIGURE 1-23. Closed paths constructed about a point charge an.d a charge distribution, rela-
tive to Faraday's law for static charges. (a) Point charge Q.. (b) Charge distribution PV'
space about a point charge, the integral ofE-dt from any point P
l
to any other point
P
2
along the path ta is
=f.'2 ~ d r
'=', 4nEor
2
= ~ J : l -:J
( 1-69)
This resul t
9
is seen to be independent of the choice of the path connecting P land P 2;
it is a function only of the radial distances r
1
and r2 to the respective endpoints PI and
P
2
. Therefore, if the integration is taken around the complete path t = ta + tb shown
in Figure 1-23, the two integrals from P
l
to P
2
via ta and thence from P
2
back to
P 1 via t b will cancel, and (1-68) follows. Static charge distributions like those depicted
in Figure 1-23 (b) are, in general, just collections of differential charge-elements dq
Pvdv; whereas their static electric fields are just superpositions (vector sums) of the
conservative differential electric fields dE produced by each of those static charge-
elements. One may thereby agree that Faraday's law (1-68) for static electric fields is
true in generaL
Valid field solutions E(r, t) and B(r, t) satisfying Faraday's law (1-55) must also
satisfy the remaining Maxwell's integral relations of (I-52) through (I-56); however,
if the time variations of the fields arc not too fast, in some cases a static solution for
9The physical interpretation of the result (1-69) is of interest. I t that the net work done in moving
a unit test charge around a dosed path is zero; such an electric has already been termed conservative.
Thus (1-69) forms the basis of the theory oflhe scalar potential field of static electric charges to be discussed
in Chapter 4.
B sat
can
1-17
rise
imp
law
tha1
iter
qU<J
rap
ElU
, satisfying the static form of Ampere's circuital law (1-63)
J. ~ . dt = r J' ds = i
ft flo Js
(1-63]
:an be assumed to be known field (e.g., the field solutions of Examples 1-15 through
1-172If the current densities J are slowly time-varying, one can assume they will give
rise to a slowly time-varying B field. Such a static field on which time variations are
imposed is called quasi-static. On inserting the quasi-static field B(r, t) into Faraday's
law (1-55), a first-order approximation to the E field can then be obtained; assuming
that the field symmetry permits the extraction of the solution for E from (1-55). An
iterative process can sometimes then be employed to improve the accuracy of the
quasi-static solution
lO
although if the time variations of the fields are not excessively
rapid, the first-order solution will often suffice.
EXAMPlE 118. The long solenoid of Figure 1-21 (b) carries a suitably slowly time-varying
current i = 10 sin wt. Determine from Ampere's law the quasi-static magnetic flux density
developed inside the coil of radius a, and then use Faraday's law to find the induced electric
intensity field both insidc and outside the coil.
From Example 1-17(b), the magnetic flux density inside the long solenoid carrying
a static current I was found to be (1-67). Thus, the solenoid current ~ sin wt will to a
first-order approximation provide the quasi-static magnetic flux density
(i-70)
in which Bo = !lon1old, the amplitude ofB. This assumption is reasonably accurate for an
angular frequency (}) which is not too iarge. The electric field E induced by this time-
varying B held is found by means of Faraday's law (i-55), the line integral of which is
first taken around the symmetric path t of radius p inside the coil, as shown in Figure
in which, from the circular symmetry, E,p must be a constant on t. Thus
E,p f dt = -wBo cos wi Is ds
but tt til = 2np and S5 tis = np2, so that
, wBoP
E,p = ---cos wi
2
p<a (1-7i)
is the first-order solution for the electric fieid intensity generated by the time-varying
magnetic flux of the solenoid. Observe that E,p varies in direct proportion to p, as shown
in Figure 1-24. The negative sign in the result implies that as the net flux 1/1 .. through
lOAn iterative process applied to the differential forms of Maxwell's equations (which are developed in
Chapter 2) is described in R. M., Fano, L. J Chl!, and R. B. Adler. Electromagnetic Fields, Energy and Forces.
New York: Wiley, 1960, Chapter 6.
44 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE

,"'''1 ... , .
;{ : ',Bz = Boslnwl
I I I '

" \ l \
,
FIGURE [-24. Showing the assumed integration path t' used for finding the induced E field
of a solenoid, and the resulting E field.
,,,' is increasing (in the positive z-direction), the sense of the induced E field is negative
</l-dirceted. This is symbolized in the time diagram of Figure 1-24. (Note: Tht' induced
electric fidd, at the position p = a of the solenoid wire, has a direction such that it opposes
tht' tendency fi)r current to change in that wire:; 11 this view of the electric
fieldlcads to the concept of the: of the e:oil; which will be considered in detail
in Chapter
On applyillg Faraday's law (0 the closed line (' exterior to the coil, one obtains
j()r the electric field intensity
H
q
, = ....... -:--=-- cos UJt p>a ( 1-72)
The electric field generated outside the long solenoid by the time-varying magnetic J1nx,
thcrt'i()fe, varies inversely with respect to p. Both answers arc directly proportional to (j)
because they are governed by the time rate ofehange of the net magnetic flux intercepted
by the surface, as noted from (I-55).
D. Gauss's Law for MagnetiC Fields
Maxwell's integral law (1-54)
ds = 0
[ 1-54]
is also known as Gauss's law for magnetic fields. It specifies that the net magnetic
flux (positive or negative) emanating from any closed surface S in space is always zero.
This statement is illustrated in Figure 1-25; in (a) of that figure is an arbitrary closed
surface S constructed in the region containing a generalized magnetic flux configura-
tion having a density B(r, t) in space. Maxwell's integral law requires that a total of
11S01TIctiIncs referred to as Lenz's law.
(a)
Closed
surface S
1-12 COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS 45
(b)
FIGURE 1-25. Gaussian (closed) surCrcc relative to magnetic fields. (a) Typical closed surface
S constructed in a region containing a magnetic field. (b) A symmetric example: the straight, long
current-carrying wire.
zero net magnetic lines emanate from every such closed surface S. This means that
magnetic flux lines always form closed lines. Equivalently, it states that magnetic fields
cannot terminate on magnetic charge sources for the reason that free magnetic charges
do not exist physically. This is in contrast to the conclusion drawn from Gauss's law
(I-53) f()f electric fields; the presence of a nonzero right side involving the electric
charge density function Pi' in that relation attests to the physical existence of free
electric charges.
It is easy to find physical examples that illustrate the closed nature of magnetic
flux lines. The magnetic field of a long, straight current-carrying wire of Figure 1-19
is shown once more in Figure 1-25(b); observe how the uninterrupted flux lines account
for' precisely as many magnetic flux lines entering the typical closed surface S as are
emerging from it. Such is the case for all closed surfaces that might be constructed
in space for that field.
112 COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS
Occasionally, one finds the need for transforming a vector or a vector field from one
coordinate system, in which it is given, to some other coordinate system. An illustration
of the implications of this can be {()Und in Figure 1-4(c), which shows, at the point
P, the same vector A resolved into its components in the three common coordinate
systems. In the first diagram of that figure, the vector field A at P is taken to be a
function of the rectangular coordinates (x,y, z) such that A(x,y, z) = axAAx,y, z) +
ayAy(x,y, z) + azAz(x,y, z). To transform the latter to the circular cylindrical system,
for example, a representation in the form of A( p, cP, z) = apAp(p, 4>, z) + a1>A1>(p,
4>, z) + azAz(p, 4>, z) as depicted in the middle diagram is required. To accomplish
such transformations, two steps are required: (l) the vector components Ax, A
y
, A
z
must be geometrically transformed to the components A
p
, A1>' A
z
; and (2) the scalar
coordinates variables x,y, z at the position P, appearing in analytical expressions for
46 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIEL[)S IN FREE SPACE
must be transfc)rmed, from geometrical considerations, to the coor-
in terms of which A( p, 4>, z) is being expressed. The details
of transforming a vector field A from the rectangular to the circular cylindrical co-
ordinate system considered in the following.
Step I consists of transforming the components Ax, A
y
, A
z
to AI" Aq" A
z
. Since
AI" for example, can interpreted as simply the projection of A onto the unit vector
aI" the dot a
p
'A, meaning a
p
' (axAx + ayAy + azA
z
)' is seen to yield the
desired AI" It thus suflident to deduce, from the geometry if desired, the projec-
tions of the unit the circular cylindrical system onto the unit vectors of the
rectangular system coordinates. Thus, in Figure 1-26(a) is shown superposed the
rectangular and systems, with the unit vector a
p
displayed for
the purpose of projections onto the ullit vectors ax, a
y
, and a
z
. From
the it that
Similarly
geometry,
With the unit
Now with the
(xl
a'
1-2(j, Geomelli",
circular cylindrical cmmli",,',"
( 1-73a)
vector aq, at P on Figure would reveal, from the
a onto ax, a
y
, a
z
as follows.
4>, aq, a
y
= cos 4>, (1-73b)
to both coordinate systems, obviously
(1-73c)
of any vector A being simply the projections of
AI' = at> A, Aq, = aq, A and A
z
= a
z
A,
(1-74a)
(1-74b)
(I-He)
(6)
II" a" a, of rectangular coordinate, (a) to a
p
of
coordinates.
coor-
letails
al co-
Since
rector
d the
mjee-
)1' the
d the
d for
From
-73a)
n the
-73b)
-73e)
ms of
z' A,
-74a)
74b)
-74e)
1-12 COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS 47
These are the desired relations that permit finding the cmnponents Ap> A<p, A
z
when-
Ax, Ay, A
z
are given.
Step 2 concerns the transformation of the coordinate variables (x,y, z), ap-
in A, to the variables (p, cP, z). These sets of coordinates al P are evidently
the geometry in Figure 1-26(a) by
x p cos cP, y = p sin cP, z=z (1-75)
Thus the expressions (1-74) and (1-75) provide the ingredients for transforming the
vector field A(x,y, '<:), given in rectangular coordinate form, to its corresponding cir-
cylindrical coordinate I(Jrm.
Conversely, if A were given in circular cylindrical coordinate fc)rm and its trans-
formation to rectangular coordinates were desired, the reverse of the foregoing pro-
CE?dure would be needed. The results (1-74a,b,c), as linear algebraie equations, may
solved simultaneously to yield
(1-76a)
(1-76b)
(1-76c)
ii'om (lor from Figure 1-26(a), the coordinates p, </), and z, expressed as
functions of x,)" z, become
Ii
z
( 1-77)
The expression fIX cP in (1-77) also means equivalently that
cos cP
x
(1-78)
needed in (1-76a, b) to complete the transformation of A to the rectangular coordinate
fonn. A compilation of the transformations is f(lUnd in Table 1-1.
A similar geometrical procedure can be used to transfc)rm some vector field A
between the rectangular and spherical coordinate systems. I t is left. to you to prove,
with the aid of the geometry suggested by Figure 1-26(h), that the transformations of
components AI) A
z
, A} of the vector A, as well as its coordinate position-variables
l u
z
, u
3
), from rectangular to spherical coordinates or vice versa, will yield the results
in Table 1 t.
IXAMPLE 119. Transl()rm the given vector lield to circular cylindrical coordinates.
(1)
and evaluate F at the rectangular coordinate point P( 1, 1, I) in both coordinate systems.
TABLE 11 Coordinate Transformations
RECTANGULAR TO CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL
Ap = Ax cos rp + Ay sin rp
A.p = -Ax sin rp + Ay cos rp
A
z
='A
z
in which
x = p cos rp, y p sin rp,
RECTANGULAR TO SPHERICAL
(l-74a)
1-74b)
(I-He)
z = z (1-75)
AT = Ax sin () cos rp + Ay sin () sin rp + cos ()
(1-79a)
Ae = Ax cos () cos rp + Ay cos () sin rp - A
z
sin e
(1-79b)
A.p sin rp + Ay cos rp
in which
x r sin () cos rp
y = r sin e sin rp
z = r cos e
( 1-79c)
(1-80)
CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL TO RECTANGULAR
Ax = Ap cos rp - A.p sin rp
sin rp + A.p cos rp
= A
z
in which
p= z=z
cos rp = x
sin rp =-===
SPHERICAL TO RECTANGULAR
= AT sin () cos rp + Ae cos e cos rp - Aq, sin rp
Ar sin () sin rp + Ae cos () sin rp + Aq, cos rp
= Ar cos () - Ae sin e
in which
r = ';x
2
+ y2 + Z2
(1-76a)
(1-76b)
(1-76c)
(1-77)
(1-78)
(1-8Ia)
(1-8Ib)
(I-8le)
cos e = sin e = (1-82)
cos rp = x
sinrp =-=== (1-82)

tJ>

tl
t'l
l""'
t'l

o
a::

>-3
o
"" t:;;
l""'
S;
Z
""
t'l
t'l
tJ>
;;
(")
t'l
1-13 UNITS AND DIMENSIONS 49
With Fx = 3z, =
(1-74a,b,c) yields
and = 5x, the use of the component transformations
F = + +
= ap(Fx cos </> + sin </>l + a</> ( - f',; sin </> + Fy cos </ + azF
z
a
p
(3z cos </> + 4) sin </ + a</>( -3z sin </> + 4) cos </ + a
z
5x
Inserting the coordinate transforma tions obtains the desired result.
F(p, </>, z) = a
p
(3,: cos (P + 4p sin
2
</ + a</>( -3z sin q> + 4p sin </> cos </ + a
z
5p cos </>
(2)
In cartesian form, (l) yields at the point P( 1, I, 1)
F(I, I, I) 3a
x
+ 4ay + 5a
z
(3)
The circular cylindrical coordinates at this point, fi'om ( and (1-73), arc p = J2,
q) = cos-
1
= 45'" and z = I. These values inserted into obtains
F(J2' 45,1) = 4.95a
p
+ 0.707a</> + 5a
z
As a check, observe that
F= = 7.07
113 UNITS AND DIMENSIONS
The mb system of units, introduced by Giorgi in 1901, is now employed almost
universally in electromagnetics. In this system, length is expressed in meters, mass in
kilograms, and time in seconds. A fi)urth unit, that of either eleetric charge (coulomb)
or electric current (coulomb per second, or ampere), is needed in the dimensional
description of electromagnetic phenomena. The rationalized mks system, which elimi-
nates a Ll,ctor 4n from the Maxwell equations, has been almost universally adopted,
and it is used in this text. The Giorgi mks system is especially noteworthy in that it
deals with the primary electromagnetic quantities directly in the practical units in
which they arc measured: in coulombs, amperes, volts, watts, and ohms.
The choice of the dimension of the fourth unit (charge) adopted for the mks
system is seen to depend on the values chosen for the constants Eo and Ito that appear
in the Maxwell equations, (I and (1-56). Only one of these constants is arbitrary,
though, in view ofthe relationship 125b) {or the speed oflight, developed in Chapter
2 for uniform plane waves in a vacuum
c= = 2.99792 X 10
8
3 X 10
8
( 1-83)
an experimentally determined value. In the mks system, the unit of eharge is the
coulomb, defined by setting the constant 110 equal to 4n x 10-
7
The value of the con-
stant EO is then obtained from (I
1
Eo = --2
1l0
C
( 1-84a)
50 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
TABLE 1-2 Physical Quantities in the mks System
IN TERMS OF
PHYSICAL QUANTITY SYMBOL UNIT ABBREVIATION BASIC UNITS
Length t, d, ... meter m
Mass m kilogram kg
Time t, T second sec
Charge q, Q coulomb C
Current i,l ampere A Clsec
Frequency
f
hertz Hz sec-
1
Force F newton N kgm/sec
2
Energy U joule
J
N'm
Power P watt W J/sec
Potential, emf 1>, V volt V W/A = N'm/C
Electric flux
t/le
coulomb C
Capacitance C farad F C/V = A sec/V
Resistance R ohm
(l
VIA
Conductance G mho U A/V
Magnetic flux
t/lm
weber Wb V'see
Magnetic flux density B tesla T Wb/m
2
= V sec/m
2
Inductance L henry H Wb/A V . sec/A
Free-space permeability
fJo
henry/meter Him (lsec/m
Free-space permittivity
Eo
Conductivity
(J
mho/meter U/m
which, if the approximation c ::;::: 3 X 10
8
m/s for the speed oflight is made, yields the
good approximation
10-
9
Eo::;::: --::;::: 8.85 X 10-
12
F/m
36n
(1-84b)
This value for Eo substituted into the Coulomb force expression (1-58) then provides
the correct scale factor to obtain the force between the charges in newtons, the charges
q and q' being given in coulombs and separated a distance r given in meters. One
newton of force, that required to accelerate a I-kg mass at the rate one meter per
second per second (1 m/sec
2
), is thus the product of mass (kilogram) and acceleration
(meter/second
2
), making, 1 N = 1 km/sec
2
(= 10
5
dyn). The unit of energy or work
is the newton-meter, orjoule (= 10
7
erg).
In Table 1-2 are listed units of the mks system by name, unit, and symbol. The
symbolisms largely agree with the recommendations of the International Organization
f()r Standardization (ISO) .12
The numerical designation of field quantities is facilitated through the use of
appropriate powers of ten. Thus 10
6
hertz = 10
6
Hz is written I MHz, in which the
12See IEklo' Spectrum, March 1971, p. 77 for a digest of the recommendations of the IEEE Standards
tABI
MIJ
PROBLEMS 51
tABLE 13 Symbols for Multiplying Factors
MULTIPLYING FACTOR PREFIX SYMBOL MULTIPLYING FACTOR PREFIX SYMBOl
10
12
tera T
10- 2
centi c
10
9
giga G
10-
3
milli m
10
6
mega M
10-
6
mlCro }J.
10
3
kilo k
10-
9
nano n
10
2
hecto h
10-
12
pico
P
10 deka da
10-
15
femto f
10-
1
deci d
10-
18
atto a
prefix M (mega) denotes the 1.0
6
factor by which the unit is multiplied. Similarly,
3 X 10-
12
F is abbreviated 3 pF, with p (pica) denoting the factor 10-
12
. Other
literal prefixes to be used in this way are listed in Table 1-3.
REFERENCES
ABRAHAM, M., and R. BECKER. The Classical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism. Glasgow: Blackie,
1943.
PLEMENT, P. R., and W. C. JOHNSON. Electrical Engineering Science. New York: McGraw-Hill,
1960.
FANO, R. M., L. J. CHU, and R. B. ADLER. Electromagnetic Fields, Energy and Forces. New York:
Wiley, 1960.
HAYT, W. H. Engineerin,g Electromagnetin, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hili, 198!.
LORRAIN, P., and D. R. CORSON. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman,
1970 .
. PuILLlPS, H. B. Vector Ana(ysis. New York: Wiley, 1944.
REITZ, R., and F. J. MILFORD. Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory. Reading, Mass.: Addison-
Wesley, 1960.
PROBLEMS
SECTION 1-2
1-1. Use a vector sketch in a plane to show graphically that A - B = - (B - A).
SECTION 1-4
1-2. Given are the vector constants: A = 5a
x
+ 3a
y
+ 4a., B = 2a
y
+ az> C = -6a . Sketch
them at the origin in the rectangular coordinate system and evaluate the following.
(a) A + B + C = D [Answer: 5a
x
+ 5a
y
- a
z
)
(c) 2A - C = E, lEI [Answer: lOa
x
+ 6a
y
+ 14a
z
, 18.22]
52 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
1-3. A particular vector electric Held intensity at the point PI 3,6) in rectangular coor-
dinates has the value E = 120a
x
+ 200ay + 100a
z
V 1m. (a) Carefully sketch a labeled vector
diagram, as suggested by Figure 1-4((;), showing E and its components E',., E
y
, E
z
along with
the unit vectors ax, a
y
, a
z
at Pl' What is the magnitude ofE? Assuming that E = aEE, express
the unit vector a
E
in rectangular coordinate form, adding it to your diagram. If the same E
were given to exist at another point, say P
2
(3, 0, I) in this region, explain why these E vectors
are considered equal at these different points. (b) As an exercise in identifying coordinate surfaces,
sketch and label, on a diagram as suggested by Figure 1-5 (b), the\rectangular (planar) coor-
dinate surfaces x = 2,y = 3, and z = 6 that define the intersection Pl' Identify the components
of E that arc perpendicular to the coordinate surfaces at Pl' [Answer: (a) E = 253.8 Vim,
a
E
= 0.47a
x
+ 0.79a
y
+ 0.39a
z
l .
1-4. In the circular cylindrical coordinate system, a particular vector B = 30a
p
+ 10a<l> + 40a
z
is located at PI (5,30,6), as shown in the figure. Also shown arc the coordinate surfaces
p 5, 30, z 6, the intersection ofwhieh defines Pl' (a) Find the magnitude ofB. Deter-
mine the expression for the unit vector a
B
directed along B in circular eylindrical coordinates.
Label aB on your reproduction of this sketch. (b) Suppose the vector defined by the given B
also exists at the point P 2 (5, 90, 6). Sketch and label the additional coordinate surface needed
to identify the P
z
location. Sketch B and its components at Pz' What is the expression for
the unit vector aB at P
z
? Explain why these B vectors at the different points PI and P
z
arc
in fact not equal vectors, despite the identical expressions for B and its unit vector in this coor-
dinate system. Identify the components ofB that are perpendicular to the three coordinai:e surfaces
at P
2
. Label the coordinates of the points P
3
and P
4
shown. [Answer: (a) B 51.0, aB =
0.588a" + 0.196a.p + 0.784a
z
]
1-5. A particular vector field is given to be G(x,y, z) = x
2
yza
x
+ Cy - I lay - xzza
z
in some
region of space. Identify the components G
x
, G
y
, G
z
Defining the line t in this region as the
intersection of the coordinate surfaces = 3, z = 2, sketch t in three-dimensional rectangular
coordinate space. What is the vector field expression for G(x, 3, 2) applieable over this t? Evaluate
the vector G along t at the specific points x = 2, 1,0, 1,2,3, as well as the magnitude of
G at these points. Sketch curves showing the variation of G
x
and of IGI versus x over this range.
Sketch the vector G at the points x = - 2, 0, 2 along t on your three-dimensional diagram.
(z)
B
PI (5, 30, 6)
(xl

</,=30 //

(y)
4>=30 plane
/
/
PROBLEM
(xl
Pl
S
1
I-
f
(z)
-_ I
_ y l ~ L -
(x)
,Y2
PROBLEM 1-6
SECTION 1-6
I
I
I
--J..... ..... -
PROBLEMS 53
(y)
1-6. Shown is the "distance vector," R, a vector directed from the point PdXl,Yl' zd to
P
Z
(x
2
,)'z, zz) in space, the position vectors of the latter being r
1
and rz. Observing graphically
that R = r
z
- rj, write the expression for Rand IRI in rectangular coordinate {arm. Also write
the expression in rectangular coordinates for the unit vector a
R
directed along R, making use
Ahc definition, aR = Rj R.
\.!.:z}' From the geometry, it is readily seen that the relation among the radial unit vector a
r
of spherical coordinates and unit vectors of the circular cylindrical coordinate system is a
r
=
a
p
sin 0 + a
z
cos O. Use this relation to show that (oa,/iJ</J) = a.p sin 0.
SECTION 1-7
1-8. Sketch two vectors A and B in the same plane, showing from the definition (1-34) and
the geometry that A . B means the magnitude A times the length of the "projection of B onto
A," dcf1ncd by B cos O. Sketch the two vectors F = 30a
x
+ 40a
y
and G = 20a
y
+ 50a
z
at the
point 1'(2, 1,3) in the rectangular coordinate system, as suggested by Figure 1-4(c). Use the
ddinitionof the dot product to find the projection F cos 0 ofF onto G. Sketch this projection.
Find the smaller angle between F and G. [Answer: F cos 1J = 14.8,0 = 72.8]
1-9. Two constant vectors, C = 30a
x
+ 50a
y
+ 80a
z
and D = - 20a
y
+ 40aZ' are located
at the point P(3, 5, 4) in rectangular coordinates. (a) Sketch these vectors at 1', after the manner
suggested by Fif!:ure 1-4. Find their magnitudes, and find the smaller angle between them (in
their common plane) by use of (1) their dot product, and (2) their cross product. (b) Find the
so-called "direction angles," !Xc, {3e, and ')Ie between the vector C and the unit vectors ax, a
y
, a
z
,
respectively. Label these angles on your diagram. [Hint: Employ the concept of "projection"
from Problem 1-8; e.g., note that the dot product of C with the unit vector ax is C times cos !Xc
(the direction cosine).] [Answer: (a) 99.0,44.7,60.2 (b) 72.36, 59.66, 36.08]
1-10. (a) Give the possible conditions that two vectors must satisfy if their dot product, A . B,
is zero. (b) Hit is given that A' B A C, show from the definition of scalar product that this
does not necessarily mean that B C. What does it mean? Use a graphical construction to
1-11. Sketch a triangle of arbitrary shape using the vectors A, B, C to denote the sides such
that A + B = C, with the angle () between A and B. Prove the law of cosines by use of the dot
product C C = (A + B) . (A + B) for this triangle. [Answer: C
Z
A2 + B2 2AB cos OJ
54 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
1-12. Given the vectors A, B, and C of Problem 1-2, find
(a) A' B, B' C [Answer: 10, -6]
(c) A x B = F, IFI [Answer: -Sax - Say + lOa
z
, 12.25]
(d) A' (A x B) [Why is the answer zero expected?]
(A x B) . C [Answer: -60]
(f) (A x B) x C [Answer: 30a
x
- 30a
y
]
(g) A x (B x C) [Answer: -48a
y
+ 36a
z
J
1-13. Shown on the figure in spherical coordinates at the point P are the two vectors F =
40a
o
+ 30a.p and G I SOar - 100ao + 250a.p. (a) What are the spherical coordinates (r, 8, 4
of the point P in the figure? (b) Find the vector magnitudes and their dot product F . G. (c) Find
the projection G cos IX of G onto F, and determine the angle IX between the vectors in their
common plane. (d) Find the expansion for the unit vector a
F
directed along F. [Answer: (b) 50,
308.22, 3500 (c) IX = 76.87"]
G-"14: In the spherical system of Problem 1-13, find the value to which the 4> component of
~ u l need to be adjusted so as to make F and G exactly perpendicular.
1-15. (a) Sketch the unit vectors of the rectangular coordinate system at some common point
as depicted in Figure 1-4(b) or ] . Applying the definition (1-38) of the cross produ.rt and
the right-hand rule of Figure 1-9, show by inspection of the sketch why one expects that ax x
a
y
= a
z
and that ay x ax = -a
z
. Silnilarly, show why a
y
x a
z
ax, a
z
x a
y
-ax, a
z
x ax
a y and ax x a
z
= -avo Why is ax x ax = O? (Avoid employing the determinant (1-41) in your
arguments.) (b) Use the approach suggested in part (a) to verify that, in eylindrical coordi-
nates, a
p
x a.p = a
z
, a.p x a
p
= -a., a.p x a
z
= a
p
' a
z
x a.p = -a
p
, a
z
X a
p
= a.p and a
p
X
a
z
-a.p.
1-16. A parallelepiped has edges given by ax, 2a
p
and a
z
Sketch this "box." Show that one
major diagonal can be denoted by A = ax + 2a
y
+ a
z
. Label it on the sketch. Another major
/
I
/
I
I
I
I
I
y-""
I
-"" '"
,,;/// .... -
(xl
/
PROBLEM 1-13
/
/
/
/
(z)
,.-
/
------
G= 1503
r
-100a
o
+ 2503"
(y)
PROBLEMS 55
diagonal is written B = -ax + 2a
y
+ at. Label it also (noting that as a free vector, B can be
translated parallel to itself without altering its magnitude and direction). (a) l'iud the lengths
of these diagonals, as well as their dot and cross products. (b) Find the smaller angle between
the diagonals, first making use of the dot product and then using the cross product. [Answer: (a)
6, 4, 2a
y
- 4a
z
(b) 48.19]
17.. Relative to the pivot point given, find the vector moment (torque) associated with the
owing vector force and distance (in meters). (a) F = 20a
y
N applied at the point 4 m up the z-
axis, with the pivot point at the origin. (b) G = :'lOa
z
N applied at 1\ (-1,3,0) with the pivot
point at the origin. (b) G = :'lOa
z
N applied at PI ( - I, 3,0) with the pivot point at P
z
( 1,0, I).
Sketch the applicable vector diagrams, indicating from the right-hand rule the rotation associ-
ated with the moment M. [Answer: (a) -80a
x
(b) 150a
x
+ lOOa, N m]
SECTION 1-8
1-18. A non conservative force field, Fa
x
12xy2 + a
y
15yz + a
z
9z
2
N, is applied along the
straight line t shown, the intersection of the planes y = 3x and z = -fy + 2. Find the work done
by F in traversing e from PI(O, 0, 2) to P
2
( 1,3,0) (in meter's). \ Answer: 48 N . m]
1-19. (a) An elliptical path t
J
is defined in space as the intersection of the right circular cylinder
x
2
+ Cy - 1) 2 = I and the tilted plane z = 1/2 shown. Find the value of the line integralofH . dt
(2)
I
\ I
\
Plane y= 3x
(xl
PROBLEM 1-13
(z)
I
I
1_---_ .....
/r "-
/)
I I -----.-" I
I I I
(xl
PROBLEM 1-19
I I
I I
Pj(O,O,O) I
Plane
(y)
56 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
------
(x)
PROBLEM \-20
(z)
,
I
(y)
between the points PI and Pi shown, if H = a
y
3(1 x
2
) + a z ~ v 2 (b) Find the line integral
between the same points, but over the straight-line path t
z
defined by the intersection of the x = 0
plane and the tilted plane z = y/2. Is H a conservative field? Explain [Answer: 7.33, 11.33J
1-20. The semicircular path t shown is the inter-section of the right circular cylinder P
3 cos cp and the z = 2 plane. Find the line integral ofE . dt from P
l
to P
2
ifE = a
p
l50p cos cp +
a.p200 sin cp + a
z
100 cos cp. Determine the line integral over the straight-line path from PI to
P
2
(intersection of the cp = 0 and z = 2 planes). [Answer: -150, -675]
SECTION 1-9
1-21. Using standard scalar volume-integration methods, make use of the triple integral of
p"dv given by (1-47) to find the charge q inside the following volume regions. (Sketch each con-
figuration with dimensions, labeling a volume element at the typical point P inside .. appropriate
to the coordinate system used.) (a) The charged volume region is a cube with sides located at
x =.0, x = 0.1 m,] = 0,] = 0.1 m, Z = 0, Z = 0.1 m, with the nonuniform charge density inside
given by PI' = 20xyz C/m
3
. (b) The volume region is a right circular cylinder bounded by the
surfaces p = 0.1 m, z = 0, and Z = 0.1 m, with PI' = 20pz C/m
3
inside. (c) The volume region
is a sphere ofO.I-m radius, containing the charge density Pv = 20r cos
2
0 C/m
3
209 pC, 2.09 mC] .
1-22. Employing standard scalar surface-integration methods, make use of the double integral
of Ps ds to find the total charge on the following surfaces. (Sketch the dimensional layout, labeling
a scalar surface element at the typical point P(Ul, U2, u3) on S, appropriate to the coordinate
system required.) (a) The charged surface is square, centered at the origin, bounded by the sides
at x = 0.1 m,] = G.I m, and assumed covered with the nonuniform surface charge density
Ps = lOx
2
]2 C/m2. (b) The surface is a right circular cylinder (no endcaps) of radius p = a =
0.1 m, extending z = 0.1 m and possessing the surface charge density Ps = IOz
2
C/m
2
. (c) The
surface is a hemisphere ofr = a = O.I-m radius, extending from 0 = 0 to n/2, with the nonuniform
surface charge pf density Ps = 10 cos
2
0 C/m
2
thereon. [Answer: 4.44 pC, 4.19 mC, 209 mC]
1-23. Given is the E-field solution (1-5 7b) for the point charge Qlocated at the origin. Imagine
the spherical surface of radius r = a to surround Q. (a) Use the definition (1-48) to evaluate the
flux of the vector EoE passing through the surface of the spherical cap bounded by 0 = 8
1
as
shown. (Add to the sketch the details of the vector surface element ds suggested by Figure
1-7(b).) (b) Use the result of (a) to find the flux of EoE through the cap S, if8
1
= 30, 60, 90,
120, 150
0
and 180. Comment on the (}1 = 180
0
case relative to the Maxwell/Gauss law (I-53).
PROBLE:\!! 1-2:'
(2)
(z)
I
PROBLEMS 57
1-24. With the same point charge Qat the origin as in Problem 1-23, use the definition (1-48)
to evaluate the flux of ~ h vector (EoE) emerging from the bandlike surface S of the sphere,
extending ii'om 0
1
to O
2
as shown, IfO
I
60 and O
2
= 120, what percent of the total flux of
EoE is passing through the band? [Answer: Q(cos 8
1
- cos fJ
2
)/2, 50%]
SECTION 1-10
1-25. The electronic charge q = -e is shot with the initial velocity v = a
x
lO
5
mlsec into an
evacuated region containing the uniform magnetic field B = a)O-4- Wb/m
2
Sketch these vec-
tors (paper in the x:y plane), along with the force F acting on q, Give arguments as to why the
electron should take a circular path, Add this dimensioned circle to your sketch, Find what
electric field E wiH just overcome the force effect of the magnetic field, to cause the electron
to travel in a stra;ght line along the x-axis.
SECTION l-llA
1-26. Show a labeled sketch and give the ddails of the proof of (1-60), the expression for the
electricallield inside the static, unif()rmly charged spherical cloud (r < ro).
1-27. Suppose that inside a spherical cloud of static charge is contained the linearly varying
charge density, Pv po(rlro) e/m
3
, Po denoting the charge density at the surface r ro of the
58 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
sphere. (a) Use the volume integral (1-47) to determine the total charge within this sphere.
(b) With the charge density seen to be symmetric about the center of the cloud, employ Gauss's
law (I-53) to determine in detail theE field both inside the sphere (r < ro) and outside it (r > ro).
(Sketch a diagram patterned after Figure 1-15(b), showing the labeled Gaussian sur/aces
employed.) Show from your solution that the exterior E field (r> ro) is identical with that
expected if the total charge in the sphere were concentrated entirely at the origin. (c) If
Po = 10-
3
C/m
3
and ro = 10 em, find q in the sphere and sketch E, versus r. [Answer: (a)
q npo?o (b) E, = por2/4Eoro for r < ro, E, = for r> TO]
1-28. A spherical shell of charge possesses the constant volume charge density Pv between its
inner and outer radii a and b. Use Gauss's law to prove that the E field for r < a is zero; that for
a < r < b, Er is pv(r3 - a3)/3Eor2; whereas outside the shell (r > b) it is Pv(b
3
- a3)/3Eor2. (Show
an appropriately labeled sketch along with the details of your proof.)
1-29. Let the volume charge density within a spherical region of radius r a be given by
Pv = Po(l + kr), in which Po denotes the density at the origin. Determine the k that will make
the total charge in the sphere zero. For this k, why is the E field external to the sphere zero?
Find E. as a function of r within the sphere, making use of Gauss's law. [Answer: k = -4/3a]
1-30. An infinitely long, cylindrical clond of radius p a in free space contains the static,
uniform volume charge density p". With a suitably labeled sketch, make use of the symmetry
and Gauss's law (1-53) to obtain the following. (a) The electric field outside the cloud (p> a).
(b) The interior electric field (p < a). (c) Show that the exterior E field is the'same as that
expected if the same total charge per length t were concentrated as a line charge along the z
axis, as in Figure 1-15(c). [Answer: E = appva2/2Eop (b) appvp/2Eo]
1-31. Let an infinitely long, cylindrical charged cloud of radius a contain the static charge
density Pv = po(p/a)2, varying parabolically to the density Po at the cloud surface. (a) Make
use of (1-17) to determine the total charge q in any length t of this cloud. (b) Sketch a diagram
as suggested by Figure 1-15(c), making use of the symmetry and Gauss's law (I-53) to find the
E field outside the cloud (p > a), and then inside it (p < a). Label the Gaussian surfaces used.
Show from your solution that the field oLltside the cloud is the same as that expected if the
total clurge were concentrated along the z-axis. [Answer: (a) p
o
nta
2
/2 (h) poa
2
/4E
o
p for p > a,
pop
3
/4E
o
a
2
for p < a]
1-32. Two parallel, planar charges of the kind shown in Figure l-15(d) are located at x = d
and - d, possessing the nniform, opposite surface charge densities - Ps and p" respectively.
(a) Use the vector superposition (summing) of the fields of these two planar charges, as given
by (1-62), to prove that the total E field between the planes ( - d < x < d) is Ps!E V /m, whereas
that outside the planes (Ixl > d) is zero. (Do not usc Gauss's law.) (b) Repeat (a) if both
surface charge densities are positive.
SECTION I-llB
1-33. A hollow, circular cylindrical conductor in free space, assumed infinitely long to avoid
end efiects, and having the inner and outer radii band c, respectively, carries the direct current
1. (a) Assuming a constant, z-directed current density in the conductor cross sectiou, show that
the vector current density at any point therein is J = a
z
1/n(c
2
- b
2
). (b) Usc Ampere's law to
show that the exterior magnetic field is the same as that of the solid conductor of Figure 1-19
carrying the same total current f. Show that B inside the hollow interior (p < b) is zero, whereas
that within the conductor (b < p < c) is a",Jlo1(p2 - b
2
)/2np(c
2
- b
2
). (c) Sketch a graph
showing how B", varies with p.
1-34. A coaxial pair of circular cylindrical conductors, infinitely long in frec space, have the
dimensions shown and carry the equal and opposite total currents f. (a) Show tha.t the current
density in the inner conductor is a//na
2
, whereas in the outer conductor it is the negative of that
iCJUnd in Problem 1-33 (a). (b) Show that the B fields within the inner conductor (p < a) and
betweell the C'Onductors (a < p < b) are identical to those of the isolated wire of Example
1-15. Use Ampere's law, together with an appropriately labeled diagram showing the closed
s sphere.
y Gauss's
(r> ro).
sur/aces
'\lith that
n. (c) If
;wee (a)
twecn its
; that for
2. (Show
l,riven by
fill make
zero?
-4/3a]
lC static,
fmmetry
(p> a).
as that
ng the <
: chalge
1) Make
diagram
find the
:es used.
if the
)r p > a,
at x = d
ectively.
as given
whereas
if both
o avoid
current
ow that
, law to
Irc 1-19
Nhereas
I graph
ave the
current
: of that
a) and
"ample
closed
PROBLEMS 59
PROBLEM \-34
assumed, to prove in detail that the B field within the outer conductor (b < p < c) is
IIIP/loJ(C
2
p2)/2np(c
2
b
2
) and that it is zero for p > c. (e) Sketch a graph of BIP versus p
over the (0, c) range, assuming a = 3 mm, b = 6 mm, c = 3 mm, 1 = 100 A. Find the current
in each conductor, expressed in A/Cln
2
.
1..35. Show that the static B fields of the coaxiallinc of Problem 1-34 arc the superposition
of the fields of the hollow conductor of Problem 1-33' and those of the isolated conductor of
Example 1-15.
1..36. Two parallel, indefinitely thin eurrent sheets ofinfinite extent in free space are located at
= +d, possessing the unii()rm but oppositely directed surface-current densities Jsv
respectively. (The currents are assumed charge-compensated, making electric fields absent in this
problem.) (a) Employ resulls ofExamplc 1-16 and superposition (not law) to show that
B between the sheets ( -d <x <d) is /loJszay, whereas that outside the sheets Ox\ >d) is zero. (b)
Sketch a flux plot of the net By field. Show that ifJ,z = 100 Aim, then By = 1.257 mWb/m
2

Comment on the changes in the fields if both current densities wcre assumed in the same (
direction.
1..37. ,An infinite, planc conducting slab of thickness d in free space has its sides coincident with
the x = - d/2 and d/2 plancs. Assume the constant volume current dcnsity J = azJz A/m
2
within
thc conductor. In the manner of Example 1-16, use law to show that the B field
outside the conducting slab (Ixl > d/2) is a
y
1/loJ
z
d. (h) Make use of Ampere's law to find B
inside the slab. [Hint: Choose a rectangular dosed path t with one side parallel to the known field
of (a), and its other side aligned with the unknown field.]
1.38. Two parallel, round conductors, infinitely long and carrying the currents 1, 1, are
2d m apart. Assume them parallel to the <-axis and centered about the origin on the x-axis.
Sketch a top view of the conductors in the x:y plane, with the current in conductor 1 at x = d
assumed + z-directed. Show its vector field contribution Bl at the normal distance P 1 from 1 to the
typical location P(x,]), making use of (1-64). Showing Bl decomposed into its Bxl and Byl
components, use the geometry to develop the expression lor Bl solely in terms ofx and]. (b) Doing
the same for conductor 2, 0xpress the total B at P, due to both conductors, entirely in rectangular
coordinate form. (c) Il'l = 10 A and 2d = 5 em, find B at the origin. Find also the vector B at the
following (x,.y) locations expressed in centimeters: (1.25,0), (3.75,0), (0,1.25), (1.25,1.25),
1.25), (3.75,1.25), (0,2.5), . [Answer (b):
i,
'i
60 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
PROBLE,\1 1-39
in which
1-39. Find, by superposition, the magnetic fields of a pair of coaxial, ideally closely wound
toroids of circular cross section as shown, assuming the same number of turns and the identical
currents /, Assume the currents first in the same direction; then, in opposing directions.
SECTION 1-12
1-40. Introducing the unit vectoraql at Pon Figure 1-26(a), from the geometry verify (1-73b).
Similarly verify (1-73c).
1-41. (a) From the geometry of Figure 1-26(b), verify that the projections of the unit vector a
r
onto ax, a
y
' and a
z
yield aT' ax = sin 0 cos cP, aT' a
y
= sin 0 sin cP, aT' a
z
= cos O. (b) Modify Figure
1-26(b) to enable deducing the following projections: ae' ax = cos () cos cP, ae' a, = cos 8 sin cP,
ao' a
z
= -sin 8. Show similarly from the geometry that a",' ax = -sin cP, a",' a,y = cos cP,
a", . a
z
= O. (c) Expressing A in rectangular coordinate form, A = axAx + ayAy + ~ z use the
fOl'egoing results and methods discussed in Section 1-12 to deduce the expressions for the spheri-
cal coordinate components of A in terms of its rectangular components, that is,
Ar = a
r
' A = Ax sin e cos IjJ + Ay sin fJ sin IjJ + A
z
cos 0
Ae = Ax cos e cos 1> + Ay cos () sin IjJ - A
z
sin e
AqI = - Ax sin IjJ + Ay cos IjJ [I -79a,b,c J
1-42. (a) A sphere of radius a and centered at the origin is expressed in rectangular coordinates
by x
2
+ y2 + Z2 = a
2
. Use the appropri<ite coordinate transformations to reduce this to the
simpler spherical coordinate expression. (b) Center the sphere at x = a to make its expression
(x - a)2 + y2 + ,;:2 = a
2
. Transform this to its spherical coordinate form, r 2a sin 0 cosljJ.
1-43. Transform the following veetor fields to the circular cylindrical coordinate system.
(a) A = lOa
x
, (b) B = IQya
x
, (c) D = 3(1 - x
2
)a
y
+ a
z
1Y2. [Answer: A aplO cos IjJ c- a",10
sin 1jJ, B apIOp sin IjJ cos IjJ - aqllOp sin
2
1jJ, D = a,,3(1 - p2 cos
2
1jJ) sin IjJ + a",3(1 -
p2 cos
2
1jJ) cos IjJ + a
z
4p2 5in
2
1jJ]
1-44. Transform the given vector fields to the spherical coordinate system. (a) A = lOa
x
, (b)
E = a},lOOx. [Answer: A = arlO sin e cos IjJ + aolO cos e eos IjJ aqllO sin 1jJ, E =
a,IOOr sin
2
() sin IjJ cos IjJ + ao 1001' sin e cos e sin eos + aql 100r sin e cos
2
1jJ]
lind
leal
.he

cJ
es
1C
)IJ
n.
o
l)
.. "----------------------------------------CHAPTER2
Vector Differential Relations
and Maxwell's Differential
Relations in Free Space
In this chapter is considered the development, in generalized orthogonal coordinates,
of the gradient, divergence, and curl operators of vector analysis, with forms in the
common coordinate systems taken up in detail. The divergence theorem and the theo-
rem of Stokes are used to derive the differential forms of Maxwell's divergence and
curl equations in free space fi'om their integral versions postulated in Chapter L The
appropriate manipulations of Maxwell's time-varying differential equations are seen
to lead to the wavc equations in terms of the Band E fields, and the wavelike nature
their solutions is exemplified by considering in detail the field solutions of uniform
waves in free space.
A pursuit of these ideas requires some background in the differentiation of vector
fields, to be discussed in the following section.
21 DIFFERENTIATION OF VECTOR FIELDS
In many physical problems involving vector fields, a knowledge of their rates of change
with respect to space, time, or perhaps some parameter is often of interest. This notion
has already been introduced in Section 1-6 in connection with the position vector r.
I t is now considered in general for any differentiable vector field.
IfF(u) is a vector function ofa single scalar variable u, iL<; ordinary vector deri-
vatiye with respect to u is defined by the limit
dF . L1F . F(u + L1u) F(u)
lim -= lIm
du L1u Ilu->O L1u
(2-1)
61
"\ '
62 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL REI"ATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
}'IGURE 2-1. A vector fimctiol1 F in space, and its variation l ~ F
with respect to some variable u.
provided that the limit exists (i.e., the limit is single-valued and finite). As in tl
stance of the derivatives of the position vector r considered earlier, the vector i
ment L\F is not necessarily aligned with the vector F, implying that the direction t
vector F may change with the variable u. This circumstance is exemplified in I"
2-1, in which the conventional triangle construction is used to define AF, the diffe
between F(u + Au) and F(u). The derivative (IFjdu defines a function, the deriv
of which in turn defines a second-order derivative fimction dZF /du
2
, and so on.
The derivatives of the sum or product comhinations of scalar and vector I
tions are often of interest. For example, iff and F are respectively scalar and VI
functions of the variable u, the derivative of their product is, from (2-1)
dUF) . U + AI) (F + L\F) -.IF . dF df
--- = hm -----.-.------- = f + F
du au"" 0 Au . du du
Note that this result resembles in form a similar rule of the scalar calculus (in wi
both fu nction8 are scalars).
IfF is a function of more than one variable, say OfUl' U2, u
3
, t, its partial del'
tive with respect to one of the variables (U1) is defined
lim F(ul + L\u 1, 112, u3, t) F(Ul> UZ, u 3 , t) ~
aUI-O AUI
with similar expressions for the partial derivatives with respect to the remain
variables. Successive partial differentiations yield functions such as jJ2F Ie
a
2
F/oul eJu
z
. If F has continuous partial derivatives of at least the second order, i
permissible to differentiate it in either order; thus
(2
The partial derivative of the sum or product combinations of scalar 'and vect
functions sometimes is useful. In particular, one can use (2-3) to prove tbat t
following expansions are valid
)Ns
in the in-
tor incre-
ion of the
in Figure
liffercncc
erivative
on.
tor func-
ld vector
(2-2)
n which
deriva-
(2-3)
laining
2F/ouI,
it is
(2-4)
vector
at the
2-2 GRADIENT OF A SCALAR FUNCTION 63
of + F
at at
(2-6)
o(F x G) DG DF

at at
(2-7)
if f is any scalar function and F and G are vector functions of several variables,
among which t denotes a typical variable.
22 GRADIENT OF A SCALAR FUNCTION
The space rate ofehange ofa sealar fieldf(ull Uz, U3, t) is frequently of physical interest.
For example, in the scalar temperature field T(ull Uz, U3, t) depicted in Figure I-I(a),
one can surmise from graphical considerations that the maximum space rates of tem-
perature change OCCllr in di rections normal to the constan t temperatu re surfaces shown.
Generally, the maximum space rate of change of a scalar function, induding the vector
direction in which the rate of change takes place, can be characterized by means of
a vector di!li:?rential operator known as the gradient of that scalar function. It is
developed here.
If, al allY fixed time t, a single-valued, well-behaved scalar field f(u
l
, U2, U3, t)
is set equal to any cons/ant fo so that f(UlJ uz, U
3
, t) = Jo, a surface in space is described,
as depicted by .)1 ill Figurc 2-2. A physical example of such a surface is any of the
constant temperature surfaces of Figure l-l(a). Another SllrfaCe, 8
2
, an infinitesimal
distance from 81> is described by letting f(u
1
+ dUI' Uz + dU2, U3 + dU3) = Jo + df, in
which dl is taken to mean a very small, constant, scalar amount. Suppose that two
nearby points, P and P', are located a vector distance dt apart on these two surfaces
-1
I
(a)
82 (defined
by f = to + df)
8
2
(f= (o + dt)
(b)
FIGURE 2-2. Two nearby surfaccs 1=10 and 1 + dl" rdatiVt" [0 a discussion or grad
(a) Points P and P' separated by dt and on snr/aces defincd by 1 and 1 = 10 + til
Points P and P' on the same slIJ'face 1 = 10' to show that grad 1 and dt are perpendicular.
64 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
as in Figure 2-2(a), recalling from (1-21) that one may express dt = aldt as
(2-8)
df is the amount by which f changes in going from P to P' from the first surface to
the second, written as the total differential
(2-9)
The presence of the components of dt in (2-9) permits expressing df as the dot product
Calling the bracketed quantity the gradient of the function f, or simply grad f, as follows
or
(2-10)
one may write the total differential df of (2-9) in the abbreviated form
df = (grad I) . dt (2-11 )
Two properties of grad I are deducible from (2-11);
1. That the vector function grad I defined by (2-10) is a vector perpendicular to
any I = Io surface is appreciated if the points P and P', separated by a distance
dt, are placed on the same surface as in Figure 2-2(b). Then the amount by
which I changes in going from P to P' is zero, but from (2-11), (gradf) . dt 0,
implying that grad I and dt are perpendicular vee tors. Grad I is therefore a
vector everywhere perpendicular to any surface on which I constant.
2. If a displacement dt from the point P is assigned a constant magnitude and a
variable direction, then from (2-11) and the definition (1-34) of the dot product
it is seen that dI = Igrad II dt cos 0, 0 denoting the direction between the grad f
and dt. The magnitude of gradf is therefore df/(dt cos 8), but from Figure
2-2(a), dt cos 0 = dn, the shortest (perpendicular) distance from the point P on
the surface SI to the adjacent surface S2 on which I Io + dj, whence
df
dn
(2-12)
curvil
from
in S(
in tl
and
tha
hoI
Co
Po
Fr
be
OJ
p:
0'
d
~
2-2 GRADIENT OF A SCALAR FUNCTION 65
The vector grad j therefore denotes both the mag"nitude and direction of the
maximal space rate of change of j, at any point in a region.
Note that the magnitude ofgradj can also be expressed in terms of its orthogonal
lfvilinear components, given in the definition (2-10) by
[(
OJ)2 (or)2 (OJ )2J1
/
2
\gradji= -- + -"- + --
hi OUI h2 AU 2 h3 OU3
(2-13)
The expressions for grad j in a specific orthogonal coordi nate system are obtained
rom (2-10) on substituting into it the appropriate symbols {CH" U; and hi as discussed
n Section 1-5. Thus, in the rectangular system
oj oj
grad j = ax ox + a y oy + a z --
(2-14a)
III the circular system
(2-14b)
and in the .>jJherical coordinate system
_ oj loj 1 oj
grad) = a,-o + a o - oe + a.p -'-e 3'"'
r r r 5111 ( 'V
(2-14c)
An integral property of grail j, of considerable importance in field theory, is
that its line integral over any dosed path t in space is zero. Symbolically
~ (gradj) . dt = 0 (2-15)
holding fell' all well-behaved scalar functions j, and proved in the riJlIowing manner.
Consider (2-15) integrated over an open path between the distinct endpoints
po(u7, ug, u ~ and P(u
1
, 112'
Jpo
(2-16)
From (2-11) it is seen that (grad j) . dt denotes the lotal differential df, so that (2-16)
becomes
fP (gradj) . dt = fP df = IJP
Jpo Jpo Po
(2-17)
or the difference of the values of the function I at the endpoints P and Po. Thus, any
path connecting Po and P will provide the same result, (2-17). Carrying out (2-16)
over some path A from Po to the point P and then back to Po once more over a
different path B, the contributions of the two integrals would cancel exactly, making
(2-15) the result. The integral property (2-15) of any vector field grad f is sometimes
66 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
called the conservative property of that field, from the applications of integrals of that
type to problems involving certain kinds of energy, Any field gradf is a conservative
field,
23 THE OPERATOR V (Del)
Recall that the gradient of a scalar field f is expressed in rectangular coordinates by
(2-14a)
[2-14a]
The presence of the common function f in each term permits separating from this ex-
pression a vector partial differential operator represented by the symbol V (pronounced
del) as follows
(2-18)
to permit writing gradf in an alternative symbolism, Vf
8f 8f of
z
-
ax Yay oz
(2-19)
The notations grad f and Vf will henceforth be considered interchangeable,
It may be noted that the operator V defined by (2-18) in the rectangular coor-
dinate system can be defined in other coordinate systems as well, including the gen-
eralized orthogonal curvilinear system. This is not done here because of its lengthy
form and because it serves no particular need in connection with the objectives of
this text. You may wish to consult other sources relative to extending (2-18) to other
coordinate systems.}
EXAMPLE 21. Suppose a scalar, time-independent temperature field in some region of a space
is given by
T(x,y) = 200x + 100y deg
with x andy expressed in meters. Sketch a few isotherms (constant temperature surfaces)
of this static thermal field and determine the gradient of T.
The isotherms arc obtained by setting T equal to specific constant temperature
values. Thn5, letting T = 100 yields 100 = 200x + 1O(!y, the equation of the tilted plane
y = 2x + I. Th.is and other isothermie surfaces are shown in the accompanying figure.
The temperature gradient of T(x,y) is given by (2-14a)
aT aT aT
v T == grad T = ax - + a
y
- + a
z
-- = 200a
x
+ I OOa
y
0 1m
ox oy a.::;
1 For example, sec M.,Javid, and P. M. Brown, Field AnalYsis and Elfictromagnetics. New York: McGraw-Hill,
1963, p.477.
:I ...
TI
:r
Ih
i
-
, II!
2-4 DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FUNCTION 67
\ (y)
,
(a) (b)
EXAMPLE 2-1. (a) Graph of T constant. (b) Side view of (a).
a vector everywhere perpendicular to the isotherms, as noted in (b) of the figure. The x
andy components of the temperature gradient denote space rate of change of temperature
along these coordinate axes. From (2-13), the magnitude is
denoting the maximal space rate of change of temperature at any pomt. One may observe
that heat will flow in the direction of maximal temperature decrease; that is, along lines
perpendicular to the isotherms and thus in a dir'cction opposite to that of the vector grad T
at any poin t.
1-4 DNERGENCE OF A VECTOR FUNCTION
The flux representation of vector fields was described in Section 1-9. If a vector field
r is representable by a continuous system of unbroken flux lines in a volume region as
for example, in Figure 2-3(a), the region is said to be sourcefree; or equivalently,
field F is said to be divergenceless. (The divergence ofF is zero.) On the other hand,
111l1li;;;;
, fjl!"! /% Ijffk/"/.,
~ 1/ \-y / /
l;r '- " /
(a) (b) (e)
FIGURE 2-3. Concerning the divergence of flux fields. (a) A vector field F in a source-free
As many flux lincs enter S as leave it. (b) A vector Geld F in a region containing sources
posse,;sirlg net outgoing flux). (c) The meaning of div F: net outward flux per unit volume as
-0.
68 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
if the flux plot of F consists of flux lines that are broken or discontinuous, as depicted
in Figure 2-3(b), the region contains sources of the field flux; the field F is then said
to have a nonzero divergence in that region. The characterization of the divergence of
a vector field on a mathematical basis is described here.
The divergence of a vectorfield F, abbreviated div F, is defined as the limit of the net
outward flux ofF, fs F ds, per unit volume, as the volume !lv enclosed by the surface
S tends toward zero. Symbolically,
div F == lim
Av-+ 0
F ds
!lv fl ux lines/m
3
(2-20)
Thus, as the closed surface S is made very small, as depicted in Figure 2-3(c), the limit-
ing, net outward flux pCI' unit volume in the neighborhood of the point P defines the
divergence of the vector field F there. The shape of S is immaterial in this limit, as long
as the dimensions of !lv tend toward zero together.
The definition (2-20) leads to partial diHerential expressions for div F in the
various coordinate systems. For example, in generalized orthogonal coordinates, div F
is shown to become
(2-21 )
The derivation of the differential expression (2-21) for div F in generalized ortho-
gonal coordinates proceeds from the definition (2-20). Express the function F in terms
of its generalized components as follows
F(Ul' U2, U3, I) = a1Fdul, U2, U3, t) + a
2
F
2
(u
l
, li2, li
3
, t) + a
3
F
3
(u
l
, li2, U3, I)
(2-22)
The definition (2-20) requires that the net effiux ofF be found over the closed surface
S bounding any limiting volume !lv, which from (1 II) or (1-13) is expressed
(2-23)
The net, outward Hux ofF is that emanating from the six sides of !lv, designated
by Llsi> !lS'I' and so forth, in Figure 2-4(a). The contribution !It/ll entering element
!lSl is just F Lls
i
= (alF
I
)' !lSI' or
(2-24)
(2-25 )
the negative sign being the consequence ofassuming a positively direeted Fl component
the outward !lSI = - al !lt2 Llt3; that is, the flux Llt/ll enters !lSI' In the limit, as
the separation Lltl between !lSl and Lls'! becomes sufficiently small, the flux Llt/l'l leaving
!ls'! in Figure 2-4(b) differs from !It/ll entering !lSI by an amount given by the second
FIC
the
(:on
oPI
ter
It
in
di
01
T
tJ
(
2-4 DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FUNCTION 69
FIGURE 2-4. A volume-clement L'iu in the generalized orthogonal coordinate system nsed in
the development of the partial diflcrcntial expression for div F. (a) A volume-element !lv and
I:omponents ofF in the neighborhood of 1'(u
1
, 112' U3)' (b) Flux contribntions entering and leaving
opposite surfaces of !lv. The remaining four sides are similarly treated.
term of the Taylor's expansion of about the point P; that is,
A ./, + 0(L\1/; tl L\
lJ.'f'1 '" Ul
UUl
= F'1L\t2L\t3 +
OUI
Fl L\t2 L\
t
3 + (Flh2
h
3) ] L\Ul L\uz L\
U
3
(2-26)
It is permissible to remove L\U2 and L\u3 from the quantity affected by the O/OUI operator
in the foregoing because each is independent of Ul, in view of the orthogonal coor-
dinate system being used. The net outgoing flux emerging from the sides As[ and L\S'l
of Figure 2-4(b) is thus the sum of (2-24) and (2-26)
(2-27a)
The two remaining pairs of surface elements and L\S3', similarly con-
tribute outgoing flux in the amounts
(2-27b)
(2-27c)
seen to be obtainable from the symmetry and the cyclic permutation of the subscripts
of (2-27a). Finally, putting (2-27a, b, c) into the numerator of (2-20) obtains the result
70 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENT1AL RELATIONS
anticipated in (2-21)
whence
I n rectangular coordinates, div F is found from (2-28) by setting hI = h
z
h3 = 1
and U
1
= X, U
2
= y, U3 Z
. oFx oFy i3F
z
dlV F = -- + - + -- Rectangular
ox oy
(2-29a)
whereas in the circular cylindrical and the spherical coordinate systems, the expressions
become
. I a , 1 of,,,
(hv F = - (pF ) + -- + --
P i3p P p i3</>
Circular cylindrical (2-2% )
div F
13 1 a
(r
2
p".) +. (Flj sin 8)
Or r 8m 8 138
1
+ . 8 "",
r SIn U<p
Spherical (2-29c)
The form (2-29a) ofdiv F in the rectangular system is the basis for another nota-
tion using the del operator (V) defined by (2-18). On taking the dot product of V
with F in the rectangular system of coordinates, one finds
(2-30)
or precisely (2-29a). This is the basis for the equivalent symbolisms
divF == V' F (2-31 )
The notations div F and V' F will be considered interchangeable regardless of whiCh
coordinate system is used, even though the symbol V has for our purposes been defined
only in the rectangular system.
2-4 DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FUNCTION 71
(aJ (6)
(d)
EXAMPLE 2-2
( c)
(eJ
K
L= ap p
IXAMPLE 22. Sketch nux plots [or each o[the following vector fields, and find the divergence
of each: (a) F = axh', G axKy, H axKx; (b) J = apK, L ap(Kjp).
(II) Applying (2-29a) to the fimctions F, G, and H in the rectangular system obtains
div F = = 0
ox
divG
ox
=0 divH
ox
K
Their llnx plots an: shown in (a) through (c). Tnspection reveals a zero value
or divergence is obtained for the fields F and G; a tcst closed surface placed any-
where in the region will have zero net flux emanating from it. The nonzero div H,
on the other hand, is evident from its flux plot because of the discontinuous flux
lines, here required to possess an increasing density with x, yielding a net nonzero
outgoing flux emerging from the typical dosed S shown.
(b) From (2-29b)
div J
I i!
-0 (pK)
P P
K
p
divL
1 i!
pop p
o
the flux plots of which are illustrated looking along the z-axis of the circular cy-
lindrical system in (d). The divergencclcss character of L is evidcnt from its lip
dependence, which, in this cylindrical system, provides an uninterrupted system of
72 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
outgoing flux lines. The radially directed field J, having a constant flux density of
magnitude K, on the other hand, e1early must pick up additional flux lines with an
increase in p. It is therefore required to possess a divergence.
EXAMPLE 23. Find the diverge nee of the E field produced by the uniformly charged cloud
of Figure 1-15(b) at any location both inside and exterior to the cloud.
The field E(r) outside the cloud (r> (0) is given by (I-59). Its divergence III
spherical eoordinates is
divE =
Or
(2-32)
This null result signifies a flux plot in the region' > ro consisting of unbroken lines, as
noted in Figure 1-16(b). All inverse r2 radial ficlds behave this way.
Inside the charged cloud (r < r 0), the E field (1-60) being proportional to , has the
divergence
divE
p"
Eo
r < TO (2-33)
a nonzero, eonstant result, proportiollal to the density p" of the e1oud. Note that bringing
Eo inside the divergence operator puts (2-33) into the form
div (EoE) = Pv C/m
3
,< '0
making the divergence of (EoE) the same as the charge density Pv inside the cloud. It is
shown in Section 2-4B that this result is true in general, even for nonuniform charge dis-
tributions in free space.
A. Divergence Theorem
If F(uj, U
Z
, U3, t) is well-behaved m some regIOn of space, then the integral
identity
Sv(divF)du ~ s F d s
(2-34)
is true for the dosed surface S bounding any volume V. Equation (2-34) implies that
the volume integral of (div F) dv taken throughout any V equals the net flux of F
emerging from the dosed surface S bounding V.
A heuristic proof of (2-34) proceeds as follows. Suppose that V is subdivided into
a large number n of volume-elements, any of which is designated AUi with each en-
dosed by bounding surfaces ,S; as in Figure 2-5(a). The net flux emanating from AUi
is the surface integral ofF ds over S;, but from (2-20), this is also (div F) Av; for Au;
sufficiently small, that is,
~ S i F ds
(div F) AVi (2-35)
The fluxes contributed by every Si will sum up to yield the net flux through the ex-
terior surface S bounding the volume V. Thus the left side of (2-35) summed over the
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
;'
/
FIG!.
them
insid,
V.
clos'
ge
2-4 DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FUNCTION 73
,
,
(a) (b)
fIGURE 2-5. Geometry of a .typical closed surface S, used in relation to the divergence
theorem. (a) A volume V bounded by 8, with a lypical volume-dement t.v, bounded by S,
inside. (b) Surfaces 8
2
and S, constructed to eliminate discontinuities or singularities from
V.
surfaces .1s
i
inside S yields
i [rh F . dsJ = rh F . ds
;= 1 1s, 1s
(2-36) to the right side of (2-35) summed over the n volume elements Llv;
as the number n tends toward infinity (and as .1vi --+ dv)
rh F . ds = lim f (div F) dv = r (div F) do
Ie;; i=l Jv
(2-37)
just (2-34), known as the divergence theorem.
If the limiting process yielding (2-37) is to be valid, it is necessary that F, together
its first derivatives, be continuous in and on V. IfF and its divergence V . Fare
not continuous, then the regions in Vor on S possessing such discontinuities or possible
must be excluded by constructing closed surfaces about them, as typified
2-5(b). Note that the volume V of that figure is bounded by the multiple
surface S = SI + S2 + S3, with S2 and S3 constructed to exclude discontinuities or
singularities inside them. The normal unit vectors an, identified with each vee tor sur-
face element ds = an ds on Sl' S2, and S3, are assumed outward unit vectors pointing
away from the interi'or volume V.
The following examples illustrate the foregoing remarks concerning the diver-
. gence theorem.
EXAMPLE 24. Supposc the one-dimensional field H(x) = axKx of Examplc 2-2(a) exists in a
region. Illustrate the validity of the divergence theorem (2-34) by evaluating its volume
and surface integrals inside and on the rcctangular parallelepiped bounded by the co-
ordinate surfaccs x = 1, x = 4, Y = 2, y = - 2, z = 0, and z = 3, for the given H.
~
74 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
(x)
EXAMPLE 2-4
ds = - ax dy dz on 82
2
(y)
Since div H = K, the volume integral of (2-34) becomes
(Jl
Evaluating the surface integral requires summing the integrals ofH . ds over the six sides
of the parallelepiped. Because H is x-directed, however, H . ds is zero over four of these
sides, the surface integral reducing to the same result as (I)
J. H . ds = ('3 ('2
1s JFO J y ~
= 48K - 12K = 36K
(2)
EXAMPLE 25. Given the p-dependent field: E = R"K/pl
I
2, with K a constant, illustrate the
validity of the divergence theorem by evaluating both integrals of (2-34) within and on
a right circular cylinder of length L, radius R, and centered about the <-axis as shown.
EXAMPLE 2-5
(Detail of thin tube
used to exclude
singularity)
ail
ap' I'
__ 111_
2-4 DlVERGRNCE OF A VECTOR FUNCTION 75
Since E has it singularity atp = lJ, a thin, tubular surface S2 of radius a is constructed
as shown, to exclude the singularity from the integration region, making S = SI + S2 +
S3 + 8
4
, The divergence orE, by use of (2-29b), is
1 a K
v . E = -;-- =
pup 2p
yiclding the following volume integral
With E P directed, the surface integral of (2-34) reduces to contributions from only 8
1
and S2 (the end caps yielding zero outward flux), whence

S
z. f,L ( K ) S2. f,L ( K )
a -- . (a Rd"'dz) + a --- . (-a adA-.dz)
p R112 P 'I' P a112 P 'I'
2nKL(Rl/2 a
1
/
2
) (2)
agreeing with the result (I). [Note: Each answer has the limit 2nKLRl/2 as a -> 0.]
The usefulness of the divergence theorem embraces more generally the inter-
change of volume for closed-surface integrals required for establishing several theorems
of electromagnetic theory. An example occurs in Poynting's theorem of electromagnetic
power considered later in Chapter 7.
B. Maxwell's Divergence Relations for Electric
and Magnetic Fields in Free Space
The definition (2-20) of the divergence of a vector field serves as a basis for de-
riving the dilferential, or point, forms of two of Maxwell's equations from their cor-
rh (EoE) ds = r Pvdv C
fs - Jv
rh B. ds = 0 Wb
fs
[1-53]
[1-54]
These laws apply to closed surfaces S of arbitrary shape and size. If S is the surface
bounding any small volume element Av, dividing (1-53) by Av yields
fs (EoE) ds = Iv pv
dv
Av Av
(2-38)
The Iimil of the left side, as A1I becomes sufficiently small, is div (EoE) from the definition
(2-20). The right side denotes the ratio of the free charge Aq inside Av to Av itself; its
limit is PV' As A1I -t 0, therefore, (2-38) becomes
div (EoE) = Pv C/m
3
(2-39)
-
76 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
the differential form of Maxwell's integral expression (1-53). Note that expressing
(2-39) in rectangular coordinates using (2-29a) yields the partial differential equation
aE oE aE Pv
x+ __ y+ z
ax ~ oz Eo
(2-40)
It is evident that the divergence of (EoE) at any point in a region is precisely Pv, the
volume density of electric charge there, implying that the flux sources of E fields are
electric charges. Equivalently, if electric field lines terminate abruptly, their termini
must be electric charges.
By a similar procedure applying (1-54), one obtains the following partial differen-
tial eq uation in terms of B
div B = 0 Wb/m
3
(2-41 )
implying that B fields are always divergenceless and therefore source free. The flux
plot of any B field must, therefore, invariably consist of elosed lines; free magnetic
charges are thus nonexistent in the physical world. A divergenceless field is also called
a solenoidal field; magnetic fidds are always solenoidal.
EXAMPLE 26. Suppose that Maxwell's diHcrential equation (2-39), instead of its integral
form (I-53), had been postulated. Execute the reverse of the process just described, deriv-
ing (1-53) from by the latter over an arbitrary volume Vand applying
the divergence theorem.
Integrating over an arhitrary volume V yields
Assume that E is well-behaved in the region in question. From a use of (2-34), the left:
side can be replaced by the equivalent closed-surface integral ts (EoE) . ds, and (I-53)
follows
[ 1-531
25 CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD
From (2-15) it is established that the line integral of (grad f) dt around any closed
path is always zero. Many vector functions do not exhibit this conservative property;
a physical example is the magnetic B field obeying Ampere's circuital law (1-56). For
example, in the steady current system of Figure 1-19, the line integral of'B dt taken
about a circular path enclosing all or part of the wire, a nonzero current result is
anticipated. Nonconservative fields such as these are said to possess a circulation about
closed paths of integration. Whenever thc elosed-line integral of a field is taken about
a small (vanishing) closed path and the result is expressed as a ratio to the small
area enclosed, that circulation per unit area can be expressed as a vector known as
the curl of the field in the neighborhood of a point. It follows that a conservative
field has a zero value of curl everywhere; it is also called an irrotational field.
Pa
FI
th
01
fi
CI
b
VI
tl
fi
t
f
v
c
2-5 CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD 77
B
--
(xj
FIGURE 2-6. A vc\ocity field in a'fluid, with an interpretation "fits curllrom
the rotation of a small paddle wheel.
Historically, the concept of curl comes from a mathematical model of effects
in hydrodynamics. The early work of Helmholtz in the vortex motion of fluid
fields led ultimately to the mathematical postulates by Maxwell of Faraday'S con-
ceptiollS of the electric fields induced by magnetic fields. A connection
between curl and fluid phenomena can be established by supposing a small paddle
wheel to be immersed in a stream of water, its velocity field being represented by
the flux map shown in :Figure 2-6. Let the paddle wheel be oriented as at A in the
figure. Th(' eH<';ct of the greater fluid velocity on one side than on the other will cause
the wheel to fotate- clockwise, in the example shown. In this example, the velocity
field l' is said to have a vector curl directed into the paper along the axis of the paddle
wheel, a s('nse determined by the thumb of (he right hand if the fingers point in the
direction of the rotation; the vector curl of v has a negative z direction at A. Similarly,
physically rotating the paddle wheel axis at right angles as at B in the figure provides
a way 10 determine the x component of the vector curl of v, symbolized [curl v]x. In
rectangular coordinates, the total vector curl of v is the vector sum
Generally, the curl
2
of a vector field F(ub U2, U3, t), denoted curl F, is expressed as
the vector sum of three orthogonal components, as follows
(2-42)
Each component is defined as a line integral ofF, dt about a shrinking closed line on
a per-unit-area basis with the al component defined
(2-43)
The vanishing suriace bounded by the closed line t shown in Figure 2-7 is As
l
, with
the direction of integration around t assumed to be governed by the right-hand rule.
3
2In texts, curl F is written rot F, and is read rotation of F.
3The integration sense coincides with the direction in which the fingers of the right hand point if the thumb
points in the direction of a l'
78 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
FIGURE 2-7. A closed line l bouuding the
vanishing area As
lo
used in defining the a
l
component of curl Fat P.
Similar definitions apply to the other two components, so the total value of curl F at
a point is expressed
curlF
A difierential expression for curl F in generalized coordinates is found from (2-44)
by a procedure resembling that used in finding the differential expression for div F in
Section 2.4. The shape of each closed line l used in the limits of (2-44) is of no con-
sequence, as long as the dimensions of Lls inside l tend toward zero together. Thus,
in finding the a
l
component of curl F, t is deformed into the curvilinear rectangle
of Figure 2-8(b) with edges Lll
z
and Lll
3
. The surface bounded by t is Lls
l
=
a
l
Lltz Llt3 = alhzlz3 LlU2 LlU3, the only components ofF contributing to the line integral
in the numerator of (2-43) being F2 and F
3
. Thus, along the bottom edge Llt
z
, the
contribution to ~ t F dt becomes
(2-45)
in which LlW2 denotes that contribution. Along the top edge, F2 changes an incremental
amount, but in general so does the length increment, Llt
z
, because of the curvilinear
coordinate system. The line-integral contribution along the top edge is found from a
Taylor's expansion of W about P. The first two terms are sufficient if U 3 is suitably
\ (U3)
\
\
\
\
\
I
(a) (b)
FIGURE 2-8. Relative to curl F in generalized orthogonal coordinates. (a) The components
ofF at a typical point P. (6) Construction of a path l rdative to the a
l
component or curl F.
sn
tl
ec
v
2-5 CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD 79
small; thus
U2, U3 + Llu
3
) = [LlW2 + -,---'- LlU
3
]
(2-46)
the negative sign resulting from integrating in the sense of decreasing U
2
along the top
edge.
Similarly, the contribution along the left edge Llt3 in Figure 2-8(b) is
(2-47)
whereas along the right edge, it is
I' 0(F3
M
3)
LlW3=F3Llt3+ Lluz
OU2
(2-48)
The substitution of (2-45) through (2-48) into the definition (2-43) obtains for the a
1
component of curl F
. t
F
'
dt
.
=a
1
hm --=a
1
hm
ASI---+O AS
l
AS1---+0
(2-49)
A similar procedure yields the two remaining vector components of curl Fin (2-44);
although from symmetry, a simple cydic illterchange of the subscripts in (2-49) leads
directly 10 them. The expression /<)r curl F in generalized orthogonal coordinates is
thus
(2-50)
which is identical to the determinemal form
a1
a
2
a3
h2
h
3 h3
h
j h1hz
curlF 0 0 0 (2-51 )
oU
I
OU2
hlFj h2F2 h3
F
3
80 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S nfFFERENTIAL
a result simplifying in the rectangular coordinate system to
ax
a
y
a
z
(J
a a
curlF =
iJx ay
Fx
F
y
On comparing (2-52) with the cross product A x B of (I
definition (2-18) f()l' V, one is led to the equivalent
curl F == V x F
Although V has been defined only in the rectangular
and V x F are customarily considered interchangeable
system used.
It is seen that I) also leads to the following pvt.t'pq",
cylindrical system
curlF
and in the spherical coordinate system
curlF
(2-52)
and recalling the
(2-53)
symbolisms curl F
of the coordinate
curl F in the circular
(2-54)
(2-55)
EXAMPLE 27. Find the curl of G = aJCy, a flux plot of which is sketched in Examplt' 2-2.
Because G has only ay-dependcnt x componcnt, from (2-52) one obtains
ax
a
y
a
z
curlG
()
D
ily
0
a z [- -azK
hy
()
0
a negative ,c-directed result for K> O. So if G were a fluid velocity field with a paddle
wheel immersed in it as in Figure 2-6, a clockwise rotation looking along the negative
z direction would result, agreeing with the direction of curl G.
EXAMPLE 28. Find the curl of the B fields both inside and outside the long, straight wire
carrying the steady current J shown in Figure 1-19.
h
tl
tl
t
a
C
2-5 CURL OF /I. VECTOR FIELD 81
The B fidd is (1-6+), a 4>-directed function of p. The curl ofB, obtained
from I), inside the wire (p < a)
a
p
a
z
p
aq,
P
J 8 8
a
z
[p fi.olp J = azfi.o -!- curl B =
84> ill' ilz I' elP 2na
2
na
2
0 [fi.OJP J Ii
2na
2
0
a result proportional to the current density ]z = flna
2
in the wire. This special case
demollstrates the validity of a Maxwell's diflerential relation to be developed in Section
2-SB. You may fi.nthcr show from (2-5+) that curl B outside the wire is zero, in view of
the inverse p dependence of B there.
A. Theorem of Stokes
If F(ub u2, U3, t) is well-behaved in some region, then the integral identity
1 (V x F)' ds
rf:
F

dt
'Yt
(2-56)
holds [i)r every closed line t in the region, if S is a surELee bounded by t. This is ealled
the theorem (Jf Stokes. J\ heuristic proof follows along lines resembling the proof of
the divergence theorem.
Suppose the arbitrary S is subdivided into a large number n of surface-elements,
typical ofwhieh is bounded by til as in Figure 2-9(a). The line integral ofF' de
around Ii is ini<:rred hom lhe definition (2-43) of the componenl of the curl F in the
directioll oC to be
S
side)
'-,,---
Integration'"'"
sense of
ifF>dt
J, F de = [curl F] .

(bl
FIGURE 2-9. Relative to Stokes's theorem. (a) Showing a typical interior surface-
element bounded by t't (b) Closed lines t'2 and l3 comtructcd to eliminate dis-
continuities from S.
(2-57)
82 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
for ~ S i sufficiently small. If the left side of (2-57) is surnmed over all closed contours
t; on the surface S of Figure 2-9(a), the common edges of adjacent elements are
traversed twice and in opposite directions to cause the integrations about t; to cancel
everywhere on S except on its outer boundary t. Summing the left side of (2-57) over
the n interior elements ~ s ; therefore obtains
f [rf- F . dt] = rf- F dt
;=1 j{, j{
(2-58)
and equating to the right side of (2-57) summed over the same elements yields the
result, as n approaches infinity
rf- F . dt = lim f [(curl F) s ; ] = r (curl F) . ds
::Yt As,->O t=1 Js
(2-59)
which is Stokes's theorem (2-56).
As with the divergence theorem, It IS necessary in (2-56) that F together with
its first derivatives be continuous. Ifnot, the discorHlnuities or singularities are excluded
by constructing closed lines about them as in 2-9(b), causing S to be bounded
by the closed line t = tl + t2 + t3' The connective strips, of vanishing widths as
shown, are however, traversed twice so their integral contributions cancel. The positive
sense of ds should as usual agree with the integration sense around t according to the
right-hand rule.
EXAMPLE 29. Given the vector field
(x)
(1)
illustrate the validity of Stokes's theorem by evaluating (2-56) over the open surface S
defined by the five sides of a cube measuring 1 m on a side and about the closed line
t bounding S as shown.
Positive side
of S
(z)
(a)
P4
____ Positive
integration
(z)
s ~ x= 0
ds =- axdydz
(x) (y)
(b)
EXAMPLE 2-9. (a) l.ine elements on t. (b) Surface elements on S.
w
E
2-5 CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD 83
The line integral is evaluated first. The right side of (2-56) applied to t: becomes,
making usc of figure (a)
= 0 + rl_ zdz + ro_ 5xdx + ro_ zdz =
Jz--o Jx-l Jz-l
(2)
The surface integral of (2-56) is found next. From (2-52).
ax a
y
a
z
a a a
curl F =
ox oy oz
= axz + a
y
5xy - a
z
5xz (3)
yZ
yz
whence the surface integral of (2-56) evaluate over S\, ... , '')5 yields, using figure (b),
r (curl F) ds = r
l
r
1
Js \ Jy=o x ~ o
(4)
which agrees with (2).
EXAMPLE 2-10. Given the veetor field
F(ti) = a",K cot ti (I)
in which K is a constant, illustrate the validity of Stokes's theorem evaluating (2-55) for
the hemispherical surface S with a radius a, bounded by the closed jine t: ti = 90, r = a as
shown.
There is a singularity in F on Sat () = 0; it must be excluded to assure the validity of
Stokes's theorem on the given surface. To accomplish this, a small circle t:3 at. (1 = til and
r = a is constructed as in (b). Ifds is assumed positive outward on S, then the sense of the
line integration is as noted, the integrals cancelling along (z and (4 oftlw connective strip
(a)
jr-----
Integration sense
(b)
EXAMPLE 2-10. (a) Open hemispheric surface S. (h) Exclusion or the singular point.
84 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
as its width vanishes, The line integral around t = tl + t3 thus hecomes
F 0 a",r sin 8 d</>] + r- 2" F 0 a",r sin 8 d</>]
r=a J<P=o r=a

converging to -2naK as {)l --> O.
The surface integral is evaluated using
a
e a4>
r sin r
a a
K K
curlF -a
r
- ao - cot 0
ar ao a</>
r r
0 0 (r sin 8) K cot ()
whence
r(curIF)ods= r
2
: (-It'asinOdOd</>) =
Js J",-o JO-Ol
(3)
which agrees with (2). You might consider how the results would have compared had
one ignored the singularity.
B. Maxwell's Curl Relations for Electric
and Magnetic Fields in Free Space
In Section 2-4B, the divergence of a vector fUllction was put to use in deriving
the differential Maxwell equations (2-39) and (2-41) from their integral versions (1-53)
and (1-54). The definition of the curl may similarly be used to obtain the differential
forms of the remaining equations (I-55) and (i-56), Because the latter are correct for
closed lines of arbitrary shapes and sizes, one may choose t in the form of any small
closed path bounding a
j
Lls
1
in the vicinity of any point, as in Figure 2-7. Taking
the ratio of (I-55) to Lls 1 yidds, with the assignment of the vector sense a
l
to each side,
d r Bods
dt Jl1s,
Lls
1
(2-60)
(2-43), the left side, as AS
l
-40, becomes a1rcurlEl
1
. The right side denotes
time rate of decrease of the ratio of the magnetic flux I1ljJm to I1S1> but this is just
Bl at the point P. The limit of (2-60) therefore reduces to
al [curl EJI (2-61 )
''''UIII: the at component of curl E to the time rate of decrease of the at component
tnagneticJlux densilY B at any point.
4
The choice of the direction assigned by
differentiation symbol alDt
the lild that the field B is a
a function of t only, I,)r a fixed t.\,
in (2-61) replaces the total differentiation did! in (2-60),
of space as well as of time, whereas the volume integral
at
unit
vect'
Mal
the
the
Th
sib]
sati
reI;
It
cu
aF
fo]
,

te
2
C
fl
C
2-6 SUMMARY OF MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: COMPLEX, TIME-HARMONIC FORMS 85
1.1 is arbitrary, implying that two similar results aligned with the directions of the
unit vectors az and a
3
and independent of (2-61) are also valid. Combining these
Ilectorially thus obtains the total curl of E at the point
Making use of the notation of (2-42) yields the more compact form
aB 2
VxE=--Vjm
at
(2-62)
the differential form of Faraday's law (I-55). Equation (2-62) states that the curl of
the field E at any position is precisely the time rate of decrease of the field B there.
This implies that the presence of a time-varying magnetic field B in a region is respon-
sible for an induccd time-varying E in that region, such that (2-62) is cverywhere
satisfied.
A procedure similar to that used to derive (2-62) is applicable to the Maxwell
relation (I-56), yielding the differential equation
B a(EoE) z
V X - = J + --- A/m
Ilo at
(2-63)
It states that the curl of B/llo at any point in a region is the sum of the electric
current density J and the displacement current density a(EoE)/ot at that point.
If the electric and magnetic fields in free space are static, the operator Ojat
appearing in (2-62) and (2-63) should be set to zero. This restriction provides the
following curl relations for time-static fields
VxE=O
B
V x-=J
Ilo
(2-64 )
Curl relations for static E, B fields
(2-65)
Equation (2-64) stales that any static E field is irrotational (conservative), whereas
(2-65) specifies that the curl of a static B field at every point in space is proportional
to the current density J there.
26 SUMMARY OF MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS:
COMPLEX, TIMEHARMONIC FORMS
One may recall that in Sections 2-4B and 2-5 the differential Maxwell equations for
free space were obtained Irom their integral forms, (1-53) through (I-56). These are
collected for reference in Table 2-1, columns I and III. The integral Maxwell equations

TABLE 2-1 Time-dependent and complex time-harmonic forms of Maxwell's equations in free space
Integral forms
TIME-DEPENDENT
EOE' ds j: p,du
. B ds = 0
v
S
E. dt = d i' B ds [I
v { dl Js
A: . dt i' J' ds + r!.-, i' EoE' ds
'fr flo Js dt Js
[I-56]
,., <""'
COMPLEX, TIME-HARMONIC
EoE' ds Iv p,d"
ds 0
A: E' dt =
:Yt
Is B' ds
J,B . dt i' j . ds + jw i' EoE' ds
::rc fto Js Js
a ..... c
Differential forms
TIME-DEPENDENT
V' (EoE) p,
V' B 0
v x E cB
fJt
B a
V x J + _ (EoE)
flo ct
"
1',
"'l"::h .... "

IV, COMPLEX,
TIME-HARMONIC
V' (EoE) = P"
V'B 0 r2-71]
v x E -jwB [2-72J
13
V x J + jWEoE
flo
;. g.
9..
7
9"::;
, .... ?"" r"';
2-6 SUMMARY OF MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS: COMPLEX, TIME-HARMONIC FORMS 87
were in Section 1-11 to be well suited for finding the field solutions of static
charge or current distributions possessing simple symmetries, though methods relying
011 symmetry are UnflJI'tunately limited to a few isolated problems. The difTerential
Maxwell equations usually oH;:,r a much hroader class of solutions; obtaining a number
of these solutions will constitute the task of rnueh of the remaining text.
Also of importance are the sinusoidal steady state, or time-harmonic solutions of
Maxwell's equations. Time-barmonie fields E and B are generated whenever their
charge and current sources have densities varying sinusoidally in time. Assuming the
sinusoidal sourees to have been active long enough that the transient field components
have decayed to negligible levels permits the further assumption that E and B have
reached a sinusoidal steady state. Then E and B will vary according to the factors
cos (wt + f)e) and cos (0)[ + 0b), in which Oe and Ob denote respective phases and w is
the angular frequency. The alternative and equivalent t(wmulation is achieved if the
fields are assumed to vary according to the complex exponential factor . This
assumption leads to a reduction of the field fimetions of space and time to fimctions of
space only, as ohserved in the following.
The held quantities in the real-time forms of Maxwell's equations presented in
columns I and III of Table 2-1 are symbolized
E E(l1b 112, 11
3
, t)
J 112, 113.0
(2-66)
The linearity of the Maxwell relations guarantees that sinusoidal time variations of
charge and current sources produce E and B fields that in the steady state are also
sinusoidal. Then one may replace the functions of space and time with products
of only, multiplied by the as follows
E(111' U2, 11
3
, t) is replaced with E(u[, U
2
,
B(u
J
, 112, 113' t) is replaced witb B(ul' u
2
,
J(11
1
, 112, Ii}, t) is replaced withj(l1[) 11
2
,
(2-67)
If the complex vectors E, B, and j are written in terms of the generalized co-
ordinate system as f()llows, that is,
then on illserting
obtains
(2-68)
into tlte Maxwell equations or column Ill, Table 2-1, one
o (2-69)
The parti'll-derivative oper'ltors V . and V x of (2-69) affect only the space-dependent
functions E(l1lo 112, and B(U1' 112, whereas a/at operates only on the tl
mt
factors
88 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL REI,ATIONS
common to all the fields. Equations (2-69) therefore yield, after cancelling the
factors,
V- (EoE)
Pv
C/m
3
(2-70)
V-B =0 Wb/m
3
(2-71 )
V X E = -jwB V/m
2
(2-72)
Vx
B
110
j + jWEoE A/m
2
(2-73)
These are the desired complex, time-harmonic Maxwell equations for free space. They
represent a simplification of the real-time fOIIns in that the tipe variable t has been
eliminated. On finding the complex solutions E(u
l
, U2, U3) and B(ul' U2, U3) that satisfy
(2-70) through (2-73), the sinusoidal can be restored by multiplying
each space-dependent complex solution E and B by e
Jwt
and taking the real part of
the result as follows
E(Ul' U2) U3, t) = Re [E(ul> U2, u
3
)e
irot
]
B(Ul' U2, 113, t) = Re [B(Ul' U2,
(2-74)
Considerable use is to be made of (2-70) through (2-74) in subsequent discussions of
the time-harmonic solutions.
One can show that a similar procedure using the replacements (2-67) leads to a
complex, time-harmonic set of the integral forms of Maxwell's equations in free space.
A comparison wi th their time-dependent versions is provided in Table 2-1.
Applications of the complex time-harmonic forms (2-70) through (2-73) to ele-
mentary wave solutions in free space are considered in Section 2-10. A preliminary
discussion or the Laplacian operator and a development of the so-called wave equations
are desirable prerequisites to finding such solutions. These are discussed next.
27 LAPLACIAN AND CURL CURL OPERATORS
The gradient of a scalar field was seen in Section 2-2 to yield a vector field. Moreover,
the divergence of the vector function grad], denoted symbolically by V - (V]), is by
the definition (2-20) a scalar measure of the flux source-per-unit-volurne condition of
V] at every point in a region. The expansions (2-10) and (2-28) for V] and its di-
vergence can be combined to obtain V - (Vf) in a desired coordinate system, a result to
be found useful for obtaining both time-varying and time-static field solutions. Thus, in
generalized coordinates, the gradient of] is expressed by (2-10)
(2-75)
2-7 LAPLACIAN AND CURL OPERATORS 89
To find the divergence of VI, the components of
and F3 of (2-28), obtaining
become the elements Fb Fll
(2-76)
This scalar result has a particularly simple form in rectangular coordinates, becoming
V- (Vf) (2-77)
The definitiolls of the dot product and of V are seen to permit the following operator
notations
V-V ==
;j2 + a
2
+ a
2
-= V2 .
(2-78)
in which the notation V
2
, called the Laplacian operator, is equivalent to V - (V )
V- V( ) div (grad ). From (2-76), the Laplacian operator in generalized coordi-
nates is, therefore
V
2
== V - V
yielding in the circular r1J/'lnrlr'}NI/ system
V-VI (2-80)
while in spherical coordinates
2' J a (2iJ
1
)
V j = ar r ~ +
(2-81 )
90 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWEl,L'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
The Laplacian operator (2-79) is also applicable to a vector field F(Ul, U
z
, U3, t),
the result of which is shown to be useful in the expansion of curl (curl F), Apply
(2-79) to define VZF, the Laplacian of a vector field, as follows
(2-82)
The term-by-term expansion of the latter can be tedious, since in general a
l
, aZ
l
and
a
3
are not constant unit vectors in a region; that is, their directions depend on Uil U
z
,
and U3' In rectangular coordinates, however, (2-82) yields the relatively simple result
(since ax, a
y
, a
z
are constant unit vectors)
(2-83)
in which the components V
2
F
x
, and so on, are specified by (2-77). No corresponding
simplicity occurs in other coordinate systems because of the spatial dependence of the
unit vectors already noted. For example, if the space partial derivatives of the nnit
vectors are properly accounted for, as in Example 1-1 of Section 1-6, one can show
l'om (2-82) that V
2
F in the circular I]lindrical system becomes
2 of</>
pi 01>
a result decidedly not of the form of (2-83) with } < ~ F</>, F
z
merely taking the places
of Fx, F
y
, F
z

St ill another vector result, the curl of the vector curl F, designated V X (V X F),
is of importance. The function V X F provides the three components given in (2-50);
then performing another curl operation yields
(2-85)
I
2-7 LAPLACIAN AND CURL OPERATORS 91
Because of its complexity, this result is examined only in rectangular coordinates, be-
commg
v X (V x F) = a OFx) 0 (OF
x
_
x oy ox oy oz ox
+ a _ OF
y
) _ _ OFx)}
y OZ oy oz ox ox oy
+ a {() (OF
x
_ OFz) _ () (OF
z
_ OF
y
)} (2-86)
z ox oz ox (?Y oy OZ
A comparison of the latter with the vector V(V' F) is now made. In rectangular
co6rdinates, using (2-10) and (2-28) obtains
V(V' F)
(2-87)
and adding and subtracting six properly chosen terms puts (2-87) into the following
form
On comparing the terms of the latter with (2-83) and (2-86), it is seen that one has
precisely V(V' F) V
2
F + V X (V X Fl. This is a vector identity, usually written
V X (V X F) = V (V . F) - V
2
F (2-88a)
Equation (2-88a) provides a useful equivalence for V X (V X F), especially if the field
F is divergenceless (V, F = 0). Then
if V . F = 0 (2-88b)
92 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
TABLE 2-2 Summary of vector identities
Algebraic
(1) FG=GF
F x G -G x F
(3) F' (G+H) =F'G+F'H
(4) F x (G + H) = F x G + F x H
(5) F x (G x H) = G(H' F) - H(F' G)
Differential
(II) V(f+ g) = Vf + Vg
(12) V'(F+G)=V'F+V'G
(13) V x (F + G) = V x F + V x G
(14) VUg) =fVg + gVf
(15) V'(jF)=F'Vf+f(V'F)
(6) F' (G x H) = G . (H x F) = H (F x G) (16) V' (F x G) = G (V x F) - F' (V x G)
(17) V x UF) = (Vf) x F + f(V x F)
Integral
(7) Ps F . ds = Iv V . F dv
(3) rf F dt = f (V x F) ds
';ft Js
(9) PJ(Vg) . ds = Iv [f V
2
g + (v/) . (Vg)] dv
(10) Ps rfV,<: gV!]' ds = Iv UV2g gV2/) do
(13) V'Vf=V
2
f
(19) V' (V x F) = 0
(20) V x (Vf) = 0
(21) V x (V x F) = V (V F) - V2F'
(22) V x UVg) = Vfx Vg
Although the proof of (2-88a) was carried out in the rectangular system, such differ-
ential'results are independent of the coordinate system, meaning that (2-88a) and
(2-88b) are true for any system.
It is worth wile to observe that one can more easily expand V
2
F by use of the
vector identity (2-88a) than by ddinition 2-82). Thus
V
2
F = V (V . F) - V X (V X F) (2-89)
is useful f(:>r expanding V
2
F in a coordinate system other than the cartesian ..
Several vector identities involving the difterential operators grad, div, and curl
are listed in Table 2-2 along with vector algebraic and integral identities. r o o [ ~ of
the algebraic and the diHcrential identities are achieved in the manner used to prove
(2-88a), that is, expanding both sides in rectangular coordinates leads to an identity.
The integral identities (7) and (8) are recognized as those of diver'gence and Stokes's
theorem, respectively. Extensions of the divergence theorem lead 'to Green's integral
identities (9) and (10), proved in the next section.
28 GREEN'S INTEGRAl THEOREMS: UNIQUENESS
One can specialize the divergence theorem (2-34) to a particular class of vector func-
tions and ohtain the integral identities known as Green's theorems. Suppose F to be
a scalar fieldJmultiplied by a conservative vector field Vg; let F = JVg. Then (2-34)
takes on the special form
~ ~ UVg) . ds = Iv V UVg) dv
(2-90)
as
v(
Cl
Ie
ft
s
2-9 WAVE EQUATIONS FOR ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE 93
assuming the functions well-behaved in and on the volume V. The integrand in the
volume integral may be expanded by use of (15) in Table 2-2, whence (2-90) becomes
Green's first integral identity
(fVg) . ds = Iv [JV2g + (VJ) (Vg)] dv (2-91 )
If one chooses to define a vector function G g VJ instead, the same procedure
leads to a result like (2-91) except for the interchange of the roles of the scalar
functions I and g
Ps (g VI) . ds = Iv [gV
2
J + (Vg) . CVllJ dv
Subtracting the latter from (2-91) obtains Green's second integral identity
(2-92)
also knowll as Green's symmetric theorem.
Green's theorems (2-91) and (2-92) are important in applications to theorems
ofbound,lIy-value problems of field theory, as well as to special theorems concerning
integral properties of scalar and vector functions. One such. theorem concerns those
ferential properties of a vector field F that must be specified in a region to make F uni-
que. This theorem, not proved here,5 shows that the specification of both the divergence
and the curl of a vector function F in a region V, plus a particular boundary condition
on the surface S that bounds V, are sufficient to make F unique. Maxwell's equations
(:2-39), (2-4: 1), (2-62), and (2-63) specify the divergence and the curl of both the E and
the B fields in a region (in terms of charge and current densities as well as the B or
E field), so that these relationships, together with appropriately specified boundary
conditions, can similarly be expected to provide unique field solutions. Finding solu-
tions of Maxwell's differential equations is facilitated for some problems hy first mani-
pulating them simultaneously to obtain differential equations in terms of only B or E,
as is discussed next.
*29 WAVE EQUATIONS FOR ELECTRIC AND
MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE
Electromagnetic field solutions Band E in free space must, by the uniqueness discus-
sion of the previous section, satisfy the Maxwell divergence and curl relations (2-39),
(2-4:1), (2-62), and (2-63). In a time-varying electromagnetic field problem, one is
generally interested in obtaining E and B field solutions of the tour Maxwell relations,
a process that can often be facilitated by combining Maxwell's equations such that
one of the fields (B or E) is eliminated, yielding a partial differential equation known
as the wave equation. This is accomplished as follows.
5For a sec S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. Van Duzer. Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics,
2nd cd. New York: Wiley, 1985, p. 130.
* For the purposes of the next section, Section 2-9 may be omitted if desired.
94 VEcrOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
lence.
V (EoE) Pv
V B= 0
VxE=
oB
ot
B o(EoE)
Vx---=j+
Jlo ot
To eliminate B, taking the curl of both sides of (2-62) obtains
v X (V X E)
[2-39 J
[2-41]
[2-62]
[2-63 J
(2-93)
Substituting (2-63) into the right side of (2-93) yields, after transposing terms contain-
ing E to the left side
(2-94)
a vector partial differential equation known as the inhomogeneous vector wave equation for
free space.
A wave equation similar to (2-94) can be obtained in terms of B. Thus, taking
the curl of (2-63) arid substituting (2-62) into the result yields the inhomogeneous
vector wave equation
iJ2B
V X (V X B) + JloEo ot
2
= Jlo V X j
(2-95 )
From (2-41), B is always divergenceless, and with V E = pjE, (2-94) and (2-95) are
written
Inhomogeneous vector
wave equations for
charge-free region
(2-96)
(2-97)
A further simplification is possible if the region is empty space; that is, it is both
charge free and current free (Pv j = 0). Then the simpler homogeneous vector wave
2-9 WAVE EQUATIONS FOR ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FREE SPACE 95
equations hold
o
Homogeneous vector wave
equations for empty space
(2-98)
(2-99)
If in a problem the rectangular coordinate system is appropriate to the E and B fields
governed by (2-98) and (2-99), making use of (2-83) provides the following scalar wave
equations in terms of field components
V2Ex
a
2
Ex
JLoE0aT = 0
(2-100a)
V2Ey
tPE
JLoEo ap
Y
= 0
(2-100b)
V
2
E
z
JloE
o
a
2
j'.,'z
=0 (2-100c)
with an analogous trio of equations in Bx, By, and B
z
yielded by (2-99).
The complex time-harmonic forms of the wave equations may be obtained by re-
placing Band E with their complex exponential forms, (2-67). If this is done for (2-98)
and (2-99), one obtains after cancelling ei
wt
~ 2 ~
V E + (t) JLoEoE = 0
Homogeneous vector wave
equations in complex time-harmonic
~ 2 ~ i:
V B + (t) JLoEoB = 0 lorm, for empty space
(2-101)
(2-102)
Since E = aJi
x
+ aiy + aJ;z and j = a}i
x
+ aliz + aii
z
, (2-101) and (2-102)
expand to obtain the following homogeneous, scalar wave equations in complex time-
harmonic form
(2-103)
(2-104)
(2-105)
96 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
with a similar triplet of equations in Ex, By, and B
z
yielded by (2-102). The simplest
solutions of these scalar wave equations are uniform plane waves, involving as few
as two fIeld components. They are considered in the next section.
*210 UNIFORM PLANE WAVES IN EMPTY SPACE
The simplest wave solutions of Maxwell's equations are uniform plane waves, char-
acterized by uniform fIelds over infinite plane surfaces at fixed instants. Simplifying fea-
tures are that the solutions are amenable to the rectangular coordinate systeln, and
the number offIeld components reduces to as few as two. These simplifications provide
a background for the more complex wave structures discussed in later chapters.
Uniform plane waves have the property that, at any fixed instant, the E and B
fields are uniform over plane surfaces. These planes are arbitrarily chosen; for present
purposes, assume that they are defined by the surfaces z = constant. This is equivalent
to stating that space variations of E and B are zero over Z = constant planes; thus
assume
1. The fields have neither x nor y dependence; that is, a/ax = %y = 0 for all field
components. It will be shown that waves propagating in the z direction result
from this restriction. If the waves propagate in empty space, one requires an
2. Charge and current densities are everywhere zero III the region; that IS,
Pv = J = O.
The complex time-harmonic forms of the Maxwell differential equations deter-
mining the wave solutions are (2-70) through (2-73). With assumption (2) they become
(2-106)
V-B o (2-107)
v X E = -jwB (2-108)
(2-109)
Combining these equations has been shown to produce the wave equations (2-101)
and (2-102)
~ 2 ~
V E + w floEoE = 0 [2-101]
o [2-102]
*This section on plane waves, pins Section 3-6 in Chapter 3, may optionally be omitted at this time, if
desired, and taken up immediately heR) .. e beginning Chapter 6. Plane wave concepts are included here
becanse of their universal relevance to all dynamic field phenomena, and because they are essential to a
more complete understanding of conduction and polarization eflects in materials under other than purely
static comtitions.
(
a
t
s
2-10 UNIFORM PLANE WAVES IN EMPTY SPACE 97
One should bear in mind that no new information is contained in the latter that is not
already expressed by the preceding Maxwell's equations.
Before atlempting to extract solutions from the wave equations, one may note
that the curl relations, 08) and (2-109), furnish some interesting properties of the
solutions, restricted by assumptions (1) and (2). Assuming that all six field components
are present, 08) becomes, with a/ax a/ay = 0 of assumption (l),
ax a y
a
z
VxE=
a
-jOJ(a)3
x
+ a/3y + a)jz) 0 0
E
x
E
y
E
z
expanding into the triplet of diflerential equations
(2-110a)
of'
x
(2-110b)
(2-110c)
Similarly, 109) provides
(2-1 11 a)
(2-111b)
0= (2-I11c)
From these ditrerential expressions, the following properties apply to the solutions
1. No z component of either E or :B is obtained, thus making the field directions
entirely transverse to the axis.
2. Two indetJendent pairs offieldl', (Ex> By) and are yielded under the as-
sumptions. This is seen to be the case on setting Ex 0 in (2-11 Ob), for example,
forcing By to vanish while yet leaving the field pair (Ey, Bx) intact, the lall!'!'
being governed only by (2-11 Oa) and (2-111 b). When field pairs are
of each other, they are said to be uncoupled.
2&
98 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
tiuppoJe one desires wave solutions involving only the field pair ('Ex, By). Then put
Ey = Ex = 0, reducing the pertinent differential equations tojust (2-1 lOb ) and (2-11Ia)
DEx
[2-110b]
[2-11lal
The field solutions are obtained on combining (2-110b) and (2-11la) to eliminate
E:
x
or By, yielding a scalar wave equation from which solutions can be found. Alter-
llatively, one can make use of either vect.?r equation (2-102) or (2-103), sub-
jecting it to the same assumptions. (Only Ex and By are present and olox olDy = 0.)
Either approach obtains the following wave equation in terms of Ex:
(2-112)
This is a partial differential equation in one variable (z); thus it can be written as the
ordinary differential equation
(2-113)
solution is the familiar
6
superposition of two exponential solutions
(2-114)
wherein Dl and (;2 are arbitrary (complex) constants and the coefficient Po, called the
constant, is given by Po = W.J/toEo. It is to be shown that the exponential solutions
and DzeifJ
oz
arc representations of constant amplitude waves travelytg in tl;e posi-
tive z and negative z directions, respectively. The complex coefficients C't and C
2
must
have the units of volts per meter, denoting arbitrary complex amplitudes of t;.he positive z
neg';!:tive z traveling waves. Employing amplitude symbols E:' and E;;' instead of
I and C
z
puts (2-114) into the form
EAz) = + E;;'e
jfJoz
Vim
= E; (z) + (z) (2-115)

The complex amplitudes Em and E;;' may be represented by points in the
complex plane using the Argand diagram of Figure 2-10, so from their polar
rqJresentations
and E;;' (2-116)
4> + and 4> dt'noting arbitrary phase angles.
hi! assumed that the reader is familiar with the details of this solution, found in any text on ordinary
dill<'rential equations.
,
(Co
res
ca
In
l'
q
1
2-10 UNIFORM PLANE WAVES IN EMPTY SPACE 99
(Complex plane)
FIGURE 2-10. Complex amplitudes rep-
resented in the complex plane.
Once a solution of one wave equation has been obtained, the remaining
can be l()und by use of Maxwell's equations. Thus, the solution (2-115) for Ex(:::.)
inserted into the Maxwell relation (2-11 Ob) yields
A I DEx 130 A n A
B (,z;) = --;- = -- r +
Y }w D<- w
= - Wb/m
2
(2-117)
in which flo once more denotes the space phase factor
(2-118)
The real-time, sinusoidal steady state expression for the electric field component is
found from (2-74). Taking the real part of (2-115) after multiplying by ei
wt
obtains
Ex\<-, t)
= Re [(E,!ei1>+e-
j
/l
oz
+
= cos (wt Po<- + +) + E';; cos (wt + Po<- + -) (2-119)
Note that and E';; denote the traveling wave real amplitudes, whereas + and
- are arbitrary phase1 relative to the instant t = 0 and the location <- 0 in space.
The real-time f()rm of By of (2-117) is similarly found to be
By., t) r J cos (Wi Po<- + +) - cos (wt + Po<- +
(2-120)
The traveling wave nature of unii()rm plane waves can be grasped fi'om a
graphic interpretation of (2-119) and (2-120). Consider only the first terms of each:
the positive <- traveling wave. The following symbols are chosen to denote them.
B+
y
(2-121a)
(2-121b)
Their positive <- traveling nature may be observed if (2-121) is plotted as a
of cosine waves versus <-, at successive instants of time t. (When observing the
100 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
--""
Wave motion, with increasing t
(a)
(x)
V
V
"- "-
r\
\
\
/
/
\
/
1\
I
\
I
0 \ I
\ I
z
\
/
\
(or {3
I
oz)
I
--"" Motion
(b)
t"IGURE 2-11. Electric field sketches ofa positive traveling unil()rm plane wave.
Vector plot along at success; vc inst ants, (b) Flux plot of the electric field at t = 0,
time or space variations of a field, it is usually best to hold space or time fixed,
while the other is allowed to vary,) At t=O, (2-12Ia) becomes ';(:::,0) =
cos ( #0:: + cjJ+) = E,! cos (#0':: cjJ+), shown plotted against the z variable as
solid line in Figure 2-1] (a), With the period T defined by
T= sec
J'
(2-122)
one-eighth period later, fl.)r example, (2-121) becomes E; T/8) =
cos (#oz 2n/8 cjJ +), The cosine function is thus shifted in the positive z direction
the time lapse of the eighth period as shown, yielding a positive motion of the
wave with increasing time. The vector field plot of Figure 2-11 (a) shows only ~ (z, t)
a typical z-axis ill the region. To display the field throughout a cross section
any x-z plane, the flux plot of Figure 2-11 (b) is more suitable.
The lllotion of the wave with increasing t is related to the phase factor
flo = W ~ E o appearing in the wave expressions, with #oz having the units of radians
(dimensionless), implying that #0 is given in radians per meter. The z distance that the
wave must travel such that 2n rad of phase shift (one complete cycle) occurs is called
wavelenl',th, designated by the symbol A and defined by
Thu:
will
the
a co
Bee
of a
the
an.
In
ne
ra
to
ec
WI
a'
2-10 UNIFORM PLANE WAVES IN EMPTY SPACE 101
rhus, the wavelength in iree space is related to the phase factor Po by
2n 2n c
(2-124)
Po
m
I
An observer moving with the wave such that he experiences no phase change
will move at the phase velocity of the wave, denoted by Vp' The equiphase surfaces of
the positive z traveling wave are defined by setting the argument of (2-121) equal to
a constant; that is, wi Poz + 4> + = constant', whereupon differentiating it to evaluate
dz/dt yields the phase velocity
dz w
vp = dt = Po m/sec
(2-125a)
Because {jo = w j i ; ~ ~ and with flo = 4n x 10 7, Eo ~ 1O-
9
/36n, the phase velocity
of a uniform plane wave in empty space is
I
--- = c 3 X 10
8
m/sec
JfloEo -
(2-125b)
the speed of light. 7 ._
A comparison of the complex expressions, (2-115) and (2-ll7), for Ex(z) and
By(z) shows that their separate traveling wave terms are paired into ratios producing
the sarne constant. Thus, write (2-115) and (2-117) in the forms
= E ~ e - j{Joz + E;;' ei{loz
E; (z) + E; (z) (2-126)
and
-+ --
B
- ( ) - Em - j/1oZ Em _ilJoz
Z --e --I:""
y C C
(2-127)
in which E;(Z), E;(z) and B;(x), fJ;(z) symbolically denote the positive z and
negative Z traveling wave terms directly above them. Then the following complex
ratios hold at any point in the region
c 3 X 10
8
m/sec (2-128)
to provide j means for finding one of the fields whenever the other is known_ A more
common variation of this technique is achieved by modifying the B field in empty
7Experiments have shown that the speed oflight, c, is more nearly 2.99792 x 10
8
m/sec. This value, together
with the assumed permeability for free space fJ-o = 4n x 10-
7
H/m, inserted into (2-125b), is seen to
a value for Eo that departs slightly from the approximate value 10 - 9/36n given.
DIFFERENTIAL REI"ATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
t;:
--Z
~
B/ Motion
(x)
E;:; .... +)
t) "" c cos(wt - f30z + .,..
(at t = 0)
Ei' (z, t) = Ei;, cos (wi - f30z + 1>+)
Equiphase
surface
(z)
[nOURE 2-12. Vector plot ofthc fields ofa uniform plane wave along the z axis. Note the typical
equiphase surface, depicting fluxes of E; and 13;.
through a division by /lo, defining a magnetic intensity field denoted by the symbol
lor empty space as follows.
B
= H A/m For empty space
/lo
(2-129)
Thus, denoting B: (Z)//lo by if: (z), and B; (Z)//lo by if; (z) the following ratios
the traveling wave terms are valid for plane waves in empty space
E: (z) = ~ : (z) = /loc = ~ = r;;;, == 110 ~ 120n Q
/lo (z) fly (z) J/loEo V ~
(2-130a)
r;;;, == '10 ~ 120n Q
V ~
(2-130b)
The real ratio, J /lo/Eo the units volts per meter per ampere per meter, or ohms),
ill called the intrinsic wave !11l;(JI!llran.ce empty space, and is denoted by the symbol 110' The
advantage of (2-130) over ill that the ratio 110 is a usefully smaller number.
The real impedal1ce ratio of 30) shows that the electric and magnetic fields
of uniform plane waves in are in phase with one another, a condition evi-
dent on comparing t h t ~ the negative Z traveling solutions of (2-126) and
(2-127). Each contains argument in the exponential factors, ample
evidence of their 2-12 depicts the real-time electric and
magnetic fields of in space at t = O.
IXAMPLE 211. Suppose empty space has the electric field
(I)
2
T
dl
Ul
m
E
li
sl
81
p
p
p
a
a
2-11 WAVE POLARIZATION 103
its frequency being 20 MHz. (a) What 1 ~ it. direction of travel? Its amplitude? Its vector
direction in space? (b) Find the associated B field and the equivalent H field. (e) Express
E, :8, and H in real-time form. (d) Find the phase factor Po, the phase velocity, and the
wavelength of this electromagnetic wave.
(a) A comparison of (1) wit!: (2-115) 2r (2-126) reveals a positive z}raveling wave,
whence the symbolism: E(z) = axE; (z). The real amplitude is E ~ = 1000 Vim,
with the vector field x directed in space.
(b) Using either (2-127) or the ratio (2-128)
The use of (2-130a) obtains the magnetic intensity
~ +
H
~ + ) - Ex (z) _ 1000 -jPoz _ 2 65 -jPoz A/
z -------e -. e m
y '10 120n
(c) The real-time fields are obtained from (2-74) by taking the real part after multi-
plication by Jillt
E; (z, t) = Re [1000e- iPozJwt] = 1000 cos (wt Poz) V/m
B; t) = 3.33 X 10-
6
cos (wt - Poz) Wb/m
2
(or T)
H; t) = 2.65 cos (wt - Poz) A/m
(d) Using (2-118), (2-125), (2-124), and (2-122) yields
r--:- OJ 2n(20 x 10
6
)
150 =0 OJ,>! f.loEo = - = 8 = 0.42 rad/m
c 3 x 10
vp = c = 3 X 10
8
m/sec
2n 3 x 10
8
~ =15m
Po .f 20 x 10
6
211 WAVE POLARIZATION
The vector orientation, or polarization, of an electromagnetic wave in space is usually
described with reference to its electric field direction. Thus in Figure 2-12, the z traveling
uniform plane wave shown with the field components Ex) Hy is said to be polarized
in the x direction (or simply x-polarized). Similarly, the plane wave with the components
E
y
, Hx described in Problem 2-43 is polarized in the y direction. Both these waves are
linearly polarized, because the electric field vector in any fixed z plane describes a
straight-line path as time passes.
Because Maxwell's equations are linear equations, a vector superposition, or
summing, of the two linearly polarized uniform plane waves just introduced will also
provide a valid field solution. The resultant vector sum will not necessarily be linearly
polarized, however, depending on the phase condition between the x- and the y-
polarized electric field components. For example, with Ex(::., t) Emx cos (wt Poz)
and Ey(z) t) = Emy cos (wt - Poz) propagating in phase and at the same frequency
along the z-axis, their sum, E = axEx + ayEy, would appear as depicted in Figure
104 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
--
(y)
--
(y)
(x)
I
I
(x)
I
I
Locus of tota I E
-----
Motion
(a)
Motion
(b)
Locus of E
in z=O plane
l' E)O.<I ./
I(y) ',I t
I oJ
I
(f,"(O<)
t )
--
Locus of E
in z=O plane
(z)
W
(x)
I (y)\ / I t
'-'
1:,,(00
/ -
t .
--
(z)
FIGURE 2-13. Uniform plane waves shown in space at t = 0 and added to produce difl'ercnt
wave polarizations. (a) Cophasa,1 Ex and E
y
, their sum yielding- a linearly polarized result. (b)
Elliptical polarization of E prodn'ced with 90 phasing. (Related H field components arc omitted
for clarity.)
2-13(a), producing a linearly polarized field E, tilted in any fixed z plane by the angle
c/J = arc tan (Emy/Emx) from the x-axis, as shown. The equation of the straight line
may be found by conveniently inserting z = 0 into the Ex and Ey expressions and
forming their ratio to eliminate OJt, yielding
(2-131)
This is evidently the equation of the straight line (form:)! = mx) as shown in the inset
diagram of Figure 2-13(a), regarding Ex and Ey as the variables in lieu of x andy.
tht
In
an
It
En
n
w
01
tl
o
fr
'"
V
St
o
11
1]
c
c
I
REFERENCES 105
On the other hand, if the two component fields were 90 out of phase, such that
Ex = Emx cos (OJt - Poz) and Ey = Emy cos (OJt Poz + 90) as in Figure 2-l3(b), the
sum E = axEx + ayEy would produce the spiraling locus of the E vector about the
z-axis as noted. In the fixed Z = 0 plane, the component fields are written Ex =
Emx cos OJI and Ey = Emy cos (OJI + 90) = -Emy sin OJt = -E
my
-Jl - C05
2
OJI. In-
serting the Ex expression into Ey to eliminate OJl yields the locus ofE in the Z = 0 plane.
(2-132)
the equation of an ellipse with principal axes of half lengths Emx and E
my
, as seen
in Figure 2-13(b). Thus, the tip of the total E vector describes an elliptical locus in
any fixed Z plane as the wave moves by, indicating the elliptical polarization of the wave.
It is also evident that a circular polarization of the E vector would occur if Emx =
Emy in (2-132).
You may show that if the 90 phase condition between Ex and Ey were replaced
by the general angle 0, making Ey = Emy cos (OJ! + 0) in the z = 0 plane, then the
polarization locus would acquire the form of
sin
2
0 = 0 (2-133)
an ellipse with its major axis tilted, depending on the choice of O.
Wave polarization is of practical importance in radio communication transmit-
receive links because the power extracted by a receiving antenna from the arriving
wave is usually dependent on the orientation of the antenna relative to the polarization
of that wave. The common half-wave, thin wire dipole antenna, for example, picks up
the maximum power from a linearly polarized oncoming wave when the electric field
of the arriving wave is aligned with the antenna wire, while accepting zero power
from the wave if the electric field and the wire are at right angles. If the arriving
wave were circularly or elliptically polarized, a component of the arriving E-field
vector is made available to the receiving dipole regardless of its tilt in the plane ofE,
so that the orientation of the receiving antenna, in any fixed z-plane, would have little
or no effect on the amount of signal received. This could be of considerable importance
in satellite communications, in which the receiving antenna on the satellite is tumbling
in space and therefore changing its attitude relative to the oncoming wave. Antennas
capable of transmitting circularly polarized waves, such as helical antennas or phased
crossed dipoles, are readily constructed to accommodate this need.
REFERENCES
ABRAHAM, M., and R. BECKER. The Classical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism. Glasgow: Blackie,
1943.
FANO, R. M., L. T. CIlD, and R. P. ADLER. Electromagnetic Fields, Energy and Forces. New York:
Wiley, 1960.
KRAUS, J. D. Electromagnetics, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984.
PHILLIPS, H. B. Vector Analysis. New York: Wiley, 1944.
RAMO, S., J. R. WHINNERY, and T. VAN DUZER, 2nd ed. Held" and Waves in Communication
Electronics. New York: Wiley, 1984.
106 VECTOR DIFfERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
PROBLEMS
SECTION 2-2
2-1. From the substitution of the appropriate coordinate variables and metric coefficients into
the gradient expression (2-10), show that (2-14a,b,c) follow in the three common coordinate
systems. Also convert the magnitude expression (2-13) to correct forms in those systems.
2-2. Express as a vector function the gradient (maximum directional derivative) of the fol-
lowing scalar fields (a) f(x) = 20x
2
; (b) g(x,y, z) = 20x
2
+ 30xy2 + 40xyz; (c) F(r) = 100!T;
(d) G(p, </>, z) = 5p sin </> - 6p2 Z cos </>; (e) h(T, e, </ = 50/r + lOr cos 0 + 20r
2
sin 0 sin 2</>.
x
(40x + 30y2 + 40yz) + a
y
(60xy + 40xz) + a
z
40xy (d) a
p
(5 sin </> - 12pz cos </
+ a<l>(5 cos 1> + 6pz sin 1 - a
z
6p2 cos 1>]
2-3. Prove, by expression in rectangular coordinates, that V(f + g) = Vf + Vg (vector iden-
tity (11) in Table 2-2).
2-4. With f and g given to be scalar, differentiable fields, by expansion in rectangular coordi-
nates prove the identity (14) in Table 2-2, that V(fg) = fVg + gVJ.
2-5. In Problem 1-6 is depicted the "distance-vector," R, defined as the difference r
2
r
1
of
the position vectors to the endpoints ofR. Relabel the point P2 now as P(x,y, z) with arbitrary
coordinates (taken to be differentiation variables), so that now R = r rl' (a) Write the expres-
sion for R as well as its magnitude R in rectangular coordinates. (b) Show that V R is also the
unit vector in the direction of R.
SECTION 2-4
2-6. Carry out a direct proof resembling that leading to the expression (2-28) fi)r div F, but
carried out in the rectangular coordinate system. Begin with (2-22), expressed in rectangular
coordinates with reference to a diagram like Figure 2-4 but adapted to the rectangular system.
2-7. By the substitution of the appropriate coordinate variables and metric coefficients into
(2-28), show that the expressions (2-29a,b,c) follow, in the three common coordinate systems.
2-8. Determine for each of the following vector fields whether or not it has Hux sources; that
is, find its divergence.
(a) A = 3a
x
+ 4a
y
(constant vee tor field in a region)
(b) F(x,y, z) = 3xzax + 4xya
y
+ (5x
2
+ y)a
z
(c) G(x,y, z) = 3ya
x
+ 4za
y
+ (5x
2
+ y)a
z
(d) H(x,y, z) = 6xa
x
+ 6ya
y
+ 6za
z
= 6a,r (determine it 111 both rectangular and spherical
eoordinates)
(e) J (p, </>, z) = a
p
5pz sin </> + a4>lOpz cos </>
(f) K(r, e, 1 = a,100/r
2
+ a820/r + a4>10r cos 1>
[Answer: div F = 3z + 4x, fields A, G, and J are sourceless]
2-9. Prove, by expansion in rectangular coordinates, that V . (F + G) = V F + V . G, the
identity (12) in Table 2-2.
2-10. By expansion in the rectangular coordinate system, prove the identity (15) in Table
2-2, V' (fF) =FVf+f(VF).
2-11. Show that the following fields are, (source-free). (a) The p-directed,
inverse-p dcpendent field F = a,,/ p, for p > 0; and (b) the r-directed, inverse-r
2
dependent
field, G = aJ r2, for r > O. (By comparison with results found in Example 1-13, with what kinds
of static-charge sources are these field-types identified?)
2-12. (a) Given the class of electric fields E(p) = apK/ pn with K a constant and n a parameter,
find div E. What choice of n yields a divergenceless (charge-free) field everywhere (excluding
p = OJ? Comment on this conclusion relative to (1-61), applicable to the uniform line charge.
(b) Given the class of electric fields E = a,K/r
n
, find div E for r > O. Which choice of the parameter
n provides a divergenceless field? Comment on this conclusion with respect to (1-5 7b), the
electric field of the point charge.
PROBLEMS 107
SECTION 2-4A
2-13. Assuming the same six-sided closed surface S to bound the box-shaped interior volume
as in Example 2-4, assume the field G(x,y, z) = a
z
lOxy2z3 exists in the region. Illustrate the
validity of the divergence theorem (2-34) by evaluating its volume and surface integrals in and
on the given parallelepiped. [Answer: 10,800]
2-14. Assuming the same right circular cylindrical region of radius p = a and length t as for
Example 2-5, illustrate the correctness of the divergence theorem for this region, given the
electric field E = appop3/4Eoa2, that corresponds to the nonuniform charge density of Problem
1-43. [Note for this case that no singularity exists within the given V or on S, thereby obviating
any need for the exclusion surface S2 used in Example 2-5.} [Answer: nLpoa
2
/2E
o
]
2-15. The first octant of a sphere centered at the origin is bounded by the four coordinate
surfaces: r = a, 4> = 0, 4> = n/2, and on the bottom by the plane e = n/2. Sketch it. Given that
the field F(r, e, 4 arlO - a.,,30r sin () cos 4> exists in this region, illustrate the truth of the
divergence theorem (2-34) by evaluating the volume and surface integrals within and on the
defined region for the given field. [Answer: lOa
2
(a + n/2)]
SECTION 2-48
2-16. In Problem 1-28, the electric field within the uniformly charged spherical shell (a < r < b)
was found to consist of only thl! component Er = pv(r3 - a
3
) /3Eor2. Show that inserting this field
into the Maxwell divergence relation (2-39) yields the charge density originally assumed.
2-17. It was found by use of Gauss's law in Problem 1-29 that the choice of the nonuniform
charge density Pv = Po(l - 4r/3a) within a sphere of radius a yields the electric field therein
given by
Po (r r2)
EO 3 3a
Show that div (EoE) for this field yields the charge density originally assumed, thereby satisfying
Maxwell's equation (2-39).
2-18. (a) In Problem 1-30(b) it was found, using Gauss's law, that the static electric field
within the uniformly charged cylindrical cloud is E = a
p
pvp/2E
o
' Determine div (EoE), to prove
that Maxwell's divergence relation (2-39) is satisfied. (b) Show similarly, from the E-field solution
of Problem 1-31 (b), that E inside the nonuniformly charged cylindrical cloud of that problem
satisfies the Maxwell divergence relation (2-39).
2-19. By the application of (2-28) in the appropriate coordinate system, show that the Maxwell
relation (2-41), div B = 0, is satisfied for each of the B fields given by (1-64) for the long, straight
wire, by (1-65) for the current sheet, and by (1-66) and (1-67) lor the toroid and solenoid.
What is the physical interpretation of the zero value of the divergence expected of each and
every B field?
SECTION 2-5
2-20. With reference to a diagram resembling Figure 2-8 but adapted to the rectangular co-
ordinate system, give the details of a proof of the curl expression (2-50) carried out in rectangular
coordinate form.
2-21. (a) By the substitution of the appropriate coordinate variables and metric coefficients
into the determinant (2-51) for the curl of a vector field, show to what result it expands in the
rectangular coordinate system. (b) Similarly show that (2-54) and (2-55) are the results of
expanding (2-51) in the circular cylindrical and the spherical coordinate systems.
2-22. Find the curl of each of the vector fields given in Problem 2-8. Which of those fields
are irrotational (conservative)? [Answer: (c) -3a
x
- IOxa
y
- 3a., (e) -aplOp cos 4>
+ a.,,5p sin 4> + a
z
l5Z cos 4>]
108 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
2-23. Find in detail the curl of the vcctors Vg, VG, and Vh generated in Problem 2-2, [These
results exemplify the validity of the vector identity (20) in Table 2-2.]
2-24. By use of expansions in rectangular coordinates, prove the vcctor identity (17) in Table
2-2, that V x (iF) = (Vf) x F + f(V x F).
2-25. Given the vector field F(x,y, z) = 3xy3
ax
+ 4y 2
z
2ay and the scalar field f(x,y, z) =
2xz + 5YZ2, find the following.
(a) Vf (b) V' F (c) V x F (d) V (iF)
(e) V' (Vj) =- V
2
f (f) V x (V x F) (g) V (V X F) (h) V X (Vf)
[Answcr: (a) 2za
x
+ 5z
2
a
y
+ + lOyz)a
z
(c) -3y 2zax - 9xy
2
a
z
(e) lOy (g) 0: also by
identity (19) in Table 2-2]
2-26. Given are the fields G(p, </>, z) = aq,5p sin </> - a
z
6p2z2 and g(p, </>, z) = 3pz sin </>.
Find the functions
(a) Vg (b) V G (c) V x G (d) V (gG) (el V (Vg) =- V
2
g
(f) V X (V x G) (g) V(VG)
[Answer: (b) 5 cos </> 12p2z, (e) zero (f) ap(lOp-I cos </> - 24pz) + a
z
24zZ]
2-27. Given thc fields H(r, 0) = arlOr cos 0 + aq,20r
2
and her, 0, </ = 8r sin 0 cos </>, find thc
functions
(a) Vh (b) V H (c) V x H
(d) V (Vil) V
2
h (e) V x (V x H) (1') V (V x H)
r
8 sin 0 cos </> + a
o
3 cos 0 cos </> - aq,8 sin </> (c) a
r
20r cot 11 - a
o
60r + aq, 10 sin 0
(f) 0]
SECTION 2-5A
2-28. Illustrate the validity of Stokes's theorem using the same closed line t and vector ficld
of Example 2-9, but this time employ the surface S, consisting simply of the square located at
y I. (What is the required expression for ds on S, ifit is to contorm to the line integration sense
2-29. Given is the vector field E(p, </>, z) = a
p
5p,c - aq,8z
2
+ a
z
I OZ2 sin </>. (a) Find curl
E. Is E conservative? (b) Evaluate thc line integral of E . dt about the closed path t = tl + t
z
+
1'3 + t4 on the portion of the circular eylinder of radius 2 and height 3 located in the first octant
as shown. (c) Obtain the answer to (b) by usc of an appropriate surface integral via Stokes's
theorem. (One such surface S is shown.) [Answer: (b) 316.2]
2-30. A G-directed field is defined by F(r, 0, </ a
o
5r sin 0 sin </> in a region of space. (a) Find
curl F at any point. (b) Evaluate the integral of (curl F) . ds over the surface S of a sphere of
radius r = R appearing within the first octant as shown, bounded by the closed line t = ta + tb +
tco (c) Find the answer to (b) another way by usc of Stokes's theorem, from the line integral
of F . dt taken in the correct: sense about t. [Answer: (b) 5R2]
PROBLEM 2-29
) r=R
fa :1<1> = 0
(x)
.\r= R
tb '10 = 7f/2
PROBLEM 2-30
SECTION 2-5B
PROBLEMS 109
I (z)
I
r=R
tC:<!>=7f/2
(y)
2-31. (a) In Problem 1-37 it was shown that the field within the conducting slab carrying the
constant current density J = a;:;}z is B = ayJ.lo}zx. Show that this B field satisfies the time-static
Maxwell curl relation (2-65). (b) In Problem 1-33 was derived the expression for the B field
within the hollow conductor, B = a",J.loI(p2 - b
2
)/2np(c
2
- b
2
). Show that this magnetic field
satisfies (2-65).
2-32. Show that the B fields, found for the coaxial conductor pair of Problem 1-34, all satisfy
the Maxwell curl equation (2-65) in the three regions p < a, a < p < band b < P < c.
SECTION 2-7
2-33. From the substitution of the appropriate coordinate variables and metric coefficients
into (2-76), show that the Laplacian operator ofa scalar field, v, (VI) == V21, becomes (2-77),
(2-80), and (2-81) in the rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical systems, respectively.
2-34. Substituting the correct coordinate variables and metric coefficients, show that the
definition (2-82) of the Laplacian operator of a vector field becomes (2-83) in rectangular
coordinates.
2-35. Repeat Problem 2-34, except this time show that the definition (2-82), in the cylindrical
coordinate system, yields (2-84). [Hint: Make use of (1-33) in accounting (elr the space derivatives
of the unit vectors a
p
and a",.]
2-36. Show that the use of the vector identity (2-89) expanded in the cylindrical coordinate
system yields the result (2-84).
SECTION 2-9
2-37. In a manner similar to that employed in obtaining the wave equation (2-94) in terms
ofE, derive the vector wave eqnation (2-95) in terms ofB. Show how it may be reduced to (2-99)
for empty space.
2-38. Using the replacements (2-67) for real-time with complex time-harmonic fields, convert
the vector, inhomogenous wave equations (2-94) and (2-95) to their corresponding complex
time-harmonic forms. With the proper assumptions, show how these reduce to (2-10 I) and
(2-102), appropriate to source-free empty space.
SECTION 2-10
2-39. (a) Show that combining the time-harmonic Maxwell differential equations (2-ll0b)
and (2-111a) yields the scalar wave equation (2-112). (b) The wave equation (2-ll2) is to be
110 VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS AND MAXWELL'S DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
obtained via a different Beginning the wave equation I) and
the electric field component Ex (along with By) to exist, show that it reduces to (2-112).
2-40. Suppose that you are told that the complex wave fLlIlction Ex(;;:.) = E:' ejw"/;'o<i, Z IS a
solution of the scalar wave equation 12). By direct substitution, prove that this is so.
2-41. A particular plane wave in empty space has the electric field given, in time-
harmonic form, by E:(z) = 1885e-
j
/i
o
z Vim, at the frequency f 100 MHz. (a) Describe
this electric field wave: What is its amplitude? Its direction of travel? Its vector direction in
space (polarization)? (b) Express it in its real-time form, E-; (z, I). What is the value of the
ftee-space phase factor {Jo'? What is the A? (c) Find the associated magnetic field
B; (z) well as the equivalent magnetic field H; (z)) in time-harmonic form. Express the
H field in its real-time form, H;(z, t). (d) Sketch a labeled wave diagram in the manner of
Figure 2-12, showing the real time fields E-; and H; at t = O.
2-42. The unit.orm plane wave electric field, E(,:) = axl50S,!lIoz Vim, is given in
some region of space. Let the frequency of the source producing this wave be f = 150 MHz.
Answer the questions asked in Problem 2-41 concerning this given traveling wave.
2-43. Begin with the other indepepdellt pair of Maxwell dillcrential equations (2-110a) and
(2-111 b), involving the field-pair E
y
, Bx. Defining this plane wave to be '>-po/arized" in
view of they-direction of its electric field, obtain the following. (a) Manipulate these equatiops
to obtain a wave equation resembling (2-112) but in terms of the component E
y

Express the solution of this wave equation in the mauner of (2-115). (b) Show that the corre-
sponding magnetic-field traveling-wave solution can be expressed
Using 129), determine the equivalent expression lor Hx(z). (e) Use the results of (a) and
(b) to establish the wave impedance ratios IH: and Ey- Ifr;. Compare them with
the ratios applicable to the x-polarized case. (d) Sketch a labeled wave diagram sug-
gested by Figure 2-12, showing only the forward-traveling real-time sinusoidal waves E; (Z, I)
and I) at the instant t O. Compare the results with the x-polarized case depicted in
Figure 2-12, looking for similarities. (e) Sketch a wave diagram, this time showing only the
real-time E; (Z, t) and H; t) at t = O.
SECTION 2-11
2-44. (a) Prove (2-131) for the linear polarization trace formed by cophasal Ex and Ey
plane-wave components. (b) Prove (2-132) for the elliptical polarization trace of Figure 2-13(b).
Show that it becomes circular polarization when the component amplitudes are equal. (c) Re-
peat (b), but let Ey lag Ex in time by 90. Use a polarization diagram in the z 0 plane as
suggested by Figure 2-13(b) to prove which or these two polarization cases has the electric
field vector rotating cloekwise in time, and which counterclockwise (looking in the positivc-z
direction. )
2-45. Prove (2-133) for the polarization ellipse obtained whcnver Ex and Ey differ in phase
by the general angl<' fl. Sketch a labcled polarization diagram in the Z = 0 plane fc)r this case
as suggested by Figure 2-13(b). Comment on the analogy between this diagram and thc "Lissajou
figures" observable with an oscilloscope on exciting its vertical and horizontal amplifiers with
sinusoidal signals differing in phase. (As an added option, modify the three-dimt'llsional diagram
in Figure 2-13 to illustrate the details of this polarization problem.)
2-46. A uniform plane wave has the time-harmouic electric field: E(z) = 500e - jiJoZ(a
x
jay) V 1m. (a) Write the real-time exprt'ssions in thez 0 plane. What kind of polarization exists
here? Is it clock,:vise or counterclockwise (looking along + (b) Find the expression for the
accompanying H(z) field.
_--------------------CHAPTER 3
Maxwell's Equations
and Boundary Conditions
for Material Regions at Rest
Materials in nature are invariably composed of atoms or arrangements of atoms into
ions or molecules, each made up of positively and negatively charged particles having
various configurations in empty space and varying states ofrelative motion. An electric
or magnetic field impressed on a material exerts Lorentz forces on the particles, which
undergo displacements or rearrangements to modify the impressed fields accordingly.
The Maxwell equations that describe the electric and magnetic field behavior in a
material are thus expected to require modifications from their free-space versions to
account for whatever additional fields the material particles produce. It is the task in
this chapter to diseuss these extensions of the free-space Maxwell equations.
The topic of conduction is discussed from the viewpoint of a collision model.
The chapter continues with a consideration orthe added effects of electric polarization
within a material, providing a Maxwell divergence relation valid for materials as well
as free space. Next is treated the added effect of magnetic polarization, yielding a suit-
ably altered Maxwell curl expression lor the magnetic field. The field vectors D and
H are thereby defined. Boundary conditions prevailing at interfaces separating difter-
ently polarized regions are developed fi'om the integral forms of the Maxwell equations,
to compare the normal components ofD and the tangential components ofH at adja-
cent points in the regions. The discussion continues with related treatments of the
Maxwell div B and curl E equations for material regions, their integral forms, and
corresponding boundary conditions. The chapter concludes with a discussion of uni-
form plane waves in a material possessing the parameters (J, E, and j1, exemplifYing
the use of the Maxwell equations for a linear, homogeneous, and isotropic material.
31 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTMTY OF METALS
The electric and magnetic field behavior of material regions, solid, liquid, or gaseous,
may he characterized in terms of threc effects.
111
112 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
e
(Start)
Applied E
~
Direction of
acceleration
\'
\
\
e
~ ~
FIGURE 3-1. A representation of the production of a drift component of
the velocity of free electrons in a metal. (a) A typical sequence of electron
free paths resulting from collisions with the ion lattice. (b) Exaggerated view
of the effect of drift in the direction of the acceleration due to an applied E
field.
1. Electric charge conduction
2. Electric polarization
3. Magnetic polarization
For large classes of materials, these effects are often adequately described through use
of three parameters: (7, the electric conductivity; E, the electric permittivity; and /.1, the
magnetic permeability of the materiaL These parameters will be defined in the course
of the ensuing discussions.
In terms of their charge-conduction property, materials may for some purposes
be classified as insulators (dielectrics), which possess essentially no free electrons to pro-
vide currents under an impressed electric field; and conductors, in which free, outer orbit
electrons are readily available to produce a conduction current when an electric field
is impressed. An electrically conductive solid, commonly known as a conductor, is vi-
sualized in the submicroscopic world as a latticework of positive ions in which outer-
orbit electrons are free to wander as free electrons1-negative charges not attached to
any particular atoms. On this structure are superposed thermal agitations associated
with the temperature of the conductor --the light, agile conduction electrons moving
about the more massive ion lattice, imparting some of their momentum to that lattice
in exchange for new random directions of flight until more interactioIls occur. This cir-
cumstance is depicted in Figure 3-1 (a) for a typical conduction electroIl. The velocities
of the free electrons are randomly distributed so that a mean velocity, averaged at
any instant over a large number N of particles in the volume element,2 is given by
I N
Vd = - I Vi m/sec
N i=l
(3-1)
This quantity, called the drift velocity of the electrons, averages to zero in the absence
of any externally applied electric field.
lIn the atomic view, the free (condnction) electrons are those associated with the unfilled outer orbit, or
valence band, of particular elements known as metals.
2 The volume-element used in characterizing the average velocity (3-1) is chosen sufficiently large that it
contains enough ions and associated conduction electrons to yield a meaningful average, and yet it is taken
small enough that the averaged velocity may be characterized at a point in the region. That a very large
number of particles are present in a small volume increment is appreciated on noting that a typical conductor,
sodium, possesses about 2.5 x 10
19
atoms/mm
3
at room temperature.
3-1 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS 113
A mean free time, represented by the symbol To denotes the average interval be-
tween collisions in a volume element. When free electrons collide (interact) with the
ion lattice, they give up, on the average, a momentum rrtvd in the mean free time Tc
between collisions, ifm is the electron mass. Thus the averaged rate of momentum trans-
fer to the ion lattice, per electron, is rrttfd/Te N of force. On equating this to the Lorentz
electric field force applied within the conductor, one obtains
(3-2)
and solving tor Vd yields the steady drift velocity
(3-3)
The expression (3-3), linearly relating the drift velocity to the applied E field, is of the
form
(3-4)
in which the proportionality constant Pe' taken to be a positive number, is termed the
electron mobility, which from (3-3) is evidently
eTc 2
m IV-sec
m ' .
(3-5)
A high value of electron mobility is thus associated with a long mean free time T
e

Making use of (1-50a) and multiplying Vd by the volume density Pv = -ne of
the conduction electrons obtains the volume current density
J
(3-6)
with n denoting the free electron densi ty in electrons/m
3
. Eq uation (3-6) is an expression
exhibiting a linear dependence ofJ on the applied E field in the conductor. Experiments
show that this is an exceedingly accurate model for a wide selection of physical con-
ductors. Equation (3-6) has the form of
J = O"E (3-7)
sometimes given the name point fornl of Ohm's in which the factor 0" is called the
conductivity of the region, having the units ampere per meter squared per volt per meter,
or mho per meter. For the present model to which (3-6) applies, the conductivity is
expressible as the positive number
(3-8)
114 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
It is thus seen that both the electron mobility and the conductivity are proportional
to the mean free time, <c' A comparison of (3-5) and (3-8) permits expressing (J" in
terms of the mobility
(3-9)
EXAMPLE 31. Find the mean free time and the electron mobility for sodium, having the
measured dc conductivity 2.1 x 10
7
Dim at room temperature.
Sodium has an atomic density of 2.3 x 10
28
atom/m
3
at room temperature, and
with one outer-orbit electron available, n has the same value. Thus from (3-8), the mean free
time becomes
rna (9.1 x 10-
31
) (2.1 x 10
7
)
1: = - = = 3 3 X 10-
14
sec
c ne2 (2.3 x 10
28
)(1.6 x 10 19)2 .
Its electron mobility is found from either of the relations
2.1 X 10
7
~ ~ ~ = 5.7 X 10-
3
m
2
fV -sec
This implies from (3-4) the very slow drift velocity Vd = 5.7 mm/sec for an applied field
of I V /m, emphasizing the sluggish, viscous nature of electron drift in a conductor.
The foregoing picture of direct current in a conductor is readily extended to the
time-varying case, assuming that E varies slowly in comparison" to the mean free time,
<c' The force-equilibrium relation (3-2) then acquires another term due to the addi-
tional time rate of change of the average momentum of the drifting electron cloud
in the conductor. Adding it to (3-2) obtains
(3-10)
This differential equation has the complementary solution, assuming the initial condi-
tion Vd = VdO at t = 0, as follows:
(3-11)
a transient solution denoting a decay or relaxation in the drift velocity on suddenly
turning offthe applied field E. Thus the mean free time, <0 introduced into force relation
(3-2), has acquired the interpretation of a relaxation time in the event of applying or
removing an electric field from a conductor. The relaxation phenomenon furthermore
occurs in an exceedingly short time for typical good conductors; thus, from Example
3-1 it was shown to be of the order of 10-
14
sec for a metal having a conductivity of
7
O/m. The current density (3-7) is proportional to the drift velocity Vd, im-
plying from (3-11) that current decays with time at the same rate on removing the E field.
The differential equation (3-10) can be simplified ifE is assumed sinusoidal. Re-
placing E and Vd with the time-harmonic forms Eei
rot
and Vdeirot obtains, after can-
celling the factor ei
illt
, the complex algebraic relation
3-1 ELECTRlCAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS 115
yielding the time-harmonic solution for vd
e ~
E
The complex current density due to this drift velocity is therefore, from J = Pvvd
j =_m __ EA/m2
(3-13)
The coefficient of E denotes the conductivity of the metal as in the de result (3-7),
though now a complex quantity is obtained
8= __ m_V/m
1 .
- + Jill
Tc
(3-14 )
However, for typical good conductors having a mean free time, To of the order of
10-
14
sec (Example 3-1), (3-14) reduces to the real, dc conductance result (3-8)
[3-8]
provided the angular frequency ill of the electromagnetic field is of the order of
1013 rad/sec or less (below the optical frequencies). Additional confidence is gained
for this rather heuristic model of metallic conduction by experimental measurements
made in the microwave range of frequencies, showing that the E and J fields in good
conductors are in phase, implying that (f is real in the relationship J = (fE, even up to
very high frequencies.
The model of electrical conductivity just described is essentially that proposed by
Karl Drude in 1900. The advent of quantum mechanics since that time has provided
comprehensive techniques for describing, among other things, why the conductivities
of various materials behave differently with temperature and how the vast range of
conductivities of physical materials comes about- -of the order of 10
8
V/m for the best
conductors at room temperature to 10-
16
V/m for the best insulators-a range of
some 24 orders of magnitude. The so-called band theory of solids, an outgrowth of
quantum mechanics, is useful for describing the intrinsic differences among the con-
ductors, semiconductors, and insulators.
3
3See T. S., Hutchison, and D. C. Baird. The Physics ~ Engineering Solids. New York: Wiley, 1968, for details.
116 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
3-2 ELECTRIC POLARIZATION AND DIY D FOR MATERIALS
Insulators, or so-called dielectrics, incapable of carrying appreciable conduction
currents under impressed electric fields of moderate magnitudes, are the subject of this
discussion. The mechanism of the dielectric polarization effects resulting from applied
electric fields may be explained in terms of the microscopic displacements of the bound
positive and negative charge constituents from their average equilibrium positions,
produced by the Lorentz electric field forces on the charges. Such displacements are
usually only a fraction of a molecular diametcr in the material, but the sheer numbers
of particles involved may cause a significant change in the electric field from its value
in the absence of the dielectric substance.
Dielectric polarization may arise from the following causes.
1. Electronic poLarization, in which the bound, negative electron cloud, subject to an
impressed E field, is displaced from the equilibrium position relative to the positive
nucleus.
2. Ionic polarization, in which the positive and negative ions of a molecule are dis-
placed in the presence of an applied E field.
3. Orientational polarization, occurring .in materials possessing permanent electric
dipoles randomly oriented in the absence of an external field, but undergoing
an orientation toward the applied electric field vector by amounts depending
on the strength of E. The tendency for the so-called polar molecules of such a
material to align parallel with the applied field is opposed by the thermal agita-
tion effects and the mutual interaction forces among the particles. Water is a
common example of a substance exhibiting orientational polarization effects,
In each type of dielectric polarization, particle displacements are inhibited by
powerful restoring forces between the positive and negative charge centers. In Figure
3-2 is illustrated the polarization mechanism in a material involving two species of
charge. One should imagine thermal agitations superimposed on the average positions
of the particles shown. If an external field E is impressed on the material, Lorentz
forces EE = qE will be exerted on the positively charged nucleus and the negative
electron cloud to produce displacements of both systems of particles. Displacement
equilibrium is attained when the applied forces are balanced by the internal attractive
Coulomb forces of the couplets.
The moment Pi of the ith displaced charge pair in a collection of polarized
dipoles as in Figure 3-2(a) is defined by
Pi = qd
i
C'm 15 )
in which q denotes the positive charge of the couplet (q, q), and d
i
the vector separa-
tion of the couplet, directed from the negative to the positive charge, The average
electric dipole morneHt per unit volume, called the electric polarization field and denoted
by P, is defined by
(3-16)
for a volume element ~ containing N electric dipoles. If no E field were applied to
the material, no dipoles would be induced in the case of electronic or ionic polarization;
even if the material were polar (containing permanent dipoles), their orientations
3-2 ELECTRIC POLARIZATION AND mv D FOR MATERlALS 117
6
/
(0,
'-.:""
6)
'-0"
(0'1
"''l
(0 (0
CD
(0
(8)
~ /
(0
"'''''
to)
"'''''
(0)
'-C/
(0)
'-0/
E0
(0 (0 (0 CO
(0)
'-.-/
(0)
'-0:/
(0)
'C'l
(0)
'C/
~ 0
CO CD CD
(0'1
'C:::/
{)l
(",,/,
(OJ
'C"
()\
( I
, , ~
(0'
" I
~ B
CD CD
(0 (0
No E field applied
Electron 'r;-.. Positive
cloud I--,:!;; nucleus
-q '-Ud +q
,
E field applied
\
\
/'
I p/
,
Random orientations of a small
sample of electric dipoles,
no E field applied
(a)
(b)
I
/p. --.,..
/-:... \, ~
/ _ ~
/" "'" __ lPj = Pdv
Orientations influenced by
applied E field,
to produce P
FIGURE 3-2. Electric polarization eflects in simple models of nonpolar and polar dielectric
materials. (a) A nonpolar substance. (b) A polar substance (H
2
0).
would under usual circumstances be random as illustrated in Figure 3-2(b), in which
case the numerator of (3-16) would sum to zero to make P = O. IfE were applied in
the x direction as shown, a net component ofP would be induced.
If p + and p _ denote the densities of the positive and the negative charges that
constitute the dielectric material, (3-16) can be written
N N N
.2: Pi .2: qidi Nq.2: di
[=1 [=1 ,=1 d
--=---=---=p+
I1v I1v I1v N
(3-17) P
in which p + = Nq/l1v is the density of only the positive charges comprising the dipole-
filled region, and d denotes ('LdiljN, the dipole displacement averaged over the N
dipoles in Av. An examination orthe polarization field P = p+d of (3-17), characterized
as the vector in Figure 3-3(a), reveals the establishment of a bound charge excess
within I1v, giving rise to a so-called polarization charge density, wherever P has a diver-
gence. Since, from (3-17), P is the positive charge density times the vector displacement
d of the positive charge cloud with respect to the negative charge cloud, the definition
(2-20) reveals that the divergence of P amounts to the limit of a net, positive charge
118 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
P
y
(a) (b)
FIGURE 3-3. Relative to (3-21), {Iv --div P. (a) Polarization field P at a volume-element in
a dielectric. (iI) Efkcl of nonnniformity of P
x
, leaving an excess of negative polarization charge
within Av.
out of the volume V, divided by V. In other words, div P becomes a negative,
polarization-created, effective charge density, given the symbol pp. A formal proof of the
observation that div P = - PP' relative to Figure 3-3, follows.
Consider a typical volume element = in a region containing, in
general, a nonuniform polarization field P as shown in Figure 3-3.(b). The x component,
1\ p accounts for a net, positive bound charge passing through the left-hand
face 8
1
into amounting to
(3-18a)
while through the opposite side S'1> the positive bound charge commg out of is
expressed
(3-18b)
A net, negative, polarization bound charge therefore remains inside amounting to
the difference of (3-18a) and 18b), or
19)
With similar contributions over the other two pairs of sides, one obtains the total,
negative hound charge remaining inside
(3-20)
a measure of the net, bound charge excess within if.p
p
denotes the volume
ELECTRIC POLARIZATION AND IllV ]) FOR MATERIALS 119
density of the polarization
view of (2-29a)
excess. Equating to Pp liZ! thus obtains, in
(3-21 )
Pp is thus a "negative, effective charge density" created by the dielectric polarization
process, whenever the polarization density field P has a divergence.
Thc divergence of EoE, inIree space, has been given by (2-39) to express the density
Pv of fi'ee charge. By (3-21), the polarization-charge-excess developed in a material, by
the nonuniformity ofthe polarization density field P, is seen from its divergence prop-
erty (3-21) to contribute the added, negative, effective charge density Pi' = div P,
a bound-charge excess over whatcver free charge of density Pv may exist in the polarized
material. The divergence of EoE in a material in general, then, becomes (3-21) with
the effective polarization charge density Pp added in, whence div (EoE) Pv + Pp =
Pv div P, to yield
v . (EoE + P) = p" (3-22)
a divergence expression t()[ E in a material region. A more compact version is obtained
using the abbreviation D for (EoE + P) as follows
to permit writing (3-22) in the preferred form
V'D = Pv C/m
3
(3-24)
Experiments reveal that many dielectric substances are essentially linear, mean-
ing that P is proportional to the E field applied. For such materials
4
PocE
(3-25)
in which the parameter Xc is called the electric
Eo is retained in (3-25) to make Xe dimensionless. Then becomes
V' [(1 + Xe)EOE] = Pv
(3-26)
Comparing with (3-24) shows that the bracketed quantity denotes D, that is,
4Strictly speaking, the expressions arc static (or forms. These results are
more usefully written in phasor {()nns, with field quantities replaced with the
phasors P, E. XC' Pv, D, and E,. Thus. with E complex in (3-30c), {t)r cxampk, D = EE shows D and E
are in general out of phase.
120 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
I t is usual to denote I + Xe by the dimensionless symbol
(3-28)
Er is called the relative permittivity of the region. Finally, choosing the symbol E, called
the permittivity of the material, to denote (1 + XelEo as follows
(3-29a)
(3-29b)
permits writing (3-27) in the following successively more compact forms
D = (1 + XelEoE
(3-30a)
(3-30b)
(3-30c)
In free space, Xe = 0, to reduce (3-30) properly to D = EoE. Also, expressing (3-29b)
in the form
E
(3-31 )
\
\
emphasizes that Er denotes a material permittivity relative to that of empty space.
To summarize, note that Maxwell's relation (3-22) or (3-24 1 is expressible in
any of the equivalent forms
V [(1 + XelEoE] Pv (3-32a)
(3-32bl
V (EEl = Pv (3-32c)
V D = Pv Cjm
3
(3-32d)
No dielectric material is strictly linear in its electric polarization behavior, though
many are very nearly so over wide ranges of applied E fields. If E is made strong
enough, a material may experience polarization displacements that result in permanent
dislocations of the molecular structure, or a dielectric breakdown, for which case (3-25)
does not hold. In a nonlinear material the magnitude of D is not proportional to the
applied E field, (though the E and the P vectors may have the same directions). Then
(3-25) is written more generally
(3-33)
in which the dependence of Xe on E is noted.
3-2 ELECTRIC POLARIZATION AND DlV D FOR MATERIALS 121
A. Dielectric Polarization Current Density
If the electric field giving rise to dielectric polarization effects is time-varying,
the resulting polarization field is also time-varying. Then the displacements of the
positive charge constituents in one direction, together with the negative charges moving
oppositely, give rise to charge displacements through cross sections of the material
identifiable as currents through those cross sections. Applying a time-derivative operator
to the Pi terms of (3-16) thus yields a current density interpretation as follows
I api
;=1 at
(3-34)
The resulting time derivative of the polarization field, aplat, having the units of volume
current density, is given the symbol jp as follows
ap
j =-A/m2
p at
(3-35 )
and is called the electric polarization current density. The field jp, along with the polariza-
tion charge density field Pp described by (3-21), acts as an additional source of electric
and rnagnetic fields. In particular, the special role played by jp in relation to magnetic
fields in a material region is discussed later in Section 3-4.
B. Integral Form of Gauss's Law of Materials
The dielectric polarization effects attributed to material regions have been seen
to lead to the divergence expressions (3-21) and (3-24-), relating the field quantities
p and D to the polarization charge and free charge sources. The divergence theorem
can be used to transform these differential equations into corresponding integral forms.
The most important of these is (3-24) for the D field; that is, V . D = Pv' Multiplying
both sides of by dv and integrating throughout an arbitrary volume region V
yields
fv V D dv = fv Pv dv (3-36)
By the divergence theorem (2-34), the left side can be replaced by a closed-surface
integral to yield
~ D . ds = fv P v dv C
(3-37)
in which S bounds V. Equation (3-37) is the integral form of Maxwell's equation (3-24)
for a material region, sometimes called Gauss's law for material regions. It states that the
net outward flux of D over any closed surface is a measure of the total free charge
contained by the volume V bounded by S, at any instant of time. As expected, it be-
comes the free-space Gauss's law (1-53) if Xe = 0, reducing D to EoE.
122 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Another divergence relation, V . P = Pp of (3-21), has the equivalent integral
form
(3-38)
obtained by the method analogous to that used in converting (3-24) to Gauss's integral
(3-37). Equation (3-38) states that the net outward flux ofP emanating from the sur-
face of V is a measure of the net polarization charge summed throughout V.
C. Spatial Boundary Conditions for Normal D and P
In many electromagnetic field problems ofphysical interest, it becomes necessary
to discuss how the fields behave as one traverses the boundary surfaces, or interfaces,
separating the various material regions that comprise the system. In such problems,
a matching or fitting of the field solutions is required so that the boundary conditions
at the interfaces may be satisfied. The proper boundary conditions for the fields are
determined, as will be shown, from the integral forms of Maxwell's equations for
material regions.
The Maxwell integral relation (3-37), fs D ds = Iv pvdv, can be used, through
an appropriately constructed closed surface, for comparing the normal components
ofD that appear just to either side of an interface separating two materials of different
permittivities. Denoting the materials as region 1 and region 2 with permittivities E1
and E
2
, define a pillbox-shaped closed surface of small height (5h and end areas 1\s so
that both regions to either side of the interface are penetrated as in Figure 3-4. Calling
the fields Dl and D2 at points just inside regions 1 and 2, respectively, the application
of the left-hand integral of (3-37) to the closed pillbox yields the net outward flux
from the top and bottom surfaces 1\s. At the same time, the right side is the charge
enclosed by tQe pillbox; this is Pv1\s(5h, so (3-37) becomes
(3-39)
The right side of (3-39) vanishes as (5h - 0, assuming Pv denotes a volume free charge
density in the region. If, however, a surface charge density denoted by Ps and defined
by the limit
Region 2:
(2)
D2
(a)
P. = lim PvJh
~ h - O
As
(b)
Region 1:
(tt)
FIGURE 3-4. Gaussian pillbox surface constrncted for deriviug the boundary condition on the
normal component ofD. (a) Pillbox-shaped closed surface showing total fields at points adjacent
to interface. (b) Edge view of (a), showing fields resolved into components.
(3-40)
3-2 ELECTRIC POLARIZATION AND DIV D FOR MATERIALS 123
is present on the interface, (3-39) reduces to the general boundary condition
(3-41 )
Equation (3-41) means that the normal component oj D is discontinuous to the extent oj the
jree surface charge density present on the interface. Since Dnl = n . Dl and Do2 = n D
z
, with
n denoting a normal unit vector directed from region 2 toward region 1 as in Figure
3-4(b), (3-41) is written optionally in vector notation as follows.
(3-42)
The boundary condition (3-41) is true in general, but for some physical problems
a free surface charge densi ty Ps may be absent. Two special cases of (3-41) of physical
interest are mentioned in the following, while a more general result is left for discussion
in Section 3-11.
CASE A. Both regions perfect dielectrics. A perfect dielectric, for which the con-
ductivity (J is zero, cannot furnish free charges, so that if no excess charge is supplied
to the interlace by an external agent (rubbing it with eat's fur, for example), then
Ps = a on the interface. Then (3-41) reduces to
(3-43)
The normal component oj D is continuous at an interface separating two perfect dielectrics, as
illustrated in Figure 3-5(a).
Region 1: (0-1 = 0; fl)
Region 2: (0-2 = 0; <2)
(a)
Region 1: (El)
(b)
FIGURE 3-5. Two cases of the boundalY condition lor normal components of D. (a)
Continuous D. at an interface separating perfect dielectrics. (b) r;quality of normal D.
to a surface charge dcnsi ty on a perlect conductor.
124 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
CASE B. One region is a perfect dielectric; the other is a perfect conductor.
Electric currents are limited to finite densities in the physical world. Thus from (3-7),
J = O"E, the assumption of a conductor in region 2 of Figure 3-4 (0" z -4 CIJ), implies
that E
z
in that region must be zero if the current densities are to have, at most, finite
values. Moreover, with electromagnetic fields satisfying (2-108), V x :E = -jroB,
one can see that if E
z
is zero in region 2, then :8
2
must be zero there also. Thus for
time-varying fields,
implies E=B=O (3-44)
in a perfect conductor. The boundary condition (3-41) or (3-42) then must reduce to
Dnl = p" or in vector form
n' D = Ps C/m
2
(3-45)
The charge density residing on a conductor equals the normal component of D
there, as illustrated in Figure 3-5(b).
In a static field problem involving only fixed electric charges and no static
currents, the boundary condition (3-45) holds true even though region 2 may be only
finitely conducting, for the assumption of no static currents in the finitely conducting
region 2 implies from (3-7) that E
z
= 0 there, making D2 = 0 as well. Thus (3-42)
reduces to (3-4,5).
A boundary condition similar to (3-41) can be derived comparing the normal
components of the dielectric polarization vector P. Noting the similarity of Maxwell's
integral law (3-37) and the polarization field integral (3-38) and using another pillbox
construction, one can show that P
n1
- P
n2
= Psp' or in vector form
(3-46)
!
in wKich Ps
p
denotes the net surface bound charge density lying within the pillbox.
The net density includes the eHect of both species of surface polarization charge (positive
and negative) accumulated just to either side of the interface. A simpler picture is
obtained if'region 1 is free space, for which Xe1 0 (or E 1 = Eo). Then P 1 = 0, reducing
to the special case
(3-47)
The sUijace polarization charge density residing at a free-space-to-dielectric interface equals the
normal component of the P field there.
EXAMPLE 3-2. Two parallel conducting plates of great extent and d m apart are statically
charged with q C on every area A of the lower and upper plates, respectively, as noted in
(a), The conductors are separated by air except for a homogeneous dielectric slab of
thickness c and permittivity E, spaced a distance b from the lower plate. (a) Use Gauss's law
to establish D in the three regions. Sketch the flux ofD. (b) Find E and P in the three
regions and show their flux plots. (c) Determine Ps on the conductor surfaces, Pp in the
dielectric, and Pps at y band y b + c.
(y)t
I
I
I
I
d L ___ Conductor
I
I
I
3-2 ELECTRIC POLARIZATION AND DIV D FOR MATERIALS 125
Negatively
surface
(-q/A)
b+Cr--r
I c
________ __ __
Dielectric slab
I
I charged surface
I (+q/A)

I
I
(a)
Dt
Dt t+-+-+-f-+-+-1r-rt-+-t-t-h11
II E t'r-'-r""""".,---,-rr.,---,'-r-r--r'
pt \
yt Et
-P'P
+ + + + + + + + + + -+
(c) (d)
EXAMPLE 3-2. (a) Charged parallel conductor system. (b) Flux of D. (c) Flux of EoE.
(d) Flux ofP.
(a) E exists only between the conductors and by symmetry is independent of x and z.
A Gaussian closed-surface S in the form of a reetangular box is placed as in Figure
1-15(d), to contain the free charge q. With static E inside the conductor zero, aD
flux of a constant density emanates from the top ofS, making the left side of Gauss's
law (3-37) become
Dy r ds DyA
JS(top)
I:':quating to the right side of (3-37), the free charge q = DyA, whence
y Y Y A
(I)
a result correct for all three regions between the conductofs because no free charge
exists in Of on the dielectric. The flux plot of D is shown in (b).
(b) E is obtained using (3-30c), so in the dielectric slab,
D
E=-=a
E YEA
b <y < b + c (2)
126 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
whereas in the air regions it is
D q
E = ~ = a
Eo Y EOA
o <)! < band b + c < y < d (3)
Since E > Eo for a typical dielectric, E in the air regions exceeds the value in the
dielectric, as shown in (c).
P in the dielectric is found by use of
P D
a q ~ )
Y A Er
(4)
For Er > 1, P in the slab is positive.y directed, as shown in (d). In air, P is zero.
From (3-35), no polarization current density J
P
is established in the dielectric be-
cause the fields are time-static.
The free charge densities on the conductors are obtained from (3-45), yielding
Ps = q/A. The polarization charge density Pp from (3-21) is zero because P is a
constant vector throughout the slab. The surface polarization charge density Ps
p
is
tound by inserting (4) into (3-47), yielding
These surface densities are noted in (b) and (d) of the figtire.
3-3 DIY B FOR MATERIALS: ITS INTEGRAL FORM AND
A BOUNDARY CONDITION FOR NORMAL B
(5)
In Section 3-2 the Maxwell relation for V D in a material was developed by adding
the effect of the electric polarization charge density Pp to the free-space Maxwell
relation. Thc form of the expression for V B ill a material can be developed analo-
gously. N0iadditive term is required in this casc, however, because no free magnetic
charges cxist physically in any known material. Thus B remains divergenceless in
materials; that is,
V' B = 0 Wb/m
3
(3-48)
Equation (3-48) is converted to its integral form using a technique analogous to
that employed in obtaining (3-37). Multiplying both sides of (3-48) by dv, integrating
it throughout an arbitrary V, and applying the divergence theorem
#SB' ds = OWb
(3-49)
1
c
]
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERIALS 127
the form of (3-49) states that the net outgoing Hux orB over
ally closed surface is always zero, implying that B flux always forIns dosed lines.
A boundary condition concerned with the normal components ofB and analo-
gous to (3-42) can be j()Und by applying (3-49) to a vanishing Gaussian pillbox like
that of Figure 3-4. The resulting boundary condition is
(3-50)
that is, the normal comt)onent or the B .field is continuous at an interface separating two adjacent
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND
CURL H FOR MATERIALS
The magnetic properties of a material are attributed to the tendency for the bound
(un-mis, circulating on an atomic scale within the substanee, to align with an applied
B field. Three types of bound currents are associated with atomic structure: those
attributed to orbiting electrons, and those associated with electron spin and with
nuclear spin. Each of these phenomena, represented in Figure 3-6(a), is equivalent to
the circulation of a current 1 about a small closed path bounding an area ds, the
positive sense of which is related by the right-hand rule to the direction of 1 as in
Figure 3-6( b). The product Ids defines the magnetic moment tn contributed by those
bound currents of the atomic or molecular configuration. J t is shown that applying
an external magnetic fIeld B to the typical moment tn = I ds yields a torque exerted
on tn, lending to align tn with the applied B field. One can in this manner explain
the magnetic behavior of a malerial as though it were a collection, in empty space,
of many magnetic moments tn per unit volume. The tendency to align with the applied
B fidd is shown to provide an equivalent magnetization current of density Jm, serving
to modify the magnetic field in a certain way. A desuiption of this process, beginning
with it discussion of the torque produced by the B field on a current element, follows.
A current loop of microscopic size has an external magnetic field behavior in-
dependent of its shape in a plane, so a square loop is assumed in lieu of the circular
conflguration of Figure 3-6(h). It is shown in Figure 3-7 (a) in the z 0 plane, immersed
in the applied field B = axBx + ayBy + azB
z
. The Lorentz force acting on each of the
four edges of the square current loop is obtained from (I-52)
Orbital motion
vector
dF
E
= dqv x B N
Electron spin ...
vect?;bor, ( I 'J
Electron ----:ti - e
orbital motion '
Nucleus
(a)
m= Ids
I LdS

(b)
FIGURE 3-6. The clements of bound currents that exist in atomic structure.
(a) Constituents of circulating currents associated with particles of a simpk atom.
(b) Magnetic moment III of a current I circulating about an area ds.
(3-51 )
128 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
:(Y)
.
r<,-:-; - _1- ------,1
I .... - 1
: By:
,
ds = azdxdy
(a)
dq.,=Idf ,
1-;:)
~
d
.; v :' ds
Y', .'
II I!
II II
j' 'I
C '.
I . . : . . : : : . ~ _ ~ J :
dx -"
(b) (c)
FIGURE 3-7. Development of torque expression for a current loop immersed in a B field.
(a) Current loop immersed in arbitrary B field. (b) A moving charge element, dqv, of the loop.
(c) Development of torque dT produced on edge dl, .
if the charge dq moves with a velocity v along the edges dx and dy. One may cast
(3-51) into the following forms, noting that dq = p"dv p"dt ds from Figure 3-7(b),
and usi ng (1-50a)
[J dt ds] x B I dt x B (3-52)
with the direction denoted by assigning a vector property to each edge length dt. The
origin of the torque arm R is for convenience taken at the center of the loop. Along
t
l
, the differential torque dT
1
is given by Rl x dF
B
(Example 1-4), yielding
1B dxdy
ax y 2
with the same result obtained for edge t
3
, while that acting on t
z
and t4 becomes
dT
2
+ dT
4
ayIBxdxdy. Thus the torque on the complete loop becomes
dT (a
z
x B)Jds l(a
z
ds) x BIds X B
and with 1 ds denoting the magnetic moment
(3-53)
one may abbreviate the result
dT=tnxBNm (3-54)
It is clear from (3-54) that only the components of the applied B field in the plane
of the current element act to produce a torque on it. Htn and B were parallel, dT would
become zero; thus the torque dT is such that it tends to align the current element with the
applied B field.
A very large number of current loops like those of the atomic model in Figure 3-2
comprise a magnetic material, susceptible to such magnetic alignment eHects. In the
absence of an applied B field, they possess random orientations accompanied by thermal
(
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERlALS 129
(a)

N j
::::Em;: Mdv
i=l
(b)
FIGURE 3-8. Current loop constituency or a magnetizable material, alTected by an ap-
plied B field. (a) Random magnetic moments, in the absence o[ B. (b) Partial alignment
of magnetic moments, B applied.
agitation effects, as depicted in Figure 3-8(a), if one may avoid the of permanent
magnetism occurring in some materials. Impressing a B field develops a torque on each
current loop, as specified by (3-54), such that the loops tend to align more or less in the
direction ofB as depicted in Figure 3-8(b).
The magnetization density M is defined in essentially the way the dielectric polar-
ization field P is defined by (3-16), that is, by summing the magnetic moments In within a
volume-element Av and expressing the sum on the per-unit-volume basis
N
LIn;

Av
(3-55 )
This becomes a smooth functional result if the number N of current elements within
Av is quite large, while Au is yet small enough to be considered suitable for manipulation
in differential or integral expressions. Thus M furnishes a characterization of the
circulating atomic currents within matter from a smoothed-out, macroscopic point of
VIew.
An important derivative fi.mction of the magnetization field M is its curl, shown
in the following to yield a volume density 1m of uncanceled bound currents within a
130 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
rnagnetic material according to
(3-56)
A formal derivation of (3-56) proceeds with the aid of Figure 3-9. The examina-
tion of an incremental volume-clement of a material, depicted in Figure 3-9(a), reveals
the presence of surface current contributions on bov as in (b) of that figure, assuming for
the present that only the effects of the z component of M are considered. If two such
volume increments are considered side by side as in Figure 3-9(c), then the bound sur-
face currents along their common sides, with densities designated by ]sm,y, cancel
partially to produce a net upward flow of current in the region given by
This current passing through the cross-sectional area box boZ is depicted by the bold
arrow in the figure. They component of the bound current density 1m through box boz
(y)
(z)
M
(a)
(c)
(z)
(x)
ll.velements
(separated to show
J
sm
, y and J;m,y)
(y)
Jsm,x=-Mz
J::. trI ,y= -Mz
(b)
(x)
(d)
FIGURE 3-9. Relative to Jm = V x M. (a) Bound current clements producing surface currents
on 8v. (h) Bound surface currents smoothed into rectangular components, assuming M
z
only. (c) Net
volume current All through 8x Az: the difference of bound surface current densities. (d) The other
contribution to the Jm" component.
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERIALS 131
is thcn AldAx Az oMz/ox. Anothcr contribution, shown in Figure 3-9(d) is ob-
tained from the x component ofM in the vicinity ofthc point; it contributes the density
oMx/oz through Ax Az. The totaly component ofJm therefore becomes Jm,y = 8M
x
/8z-
oMz/ox, which from (2-52) is evidently they component of curl M. A similar develop-
ment yields the other components Jm,x and Jm,z of Jm, obtaining (3-56)
ax
a
y
a
z
0 8 0
=V xM
Jm =
ox oy oz
[3-56]
Mx My M
z
The significance of (3-56) in revealing the presence of "olume currents inside a material
whenever its interior is nonuniformly magnetized is des@1Jed inanexample to follow.
A side effect is the currentdensities Jsm established by M on the
surface of the material.
EXAMPLE 3-3. Suppose a B field is applied to a cube of magnetic material, h m on a side, such
that M is z-direeted and. varies linearly with x according to M = a
z
lOx A/m, as shown in
(a). Find the magnetization current density Jm in the material, as well as the surface
magnetization current density. Sketch the bound current fields in and on the cube.
The magnetization current density Jm is obtained from (3-56)
ax
a
y
a
z
0 0 iJ
= -aylO A/m
2
Jm = V X M =
ox oy oz
(I)
0 0 lOx
negative y-directed and of constant density as in (b).
The uncanceled segments of the bound currents at the surface of the block constitute
a surface density of magnetization currents denoted by Jsm (A/m). On the end x = b, Jsm
is y-directed and has a magnitude equal to that of M there; that is,
-
(z)
(a)
J
m
= 'i7xM
= - aylO
(b) (c)
Surface bound
current flux
(x)
EXAMPLE 3-3. (a) Material sample magnetized linearly with increasing x. (b) Volume mag-
netization currents produced by transverse variations or M. (c) Surface currents produced by
uncanceled segments of bound currents,
(2)
132 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
while on the top and bottom of the block
-a M]
x :z y=b
J ]
axMz]y=o = a,JOx A/rn
sm y=O
(4)
No bound currents exist on the end at x = 0, since M = 0 there. These surface effects are
shown as flux plots in (c).
The modeling of the bound currents in Figure 3-9 reveals that, on any sampling
cube ,1v, the surface bound-current densities J8m are oriented perpendicularly with
respect to the local M field. It is therefore evident that J8m on any surface element of
,1v can bc found from the cross product of that M with the normal unit veCtor emerging
from the surface. Thus,
Jsm = -n X M
(3-57)
In Example 3-3, on the surface y = b of the magnetized block, with n = ax and
M = azlOb there, one obtainsJsm = -0 X M = -ax X a)Ob = aylOb, which agrees with
thc result (2) obtained in that example.
The curl of B/flo in free space has been expressed by (2-63) as the sum of a
convection or a conduction current density J plus a displacement current density
a(EoE)/at at any point. Two additional types of current densities occur generally in
materials: J
P
= ap/at of (3-35) and Jm = V x M of (3-56), arising from dielectric and
magnetic polarization effects, respectively. Adding these together accounts for the total
current density at any point, yielding a revision of (2-63) for a material region.
V X (:)
a(E E) ap
J+_
o
_+ +VxM
at at
Grouping the curl terms and the time-derivative terms together obtains
V X (.! -M) = J + _o(_Eo_E..,...+_P_l
flo at
Recalling from (3-23) that EoE + P defines D, and further abbreviating B/flo
(3-57) by use of the symbol H, sOrhetimes called the magnetic intensity field
H
B
flo
-MAjm
permits writing (3-58a) in the compact form
(3-58a)
Min
(3-58b)
(3-59)
This is
to mat!
p=M
I
Mpro
gouS 1
prove!
H as I
in wI
(3-6(
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERIALS 133
This is the desired Maxwell curl expression for the field H defined by (3-58b), applicable
to material regions. Note that it properly reduces to its free-space form (2-73) on setting
P;::M;::O.
In a linear region possessing a magnetization M, one might be inclined to express
M proportional to the B field in the material (i.e., M IX B) to provide a result analo-
gous to (3-25) for a linear dielectric (P IX E). Historically, however, this has not
proved to be the assumption used; instead, it is customary to set M proportional to
H as follows:
MIXH
(3-60)
in which the dimensionless Xm is called the magnetic susceptibility of a material. Inserting
(3-60) into (3-58b) therefore yields
B B
H = - - M = - - XmH
flo flo
which, on solving for B, obtains
(3-61 )
The quantity (1 + Xm), abbreviated fl"
flr;:: I + Xm (3-62)
is called the relative permeability of the material. Further choosing the symbol fl, called
the to denote the product
(3-63a)
Ii;:: flrlio HIm (3-63b)
permits writing (3-61) in the compact form for linear materials
(3-64a)
(3-64b)
B = ,uHWbjm2 (3-64c)
One should note the analogy of the steps yielding (3-64c) to those leading to (3-30),
connecting D and E for linear, electrically polarized materials.
It is seen from (3-64b) that the relative permeability expresses the permeability
of a material relative to that of free space, ,uo, if one writes
(3-65)
This is evidently analogous to the expression for the relative permittivity E
r
.
134 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
A. Integral Form of Ampere's Law for Materials
Maxwell's curl relation (3-59), V X H = J + (aD/at) can be transformed into an
integral relationship by using Stokes's theorem. Forming the dot product of (3-59)
with ds and integrating over any surface S bounded by the closed line t yields
f (V x H) 'ds = f J' ds +!!..- f D ds
Js Js dt Js
From Stokes's theorem (2-56), the left side can be expressed as an integral of H dt
over the closed line t bounding S, assuming H suitably well-behaved; thus
1 H' dE = 1 J . ds + !l D . ds A
s dt s
(3-66)
the desired integralform of Maxwell's differential equation (3-59). Equation (3-66) is also
known as Ampere's circuital law for materials. I t states that the net circulation ofH about
any closed path t is a measure of the sum of the conduction (or convection) current
plus the displacement current through the surface S bounded by t.
Another curl relation, (3-56), Jm = V X M connecting the magnetization field
M with a volume magnetization current density, was treated in the last section. It has
an integral form analogously obtainable by use of Stokes's theorem, becoming,
(3-67)
This means that the circulation of the M field about a closed path t is a measure of the
net magnetization current through it. For example, a surface integration of Jm over
a cross section in the x-z plane of the magnetized cube in Example 3-3 is seen to yield
a bound magnetization current 10b
2
A flowing vertically through the specimen, also
obtainable from a line integral of M dt around a horizontal perimeter of the cube.
B. Boundary Conditions for TangenHal Hand M
In a manner resembling the derivation of the boundary condition (3-41), one
can compare the tangential components of H adjace'nt to an interface separating two
materials, by applying Maxwell's integral law (3-66) to the small, rectangular closed
line t shown in Figure 3-10. With the magnetic fields in the adjacent media labeled
HI and H2 and resolved into normal and tangential components as in Figure 3-10,
integrating the left side of (3-66) clockwise around t yields Htl L'1t - Ht2 L'1t,
if the height bh is taken so small that the ends do not contribute to the line integral.
The right side of (3-66) involves integrations ofJ and D over the vanishing surface S
bounded by t, obtaining
(3-68)
if In and Dn denote the components normal to L'1s. The last term of (3-68) vanishes as
(jh -+ 0; similarly, the contribution of the In term would also vanish if J were a volume
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERIALS 135
Region 2 (J.Lzl
FIGURE 3-10. Rectangular closed line I: constructed to
compare Ht! and H,z using Ampere's law.
current density. In some physical problems, however, one can assume a free surface
current flowing solely on the interface with a density Js defined by
Js = lim J oh
h ~ O
(3-69)
(It develops that 1. is of interest only if one of the regions is a perfect conductor, a case
to be discussed shortly.) Thus, the general boundary condition resulting from the substi-
tution of (3-69) into (3-68) becomes
(3-70a)
in which the subscript (n) denotes a surface current flowing normally through the side
of the rectangle, as noted in Figure 3-10. Equation (3-70a) states that the tangential
component of the H field is discontinuous at an interface to the extent of the surface current density
that may be present.
Using n to denote a normal unit vector directed from region 2 toward region 1
as in Figure 3-11, a vector form of (3-70a) is written
(3-70b)
to include direction as well as magnitude information.
The boundary condition (3-70) is true in general, though in its application to a
boundary-value problem, it becomes two cases.
136 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
(a) (b)
FIGURE 3-11. The two cases of the boundary condition (3-70b) on tangential H,.
(a) Continuous H, at interface separating regions of finite conductivities. (b) Equality of
the H, and surface current density on a perfect conductor.
CASE A. Both regions have finite conductivities. In this case, free surface cur-
rents cannot exist on the interface, reducing (3-70a) to
(3-71 )
Thus, the tangential component ofH is continuous at an interface separating two materials halling,
at most, finite conductivities. This boundary condition as illustrated in Figure 3-11 (a).
CASE B. One region is a perfect conductor. From (3-44) it has been noted, under
time-varying conditions, that no electric or magnetic field can exist inside a perfect
conductor. ]f region 2 were a perfect conductor, then H2 = 0 reducing (3-70a) to
Htl = Js(n); or in vector form, (3-70b) becomes
n X HI = JsA/m (3-72)
the boundary condition depicted in Figure 3-11 (b). At the interface separating a region
from a perfect conductor, the surface current densify Js ~ s a magnitude equal to that of the tan-
gential H there, and a direction specified by the right-hand rule. It is shown later that no normal
component of H or B may exist at the surface of a perfect conductor, implying that
the tangential magnetic field is also the total magnetic field there.
A similarity in form is noted between Ampere's circuital law (3-66) and the
relationship (3-67) for M. Thus, by analogy with the boundary condition (3-70a),
derived by applying (3-66) to the closed rectangle as in Figure 3-10, one may establish
from (3-67) the boundary condition
Mtl - Mt2 = Jsm(n) A/m
(3-73a)
This result expresses the continuity of the tangential component of M as one traverses
an interface between two adjacent, magnetized regions. The subscript (n) denotes a
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERIALS 137
surface magnetization current density normal to the tangential M components at the
boundary. The vector sense of the surface magnetization current density J8m is included
in the boundary condition (3-73a) by expressing it
n X (Ml M
2
) = J8m A/m (3-73b)
a result analogous with (3-70b).
Ifregion I is nonmagnetic, then Ml = 0, reducing (3-73b) to (3-57)
(3-74)
An illustration of the latter has already been noted in parts (b) and (c) of the figure
accompanying Example 3-3.
EXAMPlE 34. Suppose a very long solenoid like that of Figure 1-21(b) eontains a coaxial
magnetic rod of radius a, as in figure (a), the rod having a constant permeability /1. The
winding is closely spaced with n turns in every d m of axial length, carrying a steady
000 000 000 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
(b)
J,m=-n x M
111
= a<jlXm d
(a)
o 0 0 0 000 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
o 0 0 0 0 0 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(c) (d)
Flux of J
sm
(e)
EXAMPLE 3-4. (a) Solenoid with magnetic core. (b) H field flux. (e) B field flux. (d) M
field flux. le) The J,m field on the iron.
138 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
current /. Determine Hand B in the air and iron regions, making use of Ampere's
law (3-66) and symmetry. (b) Find M in the rod, and determine whether any volume
magnetization current density 1m exists in it, as well as magnetization current densities
on its surface. (e) Sketch the flux ofH, B, and M in the air and iron regions.
(a) With dc in the wire producing time-static fields, (3-66) becomes ~ t H dt
Ss 1 . ds. From the axial symmetry and the implications of Ampere's law in relation
to the current sense, H is positive <: directed within the winding and essentially
zero outside it. Constructing the rectangular closed path t shown, H . dt integrated
between PI and P 2 yields
;tH'dt
in which Hz is constant over the path PI to P
z
, yielding
nl
H=-
Z d
nl
(I)
This result is correct in both the air and iron regions because nl is the current
enclosed by t regardless of whether P
1
and P
2
fall within the air or the iron. The
turns per meter in the winding are denoted by n/d.
The corresponding B field is obtained from (3-64c)
B
J1.on/
B = J1.oH = a
z
-
d
-
0< p < a Iron
a < p < bAil'
(b) The volume magnetization field M is zero in air; in the ferromagnetic region it is
given by (3-60)
M (3)
M is constant in the iron rod for this example, yielding 1m = 0 from (3-56). The
surface magnetization current density, however, is determined from (3-74), calling
the iron region 2. With n = a
p
on the interface
nl
a<t>Xm d
(4)
(c) Sketches of the H, B, and M flux-fields are shown in (b), (c), and (d) of the accom-
panying figure. It is seen from (b) that H is the same in the air as in the iron for
this example; thus the boundary condition (3-71) is satisfied. The consequence is
that B is IIr times as strong in the iron as in the adjacent air region. Finally, 15m
has a uniform surface flux density on the iron rod as shown in (e).
EXAMPLE 3-5. Obtain a refractive law for the B field at an interface separating two isotropic
materials of permeabilities J1.1 and J1.2; that is, find the relation between the angular devi-
ations from the normal made by BI and B2 at points just to either side of the interface.
Assume the total B fields tilted from the normal by the angles ()I and O
2
as in (a).
The boundary conditions relating the tangential and the normal magnetic field compo-
7
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERIALS 139
Air: III = IlO
I
74.6
Region 2: (1l2)
(a)
(b)
Air: fJ.1 = fJ.o
-L/h
Small
I
(Iron: 112 > fJ.o)
EXAMI)LE 3-5. (a) B flux refraction. (b) Refraction at air-to-magnctic-region interfaces.
nents are (3-50) and (3-71); Bnl = Bn2 and Hll = H'2' The latter can be written
(3-75)
From the geometry of the figure, the tilt-angles obey tan 0
1
= Btl/Bnl and tan O
2
=
B'2/Bu2' which combine with (3-75) to yield
Inserting the expression for tan 0
1
obtains
J1.2 B
,I
(3-76)
140 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
As a numerical example, compare the tilt of the B lines at an interface separating two re-
gions with /11 = /10 and /t2 = I O/to. Assume at some point on the interface that B in region
I is tilted by 8
1
= 45. From (3-76),8
2
= arc tan (10 tan 45) = 84.3. Similarly, if8
1
=
20, then 8
2
= 74.6, and so on. In the event of an air-to-iron interface (/12 Jltl, one
may show from (3-76) that for nearly all f)2, the corresponding 8
1
values are small
angles (essentially 0); that is, the flux leaves the iron nearly perpendicularly from its sur-
face. These examples are noted in (b).
c. The Nature of Magnetic Materials
The classical macroscopic theory of the field phenomena associated with mag-
netizahle suhstances, introduced in Section 3-4, attributes their magnetic properties
to the magnetic moment n:l provided by the orbiting electrons, electron spins, and
nuclear spins. Moreover M denotes from (3-55) the averaged volume contributions of
the magnetic moments n:l in the vicinity of any point inside the substance. The net
magnetic effects are altered significantly by the temperature-the random thermal
agitations that inhibit the alignment of the magnetic moments. Although noteworthy
advances in the understanding of magnetic processes on the microscopic scale have
been provided by applying quantum mechanics and electromagnetic theory to models
of the magnetic elements, there is yet much speculation in the deduction of the magnetic
properties of the many complex alloys and compounds.
Magnetic effects in materials have been classified as diamagnetic, paramagnetic,
ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic. The following discussion is in-
tended to provide a glimpse of some of the classical models of magnetism to help explain
the origins of these magnetic properties.
5
In a diamagnetic material, the net magnetic moment n:l of each atom or molecule
is zero in the ahsence of an applied magnetic field. In this state', the classical picture of
the electron speeding at an angular velocity w about a positive nucleus is accompanied
by a balance of the centrifugal and the attractive Coulomb forces between those op-
posite charges. The application of a field provides a Lorentz force, - ev x B,
on the orbiting electron snch that if a fixed orbit is to be maintained, an increase or de-
crease L'lw in the electron angular velocity must occur, depending on the direction
of the applied B field relative to the orbital plane. This amounts to a change in the
electronic orbital current, thereby generating a small magnetic field, the direction of
which is such as to oppose the applied field. The net, opposing magnetization field
M thus created in any typical volume-element L'lv of the material leads to a slightly
negative susceptibility Xm for such a material. Diamagnetism is presumed to exist in
all materials, though in some it may be masked by other magnetic effects to be discussed.
Typical small, negative values of Xm for diamagnetic solids at room temperature are
- 1.66 x 10 5 for bismuth, -0.95 x 10 5 for copper, and 0.8 x 10-
5
for germa-
nium. It is to be expected that the less dense gases have even smaller diamagnetic
susceptibilities, which is borne out by both calculation and experiment.
Another weak form of magnetism is known as paramag"netism. In a paramagnetic
material, the atoms or molecules possess permanent magnetic moments due primarily
to electron-spin dipole moments, randomly oriented so that the net magnetization
M of (3-55) is zero in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The application of a
B field to gaseous, paramagnetic nitrogen, for example, produces a tendency for the
moments n:l to align with the field, a process inhibited by the collisions or interactions
among the particles. In a paramagnetic solid, thermal vibrations within the molecular
5 An excellent digest of the theories of magnetic phenomena, including ample references, is found in Chap-
ter 7 of R. S. Elliott, Electromagnetics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966. .
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERIALS 141
m
+ + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + t + + +
(a)
(e)
No
applied
field
(b)
Transition
region
Weak Moderate Saturation
applied field field
field
B B B
.....
- -
(d)
FIGURE 3-12. Alignment of magnetic moments in a ferromagnetic material: domain
phenomena. (a) Magnetic moment alignments in a ferromagnetic material. (b) A perfect
single crystal, showing domains and domain walls. (c) A transition region between adjacent
domains. (d) Domain changes in a crystal with increase in the applied B field.
lattice tend to lessen the alignment effect., of an applied magnetic field. The room
temperature susceptibilities of typical paramagnetic salts such as FeS04, NiS0
4
,
Fe203, and CrCl
3
are of the order of 10 - 3 and inversely temperature-dependent,
according to a law discovered by Pierre Curie in 1895.
The importantjerromagnetic materials are characterized by their strong, perma-
nent magnetic moments, even in the absence of an applied B field. They include iron,
cobalt, nickel, the rare earths gadolinium and dysprosium, plus a number of their al-
loys and even some compounds not containing ferromagnetic elements. It was originally
postulated by Weiss in 1907, and much later confirmed experimentally in photomicro-
graphs by Bitter,6 that a ferromagnetic material in an overall unmagnetized state in
reality consists of many small, essentially totally magnetized domains, randomly oriented
to cancel out the net magnetic field. Domain sizes have been found to range from a
few microns to perhaps a millimeter across for many ferromagnetic materials. Weiss
further postulated that strong intrinsic coupling or interaction forces exist between
adjacent atoms to provide the fully magnetized state within a given domain. It was
not until 1928 that Heisenberg of Germany and Frenkel of the U.S.S.R. independently
verified, using quantum theory, that the extraordinarily strong forces holding the
domain atoms in parallel alignment is attributable to the coupling forces between the
net electron spins of the adjacent atoms.
7
The parallel orientation of the spin moments
in a ferromagnetic domain is depicted in Figure 3-12 (a). An idealized, perfect crystal
might have a domain structure, in the absence of an applied B field, like that shown
in Figure 3-l2(b), although flaws such as lattice imperfections and impurities would
modify this idealized picture somewhat. The walls between the domains (Bloch walls),
having the appearance suggested by Figure 3-l2(c), are transition regions between
the spin alignments of the adjacent domains, and they are of the order of 100 atoms
6F. Bitter, "A gencralization of thc theory of ferromagnetism," PIl)'s. Rev., 54, 79, 1938.
7W. Heisenberg, "On the theory of ferromagnetism," Zeit. I Phys., 49, 619,1928.
142 MAXWELL'S EQUATlONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Magnetization
M
o
Irreversible
magnetization
rotation region
T- j
Irreversible
wall motion
region
______ 1
Reversible wall motion region
Applied
(a)
Sinusoidal
applied If field
B
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I i
-c-l"'-t--/--Ll' Applied
"ilIi
I I I I
I I I I
I I I I
I I I I
Bias i I I I
Ho-dJ :
value J> :
Itt :
;-----__ 1
I
I
rt
(b)
FIGURE 3-13. Magnetization effects due to an external magnetic field applied to a fcrro-
magnetic matniaL (a) Magnetization proe,"ss (solid line) ill a virgin ferromagnetic region.
Irreversible behavior shown dashed. (b) B If hysteresis loops for a ferromagnetic materiaL
thick. The domain division by such wall structures occurs in such a way that a minimal
external magnetic field is supported by the structure, to minimize the work done in
forming (he structure.
As all external B field is increasingly applied to a ferromagnetic crystal containing
domains, as denoted in Figure 3-12(d), tht'B!och walls first move to hwor the growth
of those domains having magnetic moment\ aligned with the applied field, a reversible
condition on removing the field ifB is not too large. For higher applied fields, domain-
wall motion occurs, which is not reversible, as noted in the third sketch of Figure
3-12(d). For a sufficiently large applied field, the domain magnetic moments rotate
until an essentially total parallel alignment with the applied field occurs, a condition
called saturation. The averaged effect of such changes on the bulk magnetization M,
in a sample volume element containing a sufficient number of domains, is shown in
Figure 3-13 (al. The arrows denote the direction ofincreasing or decreasing the applied
H field. 8 One may note, on decreasing the applied H field to zero fi:'om the values
P2 or P
3
, that a permanent magnetization Mr! (or M
r2
) is retained in the ferromagnetic
sample, signifying an irreversible and distinctly nonlinear, multivalued behavior. These
My values are termed the remanent (remaining) magnetizations of the specimen. The
applied field must be further decreased to the reverse value He! (or ffel) as shown, before
BIt has become cllslOmary to denote the applied magnetic field in the material
than B.
the H fidcl, rather
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERIALS 143
the permanent is removed from the material. The value He is rather loosely
called the coercive free, the field required to reduce the magnetization to zero within a
specimen.
If the M-H plot of Figure 3-l3(a) is replotted in terms of the B field in the ferro-
magnetic material, the B-H curve of Figure 3-13(b) results, recalling from (3-58) that
these quantities are related to B = !lotH + M). In (b) is depicted a complete cycle of
the events of (a), such as might occur if the applied field were varied sinusoidally as
noted below the B-H curve. After the virgin magnetization excursion from 0 to P
3
,
obtained over the first quarter cycle of the sinusoidal H field, the subsequent decrease
in H provides the sequence of values passing through the remanent value Bn the co-
ercive force He> and thence to the maximum negative flux density in the material at
P4' With the applied H field going positive once more, a reversed image of the prior
events takes place. The multi valued curve obtained in this cyclic fashion is called the
hysteresis (meaning lagging) loop of the ferromagnetic region. Note that for smaller am-
plitudes of the applied H field, correspondingly smaller hysteresis loops are obtained,
whether centered about origin 0 as just described, or appearing about Po as the con-
sequence of a bias field Ho.
The incremental permeability of a ferromagnetic material is defined as the slope
of the B-H curve. The slope at the origin 0 of the virgin curve is called the initial incre-
mental permeability. If the material is used such that it possesses a fixed (dc) magneti-
in Figure 3-13(b), the minor hysteresis loop formed there has an average slope defining
the incremental permeability there. These events take place in the ferromagnetic core
of an inductor or trans/ormer coil carrying an alternating current superimposed on a
direct current, lor example. Energy must be expended in supplying the losses incurred
in the hysttTesis effects accompanying the sinusoidal variations of an applied field.
For this reason, ferromagnetic materials with low coercive forces (having a thin B-H
loop) arc desirable for transformer and inductor designs. On the other hand, a ferro-
magnetic material used for permanent magnets should have a high coercive force He
and a high remanent, or residual, flux density Br (corresponding to a fat B-H loop).
'Table 3-1 lists a few representative ferromagnetic alloys along with some of their
magnetic properties.
An additional and usually undesirable side effect, occurring in the magnetic
core of devices such as transformers, is that of the free-electron conduction currents
circulating within the core material due to an electric field E generated inside it by a
time-varying magnetic field. The densities of these currents are limited by the con-
ductivity (J of the core material through (3-7), that is, J = (JE, and are given the name
tJddy currents because of their vortexlike nature within the conductive core, resulting
from their relationship to the time-varying B field through (2-62)
8B
VxE [2-62]
In the next section (2-62) is shown to be valid for a material region as well as for free
space. Thus, with a conductive, ferromagnetic core in the solenoid as shown in Fig-
ure 3-11( a), a sinusoidally time-varying current in the winding produces a sinusoidal B
field in the core material to generate an E field, and from (3-7) also an eddy current
field therein. Its sense is thus normal to the time-varying B field. The losses may be
reduced substantially by subdividing the conductive core into a fibrous or laminar struc-
ture, as suggested by Figure 3-14(b), in which the subdivided conductors are insulated
from one another. Small, spherical magnetizable particles serve the same purpose.
"'"
t
TABLE 31 Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Alloys
(A) Transfortner alloys
Pertneabilities
SATURATlON B
MATERIAL PERCENT COMPOSITION INITIAL MAXIMUM (lNb/m2)
Silicon iron 4 Si, 96 Fe 400 7,000 2
H ypersil (grain oriented) 3.5 Si, 96.5 Fe 1,500 35,000 2
78 Permalloy 78 Ni, 0.6 Mn, 21.4 Fe 9,000 100,000 1.07
Supermalloy 79 Ni;SMo, 16 Fe 100,000 800,000 0.7
(B) Pertnanent tnagnet tnaterials
MATERIAL
Carbon steel
. Alnico V
PERCENT COMPOSITION
1 Mn, 0.9 C, 98;1 Fe
8 AI, 14 Ni, 24 Co,
3 Cu, 53 Fe
COERCIVE FORCE (Aim)
4,000
44,000
COERCIVE FORCE He CONDUCTlVllY
(Aim) (x 10
7
U/m)
40 0.16
16 0.2
4 0.12
0.16 to 4.0 0.15
REMANENT B,0Nb/m2)
1.25
3-4 MAGNETIC POLARIZATION AND CURL H FOR MATERIALS 145
Solenoid winding

B = a
Z
--
L
sin wt
Conductive,
magnetic core
(g,o)
E and J flux )
(induced eddy currents)
(a)
aB
at
FIGURE :1-14. Eddy current, in con<lnc[ors immersed in
fents induced in a conduclive core by a time-varying B
I:ore structures used to break up currenl paths.
(6)
@
aB
at
--,
aB
at
(a) Eddy enr-
Fibrous and laminar
constrains the eddy curren ts to much smaller volumes, limiting their densities
lIubstantially if the cellular substructures are made sufficiently small or thin.
In the previous discussions it was seen that paramagnetism is a characteristic
materials possessing permanent magnetic spin moments that arc randomly oriented,
condition depicted in Figure 3-15(a). Ferromagnetic materials, due to the effects of
Ihort-range couplings between adjacent atoms, possess parallel-oriented atomic mag-
within given domain boundaries that comprise the material as suggested in Figure
If such a material is heated until the thermal energies exceed the coupling
energies, the material becomes disorganized into a paramagnet, though on cooling it
to a ferromagnet once more. The critical temperature at which this occurs is
.known as the Curie temperature.
Variations of the coupling phenomena responsible for ferromagnetic materials
can even produce anti parallel alignments of electron spins in materials known as anti-
,,,yrtlrYJIHTri'PJ , as depicted by Figure . In this state, an antiferromagnet is charac-
by a zero magnetic field. Manganese fluoride, for example, is paramagnetic at
m
t t t t 1 t t t
(a) (b) ( c)
t t t t t t t t t
(d)
'XGURE 3-15. Orientations of the spin moments of various magnetic ma-
(a) Paramagnetic. Ferromagnetic. (c) Antifcrromagnetic. (d) Ferri-
etic or
146 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
room temperature, but on cooling it to 206C: (called its Neel temperature, after
the French physicist), it becomes antiferromagnetic; below this temperature it ex-
hibits no magnetic effect. An important variation of this phenomenon is ferrimagne-
tism, associated with noncanceling antiparallel arrangements of the coupled spin
moments as suggested by Figure 3-15(d). Thus, in magnetite, the magnetic iron oxide
FeO' Fe203, two of the three adjacent spins are reversed such that a somewhat weaker
form of ferromagnetism is produced. Magnetite is an example of the group of ferri-
magnetic oxides XO . Fe203, in which the symbol X denotes a divalent metallic ion
Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn, or divalent iron. When synthesized in the laboratory,
these brittle, ceramiclike compounds are particularly useful for magnetic cores in high-
frequency transformers and special applications ranging into the microwave frequen-
cies because of their low conductivities comparable to those of the semiconductors,
usually from 10 - 1 to 10 - 4 U/m. They are thus desirable because they limit eddy
current losses in such applications. These conductivities may be compared with the
much higher values of the typical alloys for lower-frequency applications as listed in
Table 3-1, in which the values of the order of 10
6
U/m appear. A general account of
the theory of ferro- and ferrimagnetism, together with a number of microwave appli-
cations of the latter, is found in the book by Lax and Button.
9
35 MAXWELL'S CURL E RELATION: ITS INTEGRAL FORM
AND BOUNDARY CONDITION FOR TANGENTIAL E
In Section 3-3, the Maxwell relation (3-59) for curl H in a material region was
developed by adding in those current densities contributed by the electric and mag-
netic polarization fields. The form of the curl E relationship for materials is obtained
VxE=
oB
at
(3-77)
That the free-space Faraday's law (2-62) remains correct for a material region is
evident on observing that an additive magnetic-current-densiry term, analogous to the
electric-current-density term J of (3-7), is physically impossible iffi'ee magnetic charges
cannot exist. Thus (3-77) correctly applies to both materials and free space.
Equation (3-77) is readily converted to ,an integral form. The scalar multiplica-
tion of (3-77) with ds, integrating the result ~ v e r any surface S bounded by a closed
line t, and applying Stokes's theorem yields \
~ E . dt = ~ f B . ds V
'ft dt s
(3-78)
again unchanged from the free-space version (1-55).
The determination of (3-77) and (3-78) completes the development of Maxwell's
differential and integral relations applicable to material regions, and they are sum-
marized in the first two columns of Table 3-2.
'B, Lax, and K.J. Button. Microwave Ferrites and Ferrimagnetics. New York:'McGraw-Hill, 1962.
..
:a.
J
TABLE 3-2 Summary Maxwell's Equations and the Corresponding
Spatial Boundary Conditions at an interface
DIFFERENTIAL FORM INTEGRAL FORM
VD Pv [3-24]
~ s D . ds = Iv Pv dv
VB=O [3-48]
~ B d s = 0
[3-37]
[3-49]
3D
V x H = J + [3-59] J, H . dt = f J . ds + d f D . ds [3-66]
'ft S dt S
V x E aB
3t
J, E . dt = - ~ f B' ds
'ft dt s
[3-78]
CORRESPONDING BOUNDARY CONDITION
Dnl - Dn2 = Ps or n' (Dl D2) = Ps
Case A: a 1, a 2 zero Case B: a2 -> CfJ
Dnl Dn2 [3-42] Dnl = Ps [3-45]
Bn1 = Bn2 or n' (B1 - B
2
) = 0 [3-50]
H'1 H,2 = ]s(n) or n X (HI - H
2
) Js
Case A: aI' a
2
finite Case B: a 2 -> CfJ
H'l = H,2 [3-71] n x HI = Js [3-72]
Et1 E'2 or n X (El - E2l = 0 [3-79]
148 MAXWELVS EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
A boundary condition, comparing the tangential components of the E fields to
either side of an interface, may he obtained from Faraday's integral law (3-78). The
details of the derivation may be avoided if one recalls that Ampere's line-integral law
(3-66) leads to the boundary condition (3-70a), lIt! - 1It2 = }s(n)' The boundary con-
dition comparing the tangential components ofE can be analogously found by apply-
ing (3-78) to a similar thin rectangle, yielding the analog of (3-70a)
(3-79)
Thus the tangential component of the E field is alwOeYs continuous at an The right
side of (3-79) is evidently zero because no magnetic currents are physically possible.
A summary of the four boundary conditions derived from Maxwell's integral
laws for material regions in Sections 3-2C, 3-4B, and in the present section, is given
in Table 3-2.
EXAMPLE 36. (a) Derive a refractive law for E at an interface separating two noneonductive
regions. (b) Deduce from boundary conditions the direction ofE just outside a perfect
conductor.
(a) The boundary conditions for the tangential and the normal eomponents of E
at an inter1i:lce separating nonconductive regions are (3-43) and (3-79); that is,
EIEni = E2En2 and E'l = E'2' From the latter and the geometry of (a), one obtains
(3-80)
a result analogous with (3-76) of Example 3-5 concerned with the refraction of
B lines.
(b) From (3-44), a perfectly conductive region 2 implies null fields inside it. Then
(3-79), Etl in the adjacent region I must vanish also. The remaining normal com-
ponent in region 1 is given by (3-45). ])n1 p" yielding Ps E lE"1 as shown in (b).
Region 1: Cl.q. 1. <11 = 0) Region 1: (I.t), tl, (11)
E! = nEn !
n
+ + +
Region 2: (<12 ---+ 00)
(b)
4 +
EXAMPLE 3-6. (a) E flux refraction at an interface separating nonconductivc regions. (b) E
is everywhere normal to the surface of a perfect conductor.
Region 2: (0"2 -,>-00)
(a)
3-5 MAXWELL'S CURL E RELATION: ITS INTEGRAL FORM 149
Wave
motion
----
(z)
(b)
EXAMPLE 3-7. (a) Parallel-plate system supporting a uniform plane wave field. (h) Charge and wrrent
distributiou on conductor inner surfaces.
EXAMPLE 37. A uniform plane wave is described by the electric and magnetic fields
and propagates in air between two perfectly conducting, parallel plates of great extent,
as in (a). The inner surfaces of the plates are located at x = 0 and x = a. Obtain expres-
sions for (a) the surface charge field and (h) the surface currents on the two conductors.
(a) The given E is everywhere normal to the plates at x = 0 and x = a, satisfying the
boundary condition of (b) in Example 3-6. The surface charge distributions thus
become
x=o
P
=n'D
" 1
x a
implying that E lines emerge from positive charges and terminate on negative ones.
(b) The given H, to satisfy (3-72), must be everywhere tangential to the perfect con-
ductors at x = 0 and x = a, yielding there
x=o
~
-a
z
cos (wt Poz) x a
110
It is seen that, in any fixed Z plane, current flows in opposite z directions in the
two conductors.
150 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AKD BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
36 CONSERVATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE
A relationship between eharge and current densities is obtainable from Maxwell's
equations, assuming that electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed. Let a
charge density Pv(u
1
, Uz, U3, t) occupy some volume region V. Then the net charge
in Vat any instant is
Note that even though p" is in general a function of both space and time, the net
q enclosed is a function of t only, because the definite limits on the integral dispose
of the space variables. For brevity, the latter is written with the function notation
understood as follows.
(3-81a)
The time rate of change of q within V is a measure of the current flowing into the
closed surface S bounding V; hence
aq lap" '
- = -- dv C/sec or A
at v at
(3-8Ib)
With ds directed normally outward from S, the current flowing out of S becomes
1
aq
at
(3-82a)
implying that the net positive charge q inside V is decreasing in time. The postulate
that electric charge is neither created nor destroyed permits equating the negative
(3-81b) to (3-32a), yielding
l
ap"
J 0 ds = - -- dv
s v at
(3-32b)
This means that the net outflow of current from any volume region is a measure of the
time rate of decrease of electric charge inside the volume. Equation (3-32h) is thus
the expression of the conservation f.!f electric charge.
The relation (3-82b) has an equivalent differential, or point form
ap" ,3
VoJ= --Aim
at
(3-32c)
a result obtained by applying (3-82b) to any limiting volume-element and using the
definition (2-20) of divergence.
While (3-82e) is true for any volume-element of a current-carrying region, it is
also applicable to the surface currents and charges at the interface between a perfect
conductor and a perfect insulator, as in the system of the forthcoming Example 3-8.
With currents and charges confined to the interface so that J -+ Js and p" -+ Pso the
3-6 CONSERVATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE 151
charge-conservation relation becomes
10
ops / 2
V1"Js= -Tt
Am (3-82d)
if V l' ' Js is taken to mean a tangential (two-dimensional) surface divergence ofJs. For
example, if the interface coincides with the y-z plane, implying Js a;]" + az.Jsz'
the two-dimensional divergence of Js is written
v 'J = oJs
y
+ oJsz
l' s oy oz
I n a time-static field problem, steady current densities are divergenceless, so
(3-82c) reduces in that case to
VoJ = 0 (3-82e)
Direct currents are therefore always characterized by uninterrupted, closed current
flux lines.
EXAMPLE 38, Show that the surface current and surface charge fields at the conductor di-
electric interfaces of Example 3-7 satisfy the two-dimensional charge-conservation relation
(3-82d).
At the lower interface (at x 0), the left side of (3-82d) yields
E:' sin (w[ (Jot) + wEoE:' sin (wt (Jot)
'10
i r--'
on substituting {Jo = Wy ftoEo and 110 = V flO/EO' With a surface charge density Ps =
+ EoE:' cos (w! (Joz) on the lower conductor,
oPs E'+ . (
= + WEo m SIn w!
ot
whence (3-82d) is satisfied.
EXAMPLE 39. Determine the relaxation expression for the time deeay of a charge distribntion
in a conductor, if the initial distribution at t = 0 is Pvo(u
l
, U2, U3, 0).
The desired result is obtained by combining (3-82c) with the expression [or div D.
Replacing J with O"E for the conductive region obtains, from (3-82c)
opv
V (O"E) + = 0
at
(1 )
The region being homogeneous makes E and 0" constants, so (3-24) is written V . E =
pJE, and snbstituting it into the first term of (I) yields
0Pv 0"
-+ P =0
ot E v
(2)
IOlt should be noted that the relationship C:J-32c), connecting current density and charge density at any
point in a region, is consistent with the Maxwell curl expression (3-59). This is evident from taking the
divergence of thc latter, which promptly yields (3-32c) on making nse of the identity (/9) in Table 2-2.
152 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Integrating yields the desired result
(3-83a)
assuming the initial charge distribution at tOto be PvO(ub U2, U3, 0). This implies that
if the internal, free electric charge in a conducting region is zero, it will remain zero for
all subsequent time. One may conclude that in a material having a nonzero conductivity
(J, there can be no permanent volume distribution of free charge. Thus, the static state of
a free charge supplied to a conducting body is that it must ultimately reside on the
surface of the conducting body through the mutually repulsive (Coulomb) forces among
the free charges.
The time constant T of the free charge density decay process (3-83a) in Example
3-9 is given by
E
T = - sec
(J
(3-83b)
a quantity called the relaxation time of the conductor. Good conductors, for which (J
may be of the order of 10
7
Vim, have relaxation times around 10-
18
sec, assuming
a permittivity essentially that offree space. In poor conductors, T may be of the order
of microseconds, though a good insulator may have a relaxation time of hours or even
days.
*3-7 UNIFORM PLANE WAVES IN AN UNBOUNDED
CONDUCTIVE REGION
The topic of uniform plane waves propagating in empty space was discussed in Sec-
tion 2-10, in which the influence of the free-space parameters Po and Eo on the various
wave characteristics was observed. The study of a plane wave propagating in a mate-
rial having the parameters E, p, and (J is considered in this section. It is shown that
the important new effects produced by the conductivity (J is to provide wave decay in
the direction of propagation, as well as a phase shift between E and H.
The assumptions made for the problem of wave propagation in an unbounded,
linear, conductive region are
1. The components of E and H have neither x nor y dependence; that is, a/ax =
D/iJy 0 for all field components.
2. Free-charge densities Pv in the conductive region are in general nonzero if the
charge-continuity relation (3-82c) is to be satisfied; while the current density J
in the conductor
11
is related to the E field therein by (3-7), J = (JE.
3. The parameters of the region, assumed linear, homogeneous, and isotropic, are
p, E, and (J.
The problem will employ time-harmonic forms of the fields. With Pv = 0 and
J = (JE, Maxwell's equations for the region are obtained from (3-24), (3-48), (3-59),
*As an option, this section may be omitted for now, to be taken up (along with Section 2-10) bef()re be-
ginning Chapter 6, if desired. However, its relevance to an improved understanding of the material param-
eters over the broad frequency spectrum makes it desirable for study in this chapter.
11 Although this assumption refers explicitly to waves in a conductive region, the extension to wave prop-
agation in a lossy dielectric through the use of a loss tangent, E" IE', is described .in Section 3-8.
3-7 UNIFORM PLANE WAVES IN AN UNBOUNDED CONDUCTIVE REGION 153
and (3-77), becoming
V' (EE) = Pv
V'B=O
v X E = -jwB = -jwflH
V X H = j + jwD = 6E + jWEE
in which B = flH and D = EE of (3-30) and (3-64) are applicable.
(3-84a)
(3-84b)
(3-84c)
(3-84d)
These equations need not in fact be solved, since this has already been done
analogously in Section 2.10 for plane waves in empty space. To obtain the solution
by analogy, compare (3-84a) through (3-84d) with (2-106) through (2-109) applicable
to the empty-space case
V'(EoE)=O
V'B=O
[2-106]
[2-107]
[2-108J
[2-109]
in which B = floH and D = EoE apply. A comparison of the two cllri expressions in
these two groups of Maxwell's equations reveals that the two V X E expressions are
precise analogs of each other, with (3-84c) obtainable From (2-108) on simply replacing
110 in (2-108) with fl. Comparing (l-84d) with (2-109), however, reveal an additional
conduction-current-density term O'E in (3-84d). On collecting terms of the right side
of (3-84d) as follows
V X H 0' E + jWEE = (0' + jWE) E = jw ( E j;; ) E (3-85 )
the analogy of the latter with (2-109) is evident on replacing EO of (2-109) with the
complex permittivity, E - j6lw. Thus, each of the Maxwell's equations (2-108) and
(2-109) is seen to become (3-84c) and (3-84d) on replacing in the former
flo with fl and (3-86)
These replacements applied to the wave solutions of lOS) and (2-109) are therefore
expected to yield the solutions of (3-S4c) and (3-S4d) in an unbounded conductive
region. Recalling the solution (2-115) for empty space
+ E; (z)
[2-115]
154 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
the replacements (3-86) in the latter yield analogous plane wave solutions for an
unbounded conductive region
E;(Z)
+
E;; (z)
(3-87)
In (3-87), the pure phase factor jWJlloEo of (2-115) becomes a complex factor abbre-
viated with the symbol y, called the propagation constant
(3-88)
and y can be separated into real and imaginary parts
y=ot+jpm-
1
(3-89)
in which ot, the real part of y, is called the attenuation constant, and P is termed the phase
constant of the uniform plane waves (3-87). Explicit expressions for ot and P are found
by replacing y of (3-88) with ot + jp, squaring both sides to remove the radical, and
equating the real and imaginary parts of the result. The following positive, real solu-
tions for ot and P are obtained.
~ [J ((J)2
ot=-- 1+-
J2 WE
J
1
1
2
1 Np/m (3-90a)
~ [J ( (J )2 J1
/
2
P = J2 I + WE + 1 rad/m
(3-90b)
The dimension of ot and P is (m) -1, though the artificial dimensionless terms neper
and radian are usually mentioned to emphasize their attenuative and phase meanings
in the wave expressions.
With the substitution of (3-88) into the exponent of the wave solution (3-87),
one may express it
E;(z)
E:'e-
YZ
+
+
E;(z) (3-91a)
(3-91b)
(3-91c)
in which the complex amplitudes E;; of the traveling wave terms are denoted again as
in (2-116)
(3-92)
A comparison of the conductive region wave solution (3-91) with the empty-space
wavc solution (2-115) reveals the presence of two real factors, e-a.z and efl.Z, accounting
for wave decay as the positive z and the negative Z traveling waves proceed in their
corresponding directions of flight with increasing time. An additional view ofthc decay
(attenuation) property of the waves is gained by converting (3-91) to its real-time form,
3-7 UNIFORM PLANE WAVES IN AN UNBOUNDED CONDUCTIVE REGION 155
obtained as usual by use of (2-74)
EAz, t) = Re [EAz)i/rot] = Re i/<P+ e -aze - j/Jzi/rot + E; i/r eazi//Jzejrot]
cos (wt fh + cf>+) +E;e
ocz
cos (wt + fh + cf>-) (3-93)
These positive z and negative z attenuated traveling waves are depicted in Figure
3-16(a) and (b). A comparison of (3-93) with the real-time unilorm plane wave solu-
tion (2-119) in empty space
Ex(z, t) = cos (WI - Poz + cf>+) + E; cos (wt + Poz + cf>-) [2-119]
shows that the important new characteristic introduced by the nonzero conductivity
(1 is the wave attenuation occUlTing in the direction of the wave motion. Note that setting
(x)1
Wave motion
(x)
E;(z,t) =
_I
----
cos (wI - (3z)
(at t.= 0) -(x)
0
II!..
/
/
(y)
E; flux
(x)
(a)
(x) I
I
Wave motion
1
--
(x)
E;(z, t) =
(z)
(b)
FIGURE 3-16. Attenuated wave solutions for t) in a conductive region. Flux
plots are shown, emphasizing field independence of x and y. (a) Positive z traveling,
positive::. attenuated wave. (b) Negative::. traveling, negative::. attenuated wave.
156 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDiTIONS
the region parameters equal to the empty-space values E = Eo, 11 = 110' and (J = 0
reduces the attenuation and phase constants to a = 0 and /3 = /30 in (3-90a) and
(3-90b).
The wave attenuation in a conductive region is governed by the size of the (J/WE
term relative to unity in (3-90a). As (J becomes larger so does ex, causing the plane wave
to decay more rapidly with distance. Denote only the positive z traveling wave term
of (3-93) by the symbol E; (z, t); that is,
(3-94)
This wave penetrates a conductive region as shown in Figure 3-17, attenuating with
distance according to the factor e-
az
such that at the particular depth z = b, its am-
plitude has decayed to e -1 of its value at the reference surface z = O. The depth <if pene-
tration or skin depth of the wave is also called b, being obtained by setting the exponent
exb 1, whence
s: I
u=-m
ex
(3-95 )
A current density J accompanies the Ex field in the conductive region as given
by (3-7); that is,
]; (z, t) = (JE:'e-
az
cos (wt - /3z + (V) A/m (3-96)
a result in phase with the electric field. For a highly conductive region (with a large
a/WE), b is seen from (3-95) and (3-90a) to be correspondingly small; so in the limiting
case of a perfect conductor (a -+ CX)), the skin depth vanishes with a indefinitely large. This
provides the limiting surface current phenomenon of the boundary condition (3-72),
involving the tangential H field at the s'lrface of a perfect conductor.
The magnetic field accompanying Ex of (3-91) is obtained by substituting (3-91)
into Maxwell's equation (3-84c); or alternatively by invoking the analogy with the
wave solutions in empty space, using the replacements (3-86) in (2-130). Then, for
(x)
;'
;'
--
-
Motion
(at t = 0)
(2)
(M, t, a)
~ F I G U R 3-17. The penetration depth (j associated with an amplitude attenuation
of e - 1, for a unil<:mn plane wave in a conductive region.
3-7 UNIFORM PLANE WAVES IN AN UNBOUNDED CONDUCTIVE REGION 157
uniform plane waves in an unbounded conductive region, the following complex im-
pedance ratios are found to apply.
r
~
,(J
E - J-;;;
(3-97)
with the complex ratios denoted by q, the intrinsic wave impedance. The field Hy(z) is thus
written in terms of the solutions E: (z) and E; (z) in (3-91) as follows.
Hy(Z) = H: (z) + H; (z)
E:(Z)
q q
~ +
Em -yz
=-e
q
E-
m eYz Aim
(3-98a)
(3-98b)
(3-98c)
The intrinsic wave impedance defined by (3-97) can be expressed in complex polar
form as follows:
J p ~ ~ ';1 ",. , ~ (.jo,1 n
(J [ ( (J )2J
1
/
4
E-j-;;; 1+ WE
seen to be of the form
with 17 and e taken to mean
1 (J
e = zarc tan-
WE
(3-99a)
(3-99b)
Evidently letting (J = 0 reduces fj to the real result .JPji., applicable to uniform plane
waves in a nonconductive (perfect dielectric) region. Moreover, the positive phase
angle e associated with fj means that H: (z) lags the accompanying E: (z) in time
phase, as shown in the real-time sketches of Figure 3-18. The crank method for simu-
lating the motion of the wave with increase in the time variable t is depicted in Figure
3-19.
The additional characteristics of plane wave propagation in a conductive region
are the wavelength defined in (2-123) (setting (U 2n rad), yielding
2n
A=-m
{J
(3-100)
158 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDrTIONS
(x);
(=0
~
l17otion
(z)
FIGURE 3-18. Positive z traveling fields of a uniform plane wave in a conductive region,
shown at t = O.
Crank
counterclockwise,
simulating time
increase in e)wt
1m
-?f> r ~ ,
I'<'" "
E; (z, t) = Re [E; (z) ejwtJ
~ ~
'.)"'/<"
7
FIGURE 3-19. Wave of f"(z, t) showing the complex phasors displayed along z at t = 0,
and its real-time projection below. Do not confuse the electric-field phasors (arrows) depicting
the fields changing phase along the {Jz axis in the complex plane as in the top view of this
figure with the vector direction of the electric field in three-dimensional space. I t should be
dear that the electric field in the present problem has only an x-directed component in
space, as shown in the real-time diagram of Fignre 3-18.
3-7 UNIFORM PLANE WAVES IN AN UNBOUNDED CONDUCTIVE REGION 159
the phase velocity 1J
p
' obtained by putting the argument of
and differentiating in time, to obtain
equal to a eonstant
w ,
vp =7f m/sec
(3-101 )
and the period
T 1
= ]sec
(3-102)
The applicable value oj' fJ is of wurse that of (3-90b).
EXAMPLE 310. Suppose a uniform plane wave with the amplitude 1000ei- Vim propagates
in the + z direction at I = 10
8
Hz in a conductive region having the constants Jl = Jlo,
E 4Eo, a/WE 1. (a) Find {J, ct, and for the wave. (b) Find the associated H field,
and sketch the wave along the z axis at t = O. (c) Find the depth of penetration, the
wavelength, and the phase velocity. Compare A and >u
p
with their values in a lassies.>
(a = 0) region having the same Jl and E values. Assume only l';x and 11y components for
the wave.
(a) The attenuation and phase factors are given by (3-90a) and (3-90b)
2w
[0.414]11
2
1.90 Np/m (I)
2w
P = [2.414p
I
The propagation constant is therefore,)! = 1.9 + j4.58 m -- 1. The complex wave
impedance is given by (3-99a)
ei(112) arc tan 1
whence 11 = 159 Q and 0 = n/8 or 22.5.
(b) The H field is found by use of (3-97)
iI;(z)
to yield thc real-time expressions
60n e;(l/2)(nI4) I 59ei(n/8) Q
1.19
E; t) Re[E;(z)e
iwt
]
= 1000e-1.
9z
cos (wt - 4.58z) Vim
11; (z, I) = 6.2ge -1.9z cos rwt - 4.58z (n/8)] Aim
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
160 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
(c) The depth of penetration is found using (I): 8 = a-
1
= 0.52 m, the distance the
wave must travel to diminish to e-
1
(or 36.8%) of any reference value.
The wavelength is obtained using the value of {I
211: 211:
A = = = 1.37 m
{I 4.58
comparing with that for a lossless region (flo, 4Eo) as follows
211: 3 X 10
8
1.5 m
c
The effect of finite conductivity is thus to foreshorten the wavelength.
The phase velocity in the conductive region is
OJ 211:( 10
8
)
v = = = 1.37 X 10
8
m/sec
p {I 4.58
which compares with that in the lossless region as follows:
(0) _ OJ _ OJ
Vp - {I(O) - O J J ; ; ; ~ o
c
1.5 X 10
8
m/sec
2
Conduction thus serves to slow down 1J
p
' The foregoing numerical results may be
added to Figure 3-18 to provide a picture of the wave motion in the conductive
region.
3-8 CLASSIFICATION OF CONDUCTIVE MEDIA
Conductive materials can be classified with reference to the magnitude of the conduction
current density term O'E relative to the displacement current density term jWEE
appearing in Maxwell's relation (3-85)
0') ~
- E
W
Denoting the complex permittivity, E - jO'lw, in (3-85) by the symbol
A .0'
E == E - J Flm
W
[3-85]
(3-103)
one may represent E 111 the complex plane as in Figure 3-20. The angle (jd is called
the dissipation angle, which vanishes for a lossless region. Its tangent, defined by
(3-104)
is called the loss tangent, or dissipation factor, of the material.
3-8 CLASSIFICATION OF CONDUCTIVE MEDIA 161
Iml
1m
Re Re
(a) (b)
FIGURE 3-20. Complex permittivity for conductive and losslcss regions.
(a) Conductive region (general). (b) Lossless region (0' -> 0).
The importance of the loss tangent is recognized from its appearance in the
expressions (3-90a) and (3-90b) for a and {3, and in (3-99a) for the wave impedance
of uniform plane waves propagating in a conductive material or a lossy dielectric at
a given frequency.
Under impressed electric fields that are time-harmonic, the microscopic (atomic-
scale) mechanisms contributing to the electric polarization P in a dielectric material,
as discussed in Section 3-2, are often modified by damping (loss) effects. The classical
model, inspired by experimental measurements on dielectric materials, assumes an
oscillating system of interacting atomic or moleeular particles, in which the response
of the dielectric to the applied electric field involves damping mechanisms plus reso-
nances about certain frequencies. The damping is taken as proportional to the velocity
of the particles oscillating under the impressed fields, to produce results similar in
some ways to the conductivity mechanism discussed in Section 3-1 for the Drude model
of a conductor when a time-harmonic field is applied. The resonances in the dielectric
polarization arise from the inertia of the particles, displaced by the sinusoidal applied
field and interacting with the restoring Coulomb forees. The response of the dielectric
to the applied field resembles that of a three-dimensional system of masses intercon-
nected through springs and dashpots and subjected to applied distributed vibrational
forces, or analogously, a network of reactive and resistive circuit elements excited by
sinusoidal voltages, with maximum losses occurring at the resonant frequencies. For
typical dielectric materials, the lowest resonance is usually in or above the microwave
range, with higher resonances occurring in the optical range.
12
The large-scale Of
macroscopic effect of these interaction phenomena is observed experimentally to make
the permittivity of a dielectric become complex at a given excitation frequency, to
permit writing it in terms of its real and imaginary parts
E = E' - jE" (3-105)
Since a complex permittivity E has already been defined by (3-103) in connection
with the loss mechanism in a conductive region, a comparison with (3-105) is in order.
One may see that the substitution of the complex permittivity E of (3-105) into the
Maxwell relation (3-85) yields
V X it = jWEE = jW(E' jE")E = wE"E + jWE'E (3-106)
12Details of damping and resonance phenomena in dielectrics ii-om the microscopic point of view and using
classical Or quantum-theory approaches are found in A. R. von Hippel, Dielectric Materials and Ajlplications.
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press and New York: Wiley, 1954; and R. S. Elliott. Electromagnetics. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1966, Chapter 6. A brief digest is to be found in S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. Van
Duzer. Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics. New York: Wiley, 1965, pp. 330-334.
162 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
The conduction current density j = aE is omitted, since comparing (3-106) with
the form of (3-85) shows that an equivalent conduction loss mechanism is already accounted
for by the term wE"E in (3-106). Thus WE" assumes the role of conductivity a in a
lossy dielectric, while E' in the last term of (3-106) is identical with the real E in (3-85),
corresponding to electric field energy storage in the dielectric. With the equalities
E = E' a=WE
If
(3-107)
the complex permittivities expressed by (3-103) and (3-105) therefore have equivalent
meanings. It is evident that Elf, the imaginary part of the complex E, is descriptive
of all loss mechanisms in the dielectric at a given frequency.
With the replacements (3-107), the loss tangent tan I<>dl of (3-104) is written in
the equivalent forms
(3-108)
Denoting the loss tangent by Elf/E', (3-90a) for the wave attenuation in a lossy dielectric
becomes
N = WJf
2
J.lE [ (E")2 J1
1
2
<A 'Y . 1 + 7 - I Np/m
(3-109)
Corresponding expressions for the phase constant f3 and the complex wave impedance
are obtained from (3-90b) and (3-99a), yielding
a __ WJf
2
J.lE [ (Eff)2 J1
/
2
f' 'Y . I + 7 + 1 rad/m
(3-110)
(3-111)
From the foregoing it is concluded that the characterization of the loss tangent (3-108)
by a/WE is better suited to a conductor, whereas the form Eff/E' is more desirable for
a dielectric region.
A conductive material or a lossy dielectric supporting electromagnetic waves at
a frequency W may in general fall within one of the following three classifications:
(a) it is a good conductor if the conductivity a is sufficiently great that its loss tangent,
a/WE, becomes very large compared with unity (i.e., a/wE 1); (b) it is a good insulator
ifits loss tangent is sufficiently small (Eff/E' 1); and (c) it may be called moderately
conductive (semiconducting) if it falls somewhere between these extremes (i.e., if the
loss tangent is roughly of the order of unity). The expressions [or the attenuation
constant, phase constant, and instrinsic wave impedance associated with uniform plane
wave propagation in such regions simplify to the following, for the classifications (a)
3-9 LINEARITY, HOMOGENEITY, AND ISOTROPY IN MATERIALS 163
and (b):
1. For a good conductor, assuming (f/WE 1, (3-90a), (3-90b), and (3-99a) reduce to
(3-112a)
(3-112b)
A ~
f/ = (1 + j) 2(;
(3-112c)
2. For a lossy dielectric, if EU/E' 1, (3-109) through (3-111) become
IX = w ~ (EU)
2 E'
(3-113a)
[
1 (EU)2]
fJ = w ~ 1 + 8 -;;
(3-113b)
A _ fl [ 3 (EII)2 . 1 (Ell)]
f/ - - 1 - - +J - -
E 8 E' 2 E'
(3-113c)
The (3-113) equations are obtained by including only the first two terms of the binomial
expansions of the square root quantities in (3-109) through (3-111), assuming a very
small loss tangent. In the limiting case of a lossless dielectric, (3-113) reduce to
IX = 0, fJ w ~ and ~ = 0L/E as expected.
Note in view of (3-95) that the inverse of (3-112a) can be used to express the
depth of penetration, b, in a good conductor
(3-114)
a result inversely dependent on the square root of the frequency, the permeability,
and the conductivity of the material. Thus, for copper having a conductivity of
5.8 x 10
7
U/m with Jl = Jlo, the skin depth at 1000 Hz is about 2 mm, while at a
frequency 10
6
times as large (J = 1000 MHz), b is reduced by the factor 10-3,
becoming 0.002 mm.
39 LINEARITY, HOMOGENEITY, AND
ISOTROPY IN MATERIALS
Electric and magnetic polarization effects in materials have been accounted for by the
polarization field P and the magnetization field M, defined by (3-16) and (3-55),
respectively. Their additive effects, yielding the Maxwell relations for a material region,
164 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
have provided the definitions of the fields D and H by (3-23) and (3-5B)
D = EoE + P (3-115 )
(3-116)
If the region is also capable of transporting free charges in a conduction process, the
conductivity parameter (J assigned to the region expresses the proportionality of the
current density J to the applied field E by (3-7)
J = (JE (3-117)
Avoiding the questions of anisotropy for the moment, one may recall that the relations
of the electric polarization field P and the magnetizations M to the applied fields may
be expressed by (3-25) and (3-60) 13
[3-251
[3-601
With the foregoing as a background, the questions of linearity, homogeneity, and
isotropy in material media are discussed. In this framework, one should assume that
the temperature of the material and the sinusoidal frequency of its impressed fields
are constants when defining its parameters It, E, and (J, since the dependence of the
latter on temperature and frequency callnnt, in general, be ignored.
A. Linearity and Nonlinearity in Materials
If the susceptibilities Xe and Xm are constants and thus independent of the applied
fields, the material is said to be linear with respect to electric and magnetic polarization
effects. A straight-line relationship between an applied field component Ex and the
resulting polarization component P
x
characterizes this linearity property. With the
substitution of (3-25) and (3-60) into (3-115) and (3-116), the compact results (3-30c)
and (3-64c)
D=EE r3-30c]
[3-64c]
have been seen to result.
Nonlinearify in a material is characterized by one or more of the parameters, fl,
E, and (J, being dependent on the level of the applied fields. Then one may choose
to write (3-30c), (3-64c), and (3-117) in forms signifying this dependence
D E(E)E (3-118)
B /l(H)H (3-119)
J = (J(E)E (3-120)
13Attention is here drawn to footnote 4 relative to expressions (3-25) through (3-33), which by extension
pennits a similar generalization of (3-60) and (3-64c) to their phasor forms, M = XmH and 13 = .aH.
3-9 LINEARITY, HOMOGENEITY, AND ISOTROPY IN MATERIALS 165
An example of (3-119) is depicted by the multivalued B-H curve of a ferromagnetic
material in Figure 3-13(b).
*B. Isotropy and Anisotropy in Materials
In some physical materials such as crystalline substances possessing a well-ordered
atomic or molecular lattice throughout a given sample, the polarizations P or M
resulting from the application of an E or B field may not necessarily have the same
directions as the applied fields. Such materials are termed anisotropic
14
, meaning that
different values of fl, E, or (J are measurable in different directions within the substance.
Differences in the polarization responses to the direction of an applied E field in crystals,
for example, are due to the disparities in the interatomic spacings associated with the
several symmetry axes of the crystalline lattice. In some crystals, in which three
orthogonal principal axes may be identified, the cartesian coordinates can be chosen
along the same axes. Then, for an applied field E = axEx + ayEy + azE
z
, the com-
ponents of the electric polarization field P become
P
x
= Xe11 (EoEx)
Py Xe22(EOEy)
P
z
= Xe33(E
O
E
z
)
(3-121 )
in which the susceptibility components Xell' Xe22' and Xe33 are generally different.
(The static field values for gypsum, for example, are about 8.9, 4.1, and 4.0, re-
spectively.) These circumstances are depicted in Figure 3-21 (a), showing the develop-
ment of a polarization vector P having a direction different from that of the applied
E field, a result of the unequal susceptibilities associated with the coordinate directions.
It is evident that (3-121) reduces to the vector result (3-25), P = xeeoE, whenever
Xell == Xe22 == Xe33' Again, if rectangular coordinates are selected so that the applied
field has only an x component, that is, E = applying it to an arbitrarily oriented
anisotropic material yields all three components of dielectric polarization
(3-122)
a result exemplified in Figure 3-21 (b). In general, if E possesses all three rectangular
components, applied at an arbitrary angle with respect to the crystal principle axes,
one must write
Px = Xell(EOEx) + + Xe13 (EoEz )
Py = Xe2t(EOEx) + Xe22(EOEy) + Xe23(E
O
Ez )
P
z
= Xe31 (EoEx) + Xe32(EOEy) + Xe33(OEz )
This triplet of expressions is denoted by the matrix form
[
Px] _ [xeu
P
v
- Xe2l
Pz Xe31
Xe12
Xe22
Xe32
(3-123a)
(3-123b)
14From the Greek an (not), plus iso (same), plus trope (turning); hence, not having the same (property) with
different directions.
166 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
(x)
(a)
Ey
"'--Crystal sample (b)
FIGURE 3-21. Aspects of dielectric anisotropy in a crystal. (a) Polarization components rc-
sulting from an x-directed E-field component applied to an arbitrarily oriented crystal. (b) Polar-
ization components resulting from applied E-field components, if principal axes in a crystal arc
aligned witb the cartesian coordinate axes.
having the compact representation
[P] (3-123c)
The linear relations (3-123) involve the components x.eij of a susceptibility matrix [x.e].
One may observe that if the three principle axes of a particular anisotropic material
are aligned with the cartesian coordinates, the off-diagonal coefficients (i #- j) of (3-123)
become zero, reducing it to (3-121). Applying D = EoE + P to (3-123), one can verify
that the expressions connecting D and E in an anisotropic substance are
having the matrix form
Dx = EllEx + E12
E
y + E13
E
z
Dy = E21Ex + E22Ey + E
23
E
z
D
z
= E31Ex + 3 E ~ + E33
E
z
[D] = [E][E]
(3-124a)
(3-124b)
3-10 ELECl1WMAGNETlC PARAMETERS OF TYI'ICAL MATERIALS 167
should be evident that expressions analogous to 123) and (3-1 can be estab-
among the cartesian components of the vector Band H for anisotropic magnetic
materials.
C. Homogeneity and Inhomogeneity in Materials
A material region having parameters jJ, E, and (J independent of the position
it is termed homogeneous.
Conversely, if one or more of the parameters is of the space-dependent form
(3-125)
the material is said to be inhomogeneous. The mixture of earth and water occurring ncar
the suriace after a rain is an instance of an inhomogeneous region having parameters
E and (J that vary with depth. The ionosphere, a gaseous mixture of positive, negative,
and neutral particles, must be regarded generally as electromagnetically inhomo-
geneous. Artificial inhomogeneous materials are created by the variable spacing of
small metal spheres within a Styrofoam or other supporting insulating material, to yield
an electrically polarizable region having a variable E depending on the average spatial
densities of the spheres. Devices constructed in this way, using metal spheres, rods,
or plates, have been used in artificial lenses for microwave applications.
ls
The complications of nonlinearity, inhomogeneity, and anisotropy in materials
are for the most part avoided in subsequent treatments in t i ~ text. The emphasis is
restricted essentially to discussions of electric and magnetic fields in materials that are
linear, homogeneous, and isotropic.
310 ELECTROMAGNETIC PARAMETERS
OF TYPICAL MATERIALS
A tabulation of measured parameters at room temperature for typical nonmetals and
nonferrous metals is given in Table 3-3. The frequency dependence of Er and the loss
tangen t Elf IE' for nonmetals is evident from their values at the three widely different
sinusoidal fi'equencies listed. Laboratory methods for measuring material parameters
differ considerably, depending on the frequency at which the parameters are to be
determined. The permittivity and loss tangent ofa nonmetal at frequencies up to several
megahertz can be found using lumped-eircuit methods; thus, a capacitor making use
of the test material as a dielectric and connected in a Q-meter arrangement might be
employed. At higher fiequencies, the measurement of the influence of the material on
the wave transmission properties of a coaxial transmission line or a waveguide can be
useful for obtaining its parameters. Several source books may be consnlted for further
information on such methods.
16
15For example, sec W. E. Kock, "Metallic delay lenses," Bell Syst. Tech . .lour., 27, 58, January 1948.
16For example, see A. R. von Hippell, Dielectrics and Waves. New York: Wiley, 1964.
..
8;l
TABLE 3-3 Material Parameters at 20C (Unless Otherwise Stated)
A. Nonmetals
E
r
, At Frequency
MATERIAL jl, 60 10
6
10
'0
BM 120 4.87 4.74 3.68
Douglas fir 2.05 1.93 1.80
Miearta 254 5.45 4.51 3.30
Nylon (Dupont) 3.60 3.14 2.80
Plexiglas 3.45 2.76 2.50
Polyethylene 2.26 2.26 2.26
Polystyrene (Dow) 2.55 2.55 2.54
Silicone fluid SC 200 2.78 2.78 2.74
Soil, sandy, dry 3.45 2.60 2.50
Soil, sandy, 2.2% H
2
O 3.25 2.50 2.50
Styrofoam 103.7 1.03 1.03 1.03
Tam Ticon B (barium titanate) 1240 1140 150
Teflon (nG) 2.10 2.10 2.10
Teflon (lOODG) 2.04 2.04 2.04
Water, distilled 81 78.2 50
B. Metals
Elf
-, At Frequency
E'
60 10
6
10
'0
0.080 0.028 0.Q410
0.004 0.026 0.030
0.098 0.036 0.0400
0.018 0.022 0.0110
0.064 0.014 0.0050
( <0.0002) 0.0005
( <0.003) 0.0003
0.0001 0.0003 0.010
0.200 0.020 0.0040
0.700 0.025 0.0650
( <0.0002) 0.0001
0.056 0.010 0.60
( <0.005) 0.0004
0.001) 0.0005
0.040 0.200
MATERIAL
/1,
(J (Ujm) DEPTH OF PENETRATION ij FOR PLANE WAVES (m)
Silver 6.17x107 0.064/J]
Copper 5.8 x 10
7
0.066/J]
Aluminum 3.72 x 10
7
0.083/J]
Sodium 2.1 x 10
7
O.lljJ]
Brass 1.6 X 10
7
0.13jJ]
Tin 0.87 x 10
7
0.1 7/[r
DIELECTRIC
STRENGTH
(Vjmil)
300
1,020
400
990
1,200
600
1,500
3-11 GENERAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR NORMAL D AND J 169
"'311 GENERAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
FOR NORMAL D AND J
In Section 3-2, the boundary condition (3-41)
(3-126)
comparing the normal components of D to either side of an interface was derived.
Special cases were cited concerning (a) two perfect dielectrics and (b) a perfect dielectric
and a perfect conductor. In this section are treated the remaining cases involving re-
gions with finite conductivities, in which E gives rise to current densities specified by
(3-7): J = (jE.
It is shown in general that a free charge density Ps accumulates at an interface,
in an amount determined by the ratios of the conductivities and permittivities of the
adjacent regions. To this end, the boundary condition (3-126) cannot in itself reveal
the proportions of Dnl and Dn2 yielding Ps there. Another boundary condition is
required, obtained from the current continuity relation (3-82b)
[3-82b J
Equation (3-82b) is applied to a pillbox region of vanishing height, as used in deriving
(3-41). The surface integral applied to the upper and lower surfaces of the pillbox in
Figure 3-22 (a) yields contributions ]n1 fJ.s and - Jn2 fJ.s to the net outward current flux.
The tangential components Jtl and ]t2 contribute only a vanishing amount of current
from the sides of the pillbox, as (jh -+ O. However, if a surface density Js exists on the inter-
face (permissible if region 2 is a perfect conductor), then a nonvanishing current out-
flow from those sides is possible, occurring if Js exhibits longitudinal changes, that is,
if J., has a surface divergence as shown in Figure 3-22(b). Then the current outflow
Edge +7-----J1
view I J Region 1:
J
n
1, ,( )
~ ,J.l.1,tj,O'j
__ .,JJ'l
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 3-22. Gaussian pillbox constructed for comparing the normal components of J at an
interlace. (a) Components OfJ1 and J2 to either side of the interface. (b) Showing the variation
of the x component of J3'

170 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
through the four sides of the pillbox becomes
to which is added the current flow from the upper and lower surfaces, yielding
Upon canceling terms and eliminating Lls = Llx Lly factors, one obtains the boundary
condition
(3-127)
This can be written
oPs 2
Jn1 - Jn2 + VT Js = -7it Aim
(3-128)
Tbe general boundary condition involving the continuity of the normal components
of the volume current density at an interface is (3-128). It states that the normal com-
ponent ofJ is discontinuous at an interface to the extent of (a) the time rate of decrease
of the surface charge density, -ops/ot and (b) the tangential divergence possessed by
the surface current J .
An alternate form of (3-128) is, with J = O"E
(3-129)
The general boundary condition (3-128) or (3-129) simplifies depending on the
adjacent regions, three cases of which are discussed in the following.
I. One region nonconductive; the other a perfect conductor. Assuming region 1 lossless
(0"1 = 0) implies that J 1 = 0, and with region 2 a perfect conductor (0"2 ---+ CI))
and containing no fields, J2 = 0 also. Then (3-128) becomes
ops
ot
0"1 = 0, (3-130)
Thus at the surface of a perfect conductor adjoining a perfect dielectric, the time
rate of decrease of Ps equals the surface divergence of J., but (3-130) is just a re-
statement of the charge conservation relation (3-82d).
3-\1 GENERAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR NORMAL D AND J 171
2. One region hasfimte conductivity; the other is a perfect conductor. With a
2
~ 00, J2 = 0,
reducing (3-128) to
a 1 finite, (3-131)
The normal outflow Of}nl from a perfect conductor into an adjacent conductive
region is dependent on the time rate of decrease of Ps and on the surface divergence
of Js.
3. Both fI?gions have finite conductivities. In the absence of a perfect conductor, Js O.
Then (3-128) yields
(3-132)
lfthis is combined with (3-126), Dnl - Dn2 = p., one can develop a relationship
between the normal components of 0 (or E) at an interface, besides an expression
for Ps' To avoid the use of a/at in the result, it is desirable to replace the fields with
time-harmonic forms according to (2-67). Thus, after canceling the ei
ro
! factors
and replacing D with d ~ and j with aE, (3-132) and (3-126) become
(3-133)
(3-134)
These must be simultaneously satisfied at the interface. Eliminating {is obtains
whereupon factoringjw yields the boundary condition
Using the complex permittivity notation of (3-103) obtains
(3-135)
The boundary condition for the normal component ofE is, therefore, that ~ is
continuous at an interface separating finitely conductive regions.
An expression for ~ h e fre charge density {i accumulated at the interface is
obtained by eliminating Enl or B"2 fi'om (3-133) and (3-134), yielding the equivalent
results
(3-136)
172 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
in which Eland E 2 are given by (3-103). One conchldes that a surface charge
induced on the interface by the normal components of E if at least one region is con-
ductive. On the other hand, no free surface charge exists at the interface if (a) both
regions are nonconductive ((Jl = (J2 = 0) o[ (b) the special proportion EdEz = (Jl/(J2
is true among the region parameters, presumably a rare event and oflittle importance.
For both regions nonconductive, putting Ps = 0 into (3-134) yields the special case
(i1E,,) EzE"z = 0, or just
(3-1
a result agreeing with (3-43) for the I1ot1conductive case.
EXAMPLE 311. Determine the refractive law for direct currents at an interface separating two
isotropic conductive regions. Specialize the result for one conductivity much larger than
the other.
Assume the J vectors tilted by amounts 0
1
and O
2
as shown in (a). The boundary
condition (3-132) for dc becomes
(a)
Region 1: (<Tl) Region 1: (<Tl)
Region 1: (<T I = 0)
- -

./

Region 2: (<T2 = 10 <Tl) Region 2: (<T2 <TIJ Region 2: (<T2)
(b) (e) (d)
EXAMPLE. 311. (a) Refraction of currents. (b) Examples of current flux refraction if <T 2 J O<T!.
(c) current flux [or region 2 highly conductive. (d) Constraint to tangential flow at interlace for
region 1 nonconductive.
(I)
PROBLEMS 173
while the boundary condition involving tangential components is obtained from (3-79),
with J = O"E
(2)
From the geometry, the tilt angles obey
The latter combines with (1) and (2), whereupon inserting the expression for tan (J 1
obtains the refl'active law
(3-138)
The analogy with the refraetive laws (3-76) and (3-80) for Band E might be noted.
For an example in which 0"2 = 10(T 1, the refractive effects of direct current streamlines
at an interface are shown typically in (b) of the accompanying figure. For (T2 (Tl' the
ncar perpendicularity of the current flux occurs in regions 1, as noted in (c). If 0"1 were
reduced to zero, thert J 1 = 0, constraining the current flow in region 2 to paths tan-
gentialto the conductor-insulator boundary as in (d), a result evident from the insertion
ofl.
l
= lt1 = 0 into the boundaIY conditions (4-133) and (4-134).
REFERENCES
ELLIOTT, R. S. Electromagnetics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.
JAVID, M., and P. M. BROWN. Field Analysis and Electromagnetics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.
JORDAN, E. C., and K. G. BALMAIN. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems, 2nd ed., Engle-
wood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.
LORRAIN, P., and D. R. CORSON. Electromagnetic .Fields and Waves. San Francisco: Freeman, 1970.
REITZ, R., and F. J. MILFORD. Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory. Reading, Mass.: Addison-
Wesley, New York: 1960.
PROBLEMS
SECTION 3-1
3-1. Pure copper, with a free (outer orbit) electron concentration of about 10
29
electrons/m
3
,
has the conductivity (T 5.8 x 10
7
mho/m at room temperature (Table 3-3). (a) Find the
mobility orthe free electrons in copper. (b) Express the free electron charge density in coulombs
per cubic millimeter for this material. (c) Find the drift velocity of the electrons for the unit
applied electric field E = ax V 1m. What is the corresponding volume current density in this
specimen? Sketch the vectors depicting Vd, J, and E in the sample. (Explain from physical
reasoning why Vd and E are in opposite directions, although J and E are in the same sense.)
x
mm/sec]
3-2. Find the current density (expressed in A/cm
l
) in the following conductors, possessing only
negative electronic charge carriers under the given conditions. (a) The average drift velocity
is -a
z
4.5 mm/sec and the charge carriers have the density 2 x 10
28
electrons/m
3
. (b) The
volume density of electronic charge carriers is 3.5 x 10
8
C/m
3
and the carrier average drift
velocity is 4.2 mIll/sec, with E lOa
x
V /m within the conductor. What is the conductivity of
the region in the latter case? [Answer: (a) a
z
1440 A/cm
2
(b) a
x
147 A/cm
2
, 0.147 MU/m]
174 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
SECTION 3-2
3-3. At some particular temperature, helium gas has 10
25
atoms/m
3
and is measured to have
the dielectric susceptibility of 1.5 x 10-
4
. What is its electric polarization field P for the applied
field E 10
3
V /m? What is the charge density p +, and the average displacement d of the
nucleus relative to the electron cloud for the given E? What is E/ [Answer: p + 3.2 X 10
6
C/m
3
J
3-4. At low frequencies, the measured relative permittivity of water is 81 Crable 3-3). What
is then its electric susceptibility? What electric field E must be applied to produce, at the sinusoidal
frequency w, the polarization field P = a
x
lO sin Wi JiC/m
2
in a water sample? (Express E in
kV/m.) Find the corresponding electric displacement density D, expressed in JiCjm
z
. Without
using field values, (orm appropriate ratios to determine by what factor the magnitude of D is
larger than that ofP; similarly, compare P with EoE.
3-5. (a) To make the electric polarization density P and the applied field EoE exactly the
same in a material, what must its relative permittivity be? (b) What is the relative permittivity
of a material if P has 10 times the value of EoE therein? (c) If D has 10 times the strength of
EoE in a material, what is its relative permittivity? (d) IfD is lOP in some region, what is its
E/ [Answer: (b) II (d) l.IlI]
3-6. The same electric field, E 10
3
a
z
Vim, is applied to the following regions having the
dielectric susceptibilities: (a) zero (what sort of region is this?); (b) 10-\ (c) I; (d) 10
3
. Deter-
mine the relative permittivity, the applied field EoE, the electric polarization field P, and the
eleetric displacement field D for each region.
SECTION 3-2A
3-7. The following E fields are given to exist in some block of polyethylene, for which E, = 2.26
(from Table 3-3): (a) a
x
l0
3
x
2
sin wtV/m; (b) a
p
10
3
p sin wi Vjm; (c) a
r
(10
3
/r2) sin Wi VIm.
Find the fields EoE, P, D, the polarization (bound) charge density PP' and the volume
polarization (bound) current density J
P
for each applied E field. [Answer: (c) Pp = 0,
J
P
= ar(1 Ll4/r
2
)w cos wI nA/m
2
] .
3-8. Corresponding to the electric polarization field P = a
x
lO sin wi JiC/m
2
of Problem 3-4,
find the polarization (bound) current density J
P
at the frequencies: (a) I kHz; (b) I MHz.
SECTION 3-2B
3-9. Apply the Gauss-Maxwell integral law (3-36) to a vanishing volume element tl.v in
dielectric region, to rederive its differential form (3-24). [Hint: Divide (3-36) by tl.v and consider
the meaning of each ratio as tl.v -> 0.]
3-10. Making use of the divergence theorem, show how the differential expression (3-21) can
be manipulated to yield the integral form (3-38). Explain the physical meaning of this result.
SECTION 3-2C
3-11. The coaxial, circular cylindrical conductor pair (coaxial line) of great length and with
the dimensions shown contains a homogeneous dielectric sleeve with the permittivity E.' Assume
the static surface charges totaling Qon every axial length t of the inner and outer conductors
respectively. (a) Making use of the symmetry and Gauss's law (3-37), determine for each region
between the conductors the D and the E fields. (b) Determine P in the dielectric region. By use
of the criterion (3-21), determine whether there is any volume density of excess polarization
(bound) charge, of density Pp' within the dielectric. (c) Making use of the appropriate boundary
conditions, find the free charge densities on the conductor surfaces at p = a and d, as well as the
surface polarization (bound) densities at p = band c. (d) Letting a = 2 mm, b = 4 mm, C
8 mm, d = I cm, Qlt = 10-
2
JiC/m, and Er = 2.26 (polyethylt;:ne), find the values ofE and P.
at the conductor surfaces at p a and d. Find also D, P, and E at the surface p = b + (just within
the dielectric), comparing their values with those at p = b- (just outside the dielectric).
[Answer: (d) E(a) 90 kV/m, ps(a) 0.796 JiC/ml, E(b+) = 19.9 kV/m]
PROBLEMS 175
PROBLEM 3-11
Assume that the region a < p < d between the coaxial conductors of Problem 3-11 is
filled with a single, inhomogeneous dielectric material for which the permittivity is E(p), a hme-
tion of only p, (a) Make usc of the symmetry and Gauss's law (3-37) to establish the limctional
dependence of E on p required to make E between the conductors independent of p. Express
the answer such that E(p) lIas the value Er at the outcr radius p = d. What is then E? (b) Find
both the polarization density field P and the volume density Pp of polarization (bound) charge
for this choice of Note that this nonuniform design of the dielectric region provides a
way to avoid high fields in a coaxial configuration, thus reducing the possibility of di-
electric breakdown. Suggest how the nonuniform permittivity conditions of this problem might
be met say, three or four diflerent but homogeneous dielectric materials.
r
dtpJ
The concentric, spherical conductor pair is separated by two dielectric shells of permit-
tivities El and E
z
as shown, the interface between them appearing at r = b. Assuming the static
surface charges totaling Q on the inner (r = a) and outer (r = c) conductor surfaces, respec-
tivcly, answn the following. (a) Use Gauss's law and the symmetry to deduce D and E
within the two regions. Both these fields arc normal to the interiace at r = h. Which boundary
condition in Table 3-2 is applicahle at this interlace? (b) Find the expression for P in each region.
From I), deduce whether there is a polarization (hound) charge density Pp within either
dielectric region. (c) Employ the proper boundary conditions to find the free surface charge
density Ps on the conductor surfaces, as well as the surface polarization charge density Psp at r = b.
(d) With a \ m, b 1.02 1Il, c 1.05 m, Erl = 2.26, Er2 = I and Q = 0.\ flC, find the
values of E at the radii b- and b+, as well as on the conductor surfaces r = a and c. Sketch E,
versus r from a to c. [Answer: (a) Ed = QI4nElr2 (d) Erl(a) = 398 k V 1m 1
PROBLEM 3-13
."
1111
176 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
SECTION 3-3
3-14. Based on a pillbox construction suggested by Figure 3-4, prove the boundary condition
(3-50) concerning the continuity of the normal components of B to either side of an interface.
SECTION 3-4
3-15. Beginning with the force (3-51) acting on each edge of the current loop of Figure 3-7 (a),
fill in the remaining details to prove (3-54).
3-16. Prove that the net magnetic force F B, acting on an arbitrary, closed, thin (filamentary)
circuit carrying the uniform current f and immersed in a uniform B field, is zero. [Hint: Integrate
(3-52) about the circuit path t, noting that' B x dt can be written B x ,dt. See also Example
1-6.]
3-17. Expand the dimensions of the square current loop, located in the z 0 plane as in
Figure 3-7(a), to a large scale by assuming each side to be 2a meters long (side t1 located at
y = a in the z = 0 plane, etc.). The current flows clockwise when looking in the +z direction.
(a) Assume the current loop to be immersed in a magnetic field having only the component B
z
.
Sketch the system. Determine the force dF 1 due to the magnetic field acting on any element
-laxdx of the side (I' as well as the total force on (1' showing that F I = a
y
2aIB
z
By symmetry,
show that the net magnetic force on the loop is zero. Show also that the differential torque acting
on a current element of (I' relative to the moment arm R axX + aya measured from the origin,
is dT = aJB
z
2xdx, and that the total torque on (1 is zero. (b) Repeat (a), assuming this time
that only Bx is present. Show why the forces on the sides t1 and t4 are zero, and that the total
torque on the loop, due to B
x
, is ay4a2fBx- Find the total torque, due to By only, by analogy.
\\lith all three components ofB present, what is the total torque on the loop? (c) Defining the
magnetic moment of this finite sized current loop as Dl = Is = 4a
2
fa" show that the total torque
expression obtained in (b) is equivalent to (3-54), T = Dl X B. (d) What is the magnetic moment
of a thin, sqnare current loop of sides 2a 10 em and carrying 10 A, immersed in the field
B = 0.3a
x
+ OAa
y
+ O.6a
z
Wb/m
2
?
3-18. A particular magnetizable material has 3.3 x 10
28
magnetic field H = 4a
z
A/m applied to its interior, there results the average dipole moment
Dl 1.2 X 10-
24
A_m
2
(a) Find the density of magnetization M, the magnetic susceptibility,
the relative permea bility, and the permeability of this materiaL (b) Find B in this materiaL
[Answer: M 39,600 A/m, p 12.4 mH/mJ
3-19. The magnetic susceptibility of a particular specimen of magnetic material is measured
to be 59. \\lhat is the magnetic polarization M and the magnetic intensity H, if the field B
in the material is O.Ola
x
Wb/m
2
?
3-20. Given the following volume magnetization fields M within certain regions of magnetic
materials, find the volume densities 1m produced by the bound currents therein.
(a) 150xa
y
a
4
,200/p (c) a4>320 (cylindrical)
(d) aolOOrcos 0 (e) a4>160/r
2
[Answer: (b) 0 (d) a4>200 cos OJ
3-21. Employ Stokes's theorem (2-56) to show how the curl relationship (3-56), relating the
magnetic polarization density M to the magnetization current density 1m, is transformed to the
integral relation (3-67).
SECTION 3-4A
3-22. Show that the magnetization current density 1m = aylO A/m
2
associated with the
bound currents in the sample of Example 3-3 yields, from an appropriate surface integral, the
total (bound) current flow of lOP A through any fixed z cross section of that sample. Obtain
the samc answer by use of the line integral of (3-67). Sketch the system, appropriately labeled.
PROBLEMS 177
SECTION 304B
3-23. Employ a suitable sketch, showing how the quantity n x Hb used in the magnetic-field
boundary condition (3-72), specifies the lanJ!,ential component of the surface current density Js
in both magni tude and direction.
3-24. Apply the appropriate boundary condition in answering the following. (a) An air-to-
perfect-conductor intcrhce is at z = 0, the region z > 0 being air. With H = 150a
x
Aim in the
air region, what is the snrface current density on the perfect conductor? How much total current
I flows in a 20-cm-wide x-directed strip of this conductor surlace? Sketch this system showing
H, J" and a [(OW current flux lines. (b) Find the current density on the conductor surface of
(a), this time assuming H = 30a
x
+ 40a
y
A/m. Sketeh this system. (c) Suppose in the geometry
of Figure 1-19(a) that the long, straight wire shown is a perfect conductor, and that surface
eurrents totaling I flow on the conductor surface p = a. The B field for p > a is still given
correctly (1-64). Use this field to deduce the surface current density Js on the wire. Formulate
a vector integral relationship between J and J" showing a related sketch.
3-25. What two simultaneous boundary conditions arc being satisfied by the magnetic field
refraction expression (3-76)? Establish that, if region I is air and region 2 is iron with 11,2 = 10
4
(a case of high contrast in permeabilities), the tilt angle 0
1
of Br from the normal in region
I is very slllall for most values or0
2
. For example, find
1
if0
2
= 0, 45, 89, and then 89.9.
How lin from the normal must O
2
be if 8
1
is to become as large as 10? Sketch this example.
3-26. The toroidal iron core ofrectangular cross section partly fills the closely wound toroidal
coil of!l turns and carrying the direct current 1 as shown. (a) Usc the right-hand rule (thumb
in the sense or 1) to establish the direction of H inside the winding. (b) Use the static form
of Ampt're's law C)-66) to deduce H at any radius p within the winding, and determine B for
the two regions. Which boundary condition for magnetic fields Cfable is being satisfied
at the air-iron interface? (c) From H deduce expressions for the magnetization density field M
in the two regions. Sketch flux plots showing (in side views) the relative densities of H, B/l1o,
and M in the two regions, assuming 11, 1 for the iron. (d) Find Jm within the iron as well
as J8m on the timr sides of the iron core. Sketch representative vectors or fluxes depicting these
quantities. (c) If a = 1 em, b = 1.5 cm, C = 2 em, d = I cm, fl, = 1000, n = 100 turns, 1=
100 rnA, find t he values of Hand B at p = a + and b (just within the iron), at p b + and
p = c.
3-27. As a simple exercise iu applying boundary conditions, an air space (region 1) defined
for all > 0 and a magnetic substrate with 11, = 4 (region 2) occurring for all z < 0 are separated
by the inllnitc pbmc interlace at z O. The constant, static magnetic field in region I is given
to be BI = O.3a
x
+ O.4a
y
+ 0.5a
z
Wb/m
2
. Sketch BI (shown for convenience at the origin) and
the Ilormal unit vcctor n at the interface (its direction taken as going from region 2 to region I).
(a) Make use of the boundary conditions (Table 3-2), concerning the continuity of appropriate
tangential or llormal field components at the interface, to deduce the vector fields HI> B
2
,
and H2 in the as well as the field magnitudes. (Leave H expressions in terms of
PROBLEM 3-26
178 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
If"\!,
~ - - - - - - - - - -
f
(
,
\ 1: (1-'0)
'--
2; (p)
3; (1-'0)
PROBLEM 3-28
~ - . . , . . . - ,
\-+4---:/
----t--- (z)
-11-+"""-,
'-:1-+ ....... -;
the symbolic 110.) (b) By use of the definition of n B, find the angles (), and (}2 between n
and B (or H) in the two regions. (Label (J, on the sketch.) Check your answers by use of
(3-76). [Answer: (a) B2 = 1.2a
x
+ 1.6ay + 0.5a
z
Wb/m
2
(b) (}2 = 76]
3-28. A very long, nonmagnetic conductor (fl. I) of radius a carries the static current I as
shown. The conductor is surrounded by a cylindrical sleeve of nonconducting magnetic material
with a thickness extending from p = a to p = b and the permeability fl. The surrounding region
is air. (a) Make use of symmetry and Ampere's law (3-66) to find Hand B in the three regions.
(Label the closed lines employed in the proof, depicting H in the proper sense on each line.)
(b) Find the M field in the magnetic region. If 1= 628 A, a = I em, b = 1.5 cm, fl. = 6 for the
magnetic sleeve, sketch H"" B"" and M", versus p for this system. Comment on the continuity
(or otherwise) of these tangential fields at the interfaces. (c) By use of (3-56) and (3-73b), find
the volume magnetization current density 1m and the bound surface current densities J,m within
and on the magnetic sleeve.
SECTION 3-5
3-29. Two semi-infinite regions, air (region I) for z > 0, and a dielectric (region 2, in which
E = 4Eo) for z < 0, are separated by the interface at z = O. In the air region, the constant electric
field El = l5a
x
+ 20ay + 30a
z
Vim is given. Sketch El for convenience at the origin. (a) Find
D and E for both regions, making use of boundary conditions (Table 3-2). (Leave Eo explicitly
in the D expressions.) (b) Find the refraction angles ()l and ()2 from the normal in both regions,
making use of the definition ofn . E ifn is directed from region 2 to region 1. Use the refraction
law (3-80) as a check. r Answer: E2 = - 15a
x
+ 20a
y
+ 7.5a
z
V /m, ()2 = 73.30]
SECTION 3-7
3-30. Prove the expressions (3-90a) and (3-9Gb) for the attenuation constant IX and the phase
constant fJ associated with uniform plane waves in an unbounded, lossy region.
3-31. Assume uniform plane waves to be traveling at the frequency f= 100 MHz in a lossy
region having the constitutive parameters fl = flo, E = 6Eo, (J = 10-
2
mho/m. (a) By direct sub-
stitution into (3-88), determine the value of the complex propagation constant associated with
the waves, expressing y in its complex rectangular 101'm denoted by (3-89). From this result
infer the values of the wave attenuation constant and phase constant. (b) Find the attenuation
constant and the phase constant by use of (3-90a) and (3-90b). [Answer: IX 0.761 Np/m,
3-32. Repeat Problem 3-31, this time assuming the parameters of the lossy region to be fl = flo,
E I.B Eo, (J = 10 mho/m, and in which uniform plane waves are traveling at the frequency
f= 10 GHz. [Answer: y = 597.7 + j660.5 m-
i
]
3-33. M.aking use of the free-space parameters fl flo, E Eo and (J 0, show that the
expressions (3-90a), (3-90b) and (3-99a) reduce to the free-space results IX = 0, fJ = fJo of(2-11B),
and I] = 1]0 of (2-13Gb).
3-34. Prove that the penetration of three skin depths by a plane wave into a conductive
region produces an amplitude reduction to 5% of the reference value. Show that six skin depths
yields 0.25'Yo'
PROBLEMS 179
3-35. Given the electric-field plane wave solution (3-91 b) in which the propagation constant
is defined by (3-88), show by substitution into the Maxwell curl equation (3-83) that the corre-
sponding magnetic field solution becomes (3-98c), if the intrinsic wave impedance q is defined
by (3-99a). [Hint: Show that the coefficient y/jWfl reduces to q-I.]
3-36. Show that the expression for intrinsic wave impedance q, defined by (3-97) as
can be re-expressed in complex polar form by the last expression given in (3-99a).
3-37. A positive z-traveling, uniform plane wave has the field components E; and H;, with
the electric-field amplitude E; = 200 Vim, and operates at the frequency f = 100 MHz. It
travels in a lossy region with the parameters given in Problem 3-31 (flo, 6Eo, (J = 10-
2
). The
propagation constant in this region at 100 MHz was found to be y = 0.761 + jS.IS7 m-
I
). (a)
Determine the wavelength of this wave. Find its depth of penetration, b. What is the phase
velocity of this wave? (b) Determine the intrinsic wave impedance q fo!, this region, at the
given frequency. Use this to obtain the expression for the magnetic field H; (z) accompanying
the given electric field. (c) Show a labeled sketch, patterned after Figure 3-18, showing the
real-time E; t) and H; (z, t) fields of this uniform plane wave, at t = O. Label the depth
of penetration as well as the wavelength on your diagram. [Answer: (a) b = 1.314 m (b)
= 150.6e
iS
.
4
' il]
3-38. A vehicle located far above the surface of the sea transmits an electromagnetic signal
at the frequency j. Upon striking the air-sea interface, a transmitted wave penetrates the sea.
The waves at the surface are presumed to be sufficiently far from the source that they,may,
locally at least, be considered to be uniform plane waves.
Supposing the net transmitted electric field amplitude is f-; = I Vim, how far will the
wave penetrate before reaching of its surface value? Perform this calculation at two very
low radio frequencies: 10 kHz (in the VLF range) and 1000 Hz (ELF), assuming sea water has
the constants E, = 81 and (j = 4 U/m at these frequencies. Comment on the effectiveness of
SECTION 3-8
339. Use the general expressions (3-90a, 90b, 99a) to derive (3-112), applicable to a good
conductor (for which a/wE> 1).
3-40. Use the general exprcssions (3-109) through (3-111) to prove (3-113), approximations
for ex, p, and q applicable to waves traveling in good dielectrics, for which EN/E' 1.
3-41. An electromagnetic uniform plane wave is specified in some lossy region by the fields
E; (z) = 3142e-
Yz
Vim, fI; (z) = fI;e-
YZ
A/m at the frequcncy f = 1000 MHz. The region
has the parameters 11 = /-10, E = 24Eo, and (j = 48 mho/m. (a) Show that the loss tangent of this
region at the givcn frequency is 36. Is the region classified as a "good conductor" or not?
Explain. (b) Find the attenuation and phase constants of the region at this frequency. (Reason-
able approximations are allowed.) Show that the "depth of penetration" of the wave into the
region at this frequency is about 2 mm. Use a sketch of the real-time electric field (in the vicinity
of the z-origin) to explain the meaning of "depth of penctration." (c) Find the wavelength of
this wave, labeling it on the sketch of part (b). Compare this wavelength with that occurring
in this region assuming now that it is completely lossless (samc fl and E, but now with a = 0).
Comment. (d) Evaluate the complex amplitudc fI; of the magnetic field of this plane wave,
making use of the intrinsic wave impedance of the region. (To what fact do you attribute the
angle of q being close to 45?)
CHAPTER 4 _____________________ _
Static and Quasi-Static
Electric Fields
Electric fields of stationary charge distributions in space are considered in this chapter.
Maxwell's equations, subjected to the time-static assumption, tJ/Dt = 0, provide an
uncoupling of the static electric fields from the static magnetic fields. Gauss's law is
applied to symmetrical systems; and the scalar potential field (]) is derived to supply
an intermediate, often simplifying, step useful f(lr finding the static E field. Expressions
fix the stored energy of an electrostatic system are derived and applied to two-
conductor capacitance systems. Boundary-value problems of electrostatics are treated
by means of Laplace's equation and extended to finite difIerence methods of solution
for arbitrary, two-dimensional boundary shapes. Image and fIux-mapping techniques
are discussed as alternative approaches to capaci lance problems, all(i. a capacitance-
conductance analog is developed. The chapter is concluded with a consideration of
the fc)rces of electric charge systems.
41 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS FOR STATIC
ELECTRIC FIELDS
In Chapter 3, the Maxwell equations and boundary conditions f(lr time-varying elec-
tromagnetic fields in material media at rest were developed. Time-varying B (or H)
and E (or D) fields are produced in a region whenever the charge and current
sources of the fields are time-varying. For certain generic classes of field problems, it
is advantageous to consider the sources to be non-lime-varying, that is, time-static (or
just static). Then the charges and possibly currents responsible for the fields are
stationary. The governing Maxwell equations for time-static fields are (3-24), (3-48),
(3-59), and with the operator a/at set to zero, yielding V . D PI!' V x E 0,
V' B = 0, and V x H = J. The static fields are designated D(u
j
, 11
2
, Pv(Ub U2,
and so on.
180
4-2 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS OF FIXED-CHARGE ENSEMBLES iN FREE SPACE 181
An inspection of the static Maxwell relations reveals a new property not valid
for their more general, time-varying forms. Thus, the static electric fields D and E are
governed solely by the divergence and curl properties
V' D = Pv
VxE 0
whereas the behavior of the static magnetic ,fields Band H is dictated by
VB = 0
v x H=J
(4-1 )
(4-2)
(4-3)
(4-4)
The coupling between the electric and magnetic field quantities, generally provided
under time-varying conditions by the terms aB/at and aD/at appearing in (3-77)
and (3-59), is seen to be missing in these pairs of equations. The sources of electrostatic
fields are, from the divergence expression (4-1), static charges of density Pv' Magnetostatic
fields, on the other hand, have static (direct) currents for sources, as noted in (4-4). In
the present chapter, solutions of the electrostatic field equations (4-1) and (4-2) are
considered from several points of view, whereas a detailed discussion of magneto statics
by use of (4-3) and (4-4) is deferred until Chapter 5. The differential equations of
electrostatics are, together with their integral forms and boundary conditions, given
TABLE 41 Maxwell's Equations of Electrostatics
DIFFERENTIAL FORM
V- D = Pv [4-1]
v x E = 0 [4-2]
INTEGRAL FORM
~ D . ds = q (4-5)
1: E - dt =O (4-6)
~
BOUNDARY CONDITION
Etl Et2 = 0 (4-3)
in Table 4-1. For a linear, homogeneous, and isotropic material, moreover, (3-30c) is
applicable
D=EE (4-9)
42 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS OF FIXED-CHARGE
ENSEMBLES IN FyE SPACE
The Maxwell equations in Table 4-1 apply to fixed charges in free space, as well as
to systems of rlielectrics and conductors into (or onto) which charges have been in-
troduced such that static equilibrium of the charge distribution has been reached.
Examples of the applications of the Gauss law (4-5) are given in Section 1-9. One of
the results, (1-58), is Coulomb's force law
(4-10a)

182 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FlELDS
FIGURE 4-1. Illustrating quantities appearing in Coulomb's [()rcc law,
glvmg the force acting on q m the presence of the field E produced by a second
charge q as shown in Figure 4-1, The symbol R is used instead of the spherical coor-
dinate variable r because the source q is not necessarily located at the origin 0, The
field of q was deduced from Gauss's law in Section 1-9 to be
E = aR--'---;;:-N/C or Vim lOb)
Thus (4-10a) is a special case of the Lorentz [(lITe law (1-52) in the absence of a
magnetic field; that is, F = q'E,
Maxwell's equations (4-1) and are linear equations; therefore, any sum of
their solutions in free space constitutes a solution, Suppose an aggregate of point charge
of arbitrary posi tive or negative strengths is located at fixed points P' as in Figure 4-2,
The total electrostatic field at the field point P is the sum of n terms like (4-lOb)
E 10e)
Moreover, if a charge Ij is placed at P, the [()rce on it, from (1-52), becomes
( 4-10d)
If a system contains a large number of fixed charges, it is undesirable to use a
surnmation like (4-lOc) or (4-10d), It is pre/tTable to replace the charge ensemble
(z)
FIGURE 4-2. Electrostatic fIeld of n discrete charges.
4-2 STATIC ELECTRIC FlELnS OF FIXED-CIIARGE ENSEMBLES IN FREE SPACE 183
with a jime/ion representing the average charge density in every volume-, surface-, or
line-clement of the region. The symbols Pv, p" or Pc have been used to denote these
density functions as discussed in Section 1-9 relative to Figure 1-1]. A continuum of
charges distributed throughout some region with a density Pv thus possesses the charge
dq = Pv dll in every dv element. Generally, Pv is a function of position and time, though
for static Helds, the variable I is missing.
With dq p"dv' located at the source point P' (x',y', the fidd dE at P due
to dq is obta.ined from (4-10h), written
pv(x',y', z')
dE(x,y, <:) = a
R
2 dv'
4nEoR
(4-11 )
The unit vector directed from the source point P' to the field point P to give the
proper direction to dE is denoted by aI{, whereas R is the scalar distance Irom P' to P, as
in Figure 4-3. In rectangnlar coordinates
R= (4-12)
The total static E field at P in Figure 4-3(a) is thus the volume integral of (4-11)
(4-13)
Iflhe static charges are distributed over a surface S or a line l as in Figure 4-3(b) and
(e), the following in1egrals apply
dE (x,Y,z)
Field POint y
P(r) P (x,y,z) }f
P (x,y,z)--.....
. dE
IdE

R
/
/
/ R
Source point
/
P' (r') =
/
P' (x',y',z')
" /
//r
dq =
.\
dq = Psds'
Pv dc'
I I / \
)
P' (x',y', z')
I
_ I / Volume charge
Surface charge
0 ----_________ ---..
(a) (b) (c)
FIGURE 4-3, Geometries rdative to the electrostatic field integrals in terms of volume,
and line charge distributions. (al Volume charge distlibution. (b) Surface charge distribution.
(e) Line charge distribution.
(4-14)
(4-15 )
waf
'fIlII'
184 STATIC AND QUASI.STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
The foregoing integrals are not always readily evaluated for charge distributions in
space, mainly because the unit vector a
R
changes in direction as the source point P
ranges throughout the charge region. In some cases, the symmetry disposes of this
problem, as in the following example.
EXAMPLE 4-1. The linear charge of length 2L, centered in free space about the ongm as
shown, possesses the static uniform charge density Pc C/m. By direct integration of (4-15),
find E at any distance p perpendicularly away from thc ccnter of thc linc charge. Find E
as the line charge becomes infinitely long.
In evaluating (4-15), only the two circular cylindrical coordinates (p, z) are re-
quired here, because of the axial symmetry. Comparison with Figure 4-3 shows that the
position vector r of the field point P (from the origin to P) is r a"p, while that of the
typical source point P' is r' = a.z'. This makes the vector distance R from P' to P becomes
R r - r' app azZ' with magnitude R .Jp2 + (<:,)2. The unit vector aR in (4-15),
directed from P' to P, thus becomes from definition
(4-16)
Then (4-15) yields at P
E
(4-17)
The vector field E at P is thus seen from (4-17) to consist of two components,
E apEp + azE
z
. The axial component azE
z
, given by the second term of (4-17), can
be shown to integrate to zero. However, this integration is not even necessary hel-e, since
an inspection of the symmetry in the diagram shows that canceling dE. components are
produced at P by paired, symmetrically located source-elements on the line charge.
Thus, using only the a
p
term of (4-17) (while integrating over only the range (0, L)
(z)
I
IL
+
+
- ____ R P(p,O)
-----_\ - - ~
- - ~ - - - - - - - - p )
p ..,...---- ~
~ - --;; -- dE=aRdE
+------
p,dz' +
+
-L +
I
I
EXAMPLE 4-1
4-2 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS OF FIXED-CHARGE ENSEMBLES IN FREE SPACE 185
aml doubling the result) yields
L
=a
p 2nEo
(4-18)
If the field point location P were quite close to the finite line charge compared to
its length (p L), then a good approximation to (4-\8) is seen to become
E(p)
PI
a--
I' 2nEop
(4-\9)
It is evident that the latter also applies to the intinitely long line charge case (L -> (f)),
which checks with (1-6\) obtained by use or Gauss's law.
EXAMPLE 42. Consider the same linear charge system of Example 4-\, except move the field
(observation) point to the more general location P(p, z) as shown. Find E at P by direct
integration.
In this case, the vector distance R from P' to P becomes R = r r' = a"p +
ao(Z yielding the unit vector determininf!; the sense of dE at P:
app + az(Z-
J+ ~ - l)z
(1-20)
Then (4-15) obtains
E JL PtdZ'
= - L aR 4nEoR2
Pt [ JL =--- a p
4nEo P -I.
o f!
-L
I
I
EXAMPLE 4-2
186 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
which, with the help of integration tables, provides the result
E(p, z) = 4::
0
(Zz_ L)2 + L)2)
+a
z
I
(4-22)
As the line-charge length is made infinitely long (L -> ex:, it is seen from (4-22) that the
a
z
component ofE vanishes, leaving only the p component.
hm E = a _. + - = a --
. Pr (I I) Pt
00 4nEo P P P p 21tE
o
P
(4-23)
which agrees with (4-16).
EXAMPLE 4-3. Assume the circular disk region, of radius a as shown, to possess a static charge
of uniform surface density P. C/m
2
By direct iutegration, find the field E at any point
P(O, z) on the z-axis.
Use the applicable integral (4-14). The vector distance from P' to P is given by
R = r - r' = -app' + azz. Making use of a
R
= R/R, (4-14) in circular cylindrical co-
ordinates becomes
(I)
wherein note the positive sign of the a
p
component in the bracketed quantity, conforming
to the positive sense of the radial component of dE at the point P (0 +, z) located very close
to the z-axis on the diagram.! The axial symmetry of the charge distribution here provides
only the E
z
component on the z-axis at P, allowing the a
p
component in (1) to be discarded.
p,ds' = p,(p' dp' d.p')
P'(p',.p',O)
EXAMPLE 4-3
'The unit vector of a
p
is not defined on the z-axis; it requires an infinitesimal radial displacement to the
location P(O +, z) as noted. However, this observation is here largely academic, for the symmetry causes
the Ep component to integrate to zero.
4-3 GAUSS'S LAW REVISITED 187
Thus, E at P becomes
(2)
= a I Ps l
z 2Eo
(4-24)
As the disk radius a is made infinitely large, the result (4-24) should agree with the field
(1-62) obtained by use of Gauss's law. With a -> CfJ substituted into (4-24), one obtains,
as expected,
E = a!!!- (infinite charged plane)
z 2Eo
(4-25)
Note in the foregoing problem that instead of writing (I) for the totallleld dE, one
might instead have discarded the Ep component initially (based on the symmetry argu-
ment) and then proceeded to write the integral expression lor just the component E
z
at P.
Thus,
f,
P ds' cos IX
E = r dE = r dE cos IX = ~
z Js z Js s 4'1l:EOR2
(4-26)
in whieh IX denotes the angle between dE
z
at P and the total dillerential field aligned with
R there. Putting cos IX = z/R into (4-26) is seen to lead directly to the integral (2) as ob-
tained before.
4-3 GAUSS'S LAW REVISITED
In Section 1-11, it was shown that Gauss's law (I-53) for free space may be used to
obtain the electrostatic field of charge distributions having particular symmetries.
Parallel-plane, concentric-circular-cylindrical, and concentric-spherical charge distri-
butions in free space are particularly amenable to analysis by means of Gauss's law.
If charge distributions are combined with conducting and dieltxtric materials
having shapes that yet preserve the symmetry, then Gauss's law in the form of (3-37)
or (4-5)
91D'ds =q C
[3-37]
is useful fiJI' finding D in the various regions, taking into account the possible polariza-
tion effects in the dielectric regions.
EXAMPLE 44. A pair of long, coaxial, circular conducting cylinders are separated by concen-
tric air and dielectric regions as shown, the inner ring bcing a dielectric with "r =
4(a < P < b). A static chargc q is assumed distributed over each length t of the inner
conductor, with - q on the other conductor. Use Gauss's law to find D and E.
from the symmetry, the D lines between the conductors are radial and independent
of 4>. The field is found by use of a symmetric, closed cylinder S enclosing the inner
conductor as in (c). The procedure may be compared with Examplc I-II (fl. With S
188 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
(a) (b)
Gaussian
surface S
(c)
EXAMPLE 4-4. (a) Showing the dimensions of the coaxial pair. (h) Depicting the
continuity ofD lines. (e) Symmetric closed S for finding the fields.
having a length t and radius p, and the p directed D piercing the peripheral surfacc
SO) Gauss's law becomes
Dp is constant over So) whence
r (a D ) . a ds = q
Jso P P P
q
D =
p 2npt
(4-27)
a result applying to both the dielectric and air regions. Using (4-9), E in the respective
regions becomes
E =--_1:-
p 2n( 4Eo)pt
a<p<b (4-28)
b<p<e (4-29)
With D 0 inside the conductors, the boundary condition (4-7) reduees to
(4-30)
which, applied to (4-27) at p = a and p = (, yields the free charge densities on the COIl-
ductor surfaces
PsJ - = 2 I'
p-a nav
4-4 ELECTROSTATIC SCALAR POTENTIAL
Any electrostatic field E(ul' U
2
, u3) must satisfy the curl relation (4-2), V X E = 0,
which states that any static E field is irrotational, and therefore conservative. In view
of the identity (20) in Table 2-2, that V X (V<])) = 0 for any difIerentiabl.e scalar
function, (4-2) means that E is derivable from an auxiliary scalar function <])(Ul' U2, U3)
4-4 ELECTROSTATIC SCALAR POTENTIAL 189
by means of the gradient relation
E = -V<I> Vim (4-31 )
The nature of the function <I> having this correspondence to some E field is not evident
from (4-31), but it is clarified by two related methods described in the following. The
first obtains the potential <I> from the known charge distribution of density Pv, and
once <I> has been found, the E field is obtained using (4-31). The second method
presumes E known at the outset of the problem; <I> is found from an appropriate line
integral of E over a path beginning at a designated potential reference.
A. Potential \$ Obtained from a Known
Charge Density in Free Space
The relation of the electrostatic E to its charge sources injree space is (4-13)
1
pv(x',y', z') ,
E(x,y,z) = aR----2--dv Vim
v 4nEoR
[4-I3J
A dependence on the variables z') is evident in this integral because,

by (4-12), R x') + (y . One can show by direct expansion
that
= -
( 4-32)
assuming that V is defined in terms of derivatives with respect to the field point vari-
ables z) as follows
(4-33)
This permits writing (4-13)
E(x,y, z) (4-34)
in which an interchange between the integration and the gradient operations is per-
missible because the only quantity affected by V is R, while the integration is to be
carried out with respect to the source point variables (x' ,y', . Comparing (4-34) with
(4-31) shows that the integral in (4-34) is the desired scalar function <1>; hence
<I>(x,y, z)
'-'--'--"--_-'.. dv' V
(4-35a)
<I> is called the scalar potential field of the static E field.
190 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
It is further evident that if the charge density in (4-35a) takes the form of a
surface or line charge density Ps or Ph then the integral becomes
(
' , ')
"'( ) _ f Ps X,], Z dJ
"I' X,], Z - s-4--R - j
1[E
o
<I>(x,], z)
B. Potential (J) Obtained from a Line Integral of E
(4-35b)
(4-35c)
The potential field <D of a static charge distrihution in space can be expressed in
terms of a line integral of E. To show this, observe that (4-2) has the corresponding
integral form (1-6)
E dt = 0 [4-6J
true ft)r all closed lines t in space. Physically, (4-6) states that the work done on a test
charge q, in moving it around any closed path t in the presence of a static field E, is
precisely zero. This is equivalent to saying that the work done on q in moving it
between two fixed points 1\ and P
2
in the field is independent of the shape of the open
path connecting the points. This is evident if two dilkrent paths tl and t2 are used
to connect PI and P 2' If the closed contour t of IS taken to be tl + t
2
, then
(4-6) yields
(4-36)
correct fix aU paths connecting PI to P2'
The property (1-36) makes it possible to derive a single-valued potential field
equivalent to (4-31) as follows. Suppose Po(u?, ug, ug) is fixed ill space, called the
jlOtentiat and defined such that <I> <1>0 there. The line integral ofE, over any
path t connecting P () and any arbitrary P( u b u
2
, as in Figure 4-1, is written in the
fbrms, making use of I),
5,
p 5,P. 5,1' (3<1> 3<1> 3<1
E dt = - (V<I dt = - -- dx + - d] + - dz
Po Po Po ax oz
From 11), the integrand of the right side denotes the total difrerential d<l>, whence
(1' E. dt
Jpo
- (P d<l>
Jpo
the latter of which can be integrated to yield
(1-37)
Thus, the line integral of the static E field over any path connecting two points in
space is just the difference of the potentials at those points. For most purposes.it is
desirable to call <1>0 = 0 at the potential reference; then (4-37) becomes
<I>(P) = - (p(U\,U
2
,U3) E . dt V

(4-38a)
./
/'
./
./
,/
/'
,/
/
/
/
p (X,y,z)
--
---
1-1 ELECTROSTATIC SCALAR POTENTIAL 191
---
FIGURE 4-4, Development of the <l! field from the E
field,
This potential field <1>(P) can be made to agree exactly with results obtained from (4-35),
ifone observes that (4-35) provides a zero potential at an infinite distance from a charge
distribution grouped within a finite distance from the origin, Thns, with the reference
Po at infjnity (4-38a) provides the absolute potential
<1>(1') = - ~ E dl V (4-38b)
yielding the same results as (4-35), Sometimes, as in problems of academic interest
involving charges that extend to infinity (e.g" the uniform line charge of infinite extent),
the integrals and (4-38b) yield infinite potentials. (The integrals then do not
exist.) In such cases, one should make use of (4-38a), using a zero reference value at a
finite distance from the origin.
Surfaces defined by setting <D(P) to any constant value are called equipotential
surfaces, Such surfaces are often of interest in static field problems because, from the
gradient rdation (4-31), the dectrostatic field lines intersect the equipotential surfaces
normally. This property is a useful one in some field-mapping problems considered later
in this chapter. Gauss's law assumes that electric fleld lines are directed away from
positive charges and toward negative charges; thus, from (4-38), the potential <I>
becomes more positive as one approaches positive charges; the opposite is true lor
negative charges.
EXAMPLE 45. (a) Employ the charge integral to determine first the potential <l> at
the field point P(p, 0) of the line charge offinitc length '2L centered on the z-axis, shown
in Example 4-1. From the result, determine Eat P by use of (4-31). (b) Verify that the
same potential result <1> as {()Hnd in part (a) is obtained by use of the line integral
(4-33b),
192 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
(a) In (4-35c), only the scalar distance R from the source-point P'(O, z') on the line
charge to the fixed observation point pep, 0) is needed; this is R .) p2 + ;,)2. Then
from (4-35c), the potential <1J at P becomes
<1J fL dz' fL P? dz'
(p, 0) = -L 47CEoR = -L-----;=O;=====:;c
= tn(z' + #+'-iZ')2j]L
47CE
o
L
Pr .)p2+L2+L
= --t n -'-7=======-----
47CE
o
- L
(I)
which may also be written
Pc L + .)p2 +IJ
<1J(p,O) = -. - tn ---------- [volt]
27CE
o
p
(2)
in view of the identity
.) p2 + L
2
+ L + L
tn ==2tn------ (3)
-L
p
Then E at pep, 0) is found by inserting (2) into the gradient relation (4-31).
E(p, 0) -V<1J
o<1J
-a --
pap
(4)
the desired result.
(b) The potential field (2) can also be obtained by inserting the known E field (4) into
the line integral (4-38b) and integrating the latter from the potential reference to
the desired field point. The integration path chosen, between the zero potential
reference at infinity and the field point pep, 0), is completely arbitrary for this con-
servative E field; but since the available E field expression (4) is limited to the Z = 0
plane, the integration path must be restrictcd to this plane. Thus, with dt = a
p
dp
OIl the radial path from Cf) to p in the z 0 plane,
<1J(p, 0) = ~ E dt =
= - PeL fP --;::=;===;c
27CE
o
00
27CE
o
tn-'-"------
p
(5)
which agrees with the result (2) as expected.
4-4 ELECTROSTATIC SCALAR POTENTIAL 193
(z) --< , ' ' ' "
--' "\"P{ elm (fO)
(a) (b)
EXAMPLE 4-6. (a) Geometry ofinfmite line charge. (b) Equipotential surfaces.
EXAMPLE 46. Find the electrostatic potential at any field point located a normal distance p
ii"om an infmitc line charge in free space having the constant density Pc elm as shown.
Assume the zero potential reference at the position Po(Po, 1>0, Sketch a few equipo-
tential surfaces.
The potential (lJ at any location P rdative to a fixed reference Po is (4-38a). The
field [rom Example 4-1 was f(lUnd to be E = appt/2nEoP. Inserting this into (4-38a) and
integrating over any path connecting Po to P as in (a) obtains
(lJ(P)
f,
p [ PI J - . a -._- . (a dp + a p d1> + a
z
Po p 2nEoP P 4>
yielding the result independent of (I> and z
(4-39)
1 t is evident that pntting the zero potential reference at infinity in this result (Po --> C1J)
is not desirable, for (lJ(P) then becomes infinite; a finitely located reference position is
necessary. Equipotential surfaces are obtained by setting (lJ(P) of (4-39) equal to the
constant values (lJl) (lJ2' (lJ3, .. ; yielding P Pi' P2) P3' ... ) the circular cylindrical
sur/aces shown in (b).
EXAMPLE 4-7. (a) Find the absolute potential of a point charge q located at the origin r = 0
ill Figure , making usc of the field (4-]Ob). Describe its equipotential surfaces.
(b) Show that the potential lield can also be obtained directly from the volume integral
(4-35a) applied to concentrated charge q. Determine the potential at P if q is located
at a general source point P' as in Figure 4-5( b).
(11) The E field in Figure 4-5(a) is (4-1 Ob). Integrating E ovcr any path between Po(to)
and the arbitrary P(1") yields, from (4-38a)
(4-40a)
194 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
Direction of q
integration ! E = ar
Potential tr-Y"
reference \ '
Po \
\ \
\ \
rol P(Fieldpoint)
\ \ <I> (r)
\ r
\

(a)
-20V
(e)
Field
./'E
X\ PP xx"Y, z)
R ;/
/
// <I>(R)
q "/
/ X p '(' , ')
r'/ / x ,y ,Z
I /r
//
//
(b)
50V
(d)
FIGURE 4-5. Point charge q: geometry and equipotential plots. (a) Geometry ofa point
charge at 0, showing t over which E is integrated to find tl>(P) relative t.o Po. (b) Geometry
of a point charge located at P'(r'). P is the field point at which tl> is obtained. (e) Equi-
potential surfaces of point charge, potential reference at '0 assumed. (d) Equipotelltial
surfaces of point charge: potential reference at infinity.
<D(r) has its zero reference on the surface r = ro, yielding equipotential spheres as in
Figure 4-5((;). The absolute potential is found from (4-40a) by putting the zero potential
surface at infinity (1'0 -+ (0), whence
q
<D(r) =
4nEor
The latter is plotted in Figure 4-5(d).
(4-40b)
(b) The absolute potential ofa static charge can also be found from the volume integral
(4-35a). Here the point charge is concentrated at P', so let Po dv -+ q and no
integration is required. Then (4-35a) becomes
<D(x,y, z) (4-40c)
a result applicable to the geometry of Figure 4-5 (b).
4-4 ELECTROSTATIC SCALAR POTENTIAL 195
The result (4'-40c) is useful for constructing the absolute potential of an aggregate
of n charges in free space like that of Figure 4-2, yielding the sum of the potential
contributions of each charge
<1>(P)
f _q_k -V Ab I . I
L" - so ute potentIa
k=1
4nE
oRk
(4-41 )
The absolute potential of the most general configurations of static charges in free
space is one accounting for discrete charges plus line, surface, and volume charge
density distributions, the sum of (4-35a), (4-35b), and (4-41)
(4-42)
EXAMPLE 48. Find the static potential, and hom this, the E field of the fixed dipole charges
(x)
(q, q) located at the positions (d/2, on the z-axis as in (a). Express the answer
in spherical coordinates, assuming r d.
The absolute potential at P is given by (4-41), if n = 2
<l>(P)
Assuming r d, one can approximate R
J
R
2
r2 and R
z
- R
J
d cos 0, as noted from
(a). Then <l>(P) reduces to
qd cos 8

4nEor2
dr (4-43)
Note that <l>(P) of a static dipole is an inverse r2 function (lor r d), as contrasted with
the inverse r potential (4-40b) of a single static charge.
P (field pOint)
(z)
Rl
(J // R2
r

(y)
(a) (b)
EXAMPLE 4-3. (a) Geometry of the static charge dipole. (b) E field plot of the static
charge di pole.
196 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
One obtains E trom (4-31) in spherical coordinates
E=
[
8<l> 8<l> 8<l> J
V<l> = - a
r
+ ao -.- + a,p ----
ar 80 r sin 0 81>
(4-44)
an mverse r3 function with both rand 0 directed components. T ts flux plot is shown
in (b).
4-5 CAPACITANCE
Of considerable practical use in electrical circuits is the capacitor, commonly used to
store or release electric field energy. Basically, a capacitor consists of two conductors
separated by free space or suitable dielectric materials of arbitrary permittivities. Its
form is generalized in Figure 4-6(a). A capacitor with the charges q and -q can be
brought to this charge state by means of a source of electric charge such as the battery
shown, although it is perhaps more common to connect it to a source of sinus0idal
or pulsed voltages. In this event, the charges become functions of time, q(t) and - q(t).
The viewpoint of the present discussion is that if the time variations are sufficiently
slow, a static field analysis of the system will provide results of sufficient accuracy to
serve the purposes of many time-varying applications of practical interest.
A capacitor, brought to the charge state of 4-6, has the properties
1. The free charges q and - q reside entirely on the conductor surfaces, accounting
for a charge density Ps on each such that on their surfac.es Sl and S2 reside the
charges
q= f p,ds
s,
-q r p, ds
J
S2
(4-45)
2. From the boundary com:li tion (4- 7), the E field originates normally from the
positively charged conductor and terminates normally the negative one, with
the total D flux equaling q (Gauss's law).
C)
+q
+ \":>-' +
"
+
+ 1 +
+
+
(+ +
~ O f ~ --q
-=-v ~ 2
~ --
I -
1-_
L __________ ..J
(a)
'"
\
(b)
\
\
(e)
FIGURE 4-6. The two-conductor capacitor. (a) Generalized two-conductor capacitor.
(0) Electric field about (a). (c) Variation of (b): one conductor surrounds the other.
4-5 CAPACITANCE 197
3. A consequence of the perpendicularity orE at the conductor surfaces is that they
are equipotential lurJclees (<1> <1>1 and <1> = <1>z). Thus a single-valued potential
difference <1> 1 - <1>2 = V exists bctween the conductors, obtainable from (4-38b)
as follows:
v = <1>1 - <1>2 = [ - S ~ l E . dtJ - [
S
P2 ]
00 E dt = (4-46)
in which 1\ and P
2
can he located anywhere on the respective conductors, and
the latter integral is over any path connecting PI and Pz. To make V positive,
the potential reference P 2 (the lower limit) is assumed on the negative conductor.
If a linear dielectric medium is used in a capacitor, the effect of doubling the
charges q and q on the conductors results in a doubling of the E field everywhere.
From (4-46), then, the potential difference is also doubled. Thus in a linear capacitor,
V is proportional to the charge q so that q oc V, or equivalently,
q = CV (4-47)
The proportionality constant C, having the units coulomb per volt or farad, is called
the capacitance of the two-conductor system. It is positive whenever an increase in V
(the potential of the positive conductor relative to the negative one) results in an in-
crease in the charge q on the positive conductor (accompanied hy a negative increase
of q on the other conductor). For a passive element, C is always positive, its value
depending on physical dimension and the dielectric properties of the system.
An expression useful for evaluating C is obtained from substituting (4-46) into
(4-47)
C
q
V
- - - - - - - ~ - F
- r
p
, E dt
Jp2
(4-48)
EXAMPLE 49. Determine the capacitance of a coaxial conductor pair of length t with
the dimensions shown in (a) of the accompanying figure. Assume that a dielectric of
permittivity E separates the conductors. Avoid the effects offield-fringing in (b) by assum-
ing that the system of length t is part of the infinite system in (c).
To find the capacitance of a length t, assume the conductors charged, for every
length t, with + q and - q C on the inner and outer surfaces. The D field is found using
Gauss's law as in Example 4-4, yielding the E field
E = a q
p 2nEpt
(4-49)
The potential difference V between a reference P2 on the negative condnctor and PIon
the positive condnctor is
v (4-50)
198 STATIC AND QUASl-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
(a)

:JJ [[t-'-'-'-'+ -'--'-'--'---'----'--1--.I...----'-I]J]]

(c)
EXAMPLE 4-9. (a) Circular cylindrical coaxial capacitor and dc sourcc. (b) Fringing of
electric field at ends of finite length system. (e) Showing field independent of 1> and z in a
section of an infinite system.
Thus, thc capacitance of a length t, neglecting end effects, is ohtaincd ti'Oll1 (4-48)
c
q
V
2nd
--'--=--F
q b b
til- to1l-
2nEt a a
I)
Note that thc rcsult is independcnt of 1(, as of a linear Hence C is a
function only of the dimensions and E. If {l rnm, b = 6 mm, and E = Eo (air dielectric),
Cjt becomes 31 x 10 ..
12
F/m (or 31 pF/m). Using a dielectric with E = 4Eo yields it result
!(JUr times as large.
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 4-7. Common two-conductor capacitance devices. (a) A parallel-plate capacitor.
Fringing effects are neglected. (b) A spherical capacitor.
1-6 ENERGY OF THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD 199
By the techniques of the last example, one can show that the capacitance of the
parallel-plate system of Figure , neglecting field-fringing, is
c ( 4-52)
whereas that of the concentric spheres in (b) IS
4nE
C --F
1 1
(4-53)
a b
46 ENERGY OF THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD
The concept of stored energy in the electrostatic field has important physical
interpretations and applications. As in mechanics, many problems ofelectrostatics can
often be simplified if an energy viewpoint is adopted. Although generally systems of
electric charges possess both potential and kinetic energies due to their positions and
motional states, in the electrostatic case only the charge positions determining the
potential energy of the system need be of concern.
To establish the n charge aggregate of Figure 4-2, mechanical work must be
done by some external agent in bringing the charges to their final positions. Whenever
two q 17' are brought within a distance R of each other, work is done
against the Coulomb fixer lOa) in consummating this process. Once the charges
are in place, the persistence of the Coulomb t(HTe makes the stored energy potentially
available whenever demanded. The discharge of a capacitor bank through a resistor
exem plifies this reverse process.
The electrostatic energy stored in a system of discrete, or point, charges is found
by building up the assemblage one charge at a time until all are in their intended
locations. It is assumed that if they are moved slowly enough that their kinetic energies
may be ignored and effects, significant if rapid charge accelerations
occur, can be neglected. Assume initially that all n charges, Ql' Q2' Q3.' ... , are located
at infinity in their zero potential state. On bringing only Ql from infinity to its final
location f\, no work is done because only ql is present; at least two charges are
required if Conlomb forces are to exist.
2
On next bringing Q2 limn infinity to P
z
as in Figure 4-8, the work done against
the field of fI 1 is U 2 = q in which denotes the electrostatic potential at P 2 and
due to (11. Thus one obtains, using the absolute potential expression (4-40c),
(4-54a)
(4-54b)
in which an interchange of fli and fl2 is seen to yield equivalent work expressions.
2The selFenerf!..Y of each discrete charge, that is, the energy required to create each diminutive electron
cloud, is Ileglected in this development.
200 STATIC AND QUASI.STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS

P2 ,_ .
I q2 (Brought in from =)
I
/
I
I
I
/R12
PI /
""'\5 ql (Fixed)
(a)
q3 (Brought
in from 00)
(b)
FIGURE 4-8. Two steps in the construction of an n charge aggregate. (a) From infinity q2
is brought in in the presence of Q1' (b) From infinity q3 is brought in in the presence of ql
and Q2'
Again, if a third charge 13 is brought in to P3 as in Figure 4-3(b), the work
done against the fields of q1 and q2 is expressible two ways
q3 R + 13
4nEo 13 4nEoR23
(4-SSa)
= + (4-SSb)
and so all, for Q4, q5, ... , qu
Continuing the preceding development shows that the total energy, U
e
V 1 + V 2 + ... + Vn, can be written two ways
1. On adding (4-S4a), (4-SSa), etc.,
U
e
= + + + q4<1>:t) + + q4<1>ZJ + ...
+ + + ... +
2. Adding (4-S4b), (4-SSb), etc. yields
Ve = + + + + + + ...
+ q1<1>\n
1
+ q2<1>1f1 + ... + 1
which can be regrouped
Ve = q1 (<1>\2) + + ... + <1>\") + + + ... + <1>1f1)
+ q3 + + ... + + ... + qn - 1 1
Adding (4-S6) and (4-S7) and dividing by two obtains
(4-S6)
(4-S 7)
U
e
= Hql + <1>\3) + + ... + <1>\"1] + + <I>\i) + <1>\4) + ... + <l>1f)J
+ + + + ... + + ...
+ q [<1>(1) + <1>(2) + <1>(3) + ... + <1>(n 1)]}
n n n n n
4-6 ENERGY OF THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD 201
The meaning of each bracketed sum in the latter is now assessed. In the first term,
the sum [<1>\2) + <1>\3) + ... + abbreviated <1>1, is the total potential of P1 (position
of q d due to all the charges except q1 itself. Thus the bracketed factors signify the
potential at the location of the typical charge qk> a potential due to all the charges
except qk' Denoting the bracketed factors by <1\, <1>2, ... ,<1>,. respectively, the desired
result becomes U
e
= m [q1<1> 1 + q2<1>2 + ... + qn<1>nL or
/
n
Ue =! L qk<1>d
k= 1
(4-58a)
in which
qk is the charge of the typical (kth) particle
<1>k is at Pk> the absolute potential due to all the charges except the kth
If the assemblage of charges is not discrete, but rather a continuum of density
Pv distributed throughout some volume region V, then (4-58a) becomes an integral on
replacing qk with dq = Pvdv, obtaining
(4-58b)
wherein <1> is the absolute potential at the position of Pv- For charge continua com-
prised ofswlace or line distributions as discussed in Sections 4-2 and 4-5, the following
expressions are used in lieu of the preceding ones.
( 4-58c)
( 4-58d)
In computing U
e
i-om one or a combinatioll of these four expressions, only the charge
distributions and the potentials at the charge locations need to be known.
The energy integrals (4-58), expressed in terms of the potential distribution <1>
accompanying static charge distributions in space, can also be written in terms of only
the D and E fields that occupy the whole of space. The result becomes
(4-58e)
ull
II,
202 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
To prove the latter, suppose that surface charges of density Ps exist on the closed con-
ducting surface S, where S may consist of n individual conductors such that S = S1 +
S2 + ... + Sn, with the additional possibility of a volume charge density Pv occupying
the region V enclosed by S.3 The two-conductor capacitor of Figure 4-6(b) or (c)
represents such a system. The electrostatic energy of the system is the sum of (4-58b)
and (4-58c)
(4-59)
in which S denotes the simply connected closed surface of the charged conductors,
and V is the region between the conductors. Using the boundary condition (3-45) but
with the unit vector n directed away from the volume V so that Ps = -n' D, (4-59)
becomes
U
e
= -! (<J>D) nds +! Iv p/Pdv
Iv V (<J>D) dv + ! Iv pv<J> dll (4-60)
in which the transformation of the dosed-surface integral to the volume integral
4
is
accomplished by use of the divergence theorem (2-34). The use of the vector iden-
tity (15) of Table 2-2, V- (fG) =IV'G+G-Vf, yields
Iv D (V<J dll - ! Iv <J>V - D dv + 1 Iv p,,<J> dll
Since Pv = V - D, the last two integrals cancel, and with V<D = - E into the first integral,
one obtains the desired result (4-58e)
(4-6la)
an energy expression valid whether or not V contains a charge density PV' Thus,
(4-61 a) provides an alternative for finding the potential energy of a static charge
system, that is, in terms of only the fields D and E in the volume region appropriate
to the given system.
The integrand of (4-61a), D - E/2, having the units joules per cubic meter, is
called the electrostatic energy densiry at the point in the volume region. In an isotropic
dielectric region, the permittivity E is a scalar, yielding the energy density EE2/2,
whence (4-61 a) becomes
(4-6Ib)
3 As, for example, a volume density offree charges embedded in the dielectric region between the conductors,
or a volume space charge density between the conductive electrodes of a vacuum diode.
4J[ one conductor does not enclose the other, as in the capacitor shown in Figure 4-6(b), the dielectric
volume region V extends to infinity. The surface S enclosing V must then include a sphere at infinity, hut
because of the manner in which the <I> and D fields vanish at remote distances, it develops that the surface
integral contribution over this sphere is zero.
4-6 ENERGY OF THE ELECTROSTATlC FIELD 203
EXAMPLE 410. Find the energy stored in the electric field of the coaxial line of
Example 4-9, making use of (4-58e).
In a coaxial line, D and E were found in Example 4-4 to be
D=a
p 2npt
E=a -q-
p 2nEpt
These substituted into (4-58e) and integrated throughout the volume of the dielectric
yield

(4-62)
A useful application of the energy integral (4-58c) is to the capacitor of Figure 4-6.
The fact that the two conductors, carrying q and q, are at the equipotentials <1> = <1>1
and <1> = <1>2 permits simplifying (4-58c) as follows
in which the surface integrals, from (4-45), denote q and -q on the conductors. Thus
( 4-63a)
wherein V for <1>1 - <1>2 has been substituted from (4-46). Putting (4-47) into (4-63a) yields
alternatively
(4-63b)
(4-63c)
which show that the stored electric field energy is proportional to the square of either
Vor q.
The equivalence of (4-63) to (4-61) enables finding the capacitance of a two-
conductor device in terms of energy. Thus, solving for C in (4-63b) or (4-63c) and
substituting for U
e
with (4-6Ia) yields the equivalent results
(4-64a)
(4-64b)
EXAMPLE 411. Determine C of the coaxial capacitor of Example 4-9 trom its stored energy.
From Example 4-10, the energy of the coaxial pair of length t is
U =t
e 4nE
b
tJ't
a
204 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
This is in terms of q, so putting it into (4-64b) yields
which agrees with Example 4-9.
47 POISSON'S AND LAPLACE'S EQUATIONS
In the previous sections, the solutions of electrostatic field problems were obtained by
the methods
1. Integrating (4-13) throughout the given static charge distribution in free space
to find E.
2. Integrating Gauss's law (4-5) with respect to certain symmetric charge and
dielectric configurations to find D, and thus E.
3. Integrating (4-35) throughout a static charge distribution in free space to find
the potential <D, from which E is f(lUnd using - V<D. Conversely, in problems fiJI'
which E is known, the potential <D can be obtained from (4-38), the line integral
ofE.
All three methods have the disadvantage orrequiring a specification of the charge
distribution producing the electrostatic field. An approach that removes this
req uirement by treating problems of electrostatics as boundary-value problems is considered
in the following.
A boundary-value problem of electrostatics is concerned with flnding field
solutions of Maxwell's divergence and curl relations, (4-1) and (4-2), that also
the boundary conditions of the problem. To this end, working with the divergence
and curl relations directly requires manipulations of the components ofE or D, which
proves to be more cumbersome than necessary. A restatement of the problem in terms
of the scalar potential field <D is seen to be desirable.
A partial differential equation in terms of the potential <l>(Ul' 112, U3) can be
derived by combining the Maxwell relations I) and (4-2). With DEE, (4-1) is
written
V' (EE)
Pv
(4-65)
and E is conservative so that (431) applies; thus (4-65) becomes
Pv
(4-66)
a partial differential equation known as Poisson's equation. In this form it is correct
even though the dielectric region is inhomogeneous (E a function of position). If E is
a constant, (4-66) takes the more usual form: V' V<l> = pJE or with the notation
V . V<l> V
2
<D of (2-79)
Pv
E
( 4-67)
4-7 POISSON'S AND LAPLAOE'S EQUATIONS 205
Sometimes V
2
<1> is called the Laplacian oj <1>, expansions of which arc given by (2-77),
(2-80), and (2-81) in the common coordinate systems.
If no free charge exists in the region (Pv 0), the generalized Poisson equation
(4-66) reduces to V . (EV<I = 0, known as Laplace's equation, applicable to dielectric
regions that may be inhomogeneous. For a region with a constant E, therefore
(4-68)
~
The common form of Laplace's equation (4-68), together with the particular space
boundary conditions that <I> is required to satisfy, constitute a boundary-value problem
in a charge-fi'ee region.
EXAMPLE 412. A pair of long, coaxial, circular conductors is statically charged with
its inner conductor at the potential <l> = V relative to the outer conductor, assumed at
zero potentiaL The intervening region is a homogeneous dielectric with a permittivity E.
Solve Laplace's equation, subject to the boundary conditions, for the potential anywhere
between the conductors. Obtain also E in the dielectric, q on the conductors, and the
capacitance (of a length t) of the system.
From symmetry, the fields are independent of l/i and z, assuming fringing effects
are nq:;lected. Then Laplace's equation (4-68), by use of (2-80), reduces to the ordinary
ditl'erential equation
(4-69)
Integrating once obtains p a<l>jap = C
1
, and a second integration yields the solution
(I)
The boundary conditions are applied to evaluate C
1
and C
2
. At () = b, <l> = 0 so that (I)
yields 0 C
1
tn b + C
2
, to permit expressing C
2
in terms of (;1 as C
2
= -C
1
tn b.
Substituting this back into (1) yields
<f!=O
EXAMPLE 4-12
<l>(p) (2)
206 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
The second boundary condition, <1l(a)
whence (2) becomes
V, applied to (2) produces G\ = - Vltn (bla),
V b
<1l(p) = -tn
b P
tn-
(4-70)
a
the desired solution for <1l anywhere between the conductors, written in terms of V. As a
check, note that setting p a and p b yields, respectively, the boundary values <1l V
and <1l = O.
One finds E from (4-70) by llse of (4-31). The expansion of (2-14b) yields
E
D<1l
-a -
PDp
a
V 1
P b P
tn-
a
(4-71 )
To find the total charge on either conductor, the charge density Ps is required, ob-
tained from the boundary condition (4-30). At the inner surface {I = a
EV
(Is = Dn = Dp],,=a = EEp]p=a = --b-
obtaining the charge in a length t
q = ps(2nai')
2nEtV
b
tn-
a
The definition (4-47) of capacitance thus yields
q 2nd'
c=-=--
V b
t?<l
a
which checks with (4-51) in Example 4-9.
a tn
a
(4-72)
( 4-73)
(3)
Although this example does not exhibit a great economy of effort when compared
with the previous methods used to solve this one-dimensional problem, the chief merit
of boundary-value methods for solving electrostatic field problems lies in their appli-
cability to two- and three-dimensional systems lacking useful symmetries and not
possessing known charge distributions. The latter is taken up in Section 4-9.
*4-8 UNIQUENESS OF ELECTROSTATIC
FIELD SOlUTIONS
I t is of importance to know, once one has obtained (by whatever means) a solution
to an electrostatic field problem that it is the only solution possible; that is, it is a unique
solution. The mathematical model furnished by potential theory would be oflittle use
if it furnished several solutions to a given problem, among which the correct solution
4-8 UNIQUENESS OF ELECTROSTATIC FIELD SOLUTIONS 207
of the physical problem might have to be verified by experiment or in some other
manner.
1 t can be shown that potential solutions of the f()llowing classes of boundary-
value problems are unique solutions.
1. The Dirichlet Problem. A poten tial solution <1>( U1, U2,
unique if \$ satisfies a specified boundary condition
of Laplaee's equation is
(4-74 )
on the boundary S of the region.
2. The Neumann Problem. A potential solution \$(Ul' U2, U3) of Laplace's equation is
unique within a constant value if the normal derivative of \$ satisfies a specified
boundary condition
o(D O<1>J
Dn = a;; s
(4-75)
on the closed boundary 8' of the region.
3. The Mixed Boundary- Value Problem. A potential solution of Laplace's equation is
unique if it satisfies (4-74) on a part of S, and (4-75) on the remainder.
A proof of (I) is established by supposing that there are two solutions, <1> and \$',
each of which satisfies Laplace's equation (V2\$ = 0 and V
2
\$' 0) everywhere within
the volume V bounded by the dosed surbce S shown in Figure 4-9(a), and both of
which satisfy the same boundary condition <1>" as f()lIows.
( 4-76)
specified boundary conditioll (D
s
(u
1
, U2, U3) is, in general, it fUllction of
posi tion on S. For some problems, S' may consist of several (n) conductors as suggested
(a) (b)
ds =
n ds
FIGURE 4-9. Closed surface configuratiuns relative to boundary-value problems of electro-
statics. (a) Volume region V bounded by closed surface S on which the boundary condition
is specified. (b) Variation ()f (a): V bounded by " I interior surfaces and exterior surface
S,. A special case occurs if S, Soo.
208 STATIC AND QUASI-STATlC ELECTRIC FIELDS
by Figure 4-9(b), in which the boundary condition (4-76) is a sequence of potentials
<Ilsl' <Il
s2
,"" <IlsP on the respective surfaces S1, S2,"" Sn. From (4-76), the differ-
ence of the two identical boundary conditions is zero, that is
<Il <Il' 0 on S (4-77)
The uniqueness of <Il is established if one can also show that <Il <Il' 0 in V. To this
end, Green's first integral identity (2-91) has the equivalent forms
Iv [JV2g + (Vf) (Vg)] dv = ~ f ( V g ) ds = ~ f ~ ds (4-78)
true for any pair whatsoever of well-behaved functions f and g. It must therefore
hold iff = g, and equally well for f = <Il <p' , the dim:rence of the functions being
examined for uniqueness. With the latter, Green's identity takes the form
<Il') [O<Il
on
- ds
O<DlJ
an
(4-79)
With <Il and <Il' satisfying Laplace's equation, it evidently follows that V2(<Il <Il') 0,
causing the first term of the volume integral of (4-79) to vanish, yielding
Iv [V(<Il
- ds
O<IllJ
on
(4-80)
Because of (4-77), the surface integral of (4-80) is zero, obtaining
Iv [V(<Il- <D')Fdv = 0
The integrand is a squared quantity and is therefore everywhere positive in V, but
the only way a nonnegative function can integrate to zero as indicated is if thc integrand
is zero everywhere in V; thus V(<Il - <Il') = O. A zero gradient means <Il <Il' cannot
change with respect to any direction in V, making
<Il <Il' constant in V (4-81)
but even the value of this constant is zero in the Dirichlet problem, in view of the
boundary condition (4-77). Thus <Il = <Il', establishing the uniqueness of <Il in the
Dirichlet problem. This makes the E field unique as well, for E is obtained by (4-31)
The uniqueness of the solution <Il of the Neumann problem is established in essen-
tially the same fashion, on observing that each solution <Il and <Il' must satisfy the
same boundary condition (4-75), making the factor o<Iljon - D<Il'jDn in the surface
integral of (4-80) equal to zero.
The presence of a homogeneous, insulating dielectric with the permittivity E was
assumed for V in the proof given. The uniqueness of the solutions is still valid even
though an inhomogeneous dielectric is present (E a function of position), as well as
4-9 LAPLACE'S EQUATION AND BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS 209
for a dielectric partitioned into several homogeneous regions with difterent E values.
The prooJ'follows on subdividing V by means of surfaces lying just to either side of the
interfaces, but it is not given here.
5
*49 LAPLACE'S EQUATION AND
BOUNDARYVALUE PROBLEMS
In Example 4-12 of Section 4-7, an instance of the direct integration of Laplace's
equation (4-68b) in one dimension was described. In lhe present section, a method
for extending the procedure to two-dimensional conductor systems
is given. The separation of variables method is used, which, via the assumption of a
product-type solution, permits a conversion of the Laplace equation in two or three
space variables into the same number of ordinary differential equations, solutions of
which are obtained by standard methods. J .aplace's equation has been found separable
by this method in some 11 orthogonal coordinate systems.
6
The present discussion is
confined to the cartesian system.
Consider the solution of Laplace's equation in the two-dimensional cartesian
system. In a charge-free, homogeneous, linear and isotropic region, (4-68) is written,
by use of (2-77)
o ( 1-82)
The separation of variables method begins by assuming a product solution of the form
Q>(x,y) = X(x) 'fly) ( 4-83)
ill which and r(y) respectively denote functions of x and ofy only. Substitution
into yields
X"y+ XY" 0
in which the double primes denote differentiation with respect to x or y, whichever
applies. Dividing by XY
Xfl Y"
-+--=0
X Y
(4-84)
stating that the sum of a function of x only plus a function ofy only eq uals a constant
. This is possible fCJf all values of x and y in an assigned region only if each term
of (4-84) equals a constant. Denoting them by f; and -k; yields
X"
__ = __ k2
X x
Y"
(4-85a)
5 A proof or this extension of the lmlOLH:l1eSS theorem is found in W, R. Smythe, Static and IJ.ynamic Electricity,
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950, p,
6Sce L P. Eisenhart, "Separable systems of Stach:l," Annals oI Math., 35, 1934, p. 284.
210 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
and if (4-84) is to be satisfied, one obtains
(4-85b)
This means k;
(4-85c)
implying that ifone constant (k
x
or ky) is real, the other must be imaginary. Thus (4-85a)
are ordinary differential equations, being functions of one independent variable (x or
y), and so they are written
(4-86a)
(4-86b)
If kx is taken to be real, (4-86a) has exponential solutions expressible in either imaginary
exponential or trigonometric form as follows.
X(x) ( 4-87a)
or
(4-87b)
From (4-85c), real kx requires ky to take on the imaginary values jkx, to make the
solutions of (4-86b) become the real exponential or equivalent hyperbolic forms
7
(4-87 c)
or
Y(y) = ~ cosh kxY + C
4
sinh kxY (4-87d)
Static potential field solutions of physical problems are real solutions, making the real
trigonometric solutions (4-87a) preferable to (4-87b). Moreover, choosing the real
exponential solutions (4-87c) in lieu of their hyperbolic form:'> yields for the product
solution (4-83)
7The hyperbolic functions in (4-87d) are defined as the linear sums of exponential functions
e" + e-
a
cosha=---
2
e
a
_ e-
a
sinha =----
2
( 4-88a)
4-9 LAPLACE'S EQUATION AND BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS 211
in which G\, ... ,(;4 are real constants. If the preceding development had begun with
the assumption in (4-85c) ofa real ky instead ofkx, making kx imaginary in that event,
then (4-88a) would become
(f)(x,y) (4-88b)
The choice of (4-88a) or (4-88b) depends on the boundary conditions of the given
problem. Indeed, almost all boundary conditions of practical interest are such that a
single solution of the form of (4-38) is insufficient to satisfy the potential conditions
at the boundaries; becat.!se Laplace's equation is linear, an infinite sum of solutions like
(4-88), containing differeht but proper values of kx or ky, constitutes a valid representa-
tion of(f)(x,y). It is shown in the following example that the methods of Fourier series
are important in the evaluation of the coefficients of such series representations.
EXAMPLE 413. A two-dimensional, air-filled, infinitely long channel of semi-infinite depth
in the y dimension as shown, is formed of conducting planes on three sides, insulated at
the corners. The bottom plate is at V V relative to the sides at ~ = 0 and x = a. Find the
potential anywhere inside the channel region.
A solution <1>(x,y) of Laplace's equation (4-82)
(1)
is to be found, subject to the boundary conditions
<1>(0,)) = 0 (2)
<1>(a,y) = 0 (3)
<1>(x, OCJ) = 0 (4)
<1> (x, 0) = V (5)
The solution of (1) was shown to be (4-88). In view of the boundary condition (4) at
y -> OCJ, choose the form (4-88a)
(6)
The unknowns C
1
through C
4
and kx are evaluated by use of the boundary conditions.
Applying (2) to (6) yields
to obtain C
1
= O. Then (6) becomes
(7)
Applying the boundary eondition (3) to the latter obtains
211
212 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
4> (x, 0) = V
V I--L------,
o
I
I
I
(y)
OV
a
(b)
Q
2
(a)
(x)
OV
4> = - V
I
I Constant 100 V
'on y= 0 plane
x=a
(d)
o
(x)
1> = V
a (x)
( c)
<Ii (x,y)
EXAMPLE 4-13, (a) Potential well of infinite height. (b) Boundary condition on Iht' physical
half range (0, a). (c) Odd function <D assumed [or the boundary condition over the complete
period (-a, a). (d) Resulting field,
4-9 LAPLACE'S EQUATION AND BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS 213
satisfied only ifsinkxa 0, whence kxa mn, making kx (mn/a) (m= 1,2,3,.,.).
Then (7) becomes
(8)
The third boundary condition (t}) yields
having a zero limit as y --> 00 only if C
3
= 0, since any nonzero C
3
would prodnce an
infinite <I> at the remote boundary,y --> 00, a nonphysical result. 'Tbus (8) becomes
m = 1,2, ... (9)
a function exponentially decreasing iny. An attempt to apply the last boundary condition
to (9) yields
mn
<I>(x, 0) = V = C
2
C
4
sin x
a
an equality impossible to satisfy for all x within the (0, a) x range at they = 0 boundary,
hut since m can assume any positive integer value m = 1,2,3, ... , the linearity of the
differential equation (I) permits forming an infinite sum of solutions like (9) ranging over
all the m integers, that is,
Ii) mn
<I>(x,y) I Ame-(m"la)y sin x
m=l 11
(10)
Equation (10) is a Fourier series (trigonometric series) representation tell' <I>(x,y) with
respect to the variable x. The unknown coefficient Am are to be determined at y = by
applying the boundary condition (5) to the series (10), yielding
aJ mn
<I> (x, 0) = V = I Am sin- x
m=l a
(II)
a Fourier representation of the boundary condition (5). Standard Fourier techniques yield
the unknown coefficients Am. The spatial period of the Fourier representation must first
be defined, however. Note that the boundary condition <I>(x, 0) = V is specified over the
physical x range (0, a) between the channel walls, as in (b) of the accompanying figure.
By defining (0, al as one-half of a total spatiallJeriod (-a, a), the rest of the range
( -a, 0) may be filled in with an arbitrary function <1>, as long as the Fourier expansion
of <I> (x, 0) converges to <I> = 0 V at the endpoints of the physical half-range (0, al as re-
quired by the boundary conditions (2) and (3). The latter is accomplished nicely by as-
suming <I> (x, 0) of (II) to be an odd function defined over the period ( - a, a) as in (c 1 of
the figure. Thus, represent on this interval the potential
<I>(x 0\ = { V
,I -V
O<x<a
-a<x<O
(12)
291
214 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
by the Fourier sine series representation
<D(x, 0)
(() nrrx'
I An sin
n=l
a
(13)
The eodIieients An are found by the standard Fourier procedure of multiplying (13) by
sin in which rn 1, 2, ... , and integrating the result over the orthogonality
interval ( a, a) on x; that is
f
a rnnx
-a <D(x, 0) sin a dx
A sin -- sin dx
f
a rnnx nnx
11 ' (4 a (l
(14)
The right-hand integral of (14) reduces to just the single termS Ana, in view of the orthog-
onality of the trigonometric functions on the interval (-a, a) (i.e., all terms for which
111 * n to zero). The left side or with (12) inserted for <D(x, 0), furthermore
becomes
f
a nnx
<D(x, 0) sin--- dx
-a a
nnx 2 Va
V sin dx = -- (1
a nn
cos nn)
2Va
mt
[1-- (-I )"1 n 1,2, ... (15)
Thus, (14) yields
2V
An = - fl -- (-I)"J (16)
nn
implying that Al 4V/n, A
z
= 0, A3 4V/3n. A4 0, .... Inserting (IG) into (10) thus
obtains the desired Fourier representation of<lJ(x,y).
(J)(x,y)
2 V f _1_- ____ ( ~ l __ e - ("nla)y sin nnx
n n ~ 1 11 a
= 4 V ,-e - (nla)y sin
nx
+ }e - (3n/a)y sin ~ n x + ... J
n L a a
(17)
A sketch of <D(x,y) is depicted by equipotential contours at <D = 25,50, and 75 V in (d).
The corresponding electric field E is jcmnci using (4-31).
8'rhat Sa_a
over the
S111 dx = a for rn = n follows from the orthogonality propnty of the sinc functiollS
n, n):
sin mO sin nO dO = {n,
0,
rn n
rn = n
tn,n = 1,2, ...
Letting 0 = nx/Il, whence dO -= (n/a) dx, the latter integral becomes
f
a mnx unx
sin sin --- dx
-a a a
m n
rn = n
as stated relative to (14).
4-10 FINITE-DIFFERENCE SOLUTION METHODS 215
E(x,y) = - V<D
nnx
I )"]e - (nnla)y cos --
a
rnnx
I )"]e - (nnla)y sin -----
a
The flux orE, orthogonal to the equipotential surfaces, is also depicted in (d).
(18)
To i l l ~ t r t e the use of (17) and (18), suppose V = 100 V and one desires <D(x,y)
at x = a/2, y - a/2 located along the central axis at PI in the figure. The potential, from
(17), is
<I) (11:. 11:.\) = 400 [e -nl2 sin n + .le- 3nl2 sin 32'. + ... J
2'2 n 2 3 2
= 127.3[0.2079 ~ (0.00898) + ... J = 2G.08 V
The E ficld there is [(lUnd using (18), a result seen to depend on t he a dimension. Choosing
a= 1 m,
E(;,D = -axO - a
y
400[O.2079 - .00898 + .00039 - .. J
a
y
79.72 Vim
From (18) it is seen that E is invtrscly depl'lldcnt on a. Decreasing II to I cm thus increases
E by the factor 100 to yield E(a/2, a/'l) = -a
y
7972 V 1m, a consequence of compressing
the eqnipotcntial contours more closely together.
410 FINITEDIFFERENCE SOLUTION METHODS
Because many physical problems of electrostatics may involve boundaries that do not
coincide with tbe coordinate surfaces of standard orthogonal coordinate systems, or
may involve mixed systems, the analytical methods described in the previous sections
may not be very useful ill such applications. A powerful technique {clr solving Laplace's
or Poisson's equation, subject to conditions on boundary surfaces of arbitrary shapes,
makes use or finite-difference approximations.
This method replaces the partial differential equation, correct for the potential
<l> at all points in the region, with expressions for <]) in terms of the average of the po-
tentials at nearby, incrementally distant points, these being located at the finite inter-
sections formed by a grid system laid over the region in question. The grid may be
either two- or three-dimensional. With the potential <]) being given or known at points
lying Oil the region boundaries (usually conductors), the potentials at all grid points
in the region are to be determined.
Consider the Poisson eq ua tion (4-67) in two dimensions, expressed in rectangular
coordinate f()rm.
Pv
E
( 4-89)
216 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
(y)
y
AtP
l
: \$1-1[2+0+ V+O]
4
\ =V (I)=V Gap
<l>(x,y+h)
(t)(x,y)
I "'-I I
----r-i---t (I>(x+h,y)

(!>(x-h,y) I (x,y-h)
I
I
I
QZ?1\vzzFlTil/?/A/
I __ +_
11 2' 3 '4
I ! I
- -+ -
;6 __ =O
oL------'--'-x--L---- (x)
(a) (6)
FIGURE 4-10. (a) Geometry relative to the finite-difference method. (b) Triangu-
lar-trough example of a two-dimensional electrostatic problem, showing a square-
gridded overlay with a labeling of points at which the potentials <Ph <P2' ... , <P6
are to be found.
To permit expressing (4-89) in an equivalent finite-difference form, it is convenient to
use the Taylor's series expansion of <l>(x,y) in the neighborhood of P(x,y), including
terms through only the second derivative. From Figure 4-1 O(a), the Taylor'S expansions
of <l>(x + Llx,y) and <l>(x - Llx,y), expressed in terms of <l>(x,y) , are expressed with
reasonable accuracy by the three-term approximations (with Llx denoted by h for
simplicity, andy held fixed).
. o<l>(x,y} 2 (J2<l>(x,y)
<l>(x + h,y) = <l>(x,y) + h -,,-- + h (J 2 (4-90a)
ox x .
<l>(x - h,y) ;:; <l>(x,y)
(J<l>(x,y) 2 (J2<l>(X,y)
h -'--- + h ----.-
ox (Jx
2
(4-90b)
Adding these obtains an expression for the second x partial derivative in terms of <l>
at neighboring points.
(4-91a)
A similar procedure leads to an approximation for the secondy partial derivative, with
x assumed fixed and letting Llx = Lly = h as in Figure 4-10.
(4-9Ib)
Substituting these results into Poisson's partial differential equation (4-89) yields its
finite-difference equivalent.
<l>(x + h,y) + <l>(x - h,y) + <l>(x,y + h) + <l>(x,y - h) - 4<l>(x,y) ;:;
Pv h
2
(4-9lc)
E
Because of the approximations incurred by the truncation of the Taylor's series (4-90)
to just three terms, it is evident that the accuracy of (4-9lc) is improved by keeping
the interval h = Llx = Lly in Figure 4-10 suitably small.
4-10 FINITE-DIFFERENCE SOLUTION METHODS 217
Uthe region described by (4-91c) is charge-free (p" = 0), then (4-89) becomes
Laplace's equation, and its finite-difference form (4-91 c) reduces, on solving for <1>(x,y) ,
to
<1>(x,y) H<1>(x + Il,y) + <1>(x - h,y) + <I>(x,y + h) + <1>(x,y - h)] (4-91d)
Thus, <1>(x,y) is simply the average of the potentials at the lour points adjacent to P(x,y)
in the x:y plane, as shown in Figure 4-10 (a).
9
The finite-difference solution of an electrostatic boundary-value problem gov-
erned by Laplace's eq uation can be managed by dividing the two-dimensional region
into a square-gridded system defining unknown potentials <1>(x,y) at the grid inter-
sections and inch/ding known potentials <1> = Vb V
2
, .. on different segments of the
boundary, as sug@ested by the example of Figure 4-1 O(b). The interior dielectric region
of that example, encompassed by the indicated conducted boundary, is shown covered
by a grid defining six intersection points at which the unknown potentials <1>1' <1>2' ,
<1>6 are to be found. In general, there are n unknown The potential expres-
sion (4-91d) is written for each potential <1>\, <1>2, . ,<1>n at the n interior grid points,
each being written as the indicated average of the four adjacent potentials (some of
which may be known boundary potentials). Two methods for finding the n unknown
potentials are evident:
1. The n equations are simultaneous linear algebraic equations in n unknowns. If
n is quite large, the inversion of the n x n matrix could become prohibitive, even
if aided by a large computer. For a sufficiently coarse grid (making n reasonably
small), matrix inversion is feasible.
2. The n simultaneous equations can be solved by the process of iteration, consisting
of successively improving the estimate or the potentials at the grid points. This
approach submits readily to computer programming.
Examples of these methods are described in the f()llowing.
EXAMPLE 414. The very long rectangular conducting channd in Problem 4-32
has the dimensions shown, with (a/b) = Assume the conducting cover plate at <I'> = V =
100 V, with the remaining three sides at <I'> = 0 V. The system is divided into the gridded
configuration shown (with a = 4h and b = 3h). Use finite dilTcrcnce methods to find the
potentials, by writing the expression (4-91d) for each interior point. Rearrange and solve
for the unknown potentials.
By inspection of the figure geometry, symmetry requires that <1'>1 = <1'>5 and <1'>2 <1'>6,
yielding only four unknown potentials. Thus, at each interior point labeled I, 2, 3 and
4, (4-91d) is written to obtain
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
9 By an extension of (4-91d), it evident that in a three-dimensional charge-free region, the potential <l>(x, y, z)
becomes simply Ii times the sum of the potentials <l>(x + h, y, z), <l>(x - h. y, z), <l>(x, y + h, z), and so on at the six
face-centers ofa cube with edges 2h surrounding P(x, y, z).
218 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
Small
gap

1>= 100V
I
hi
I ./
I I I

11 3
1
51(1)
I <1)2 1 1>4 I 1>2
6t(2;-
I 1 I
'!J=oj i i
l
r
,
I
(a)
EXAMPLE 4-14
I
41.6

OV
15.5

2
100V
50.9 41.6

3 5 (1)
20.5 15.5

4 6 (2)
(b)
These lineal' equations are rearranged in terms of <1> I through <1>4 as follows
4<1>1 - <1>2 - <1>3
-<1>1 + 4<1>2
and can be put in matrix fi)rm if desired.

-2
o
-1
4
o
-2
-I
o
4
-1
= 100
By determinantal solution or matrix inversion, the potential solutions become
<1>3 = 50.9;
(5)
(6)
These values are labeled in (b) of the figure. They must be regarded as only approximations
of the exact potentials at these points, to the extent that the precision of the three-term
Taylor's approximation (4-90) depends on the grid size It chosen for the grid overlay.
The exact solution for this problem also happens to be available from the Fourier result
(4-164), to provide a convenient comparison. For example, at point 3 of the figure, (4-164)
can be shown to yield the exact potential <1>(a/2, a/2) = 52.462 V. The value <1>3 = 50.9 V
found by the present finite-difference method is about 3'10 lower, not an unreasonable
estimate when cOllsidering the coarseness of the grid used. To reduce the errors, a finer
grid structure must be employed with a resulting increased solution complexity.
EXAMPLE 415. Rework Example 4-14, this time using iteration. Assume, as needed, initial
potentials of 0 V for the unknowns.
Write the average-potential relationships (I) through (4) of Example 4-14 once
again for the potentials at the grid intersections 1, 2, 3, and 4, except substitute the initial
"guess" of 0 V (unless a more recent value has becn obtained). This yields it)r the first
iteration
4-11 IMAGE METHODS 219
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Next, these new potential values (or more rcccnt ones) are substituted back into (1)
through (4), obtaining from this second iteration the improved values
\$1 =1(100 + 6.25 + 37.5) = 35.94
\ \$2 1(35.94+12.5) 12.11
\$3 = 1(2 x 35.94 + 100 + 12.15) = 46.10
\$4=1(2 x 12.11 +46.10) = 17.58
This iteration process is repeated until a reasonable convergence to thc desired values is
obtained. A tabulated of values for five iterations is given here, along with thc values ob-
tained from the matrix solution of Example 4-14 to indicate the actual values toward
which the iterations are converging. Finally, the exact potential values, calculated by use
of the Fourier expansion (4-164) of Problem 4-34, are listed (partly) in the last column.
GRID
<l>k FROM ITERATION:
MATRIX,
NUMBER METHOD EXACT
(k) 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH 5TH (EX. 4-13) (4-164)
I 25 35.94 39.55 40.86 41.28 41.68
2 6.25 12.11 14.28 14.96 15.32 15.53
3 37.5 46.10 49.17 50.17 50.64 50.93 52.462
4 12.5 17.58 18.98 20.02 20.32 20.50 20.788
411 IMAGE METHODS
The method of images about to be described takes advantage ofthe uniqueness property
of potential solutions. It consists of replacing a problem, involving one or more statically
charged conductors, with an equivalent problem of suitably located point or line
charges (so-called image charges) that yield precisely the same electrostatic field as
the original problem. The well-known fields of point or line charges can then be used
to obtain a solution of the original boundary-value problem. The number of charged-
conductor configurations that can be solved in this manner is relatively small, but
included are enough examples of physical importance to make the method worthy of
treatment.
The image method is illustrated by an example in Figure 4-10. Suppose two
point charges, q and -q, are spaced 2d m in free space as in (a) of that figure. The com-
bined potential II> at any position P is given by two terms of (4-41)
lI>(x,y, z) = ; = : : : : : = : ~ ~ = = : : ?
( 4-92)
291
220 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
I(y)
I
["'-1>=0
(a)
I(y)
Equipotential
surface
1> 1>0
(y)
(x)
f--1>=0
(b)
(y)
Point charge
+q
(c) (d)
FIGURE 4-10. Three examples of charged conductor systems, the exact fields of which
are obtained from image system (a). (a) Two electrostatic point charges and their E and
q, fields. (b) Replacing interior of surfaces (q, = (Jlo) with conductors. (e) A variation of
(b). (d) Replacing region to left of(Jl = 0 in (b) with a conductor.
(x)
The equipotential surfaces are found by equating (4-92) to constant potentials; a family
of equipotential surfaces obtained in this way is shown dashed in Figure 4-10(a). Re-
calling that a conductor immersed in an electrostatic field has its surface at a constant
potcntial, replacing the interior of the equipotcntial surfaces <1> = <1>0 and <1> <1>0
with conductors as in }"igure 4-10(b)cannot alter the E field exterior to the conductors.
The original image charges q of Figure 4-1O(a) moreover appear as conductor surface
charges totaling q, a conclusion reached from Gauss's law (4-5) integrated over the
conductor surfaces_ The image charge system of Figure 4-1O(a) therefore yields the
desired fields of the two-conductor system of Figure 4-1O(b), obtaining the same <1>
and E solutions outside the conductors in the latter.
A complementary system (one conductor within another) is shown in Figure
4-1O(c); its fields are also obtainable from the image system of Figure 4-1O(a)_
4-11 lMAGE METHODS 221
One can see that the symmetry plane x = 0 of Figure 4-l0(a) is the equipotential
surface <I> = 0, evident from setting the potential expression (4-92) to zero. Thus, if a
conductor having the shape of one of the equipotential surfaces is located to the right
of the conducting plane at x = 0 as in Figure 4-1O(d), the field between the conductors
is once more specified by the image problem of Figure 4-10 (a). The field to the left of
the plane is nullified, in terms of boundary condition (4-30), by the presence on its
surface of the charge density
Ps = Dn] _ = EoEx] _ = -Eo aa<I>]
x-o x-o x x=o
(4-93)
Hence, the x derivative of (4-92), with x = 0 in the result, yields
\
(4-94)
Extensions of the image system of Figure 4-IO(a) can be deduced from super-
position as depicted in Figure 4-11. For example, a system of fixed point charges Ql,
Qz, ... , placed near a .large conducting plane as in Figure 4-11 (a) has a static field in
the right-hand space given by the sum of the fields of the original charges and their
images shown. The zero potential on the median plane is maintained by that image
(fO)
Conductor charge
system
Conductor charge
system
(a)
(c)
Image
system
Conductor charge
system
l(y)
,
(b)
I (y)
,
a a I a
--er
q
-q'l--r--"1
q
o jb '" = 0 I i Ib
(x)
Conductor charge
system
I I I b
qb--+---!-q
I
(d)
Image
system
FIGURE 4-11. Image of static charge near infinite conducting planes. (a) Dis-
crete charges ncar a conducting plane. (b) Arbitrary line charge near a conducting plane.
(e) Line charge parallel to a conducting plane. (d) Point charge near intersection of two
condncting planes.
291
222 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
system. A line of arbitrary shape p l ~ c e d near a plane conductor provides an-
other image equivalence as in Figure 4-11 (b), a special case of which is the straight-
line charge of Figure 4-11 (c). These schemes can be extended further with the image
equivalent of a charge q near the perpendicular intersection of two conducting planes
as in Figure 4-11 (d); three image charges are needed to establish zero potential on
both planes.
The parallel-line charge system of Figure 4-11 (e), duplicated in Figure 4-12(a),
is an important image system that enables finding the electrostatic fields of parallel,
round conductors as developed in the following. Assume two infinitely long, parallel line
charges separated 2d and possessing the uniform charge densities PI' and PI'. The
latter are denoted by the ratios q/t and - q/t, signifying the charges per length t of each
line. Because of the infinite extent of the system, the analysis is confined to the z = 0
plane, restricting it to two dimensions (x,y) as in the section view of Figure 4-12(b).
The equipotential surfaces ofthis parallel line charge system are right circular cylinders.
To show this, note that the potential <I>(x,y) at P in Figure 4-12(b) is found from the
superposition of the potentials <1>(+) and <1>(-) due to each line. Each produces the po-
tential field (4-39); so with 0 chosen as the potential reference, the potentials at P due
to q/t and - q/t become
<1>( +) = q t:Ft d
2nd Rl
Their sum is the total potential at P
in which
(E)
(-d,O,O)
q
f
/
+
<I>(x,y) = <1>(+) + <1>(-) = q tn R2
2nd Rl
.++
++
(a)
q
fl{={
(b)
FIGU RE 4-12. Geometry of the parallel-line charge image system. (a) Parallel-line charges
of uniform densities. (b) End view of (a) showing the two-dimensional geometry in the z 0
plane.
(4-95)
(4-96)
( 4-97)
4-11 IMAGE METHODS 223
Observe Ii-om (4-96) that <[> ranges over all the real numbers, {()r as P approaches
- q/t(R2 --+ 0), there <[> --+ - 00; whereas <[> --+ 00 at the positive line charge_
Equipotential surfaces are obtained by equating (4-96) to any desired constant
potential <[> <[>0
(4-98a)
This means that any fixed, real ratio
(4-98b)
defines an equipote\ltial surface on which <[> <1)0 prevails_ Thus, K R
2
/R
J
= 1
defines the plane x = 0 bisecting the system_ (Substituting K = 1 into (4-98a) reveals
that <[>0 = 0 on it.) Other equipotential surfaces given by other K values are, in general,
circles in the sectional view of Figure 1-l2(b); if the z-axis is included, they become cir-
cuLar surfaces_ This is proved by substituting (4-97) into (4-98b) as f()llows
which expands into
(4-99)
This reduces to the equation ofa circle, (x - h)2 + f = R2, ifd
2
[(K2 + 1)/(K
2
- 1)]2
is added to each side of (4-99) to complete the square, obtaining
(1-100)
This result shows that the equipotential surfaces are a family of circular cylinders with
centers displaced from the origin by
K2 + I
h = d-;:--
1
R
2Kd
(4-101 )
( 4-102)
Typical equipotential circular cylinders defined by (4-100) are illustrated in Figure
4-13. K-values less than 1 correspond to equipotential cylinders to the left of the origin,
whereas K> 1 yields the cylinders on the right.
291
224 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
: (y)
I
I
I
I
I
: R2 ..
I /'
~ : ; - -
-1--
:0
I
I
I
' : ~ d
I
: h
'------_.
I
FIGURE 4-13. Equipotential surfaces ofa parallel-line charge system,
that is, circular cylindrical surfaces.
Taking the difference of the squares of (4-101) and (4-102) eliminates .K to obtain
h
2
- R2 = d
2
, whence
d= (4-103)
This gives the locations d of the image charges in Figure 4-13 in terms of Rand h.
On now replacing the interior (or exterior) of any pair of equipotential cylinders
of Figure 4-13 with conductors (carrying the su dace charges q and q in every length
t), the electrostatic field problems such as those of Figure 4-14 can be considered to
./
2h
(a) (b)
/"
---
---
---
./
/
./
---
---
---
./
./
./
./
./
.
./
/
---
---
/"
/"
(c)
./
(d)
FIGURE 4-14. Two-dimensional conductor systems. Solutions obtainable /i'om
image system of Figure 4-12. (a) Circular conductor paralic I to a plane conduc-
tor. (b) Parallel circular conductors of equal size. (c) Parallel cylinders ofuncqual
size. (d) Cylindcrs ecccntrically locatcd onc inside the other.
4-12 AN APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR STATICALLY CHARCED CONDUCTORS 225
have been solved. The capacitance C of a length t of the systems of Figure 4-14(a)
and (b), for example, are found as follows. Dividing (4-101) by (4-102) to eliminate
d obtains a quadratic expression in K, yielding
K= + - -1
_ h j(h)-2 -
R - R
hd
R
(4-104)
with d given by (4-103). The positive and negative signs correspond to the positive and
negative equipotential surfaces to the right and left of x 0, respectively, in Figure
4-13. The potential <1>0 of any equipotential cylinder in the right-half region is thus
found from substituting (4-104) into (4-98a), but with the plane x 0 at <1> 0 V, the
potential difference V between a circular cylindrical conductor and the conducting
plane of Figure 4-14(a) becomes <1>0 0 V, yielding
V = <1>0 - 0 = -q t n -
2nd R Y\R
(4-105)
The of that system, Irom (4-48), is theref()re
Wire above plane conductor ( 4-106)
In the parallel-wire line system of Figure 4-14(b), the potential (4-104) of an identi-
cal conductor in the left-half plane is just the negative of that of other conductor,
yielding a potential difference between the conductors just twice that of (4-105) for the
cylinder plane system. Its capacitance is therefore
*412 AN APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR
STATICALLY CHARGED CONDUCTORS
Parallel-wire line (4-107)
Occasionally, approximation methods can be used for rapidly assessing the potentials
and the capacitance of conductor systems. The technique described here depends on
conductor dimensions being small compared to their separations, assuring that their
SurfilCC charge distributions are not altered signiticantly by the proximity of the con-
ductors. Then the electrostatic potential in the region can be obtained by simply super-
posing the potentials of the conductors taken separately.
An illustration of this concept is given in Figure 4-15. Suppose a long circular
conductor, isolated as in (a) of the figure, possesses for every length t, a total'charge q
distributed uniformly over its surface. Its potential field is given by (4-39)
q Po
<1>(P) =---tn-
2nd P
(4-108)
291
226 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
(a)
(b)
(e)
f'JGURE 4-15. Circular cylindrical conductors, showing the effect of proximity on charge distri-
butions and the superposed potential fields. (a) A round conductor and its potential field. (b) Wide
spacing: Dla large. (c) Close spacing: Dla smalL
(b)
q ~ a l
12hl
q ~ a l
-qh
~ a 2
12h2
I
I
q-G
a2
f'IGURE 4-16. Examples of charged conductor systems amenable to approximate anal-
ysis. (a) Parallel round cylinders, and spheres. (b) Conductors (cylinders or spheres) above
ground (lift), and image equivalent (right).
4-12 AN APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR STATICALLY CHARGED CONDUCTORS 227
Two such conductors, possessing glt and g'lt as in Figure 4-15(b) and kept reasonably
apart as shown, produce a potential at P that is the sum of the potentials due to each
conductor, yielding very nearly
(4-109)
This result is subject to an increasing error as the conductors are brought closer together
as in Figure 4-15(c), in view of the charge redistribution taking place due to the attrac-
tive forces acting between the charges.
These arguments provide a basis for finding the approximate capacitance be-
tween a pair of conductors having known potential fields when taken separately. Con-
ductors of practical interest in this class of problems are spheres and round wires. Figure
4-16 shows a few examples.
EXAMPLE 416. Find the approximate eapacitance of the parallel-wire system of Figure
4-l6(a), two cOllductors of unequal radii al and a
z
separated by the center-to-center dis-
tance D. I
The potential diflcrence V between the conductors is obtained by superposing the
potentials of each isolated conductor. Let the static charges on the conductors be qjt and
- qjt Glm as shown, and the potential reference be at Po on the negative conductor. In
the presence of only the conductor of radius at, the potential at P relative to Po in Figure
4-l7(a) is obtained from (4-103), yielding
----
1> = Constant
(a) (b)
FIGURE 4-17. Relative to the superposition of potentials for fmding approximate capacitance.
(a) Field of positive conductor taken alone. (b) Field of the negative conductor only.
291
228 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC F'IELDS
with the distance from the source to the reference Po observed to be D. Similarly, for the
negative conductor in Figure 4-17(b), the potential at P relative to the same rcfi::rence
Po is
The sum is the total V between the conductors (neglecting charge redistribution effects);
that is,
From (4-48) the approximate capacitance becomes
For conductors of equal radii at a2 a, (4-1 ]0) becomes
c:::;; nEt
D
tn--
a
(4-110)
(4-111)
a result comparable to the exact expression (4-107) deduced from the image approach.
4-13 CAPACITANCE OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL
SYSTEMS BY FIELD MAPPING
Methods are now examined for the graphic sketching of electrostatic flux line; and
equipotential surfaces of two-dimensional conductor systems. For any two-dimensional
system possessing a uniform charge distribution along the z-axis, the same electrostatic
field sketch is seen to apply to every cross section.
Examples of electrostatic fields between conductor pairs ofarbitrary cross sections
and possessing the charges q, -q, in every length t are shown in Figure 4-18. The
sketches of the electric field flux and equipotentials of two-dimensional systems are
executed in accordance with the following rules.
1. The conductors comprise equipotential surfaces between which additional equi-
potential surfaces may be constructed, their shapes varying gradually fi'om that
of one conductor to that of the other. Equipotential surfaces must intersect the
electric flux lines orthogonally.
2. Electric flux lines form the boundaries of so-called flux tubes, as in Figure 4-18(b).
In a charge-fi.ee region, a flux tube contains a fixed amount of flux /iiI"" over any
cross section.
The capacitance per meter depth of a two-dimensional system can be found with
good accuracy from a carefully executed field sketch. Given the system of Figure
4-19(a), flux lines originate from an assumed charge q distributed over a length t
of the inner conductor, terminating on q in the same length-of the outer conductor.
4-13 CAPACITANCE OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS BY FIELD MAPPING 229
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 4-18. Typical two-dimensional condnctor systems and flux tube interpretations.
(a) Examples of two-dimensional condnctor system, electric flux and equipotential plots.
(b) Flux tubes in a two-dimensional conductor system.
On replacing the equipotential surfaces with a very thin conducting loil, that system
can be regarded as the series combination of three capacitors G\, C
2
, C
3
between the
conductors. Furthermore, if the equipotentials are located such that V between the
conductors is divided into three equal amounts Vi V
2
= V3 = V
o
, then the series
capacitances are the same, that is, C
1
= C
z
= C
3
= Co, in view of the identical charges
q on each. The total capacitance is therefore C = C
o
/3 for that example. Generally,
if ns denotes the number of elements Co in series, the total capacitance is
(4-112)
Each of the series capacitors of Figure 4-19(a) can further be subdivided into a
parallel capacitance increment L\C associated with each field cell of the system, as in
Figure 4-19(b). With Up parallel clement'>, Co = up(L\C), yielding the total capacitance
c = up I1C
(4-113)
ns
It remains to determine the field cell capacitance I1C. Assuming charges I1q,
- L\q induced on the conducting-foil walls at the top and bottom of each cell as in Figure
4-I9(c), one obtains, fi'Orn (4-48), I1C = I1qlV
o
, in which the potential difference be-
tween the boundaries is V
o
- H; E . dt, also expressed in terms of an average elec-
tric field hy V
o
= Eav L\hav> wherein L\h
av
is the median height of the typical cell; but
291
230 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
Equipotential
surfaces
Electric field
flux
(a) (b)
- ,
\ Constant 't ac aWav
_---P- -=f-
_ \'---f t ahav

I

I I
__ }! Flux \ = Constant
- - - -; hnes =
_-----.. ++ (d; Vo
:>:. / /\-;1 .;- .c
.. + .... I \ I -= E
\ I t

(e) --i- __ I Constant
I
I I
(d)
FIGURE 4-19. Capacitance determination from a two-dimensional electric field map. (il)
Insertion of conducting foil at equipotential surfaces, yielding scries capacitance equivalence.
(b) Subdivision of region between equipotentials into parallel field cells. (c) Enlargement of
field cell of (b). (d) End view of field cells. A curvilinear rectangle and square.
Eav DaviE and Day equals Aq/ As
av
, As.
v
denoting the average area of the cell cross
section: its length t times the average cell width Aw
av
as in Figure 4-19(c). Thus AC
becomes
EAq
yielding the capacitance per meter depth of a field cell
(4-114)
If the cells are sketched as cur1lilinear squares defined by Aw
av
= l1h
av
as shown in Figure
4-13 CAPACITANCE OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS BY FIELD MAPPING 231
4-19(d), then 14) simplifies to
I1C
t
E (4-115)
The incremental capacitance per meter depth of a eurvilinear square (tux cell thus
equals the permittivity E of the dielectric filling the cell. In air, for example, eaeh
square cell contributes Eo = 8.84 pF 1m. The total capaeitance between the conductors,
obtained from the series parallel comhination of all cells, is found from the substitution
of (4-115) into (4-113)
C ltp
- = -E Flm
t lts
(4-116)
From the development of 113), it is evident that ltp and lts in (4-116) need not even
be integers, as noted in the following example.
EXAMPLE 4-17. Sketch the electrostatic tlux plot of the coaxial capacitor of Figure 4--20, ob-
taining its capacitance per meter depth. Assume air dielectric and b/a = 2.
Because of tile symmetry, a flux plot for only onc quadrant suffices. If the interval
between the conduc'tors is subdivided, by trial, into two equal potential difference intervals
as in Figure 4--20(b), a tlux map consisting of the curvilinear squares plus two leftover rec-
tangks as shown is obtained. Then ns 2 and ltp = so (4--116) yields
c
t
-- (8.84 x 10-
12
) = 79.5 pF/m
2
(1)
Another flux plot, dividing the quadrant into five flux tubes as shown in (e), yields ltp =
and sketching in the equipotential surfaces to obtain the curvilinear squares as shown,
lis = 2.3 to yield
c
p (8.84 x 10-
12
) = 77 pFjrn
, 2.3
(a) ( b) ( c)
FIGURE 4-20. A coaxial capacitor and typical flux plots. (a) Coaxial capacitor: b!a = 2. (b) A
flux plot using equal potential intervals. (c) A flux plot using five flux tubes per quadrant.
(2)
291
232 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
I
np = 4 (3.33)
ns = 2 I
(a)
(b) (e)
FIGURE 4-21. Examples of flux plots for two-dimensional conductor systems. (a) Elliptical
cylinder inside a pipe. (b) Rectangular cylinder inside a pipe. (c) Toothed structure above a plane.
The discrepancy between (I) and (2) is due to the unavoidable errors of estimation. It
happens that this example can be checked by use of the exact (4-51), yielding
C
t
2rrEo
b
tn-
a
2rr(8.84 x 10-
0.093
= 80.3 pF/m (3)
The chief merit of the flux-plotting method for two-dimensional electrostatic
systems lies in its applicability to systems for which no analytical approach is feasible.
In Figure 4-21 are shown such examples. Note that care must be exercised to assure the
perpendicularity everywhere of the equipotential and flux lines; observe the tendency
toward the compression of the flux lines at convex curves and corners because of the
higher surface charge concentrations there. Advantage should always be taken of the
symmetry, with no more equipotentials being employed than necessary to obtain satis-
faetory curvilinear squares. A suitable procedure in Figure 4-21 (a), for example, is to
begin at section A-A' by placing a trial equipotential surface at point C, inserting ap-
propriate orthogonal flux lines while progressing toward the right, and checking con-
tinuously for the squareness of the flux cells that develop. Needless to say, an eraser is
a valuable adjunct to these trial-and-error procedures. Further suggestions and ex-
amples are found in a number of sources.
lO
4-14 CONDUCTANCE ANALOG OF CAPACITANCE
A system is said to be analogous to another if a quantity in one system varies in the
same way as some quantity in the other. An analogy may even exist between two
quantities in the same system. If the quantities are vector fields, to be analogous they
must satisfy comparable divergence and curl relationships as well as similar boundary
conditions.
I t is to he shown that the capacitance system of F'igure 4-6 in Section 4-6 leads
to a conductance analog. In the capacitance system of Figure 4-22(a), applying a
IOFor example, see S. S. Atwood, Electric and Magnetic Fields, 3,.d ed. New York: Wiley, 1949; S. Ramo,
J. Whinnery, and T. Van Duzcr. Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics. New York: Wiley, 1965, p. 159.
4-14 CONDUCTANCE ANALOG 01' CAPACITANCE 233
V
'----+-11\1--------'
(a) (b)
\
\
FlGURE 4-22. Analogous capacitance and conductance systems. (a) Capacitance system: conduc-
tors at potential difference V, separated by dielectric. (b) Conductance system: a small conductivity
(J supplied to the dielectric.
voltage difference V between the conductors separated by a dielectric results in static
charges +q and -q being deposited on the conductors. In the charge free dielectric,
D = EE, obeying V' D = 0 and V X E = 0 of (4-1) and (4-2). These properties state
that D between the conductors consists of uninterrupted flux lines, with the conserva-
tive E field implying a related potential field such that E = - V<D. The D lines termi-
nate normally at the conductor surfaces as required by the boundary conditions. The
potential field <D, rhoreover, obeys Laplace's equation (4-68), V
2
<D = 0, and eaeh con-
ductor comprises an equipotential surface with the potential difference V prevailing
between them. The capacitance parameter C, moreover, applies to the system, defined
by (4-48)
fs
D'ds
. f'
-f
P1
E'dt
P2
(4-117)
In obtaining this ratio, D ds is integrated over the posltlve conductor of Figure
4-22(a), while P 1 assumed on that conductor makes V positive.
A dc conductance analog of (4-117) can be established for the system if the di-
electric possesses a small conductivity (f. The dielectric then carries a current of density
j = (fE, from (3-7); j is the analog of D in the dielectric, since from (3-82e), V' j = O.
Thus j consists of uninterrupted current flux lines, supplied by V. Assuming A and B
good conductors and with the dielectric a relatively poor conductor, from the refrac-
tion Example 3-11 one conc\udf's that the current enters or leaves A and B essentially
perpendicularly. The boundary condition (3-136), moreover, reveals what charge density
Ps exists on each conductor surface. With OJ 0 and (fj (f2' one obtains
Ps
(4-118)
if the good conductor is denoted by the subscript 2 and the lossy dielectric by 1. Thus
the boundary conditions of Figures 4-22(a) and (b) are essentially the same. It is thus
seen that adding a small amount of conductivity to the dielectric produces virtually no
291
234 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC F l E I ~ S
change in the E field configuration in the dielectric. Thus besides C, an analogous
positive parameter G, the conductance of the system, is defined by the ratio of the total
current J through the dielectric to the voltage difference V between the conductors
J Js J. ds
G = V = ---"-,J""Pl'---E-.-d-c
t
P2
(4-119)
The surface S of conductor A excludes the cross section of the connecting wire so that
in (4-119) only the outflow of J into the dielectric is taken into account. The analog
of C is G because J in (4-119) is the analog of D in (4-117). With (f and E constants
for the homogeneous, linear, and isotropic dielectric, (4-117) and (4-119) become
yielding the ratio
C _ E Js E ds
- _JPl E dt
P2
(f Js E ds
G = -_-;;JFP1-=E:c-.-dC""C"t
P2
G (f
C E
( 4-120)
(4-121 )
This is also written (RC) -1 = (fIE if I/G = R, the resistance between the conductors.
Equation (4-121) implies that if C is known, the analogous G can be found from the
applicable ratio (fIE.
In view of the relaxation result (3-83a) of Example 3-9, (4-121) has further
implications. If V applied to the conductive capacitor system of Figure 4-22(b) were
suddenly removed, the surface charges on each conductor would decay in time ac-
cording to (3-83a)
(4-122)
if (f and E are the dielectric parameters. Integrating (4-122) over the positive conductor
surface S yields the charge q on it at any instant
q(t)
e-T/E)t r p ds
Js sO
which, by use of (4-121) obtains a form familiar in circuit theory
q(t)
(4-123a)
(4-123b)
The charge on the positive conductor thus decays exponentially with the time constant
E
1: = RC = - sec
(f
(4-124)
Thus 1: is expressible either in terms of the derived lumped constants Rand C, or the
parameters E and (f of the dielectric. The time-decay behavior of q on the positive
conductor is depicted in Figure 4-23(a), with the equivalent circuit shown in (b).
4-14 CONDUCTANCE ANALOG OF CAPACITANCE 235
l-,
it +
v-=- C R
(b)
V(t) =
Vm cos wt
R
(c)
FIGURE 423. Behavior of a capacitor with dielectric losses. (a) Time decay of charge from
initial value qo. (b) Voltage removed from capacitor equivalent circuit. (c) Equivalent circuit,
ac voltage applied.
The so-called quality factor, Q., of the capacitor is shown to be the reciprocal of
the loss tangent of its dielectric. Define its Q. under time-harmonic applied-voltage
conditions as
w energy stored
Q. = ----'-------"'-''-----'''---'---'-
A verage power loss over a cycle
(4-125)
in which w is the radian frequency. Assuming V(t) = Vm cos wt applied as in Figure
4-23(c), the maximum energy is stored when the voltage is V
m
, to yield U
max
=
CV;,/2 {l'om (4-63b). Also, V(t) is impressed on the loss resistance R, yielding the time-
average power loss V;'j2R. Thus, (4-125) becomes
( 4-126)
which from (4-124) is also WEj(J, the reciprocal of the loss tangent (3-104), which was
to have been proved. By use of (4-121) and (4-124), the Q.ofthe capacitor can be
written in the various forms
WE E' wC R
Q. = wRC = (J = E" = wr = G = Xc
(4-127)
wherein Xc == (wC) -1 denotes the reactance of C at the frequency w. Thus, a material
with a loss tangent E" jE' = 0.001 at some frequency will yield a capacitor with a Q. of
WOO. If; moreover, its reactance Xc were 100 Q at the giveu fi'equency, the equivalent
circuit of Figure 4-23 would need to incorporate a parallel resistance R = Q.Xc = 10
5
Q
to represent the dielectric losses.
EXAMPLE 418. Assume that the spherical capacitor of Figure 4-7 (b) contains a dielectric with
the constants E = 3E
Q
and (J' = 10- 5 U/m at some frequency. Letting a = I em and b =
2 em, find C and G, and sketch the equivalent circuit.
Using (4-53)
, 4n(3 x 1O-9/36n) . ,
C = I 1 = 6.67 pi'
0.01 0.02
291
236 STATIC AND QUASISTATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
c= R=
6.67 pF 0.40 Mfl
EXAMPLE 418
while G, from (4-140), is merely C with E replaced by (J
,(J 4n(10
G=G-= =2.5/1U
E I
0.01 0.02
yielding the resistance between the spheres, R = G- 1 0.40 MQ. The equivalent circuit
diagram consists of C in parallel with R as in the sketch.
A. Capacitance-Conductance
Analog and Field Mapping
For two-dimensional capacitors, the infinite length makes it desirable to express
(4-121) as the ratio
G
t
Ca
t E Vim
Thus, from the Cjt ratio (4-51) for the coaxial line
G
t
2nE a
tn b E
a
2na
b
tn-
a
(4-128)
( 4-129)
Such results are also applicable to the two-dimensional field-mapping techniques
of Section 4-12, assuming the dielectric to possess a small conductivity (J. Then each
field cell as in Figure 4-19(c) contributes a conductivity per meter depth obtained by
putting (1-114) into (4-128)
!J.G
t
For any curvilinear square cell, letting !J.w
av
= !J.h
av
yields
!J.G
T = (J Sq uare cell
(4-130a)
(4-130b)
4-14 CONDUCTANCE ANALOG OF CAPACITANCE 237
(a) (b)
FIGURE 4-24. Typical two-dimensional system showing analogous quantities used in anal-
ysis of Cit and cit. (a) Capacitive system with perfect dielectric and flux cell. (b) Capacitive
and conductive system and analogous current flux cell.
the analog of (4-115) <If noted in Figure 4-24. The series parallel combination of all
such cells he tween the conductors thus yields the total conductance per meter depth
G
t
C(J
t E
(J Ujm
n,
(4-131 )
The latter can be viewed as the conductance produced by the mesh of cell conduc-
tances connected between the equipotential conductor surfaces.
EXAMPLE 419. Use the flux plot of Figure 4-20(b) to deduce Cjt and Cjt for that coaxial
system, assuming a dielectric with Er = 2.5 and (j = 10 - 8 U jm. What resistance is seen by
a de voltage connected to the input of 1000 m of this line, assuming an open-circuit
termination?
The flux plot of Figure 4-20(b) yields from (4-116)
C np 4(4.5) _ _
- = - E = --- (2.:> x 8.84 x lO
t ns 2
= 198 pFlm
Then, !i'om (4-131)
C 4(45)
(j = --' - IO-
s
= 9 x IO-
S
Ujm
rts 2 t
For t = 1000 m of open-circuited line, C = (9 x 10-
8
) 10
3
= 9 X 10-
5
U, making
R = C-
1
= 11.1 kfl, the resistance seen by the applied de voltage.
2tJl
238 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
(a)
Resistive
paper
(b)
FIGURE 4-25. Models of two-dimensional conductive or capacitance systems. (a) Model
using resistive paper and silver paint electrodes. (b) Electrolytic tank with immersed metal
electrodes. [Figure (a) depicts a resistive paper model of a spatial period of the repetitive
tooth structure shown in Figure 4-21 In view of the entirely tangential current flow
occurring at the two sides of this model, boundary condition there is iJ<I>/iJn 0, agreeing
with that of the actual system of Figure 4-21(c).1
Current-conduction models of two-dirnellsional systems as described can be
constructed using commercial resistive paper, or by use of a shallow tank of electrolyte
to simulate the conduction region, with electrodes of desired shapes placed in contact
with the conductive medium as suggested in Figure 4-25. In (a) of that figure, intimate
contact of the electrodes with the resistive paper is assured by using a good-conducting
silver paint to produce the desired electrode shapes on the parler. A battery serves as
a source of current, with a high-impedance voltmeter and pointed probe used to map
equipotential contours onto the resistive paper. 1\ low-frequency source (up to 1000 Hz
or so) can be used if ac detection methods are prefhred, and they are especially usefu.!
for eliminating polarization effects occurring; when direct currents pass through an
electrolytic liquid. The latter yields ion accumulation ncar one or both electrodes,
causing; distortions in the equipotential distributions obtained from electrolytic tank
models.
11
1\n advantage of the current model of a flux map is that il obviates the errors
of estimation incurred in the hand-plotting methods described in Section 4-12, yielding
highly accurate equipotential maps when careful measurements are taken. Moreover,
an ohmmeter or bridge measurement between the electrodes of a conduction model
leads directly to the capacitance and conductance per meter of the system being
studied, without a need for the rtp and rts values required by hand-plotting techniques.
The electrolytic tank can be extended to axially symmetric g'eometr'ies associated
with electrostatic beam-focusing electrodes such as used in cathode ray tubes and
electron microscopcs.12 Such maps in circular cylindrical coordinates are often very
difficult to obtain analytically or by hand-plotting schemes. A halt:cylindrical tank
containing semicylindrical electrodes and revealing their sectional views at the surface
of the electrolyte permits probing the equipotential surhces in the vicinity of the z-axis.
Indeed, the axial symmetry permits using merely a thin, wedge-shaped trough III
which correspondingly small sectors of the cylindrical electrodes are immersed.
liThe electrolytic tank was first used by C. L. Fortescue. See Transactions rif the A.I.E.E., 32, 1913, p. 893.
12See E. Weber, Electromagnetic Fields, Vol. 1 rif Fields. New Y Ol-k: Wiley, 1950, pp. 193.
4-14 CONDUCTANCE ANALOG OF CAPACITANCE 239
EXAMPlE 420. A sheet of resistive paper measuring 1000 Q per square (with 1000 Q between
opposite equipotential sides of a square sheet, regardless of size) 13 is used to model a
two-conductor cable of rather unusual, though uniform, cross-sectional shape. The
conductor shapes are painted on the paper with silver paint, and a measurement yields
160 Q between those conductors. Find Cjt and Glt of the actual cable if the dielectric
has the constants Er = 2.5 and (f = 10"-8 U/m.
The conductancc betwecn electrodes of the resistive sheet model is specified by
( 4-150)
(1)
if G
r
denotes the measured U and (fir is the product of the conductivity of the resis-
tive sheet and its thickness. For the resistance paper used, (J,t, 10
1
00 U, the conductance
of a curvilinear square of any flux plot applicable to this model. The usual ratio for such
a plot is denoted by and irom (1), this is
6.25
Applying the latter to (4-116) and (4-131) obtains Itn' the cable
C
t
(b.25)(2.5 x 3.34 x 10-
12
) 133 pF/m
t
np (J = 6.25 x 10 - 2 flU/m
ns
B. Dc or Resistance
of Thin Conductors
Thin conductors (of small diameter compared to length) are of common oc-
currence in electric circuits. It is of interest to determine the resistance offered by a
thin conductive circuit to a driving source, as depicted iu Figure 4-26. The circuit is
t : median path
FIGURE 4-26, A thin de electric circnit.
"From this it is inferred that any curvilinear of a nux map on this paper has 1000 Q resistance between
opposite equipotential sides, or 0.001 U CUI1ULLll<LI!("'t:,
291
240 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
immersed in a nonconductor (e.g., air). The direct current in the conductor has a
density given by (3-7), J = aE. Steady currents are, by (3-32e), divergenceless, so the
current consists of uninterrupted flux lines totaling I A through any cross section. The
static E field in the conductor, obeying (4-6), ft E . dt 0, is thus conservative, so
equipotential surfaces exist in the conductor, normal to the E and J field as denoted
in Figure 4-26.
Equation (4-6) is equivalent to Kirchhoff's voltage law for the circuit shown as
follows. Taking Eg and E as the fields in the battery and the conductor respectively,
integrating (4-6) clockwise over any closed path t about the circuit of Figure 4-26
obtains
{'pz E . dt + {,PI E . dt = ()
JPI Jpz 9
(4-132)
But the second integral denotes -V, the negative of the battery voltage;14 with E = J/a
in the conductor, (4-132) is written
(4-133)
That (4-133) expresses the Kirchhoff law V = IR is seen by noting that the current
through every cross-section A is the constant value
1= LJ' ds
(4-134)
in which J is not, in general, constant at each point of the cross section. The need for
knowing J at every point is disposed of, if I is expressed in terms of an average density
Jav; that is,
(4-135)
wherein lav is tangential to a properly chosen median line t as denoted in Figure 4-26.
For a thin wire, t in (4-133) may be taken as the wire axis, and with Jav = atllA
into (4-135), (4-133) becomes
yielding
V
1=----
{'pz dt
Jp, aA(t)
( 4-136)
This is of the form I VIR, the Kirchhoff voltage law for the circuit, in which the
de resistance of the conducting path is
1
PZ dt
R= --VA
P, aA(t) I
or 0 (4-137)
14Thc negative sign of the V term in (4-132) is justified from the direction of the generated E. fields in
the source, which go from + to -.
4-15 ELECTROSTATIC FORCES AND TORQUES 241
Its reciprocal, K 1 = G, is its conductance. The notation A(t) emphasizes that the con-
ductor cross-sectional area might not be uniform, depending generally on the position
along t. For a conductor of constant cross section, (4-137) reduces to
t
R=-Q
o-A
(4-138)
if t denotes the conductor length. These resistance expressions, correct for direct cur-
rents, are reasonable approximations at suHlciently low frequencies for which the skin
effect, associated with reduced field penetration into a conductor with increasing fre-
quency, is neglected.
As an example, the dc resistance of 10 m of 0.1 in. (0.00254 m) diameter copper
wire (obtaining (f fl-om Table 3-3) is
10
R = ~ ~ - - - - - . - - ~ 0.034 Q
(5.8 x 10
7
)(0.00254
2
n/4)
A wire this size made of aluminum, for which (f = 3.72 x 10
7
(jIm, will have a resis-
tance about 56(Y<) greater than the copper one.
*415 ELECTROSTATIC FORCES AND TORQUES
Section 4-6 developed expressions for the work done by an external source in estab-
lishing a system of electrostatic charges in a region. Such charges reside physically on
the conducting bodies of the system, which may also include dielectric regions. The
force on any of the conductors or dielectric bodies can be deduced from an assumed
diflerential displacement dt of that body, nn computing the change in energy dUe
accompanying the displacement. It is shown that the electrostatic force can be found
from the gradient of the electrostatic energy of the system, if the energy is expressed in
terms of the coordinate location of the body being displaced. l<'orces obtained in this
way are said to be fcilind by the method of virtual work. This method is developed for
two cases.
CASE A. System. of conductors with fixed charges. Suppose one is concerned
with the system of dielectric and conducting bodies of Figure 4-27 (a), the conduetors
being assumed isolated from one another so that they possess fixed amounts of free
charge. (Batteries or other sources used to bring them to their charge states have been
Displacement de
(a)
FIGURE 4-27. Two electrostatic systems of conducting and dielectric bodies. A virtual dis-
placement of dt ofa body is assumed for the purpose of calculating the l(Jn.,e on it. (a) System
with fixed charges. (b) Conductors at fixed potentials.
291
242 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
removed.) Let one element (conductor or dielectric) be displaced by a differential
distance dt, due to electric field forces acting on it. The mechanical work done by the
system is
(4-139)
Since no additional energy is being supplied (sources are disconnected), the work
(4-139) is done at the expense of the stored electrostatic energy of the system, energy
being conserved, such that
+
dU =0 ( 4-140)
Electrostatic energy change' 'Mechanical work done
implying an energy decrease in the amount
(4-141)
but dUe can be written also in terms of the X,], and z variations in U
e
as the body
moves dt = axdx + aydy + azdz
(4-142)
the latter being evident from the vector representation (2-11) for a total differential.
A comparison of (4-141) and (4-142) reveals that
F = -VUeN
implying the cartesian components of F given by
aUe
F =--
x ax
, aUe
1" = ---
y ~
(4-143a)
F =
z
(4-143b)
I t is seen from (4-143) that knowing how the total electrostatic field energy U
e
of the
system changes with dx, d], and dz displacements of one of its elements is sufficient to
determine the force on that element. This is called the virtual work method for finding
the lorce, since no actual physical displacements are required.
If, instead of being subjected to a translation, the desired body is rotated about
an axis, assuming constant charges on the conductors, then (4-139) is written
dU T' dO (4-144)
in which T a
1
Tl + a
Z
T
2
+ a3T3 is the torque developed, and dO is the vector dif-
ferential angular displacement. One can analogously show that the components ofthe
vector torque T become
(4-145)
4-15 ELECTROSTATIC FORCES AND TORQUES 243
CASE B. System conductors atfixed potentials. The system consists ofn charged
conductors held at the fixed potentials <1>1, <1>2) ... ,<1>. by charge sources (such as
batteries). Dielectric bodies may also be included, as in Figure 4-27(b). The displace-
ment dt of an element is in this case accompanied by changes in the charges on each
conductor. For example, if two parallel conducting plates connected to a battery were
moved apart, the positive and negative charges on the plates would both decrease to
maintain the constant, impressed voltage difference. This means that the total electro-
static energy on the system changes with the displacement, but also it means that work
is done by the sources in producing the changes in the charge states of the conductors,
to maintain their fixed potentials. The work done by the sources (batteries) during the
displacement of the desired element is
n
dUs = L <1>k dqd (4-146)
k= 1
in which the potentials <1>k on the n conductors are constants. The energy conservation
relation now becomes
dUe + dU dUs (4-147)

Electrostatic Mechamcal

Work done by sources
energy change work done to maintain fixed potentials
Since each conductor charge undergoes a change dqk while being maintained at the
potential <1>k, fiom (4-58a) the total electrostatic energy changes by
n
dUe = 1 L <1>k dqk
( 4-148)
k= 1
or just one-half the work (4-146) done by the sources. Thus
(4-149)
stating that the work done by the sources is twice the change in the total electrostatic
energy; the is the mechanical work dU done in moving the element in
question by the distance dt. Putting (4-149) into (4-147) therefore yields
(4-150)
which means
F = VUe N (4-151)
EXAMPLE 4-21. Find the force between two point charges q separated a distance x in free
space, using the concept of virtual displacement.
The electrostatic energy is obtained using (4-53a), with n 2. From (4-40), the
potential <Ill due to +q at the location of -q is qj4nEox, whereas that due to -q and the
location of + q is q/4nE
o
x. The total energy is therefore
29]
244 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
-------:;.0-
(x)
EXAMPLE 4-21
In this isolated system, the force of + q is found from (4-162)
to the left (attractive) as noted in the accompanying figure. This answer agrees with that
obtained from (1-52), making use orE (due to q) at the location of +q
= ax
EXAMPLE 422. Two parallel conducting plates arc separated by an air dielectric. Each has
an area A, separated a distance x as shown. Neglecting fi'inging at the edges, obtain the
f(lrce on either plate fi-om the field energy, assuming (a) a constant voltage V between
the plates and (b) constant charges Qon the plates.
(a) Assuming a constant voltage V between the plates, and with the plate at x = 0
held fixed, a virtual displacement dx orthe other yields fi, = oUe/ox from (4-151).
With C = EA/x, one obtains
__ oUe _ 0 I. 2 _ V,2 D ('EoA)
j< ----(zCV)----
x ox ox 2 ax x
The negative result denotes au al tract ivc f(lrCe, since the stored energy increases
with a decrease in the plate separation x.
EXAMPLE 4-22
PROBLEMS 245
(b) With V disconnected, fixed charges Qreside on the plates. Then a constant Ex =
Vlx exists between the plates regardless of their separation (neglecting fringing).
The electrostatic energy iB conveniently expressed by U
e
= (t)QV = (t)QExx, and
with Q and Ex both independent of x, (4-143) obtains
REFERENCES
ELLIOTT, R. S. Electromagnetics. New Y ork: Hill, 1966.
LORRAIN, P., and D. R. CORSON. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves. San Franciseo: Freeman, 1970.
REITZ, R., and F. J. MILFORD. FOllndatons of Electromagnetc Theory. Reading, Mass.:
Wesley, 1960.
PROBLEMS
SECTION 4-2
4-1. A static point charge ill tree space is located at the arbitrary position P'(x',y', z'). Use
(4-lOb) to develop the vector expression for the E field at the observation point P(x,y,
showing that
Sketch the system, labeling the pertinent details. Show to what result this expression reduces if
(a) q is located at prO, 0, z') on the z.-axis; if (b) q is located at the origin.
4-2. Use the expression developed in Problem 4-1 to find the vector E field produced at the
following points: (a) prO, 3, (b) pro, 3,0) and (c) pro, 0, 0), by the charge q = I JlC located
at prO, 0, I), with distances given in meters. Find the magnitude ofE at prO, 3, 5), as well as
the vector force exerted on a second charge q' = I JlC located there.
4-3. In Example 4-1, prove that (4-18) becomes (4-19) as the line length L -> 00.
M. (a) In Example J-2, prove by use of integration tables that (4-21) yields the result (4-22).
(b) Show, for the observation point P(p, z) located in the z = 0 plane, that (4-22) reduces to
(4-18) of Example 4-1. (c) Show that the limiting expression (4-23), as L -> 00, is correct.
4-5. (a) A thin conductor in free space is bent into a circle of radius a, charged with the
uniform linear charge density Pt, and centered at the origin in the z = 0 plane. Use a direct
integration for E to show that on the z-axis
With Pt = 10-- 6 C/m and a = 10 cm, graph E
z
versus z from 0 to 50 em. (b) Show that E
z
at
great distances (z a) converges to the form of (1-57b) for the point charge, if the answer is
expressed in terms of the total charge q on the charged circle.
4-6. In Example 4-3, make use of integration tables to show in detail that (4-24) is obtained.
With Ps = 10-
8
C/m
2
, a = 10 cm, graph E
z
versus z from 0 to 50 em.
291
246 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
4-7. An annular disk lies in the = plane, centered at the origin, with the unitt1rm
charge density Ps between its inner and outer radii a and b. Use direct integration and symmetry
to show that the electric tield on the z-axis is
(4-152)
SECTION 4-3
4-8. By usc of Gauss's law (3-37), deduce all approximate expression for the static E field vcry
elose to the ring charge of Problem 4-5 .
4-9. A very long circular coaxial line has two concentric dielectric insulating sleeves of per-
mittivities E[ and E2 filling the space between the inner and outer conductors as shown. Assume
the interface at p = b to be midway between the conductor radii a and c, on which reside the
charges (Land - ~ , respectively, for every length t of the system. (a) Deduce from Gauss's law
the expressions II)r D and E in the two dielectric regions. (b) By usc of graphs sketched to
relative scales, show the variations with p exhibited by E" wilhin the dielectric materials (()r two
cases: (1) E1 = 2E
2
, and (2) E1 = E
2
/2. Assuming that the aim is to maintain approximately
tbe same average electric field within the two dielectrics, which case provides this?
4-10. In Problem 4-9, let Erl = 4 and b = 2a. \Nhat value of Er2 will make the maximum
Ep fields of both regions have the same value?
SECTION 4-4
4-11. By expansion in rectangular coordinates, prove the relation (1-32) concerning V(I/R).
4-12. (a) Rework Problem 4-5 for the thin ring of charge, this lime by integrating i()r the
potential \$ at the position P(O, "c) on the z-axis. From the result, determine E at P by use of
(4-:-11). (b) Using the fidd E(O, z) found in (a), verily by means of the line integral (4-38b)
that the identical potential result \$(0, z) is obtained.
" 4-13. Rework Example 4-3 lor the charged disk, by first finding the potential \$ at the
axial position P(O, z), and then making use of (4-:11) to find E(O, z). (b) Inscrtjng the E field
found in (a) into the line integral (4-38b), verily that the identical potential result of (a) is
obtained at P(O, z).
4-14. Make usc of the pOlen tial expression (4--43), obtained ji)l' the static dipole charge of
Example 4-8, to derive in detail its E field expression (4-44) _ (b) Beginning with the E field
found in (a), employ the line integral (4-38b) to verify that the same potential \$(r, 0) as found
in (a) is obtained.
PROBLEM 4-9
PROBLEMS 247
SECTION 4-5
.. 4-15. (a) For the coaxial line of Example 4-9, instead of determining the full potential
difference V between the two conductors as given by (4-50), determine the potential <P at any
p location between the conductms by usc of (4-3th), selecting the potential refercnce at the
negative conductor (p Show that
<P(p) = tn b
2nd p
Note that this result hecomes the voltage difference V = <P(a) between the conductors given
by (4-50). (h) Make usc of the expression jf]r the capacitance (4-51) of this coaxial line to show
that (4-153a) can alternatively be wrillen
<P(p)
V h
--tn--
b p
('II
a
Usc (4-l53b) to derive a corresponding expression f()r E(p) in the coaxial line. (c) Let the
applied voltag-c across a particular coaxial line be V = 100 V, with a = 2 em, b = 10 ern, and
Er = 2 till' the dielectric. What is the capacitance per meter length of this line? Show that (4-153b)
can be written <P(p) = 62.13 tn(b/p) V. Graph the potential <P versus p between the conductors,
in I-cm steps. Plot the E" field versus p on the samc g-raph, noting the location and value of
~ ' . a x ' Solve the <P expression Itl!' {J, and determine the p values at which the potentials become
0,25, 50, 75, and IOU V. What is the potential at the exact midpoint between the conductors?
4-16. The large commercial coaxial line, type RG-213/U, has a polyethylene dielectric with
an inner conductor of 0.195 in. (= 0.495 em) diameter and is specified to have a distributed
capacitance of 29.5 pF/ft ( 96.3 pF/m). What is the inner diameter of its outer cOllductor?
,4-17. (a) Use Gauss's Jaw and symmetry to obtain the static D Held exprcssion It)r the
parallel-pia te capacitor of Fig-ure proving 1 hat the E field given in that fig-nrc is correct.
Employ the lil1e integration (4-:i3a) to obtain the potential <P at any x location between the
conductors, assuming the potential rekrcllce to be at the negatively charged condnctor
that is, show that
If
<P(x) = - (d - x)
EA
(b) Usc (4-154a) to infer the total voltage V between the conductors, hom whieh verify the
capacitance of this parallel-plate system. Make use of (4-52) to convert to
the alternative j()rm expressed in terms of V:
V
<P(x) = d (d x) (4-1 54 b)
Use (4-154b) to derivc a corresponding expressioll I()r E(x) between the plates. (d) The voltage
applied across a particular parallel-plate capacitor is 100 V. The plates arc square, 1 m on a
side, and separated by use ofa l-ll1ln thick polyethylene sheet. What is the capacitance? Show
that 54b) here becomes <P(x) IOOO(d x) if distance is exprcssed in millimeters. Graph
the potential <P versus between the conductors, as well as l ~ ~ versus x on the same graph.
Comment on the results.
4-18. A parallel-plate capacitor used in a
25.4 tim) thick sheet of polyethylene (Er
plates 3 mm ou a side. Find the capacitance.
microcircuit is made of a I mil (=0.001 in. =
sandwiched between two square conducting
291
, lot
248 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
4-19. (a) Usc Gauss's law and symmetry to derive the expression for D(r) of the spherical
capacitor of Figure 4-7(b), showing that the E field denoted on the figure is correct. Use line
integral (4-38a) to express the potential ((r) at any location between the conductors, using
the negative conductor (r = b) as the potential reference; that is, prove that
q (1 i)
((r) = - - - -
41tE r b
(4-155a)
(b) Infer from (4-155a) the total voltage V between the conducting spheres, whence verify the
capacitance (4-53) of this system. (cl Use (4-53) to rc-exprcss (4-155a) in the alternative form
((r) ~ (
1 J r
(4-155b)
a b
(d) Assume V = 100 V aeross a spherical capacitor with a = 5 em, b = 10 em, and Er = 2.26
for the dielectric. What is its capacitance? Show lor this example that (4-155b) is written
((r) = I OOO(r - 1 - b - 1) if distance r is expressed in cm. Graph the potential ( versus r between
the conductors (in D.5-cm steps). Plot Er versus r on the same graph, noting the location and
value of Emax. What is the potential at the exact midpoint between the conductors?
4-20. (a) With the coaxial line E field given by (4-49), make use of its capacitance (4-51)
to obtain the relationship between E and the voltage V impressed between the conductors.
V
E=a --
P b
(4-156b)
p tn
a
At which p location between the coaxial conductors docs the E field have its maximum value?
(b) Given that the maximum allowable static E tleld in polyethylene should not exceed
1200 V imil ( = 1.20 MV lin. = 472 k V jcm) if dielectric breakdown is not to occur, calculate the
maximum dc voltage permitted between the conductors of the RG-2l3/U coaxial line ofProb-
lem 4-16.
SECTION 4-6
4-21. (a) Make use of (4-58e) to find the expression for the energy stored in the electrostatic
field of the parallel-plate capacitor of Figure 4-7 (a). (b) Make use of the energy result of (a) to
determine the capacitance C of the parallel-plate system.
4-22. Repeat Problem 4-21, this time for the spherical capacitor of Figure 4-7 (b).
4-23. A long circular coaxial line uses two concentric dielectric layers as illustrated for Problem
4-9. With Q, -Qresiding on each length t of the conductor surfaces a, c, respectively, the Dp
field between the conductors has been found to be Q/2npt. (a) Find, by usc of the line integral
(4-46), the voltage difference V between the conductors, assuming the zero potential reference
at p c. (Explain why a sum of two integrals is required.) Use the V result to find the capacitance
C of any length t of the system. Identify the answer as the series combination of the capacitance
contributions associated with the two dielectric regions between the conductors. (b) Use (4-58e)
to determine the electrostatic energy of a length t of the system. (Explain why the sum of two
integrals is needed.) Use the U
e
result to obtain the capacitance C of the system.
SECTION 4-7 J
4-24. The parallel-plate capacitor of Figure 4-7 has the upper plate (x = d) at zero potential
while that of the lower plate is at the potential V. Ignoring fringing, solve Laplace's equation
(4-68) for ((x) subject to the proper boundary conditions. Find E from (4-31).
,
PROBLEMS 249
4-25. For the spherical capacitor of Figure 4-7, assume <1>(a) V and <1>(b) O. Integrate
Laplace's equation (4-68) for <1>(r) , subject to the given boundary conditions. Find E using (4-31).
4-26. A pair of conducting cones, ideally of infinite extent, are located at (il and (iz as shown,
separated by a charge-Irec dielectric of permittivity E. A voltage difference V is impressed at the
infinitestimal gap between their apices at the origin to provide the potentials <1> 0 and Von
the conductors as indicated. (a) Argue from the points of view of symmetry and the boundary
conditions for <1> as to why the Laplace's equation (4-68) must here reduce to
~ sin (i- = 0
I d ( d<1
sin 0 dO df)
(4-157)
(b) Solve 157) by means of two integrations, obtaining the solution [or the potential between
the cones
in which C
1
, C
z
are arbitrary COllstants. (cl Apply the given boundary conditions at 0 0
1
and O
2
to evaluate the arbitrary constants, showing that
tan (0/2)
t 7 1 - - - ~
<1>(0) = V tan (0
2
/2)
tan (Od2)
tn----
tan (0
2
/2)
(d) Find the electrostatic field between the cones, obtaining
V
E
(4-158)
( 4-159)
4-27. For a particular biconical conductor system as analyzed in Problem 4-26, let 0
1
= 30,
O
2
= 150
0
, E = Eo, V = 100 V. (a) Sketch this system. Show from (4-158) that on its symmetry
(z)
~ ~ - - - - - r - - - - ____ '/
PROBLEM 4-26
/
/
'['=0 0
P(r.H)
291
250 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
7r -- -- </>=0
PROBLEM 4-28
plane 0 = 90, <P = 50 V. (b) Solve (4-158) explicitly for the angle (1 in terms of<p, showing that
o = 2 are tan ------ tan -
[(
tan ((11/2)<I>IV 02J
tan (0
2
/2) 2
(4-160)
Use this to graph 11 versus <P between the conduetors at 10-V intervals. (e) Use (4-159) to calculate
the graph Eo versus (1. (d) Calculate the surface charge density Ps as a function of r on the upper
conductor, making usc of the boundary condition (3-45). Determine how much charge q resides
on the upper conductor out to an r-valuc of I m .
4-28. The circular coaxial line shown here in sectional view uses two dieleetrics of perm itt iv-
ities E1 and E2 extending over the 4> intervals (0, n) and (n, 2n), respectively. Assume the con-
ductors statically charged with q, - If on the inner and outer conductors to make <P(a) = V
and <P( b) = O. (a) Refer to Example 4-12 to confirm that the potential solution <P(p) of (4-70)
is correct for this two-dielectric problem, and that the E solution (4-71)' is also applicable to both
rcgions. (Is the boundary condition (3-79) satisficd at the interfaces at 4> = 0 and 4> = n?) What
are thus thc solutions for the fields 0
1
and O
2
in the regions? (b) Use the boundary condition
(3-45) at p a to dctcrmine the expression for the total charge q on any length t of the inner
conductor. Obtain the capacitance by usc of (4-48), showing that
C = nt(El + (2 )
b
tn
a
(4-161 )
Identify the answer as cquivalent to the parallel combination of thc capacitances contributed
by the top and bottom halves of this coaxial systcm. Furthcr show that the eapacitance of this
two-dielectric system is the same as that of a coaxial capacitor with a single dielectric having
an E that is the average OfEl and E
2
(e) If this system consisted of half polyethylene and half air
with a = 2 mm and b = 7 mm, find its Cit.
4-29. In the two-dielectric coaxial system of Problem 4-23, make use of (4-53e) to determine
the electrostatic energy of any length t. Use the result to deduce its capacitance .
.. 4-30. The coaxial line illustrated is similar to that of Problem 4-28 except that the first region
(E1) extends over the arbitrary angular interval (0,4>1) as shown. (a) Confirm by the methods
of Example 4-12 that the 4> and E solutions in the two regions are unchanged. Determined 0
1
and O
2
in the two rcgions. (b) Make use of the boundary condition (3-45) on the inner conductor
(p = a) to determine the total surface charge If on any length t. By use of (4-43), find the capaci-
tance C, obtaining
C = t[El4>l + E2(2n - 4>1)]
b
tn
a
(4-162)
PROBLEMS 251
PROBLEM 4-30
(c) With a = 2 mm, b = 7 mm, region 1 a polyethylene wedge 5 wide and region 2 air, find
CIt for this system. Sketch it. Compare its Cjt with that obtained for a completely air dielectric.
SECTION 4-9
4-31. Employ the definitions of the hyperbolic functions to show that the solution (4-88a) of
the two-dimensional LapJace equatiolJ (4-82) can be expressed equivalently as
(4-163a)
in which C
1
, C
2
, C ~ C ~ are arbitrary constants. The equivalent form of the alternative solution
(4-88b) is seen to be
(4-l63b)
4-32. The very long rectangular conducting channel, with interior dimensions a, b as shown,
is insulated at its top corners [rom a conducting cover plate that is at <I> = Va V. Use an appro-
priate solution of thc two-dimensional Laplace equation, subject to the appropriate boundary
iL
-==- Vo
b
\"
1
<1>=0
(x)
a
PROBLEM 4-32
29]
y(
252 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC EI,ECTR1C FIELDS
conditions, to obtain the potential <I>(x,y) at any interior point, showing that
<I>(x,y) = 2 Vo f: _1_-_(,--_1,-- sinh nny sin nnx
n n= 1 . 1mb a a
n smh
a
l
ny 3ny j
sinh sinh-
4 Vo a nx I a 3nx
-- ---- sin + sin + ...
n nb a 3 3nb a
sin sinh
a a
164)
[Hint: Noting that both terms lxY and e -kxY of solution (4-BBa) arc needed to satisfy the boundary
condition <I>(x, 0) = 0, it is more convenient to usc the equivalent hyperbolic solution developed
in Problem 4-31. Observe that sinh u -> 0 and cosh u -> 1 as u -> 0.]
4-33. For the long, covered conducting channel of Problem 4-32, assume V = 100 V and
a = b (square cross section) and usc (4-164) to calculate the potential <I> (x,y) in the cross section
at the nine points detemdned by the intersections ofx = a/2, a/2 and 3a/4 withy = a/4, a/2, and
3a/4. Sketeh the cross section, labeling the potentials found at the indicated points. Usc the
sketch as a basis for estimating the shapes of the <I> = 25 V and <I> 50 V equipotential contours
in the cross sections.
4-34. (al Make use of 164) to find the series expression for the E field at any P(x,y) in the
conductive channel described in Problem 4-32. (b) Assmning V = 100 V and a = b I m,
evaluate E(x,y) at the following points: (0, , (a/2, and (a, a/2). (c) Assuming air di-
electric, use results of (b) to determine the surface charge density at the conductor locations
(0, and a/2).
SECTION 4-10
4-35. The very long rectangular conducting channel viewed sectionally in the figure has di-
mensions as indicated by the square-grid overlay. Thl' cover plate is at 100 V with the remaining
sides at 0 V. Write the expression (4-9Id) for the potential at the three indicated interior points,
taking advantage of the symmetry about the plane A. Solve the simultaneous linear equations
for the potentials. Show a labeled sketch denoting the potential values obtained.
4-36. Use the exact Fourier expression (4-164) to verify the potentials in the last column of the
table at the end of Example 4-15; also calculate the values of <1>1, <1>2'
4-37. Repeat Problem 435 for the square conducting channel shown, making use of the sym-
metry about the plane B. Find the six potentials at the indicated points (a) by matrix methods;
A
I
I
q,= 100V \
I
I I
I
I
,.._1+_+_
2' I
--..1-- .. --
I I
31 I
--.,.- 1--
\ :
-
<1'-0 I
I
PROBLEM 4-35
B
Insulated
corners
(1)= 100V
I
I I
4
'
I
I
f--t
1+-
1
--
51 21
I
- - t - - . . - - ~
6
1
3
1
I
,.....-+---t-- -+--
: i
I
I
(!)=O
PROBLEM 4-37
I
I
I
PROBLEM 4-33
C
I
I
I I I
-.--+ "--+---1
21 4 I 51 61
--+-.-.-
I 11 31
-+-+-
I I
-+-
I
+
I I I
-+- +-+
I I I
+--1- -1-
I I I
PROBLEM 4-40
PROBLEMS 253
4>=0
(b) by iteration. (c) Use the Fourier expression (4-164) to check for the correct potential at point
2, the center of the channel.
.. 4-38. The very long conducting channel, of triangular cross section as shown, has dimensions
given by the square-grid overlay. The upper cover is at 100 V relative to the other two sides. Solve
for the six unknown potentials by (a) matrix methods and (b) iteration.
4-39. Double the linear grid density of the potential points in both directions in Problem 4-38
to provide 28 unknowns, making use of symmetry). Solve for the unknown potentials by iteration
(use of a computer is advised). Showing labeled potential values on a reasonably sized repro-
duction of this system (using gridded papcr), sketch in equipotential contours at <ll = 20, 40,
60, and 80 V.
.. 4-40. Inside a square, hollow conductor is coaxially placed a square conductor canted by
45 with respect to it, as shown in the figure. Relative dimensions are suggested by the square
grid overlay, and the inner conductor is at the potential of 100 V relative to the outer one. Noting
the symmetries about planes Band C, 'write the expression (4-9Id) f()r the potentials at the six
indicated points. Solve for the unknown potentials using (a) matrix methods; (b) iteration. On
a sketch of the system, label the potentials obtained.
SECTION 4-11
4-41. Begin with the expression (4-96) for the potential at P(x,.Y) of the two-line charge system
to derive, by completing any omitted details, the equation (4-100) for the equipotential circles
defined by the parameter K. Show the details leading to determining (4-104), the expression
for K as a function of hjR, as a quadratic solution from (4-101) and (4-102). ClarifY the
29]
tI
meanings of the s i n ~ (4-104). Finally, assume two conductors, spaced 2h center-to-center Iltll
and of radius R each, to fill in two corresponding equipotential cylinders as depicted in Figure
4-13. Sketch this system of Figure 4-14( b) in a sectional view. Establish the conductor potentials,
given now by (4-96), as being
q h+d
<1>0 = --t n --
2nd R
and
h-d
-<llo = tn
2nd R
respectively, with d
tance (4-107).
From this information deduce the parallel-wire line capaci-
254 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
4-42. (a) For the parallel-wire line of Fii.(ure 4-H(b), convert its potential field <I> (x,]) , i.(iven
by (4-96), to a form dependent on the vol tai.(e V between the conductors by use of the capaci tanee
result (4-107), showini.( that
V R2
<I>(x,y) =----tn-
Ii + d RI
2 tiN
R
(4-165)
in which R
J
and R2 arc defined by (4-97), and the quantity (h + d)jR can be shown to have
other equivalent ti:lrms, for example,
h+d d+h-R h+R+d
~ ~ - - = - - ~ - - - ~ =
R d h+R h+R d
(4-166)
provided that d JizZ - Ri. (h) As a check, show that (4-165) reduces to the expected potential
values at the f()llowing conductor-surface points: PI (Iz - R, 0), P2(h + R, 0) on the positive
conductor; also a\ P
3
( -Iz - R, 0), P
4
( Iz + R, 0). Sketch the cross-sectional view of the line,
laheling the point locations. (c) Apply (4-:)1) to 65) to t1nd the E-field expression at any
P(x,y), showing that
v {(x d x + d) (]
E(x,y) = 2 n ~ aX-if - R ~ + a
y
l ~
(4-167)
R
in which RI and R2 are defined by (4-97).
4-43. A parallel-wire line consists of two conductors, each of 5-cm radius, separated in air
by 20 em center-to-eenter. (a) Sketch this system (cross-sectional view), labeling R, It, and d.
Show a few representative E-flux lines connecting the virtual image charges at d, -d. Use
physical reasoning to explain why you expect the maximum E field of this system to be at the
points on the x-axis whCl'e the conductors are nearest to each other. (b) Assuming 1000 V
between the conductors, make use of (4-167) in Problem 4-42 to calculate the electric field at
the surface point P(11 - R, 0) on the positive conductor. Show this V(:ctO[ on your sketch. (c) Use
the appropriate boundary condition to determine the surfzlce charge density at P(h R,O).
(el) What must the voltage between the conductors be, to produce the E-field magnitude of
1 MV!m at P(h - R, OJ?
4-44. Repeat Problem 4-43, except assume the wire radii to be R 2 mm.
4-45. (a) A parallel-wire telephone line uses 165-mil (OA19-cm) diameter bare copper con-
ductors with 12-in. (30.5-cm) center-to-eenler spacing. Find the capacit,ince between the con-
ductors in pF/m; in J1FJmile. (b) Repeat (a), assuming il-in. spacing.
SECTION 4-12 '""
4-46. (a) Use superposition combined with the method of images to derive an approximate
expression for the capacitance between two long, parallel wires of radii al and a
2
, each spaced
Iz above an infinite conducting ground plane as in Figure 4-16( b), assuming the center-lo-center
separation D. Sketch this labeled system. Show that
c 2nE
(4-168)
t
(b) Show, in the limit as It -> 00 (the ground plane is removed), that (4-168) becomes the
result (4-110).
PROBLEMS 255
PROBLEM 4-50
4-47. A parallel-wire line in air, with conductors of unequal radii and located above a ground
plane as in Figure 4-16(b), has the dimensions at 3 mm, a
2
= 1 mm, D = 20 em, and
It[ = h
z
= It = 10 em. (a) Sketch the system, and find its distributed capacitance by usc of
(4-168). (b) Obtain the capacitance of this system with the ground plane removed, finding it
by usc of (4-110).
4-48. Repeat Problem 4-47, this time assuming the parallel-wire system to have different
spacings It[ and h
z
above the ground plane, as shown in Figure 4-16(b).
SECTION 4-13
4-49. For each of the three Hux plots given in Figure 4-21, find the Cit, assuming air
dielectric. In (e) of that figure, find the value of Cit corresponding to the width between
tooth-centers.
4-50. Shown is the sectional view ora conducting elliptic cylinder within a round conducting
pipe, dimensioned as noted. (a) Use Iield-mapping techniques to lind the capacitance per unit
length (Cjt) of this system. Assume air dielectric. (Employ at least one equipotential surface, at
I]) = V12, sketched between the conductors, using curvilinear squares as a basis as exernplilied
in Figure 4-21. Take advantage of symmetries to reduce the amount of sketching needed, ob-
serving that straight flux lines coincide with the symmetry planes.) (b) Denote the location(s)
in the system where the maximum electric field is to be found, explaining your reasoning. (c) If
the dielectric permittivity were 4E
o
, what new value of Cjt would be obtained?
4-51. Repeat Proqlem 'i-50, in this case for the round cylindrical conductor eccentrically
located within the rotind pipe as shown. Compare this Cit result with that obtained on moving
PROBLEM 4-51
291
lIat
r oj
tht
01
256 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
PROBLEM 4-52
the inner conductor to its coaxial location, obtaining the latter answer analytically. Comment
on this comparison.
4-52. Repeat Problem 4-50, this time for the square conducting bar located inside the round
pipe as shown. (Note that symmetry planes can be drawn through opposite corners of the square
conductor.)
4-53. Repeat Problem 4-50, in this instance lor the round cylindrical rod above the infinite
ground plane shown. Compare your graphical solution with that obtained using the exact ex-
pression (4-106), assuming air dielectric.
4-54. Repeat Problem 4-50, here for the infinitely wide, equispaced gridded system of rods as
shown. The grid-rods are assumed electrically neutral ("floating"), with no net charge on each.
Compare the Cit result obtained, for every width 4a as shown, with that obtained in the absence
of the grid rods, assuming air dielectric.
T-
d=2"
l ()=o
W////X1//////-//ffi///7//mM
PROBLEM 4-53
-l-
<I>=V
o o
f8- -j---jL--j--- (1)='''
_ t-;_% ___
PROBLEM 4-54
PROBLEMS 257
SECTION 4-14
4-55. Let the system of Figure 4-21 (a) employ a lossy dielectric with Er = 4 and (J =
10--
6
mho/m. Find the capacitance and the conductance per meter depth. What resistance is
seen by de voltage source connected between the conductors of a 5 m long sample of this two-
eonductor system?
4-56. (a) A coaxial line with a = 1.5 m, b = 4.8 mm has a dielectric with Er = 2.60 and loss
tangent E" /E' = 10 - 4 at the frequency I = 10
6
Hz. Find its capacitance and conductance per
meter. (b) If a 4-em-long section of this coaxial cable is used as a capacitor at 10
6
Hz, find its
equivalent parallel RC circuit, and its Q. How arc its Q ancl loss tangent related?
4-57. Two circular conductive rods 2.5 em in diameter are driven into wet earth 15 em be-
tween centers, to a depth of 1 m. 1000-1-1z bridge measurements between the conductors show
the system to be equivalent to a 67.3 pF capacitor in parallel with a 985.9 Q resistor. Determine
the Er and (J of this soil, neglecting field fringing at the bottom of the rods. [Answer: Er = 6.0,
(J = 0.0008 mho/m]
4-58. A rectangular box has the inside dimensions 12 x 8 x 2.5 cm, the opposite 12 x 8 em
sides being conducting plates. A sample of the wet earth of Problem 4-57 is packed inside. Using
the answers to that problem, deduce the resistance and capacitance values expected to be mea-
sured between the plates. Which of these two measuring schemes is the more precise? Explain.
4-59. Deposited conductive films, like conductive paper, can be used in the modeling of two
dimensional systems in Figure 4-25), or in the evaporation or beam deposition of thin resis-
tive dements on a suitable Honconductive surface. (a) Determine, by use of (4-131), the resistance
R between the ends of a thin conductive film of uniform thickness. If the film is subdivided into
a number of curvilinear cells, with rls in series between the constant-potential ends and rip in
parallel in the transverse direction, show that (4-1,11) can be wri tten in the f(Jl'm (where R = C- 1)
(1)
in which Rsq = l/ad, called the "resistance per (curvilinear) square" of the film. (Note that the
symbol d replaces t in (4-131) to denote the film thickness.) (b) Find the resistance per square
of a metal film 0.15 Jim thick, if the metal conductivity is (J = 10
4
mho/m. If (J = 10
7
mho/m.
(c) A film of aluminum (a 3.6 x 10
7
mho/m) is deposited 0.1 Jim thick on an SiO
z
substrate.
What is its per-square resistance? This film is deposited as rectangular stripe of width w = I mil =
25.4 Jim and length t = 12 mil (an interconnection on a VLSI layout). Use (1) to determine
quickly the resistance between the ends of the stripe. [Answer: (b) 667 Q pcr squarel
4-60. Using a resistive paper model as suggested by Figure 4-25(a), the toothed structure of
Figure 4-21 (c) is modek,d by applying silver paint electrodes of the shapes shown onto resistive
paper measuring 1000 Q per square. From the curvilinear square field sketch of Figure 4-21(c),
what G and R values would be measured between the electrodes?
SECTION 4-15
4-61. A variable air capacitor, using a rotating, multiplate rotor, provides a linear capacitance
variation from 30 to 500 pF as the rotor rotates from 0 to 260
0
Determine the electrostatic torque
on this rotor at any arbitrary angle setting, when 5000 V are applied.
29]
tl
CHAPTER5 ____________________________________________ __
Static and Quasi-Static
Magnetic Fields
The static magnetic fields of steady currents and the fields of relatively
slowly time-varying currents are considered in this chapter. Ampere's law is applied to
symmetrical current configurations and to magnetic circuits containing high perme-
ability cores, for the purpose of obtaining their magnetic fields. The static magnetic
potential, a vector function, is inferred, and from this, the Biot-Savart law. Faraday's
law then leads into the concepts of self and mutual inductance and the energy and
forces of the magnetic field.
5-1 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY
CONDITIONS FOR STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
In Section 4-1 it was pointed out that static magnetic fields are required to satisfy
only the Maxwell equations (4-3) and (4-4)
VB=O (5-1)
v X H=J (5-2)
The divergenceless property (5-1) specifies that B flux lines are always closed, whereas
(5-2) states that the sources of static magnetic fields are steady currents of density J.
The divergenceless property of any direct current distribution in space is moreover
assured by (3-82c)
VoJ=O (5-3)
258
:;-2 AMPERE'S CIRCUITAL LAW 259
although this property of direct current is not independent of Maxwell's equations,
in view of the fact that (5-3) is a consequence of taking the divergence of (5-2). The
three foregoing differential equations have integral counterparts given by the static
versions of (3-49), (3-66), and (3-82b) as follows.
ds = 0
(5-4)
i
H
'
dt (5-5)

(5-6)
whereas the constitutive relationship between Band H at any point, for the linear,
homogeneous, and isotropic materials considered in this chapter, is given by (3-64c)
B= tlH (5-7)
The boundary conditions for magnetic fields have already been derived in
Chapter 3 under the general assumption of time variations for the fields, though they
remain unaltered under static conditions. These are given by (3-50), (3-71), and
(3-132) as follows.
(5-8)
(5-9)
Jnt - Jn2 = 0
(5-10)
assuring the continuity of the normal components of the static Band J fields at any
interface, as well as the tangential components of H.
The presence of a current in a finitely conductive region implies the presence of
an E field, in view of relation (3-7) that J = O"E, yielding the possibility of coupling
the static magnetic field with an electrostatic field.
5-2 AMPERE'S CIRCUITAL LAW
Ampere's circuitalbJ:w for the static magnetic field in free space was initially discussed
in Section 1-11. The presence of a magnetic material with a permeability Jl in the
region of interest was taken into account by the definition (3-58) of the field H, the
law in this event becoming (5-5)
[5-5]
291
rna
Figure 5-1 illustrates (5-5) relative to a conductor compelled to carry a steady current tot
1. Thus, the line integral ofH, around the dosed path tl shown, yields the value zero
because the current i enclosed by that particular choice of path is zero. On the other
hand, the current piercing S2 is precisely the current I carried by the conductor,
whereas i = 0 for the assumed path t3 because the current I flows both into and out
of 8
3
to provide canceling contributions to i.
260 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
Positive
integration
ds sense

ds
FIGURE 5-1. Showing typical closed paths t" t
z
, and t3 chosen to illustrate Ampere's law and
the interpretation of the current i.
Two important interpretations of Ampere's circuital law are the following
1. Sleady current sources possess magnetic flux line distributions that, at positions
in space near the sources, are directed in accordance with the right-hand rule.
2. Ampere's circuital law may be used as the basis for finding the H field (and
thus B) of a steady current if the physical symmetry of the problem permits ex-
tricating the desired field from the integral.
Applications of2 to finding the static magnetic fields of systems exhibiting simple
symmetries have been given in Examples 1-13, 1-15, and 3-4. Additional examples
involving conductors wound about symmetrically shaped magnetic materials are given
here.
EXAMPLE 51. Two long, coaxial, circular conductors carry the steady current I as shown in
Figure 5-2. Assume constant current densities over each conductor cross section. The
region a < p < b is filled with a magnetic material of constant permeability /1; the region
b < p < c is air. Find Band H in the two regions. Sketch their graphs versus p, assuming
/1 = 100/10'
From symmetry and the application of the right-hand rule, the magnetic field is
everywhere <p directed, that is, H = a",H",. Ampere's law (5-5) applied to a symmetric
pa th t of radius p (shown in region I) yields
and because f dt = 2np, solving for H", obtains
(5-11 )
\
(a)
Magnetic sleeve
(region 1)
Air (region 2)
5-2 AMPERE'S CIRCUITAL LAW 261
o '--a.1..--
b
==,"-c--_" -- P
(b)
FIGURE 5-2. Coaxial line partly filled with magnetic materiaL (a) Cutaway view of the
line. (b) Fields produced by I.
This result is independent of Jl, which mcans that it applies to both thc magnetic re-
gion 1 and the air region 2. Thus the B field in each region is found by inserting (5-11)
into (5-7)
JlI
B=a.p-
2np
B
Jlol
a.p2np
a<p<b
b<p<c (5-12)
These results show that if region I had a permeability Jl 100110, B.p just inside the mag-
netic region (at p = b -) would be 100 times as dense as on the air side. This is illustrated
by the solid curve of Figure 5-2(b). Thus nearly all of the flux of B resides within the
magnetic material, if Jl Jlo
EXAMPLE 52. Suppose an n turn, closely wound toroidal coil with a rectangular cross section
is filled with a magnetic material of constant permeability Jl from a to b as in Figure 5-3(a).
With a current Fin-the coil, find Band H in the two regions; sketch their relative mag-
nitudes if 11 = 100Jlo for the magnetic materiaL Compare the total magnetic flux t/lm in
the core ifit is all air with that obtained ifit is all magnetic material, assuming Jl = lOOllo.
From the symmetry it is evident that Ampere's law is useful for finding Hi choose
t as a circle with the radius p shown in Figure 5-3. From the symmetry and the right-
hand rule, H must be 11 directed and of constant magnitude on t. Equation (5-5) then
yields
whence
nI
H -
.p - 2np
( 5-13)
291
fll
lOr ;
Ct
:d
led
urH
m;
11th
tol
1-5
262 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
(a)
Magnetic
material
(iJ.)
Air (iJ.o)
~ f a <,< b)
: I
I I
I I
"' I
: ...... '-i ..... .Hcp
: : ''1
I I
Bcp = 0: I Bcp (b < p < c)
o abc -?<-p
(b)
FIGURE 5-3. A toroid of rectangular cross sectiou, partially filled with a magnetic materiaL
(a) Dimensions of toroid. (b) Interior fields.
Using (5-7), B in the magnetic and air regions of the core becomes
/1
n1
a", 2np
a<p<b
/10
111
B = aq)5", = a", 2np
b<p<c
The graphs of thcsc quantities are shown in Figure 5-3(b).
If the core is all air, the total B flux in it becomes
r B ds
JS(core)
f.
d iC /10
711
--dpdz
z=O p=a 2np
/1onJd c
tn
2n a
(5-14)
For a completely magnetic core, /1 = 100/10 would appear in the foregoing answer in lieu
of /10, demonstrating the considerable increase in magnetic flux possible if an iron core
is used.
5-3 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS
It has been noted that a magnetic material oflarge permeability can aid in producing
large magnetic flux densities compared to what would exist without its use. From (5-1)
it is evident that physical magnetic fields must always consist of dosed flux lines. By
constraining the B flux to occupy the interior of closed (or nearly closed) paths of
magnetic material, one may speak of magnetic circuits with reference to those closed
paths.
Figure 5-4(a) shows an idealized magnetic circuit: a closely spaced toroidal
winding establishing a magnetic field within it, with essentially no magnetic flux out-
side the core, whether or not the core material is magnetic. If the winding is localized
on the core as in (b), the effect of a high-permeability core material (fl flo) is such
that the magnetic flux t/lm generated by the current I in the coil still appears almost
wholly within the boundaries of the core. The magnetic flux must consist of closed
(a)
Magnetic
flux
\
(b)
FIGlJRE 5-4, Development of magnetic circuit concepts,
spaced winding. (h) With a localized winding, showing leakage
netic circuit: leakage Hnx neglected,
5-3 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS 263
Median line
I
(c)
Toroidal core with closely
(e) A generalized mag-
lines as required by the divergence property (5-1), and because of the constraint sup-
plied by the refractive law (3-76) (requiring that B flux leave the surface of the high-
permeability magnetic core very nearly perpendicularly), one concludes that very
little can appear outside the core as leakageJlux if the permeability of the core is suffi-
ciently large. In cores having relative permeabilities of 10
2
to 10
4
or
more, the leakage flux developed external to a core may thereic)fe ordinarily be ne-
glected. The analytical determination of the leakage flux usually requires a rigorous
solution of the boundary-value problem of the magnetic system; in general, this is a
difficult process.
For present purposes concerned with magnetic circuits as in Figure 5-4, the mag-
netic core is assumed linear, homogeneous, and isotropic; furthermore, the leakage
flux is ignored, implying a constant flux t}! m through any cross section of a single-mesh
core. This flux is
(5-15a)
291
. fh
Jr (
til
d
cd
if S is any cross section. The need for knowing B at each point in the cross section iSTCI
obviated if t/lm is expressed in terms of an average flux density Bav over S; that is, 1m
./
(5-15b)
assuming Bav lies tangent to a median line t, as in Figure 5-4(c). Even for a toroid of
constant cross section, the median line will not lie precisely at the core center, for one
may recall from the solutions obtained in Example 5-2 the inverse p dependence of
B 1> in the core, In the following, the Bav is assumed at the center of the core cross section;
that is, the median line t is taken as the core center line. Then (5-15b) becomes a good
approximation if the core is thin.
To find the flux t/I m developed by the current I in the core of the single magnetic
circuit of Figure 5-4(c), apply Ampere's law to the median path t; that is,
J. H' dt = rtl A
jt
( 5-16)
cm
tot
i-5
)-5
Yc
264 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
in which dt = atdt, and H = RIp, = atBav/p,. Making use of (5-15b)
In the generalized case, the cross-sectional core area A can be a variable depending on
the location along the median path t, and it is designated A(t). The core flux tf1m
through any cross section along t is constant if the leakage flux is neglected, obtaining
nI
tf1m = dt Wb
~ p,A(t)
( 5-17a)
It is seen that (5-17a) is the analog of Ohm's law (4-136), of the form I = VIR and
applicable to the thin, de circuit of Figure 4-26, reproduced here in Figure 5-5 (b).
Thus (5-17a) can be written in the analogous form
(5-17b)
in which ;g; = nI is called the applied magnetomotive force (mmf), the analog of the
applied voltage V (or emf; electromotive force) in the analogous electric circuit of
Figure 5-5(b). The denominator q{ of (5-17b) is called the reluctance of this series mag-
netic circuit, defined by
~
dt
q{= --A/Wb
t p,A(t)
or (5-18)
which from Figure 5-5 is seen to be the analog of the resistance R, given by (4-137)
if/m
Median line
{
(JL)
(a)
Median line
{
(0-)
(b)
(<TO = 0)
FIGURE 5-5. Dc magnetic and electric circuit analogs. Leakage flux is neglected in the
magnetic circuit. (a) Magnetic circuit. Magnetic flux is generated by the source ni. (b) Electric
circuit. Current flux is generated by the source V.
5-3 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS 265
for the electric circuit of Figure 5-5 (b). Its reciprocal (analogous to conductance) is
called the permeance of the magnetic circuit.
If the magnetic core has a constant cross-section A and a constant permeability j1, the
reluctance (5-18) reduces to.o/I = t/j1A, whence (5-17) yields the special result for the
core flux
./, __ nI __ ~
'I'm ~ t Single-mesh; constant A, j1 ( 5-19)
This result applies to the magnetic circuit of Figure 5-4(b) neglecting leakage flux and
assuming a reasonably thin core.
More general magnetic circuits might consist of series arrangements of magnetic
materials as in Figure 5-6. A narrow air gap (oflength t
g
) can also be included, of
interest in the design of relays and in the linearization of iron core inductors, or a gap
might be a mechanical necessity as in a motor or generator. For the series system of
Figure 5-6(a), applying the reluctance integral (5-18) to the successive portions tb t
2
,
t3 and t 9 over which the permeabilities and cross sections are constants, obtains
(5-20a)
analogous to the resistance of the series electric circuit shown. The field-fringing effects
near the edges of a small gap are neglected in Ihe air gap reluctance term ~ g Sub-
stituting the total, series reluctance ~ given by (5-20a) into 7) obtains
i- v
~ -R,+R.+R3+Rg
V ~ R 2
Ra
-1 r- fg (air gap)
,f, nf
,/'f'm= 9i'J+i!l2
Ai
-- t2
(a) (b)
FIGURE 5-6. Examples of series magnetic circuits and their electric circuit analogs. (a) A series
magnetic circuit and its electric circuit analog. (b) A rectangnlar configuration of high perme-
ability materials.
(5-20b)
291
t\a
or 0
t th,
1se 0
eel
~ d
led
rren
urm
ar
(
rna
thin
tot:
5-5:
Yo
266 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
which is analogous to the Kirchhoff voltage expression R1i + R2i + R3i + Rgi = Vfor
the analogous, four-resistor electric circuit of Figure 5-6(a). Thus, the similarity of the
"voltage drop" terms Ri in the latter to the analogous terms of (5-20b) suggests that
the source-term nI should be called an "mmf rise," and the fJtt/lm terms be viewed as
"mmf drops" (also called "nI-drops" or "ampere-turn drops") in this characteristic
magnetic-circuit expression. Extending (5-20b) to the general case of any number n of
magnetic reluctances connected in a series magnetic circuit, you have
(5-20c)
The series magnetic circuit result (5-20b) can alternatively be expressed in terms
of the Hav fields appearing within the series reluctance elements. Applying Ampere's
law to the series magnetic circuit of Figure 5-6(a), for example, yields
which has the general form
n
L Hav,kt k = nI
k=l
for the n-element series magnetic circuit.
(5-20d)
(5-20e)
A comparison of (5-20e) with (5-20c) shows that these governing relations for
magnetic circuits are identical term-for-term; that is, the "mmf drop" associated with
any reluctance element of a series magnetic circuit can be expressed either as the prod-
uct fJtt/lm or as Havt. The identity
( 5-20f)
is evident from the definitions of the quantities.
EXAMPLE 53. A toroidal iron core of square cross section, with a 2-mm air gap and wound
with 100 turns, has the dimensions shown. Assume the iron has the constant p. = 1000p.o.
Find (a) the reluctances of the iron path and the air gap and (b) the total flux in the circuit
if I = 100 mA. (c) Find Bav and Hav in the iron core and in the air gap. (el) Show, irom
an integration ofR' dt about the median path, that Ampere's law (5-16) is satisfied.
(a) The reluctance of the iron path, having a median length tl 2n(0.05) = 0.314 m
and cross-sectional area A 1 = 4 x 10 - 4 In
2
, is
tl 0.314-0.002 6
: J l ~ = 4=0.621 x 10 H 1
- IllAl 103(4n x 10 7)4 x 10
The air gap reluctance, assuming no fringing, becomes
:J = ~ = 0.002
9 p.oAl 4n x 10-
5-3 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS 267

EXAMPLE 5-3
(b) The magnetic flux is given by (5-17), that is, the magnetomotive force nl of the coil
divided by the reluctance of the series circuit
10
2
(0.1 )
4.6 x 10
6
2.18 X 10-
6
Wb
With the air gap absent, V! m is limited only by the reluctance 9f I of the iron path,
becoming V!m = 15.97 X 10-
6
Wb.
(c) Since only the total magnetic flux in the iron and air-gap cross section is available,
no detailed p-dependence of the corresponding o/-directed Band H fields is ob-
291
tainable; only average values can be found. With the same V!m in both the iron core e f1a
and air-gap cross section, the same Bau is expected in each, becoming lOr (
V!m 2.18 X 10-
6
, It th
Bau = - = = 5.45 ml
Al 4 x use (
e ce
The continuity of this Bau at the iron-air interface satisfies the boundary condition
Bnt = B.2 of (3-50), while producing an abrupt discontinuity in the average H fields
there. Thus, in the iron, lied
while in the air gap
5.45 X 10-
3
--,;----;;- = 4.34 A/m
Bav
Havy = - = 4340 A/m
, lio
just Ii, = 1000 times as large as HaD,Fe'
(d) With the substitution of Hau,Fe and Hau.g into the line integral (5-16)
H dt = Hav,Fetl + Hau,gty 4.34(0.312) + 4340(0.002) = 10.0 A
which agrees with the right side of (5-16), i = nl 10 A.
Irn:1
unr
les (
1m
d.til
tot
Yo
268 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC .FIELDS
In (5-20a) the air-gap permeability ordinarily is much smaller than and
of the magnetic materials in a bonafide magnetic circuit. This means that for even
a small air gap, the gap reluctance term can often be orders of magnitude larger than
the reluctance of the rest of the circuit. A good approximation in such cases is that the
core flux is determined essentially by the air-gap reluctance only; that is,
For practical reasons concerned with fabrication problems, magnetic cores of
rectangular shape, like that of Figure 5-6(b), are in common use in devices such as
relays, inductors, and transformers. The approximations of the magnetic circuit con-
cept become greater in such configurations because of the difficulty in assigning correct
median lengths to the various legs of the rectangle, particularly if the cross sections are
large compared with the overall core dimensions.
An extension of the theory of magnetic circuits to systems having more than one
magnetic path is possible again through the use of the electric circuit analogy, as illus-
trated in Figure 5-7. Because the fluxes divide among the branches of the magnetic
circuit in just the way the currents do in a dc electric circuit, it is seen that writing
Ampere's law around the two magnetic meshes of Figure 5-7(a), for example, yields the
following equations
nI + .oJl
Z
t/tm2
o = - t/tm2) + .iJl
2
t/tm2
(5-21 )
in which are found from the mcdian paths t
l
, t
l
, t3 in Figure 5-7(a). For
linear core materials, (5-21) can be solved simultaneously to find the magnetic fluxes
t/tml and t/tm2'
The accuracy of the analysis of magnetic circuits through reluctance methods is
affected not only by the leakage flux problem and the assignment of median paths, but
also by the nonlinear B-H curves of ferromagnetic materials. Nonlinearity, as exhibited
in Figure 3-13, requires that the permeability be expressed as afunction of the H field
in the core, or One cannot find H, on the other hand, until a value of has been
assigned to the circuit (or values of to its branches). Iterative processes are frequently
successful in such problems. Thus, if a trial value of magnetic flux is assumed for the
(a)
(Choice of median
paths corresponding
to Jl'h Jl'2,
V-=-
(b)
FIGURE 5-7. Two-mesh magnetic circuits and their electric circuit analogs. (a) A !w{Hnesh
magnetic circuit and its electric circuit analog. (b) A variation of (a).
5-4 VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTIAL 269 :91
circuit, the value of Il may be obtained; this result can then be used to determine a
new value of magnetic flux. This process is repeated until the desired accuracy of the
54 VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTIAL
Section 4-5 showed how the irrotational property (4-2) of the static E field permits
expressing E as the gradient of some auxiliary scalar potential function <f) through
(4-31). It was also shown how <f) can be found by use of (4-35a) integrated over the
free charge sources p".
An equivalent approach for determining static magnetic fields is also by use of an
auxiliary potential field, in this case a vector. Noting that any B field has the solenoidal
property (5-1), that is, V . B = 0, permits expressing B in terms of an auxiliary vector
function A by means of the curl relation
B=VxA (5-22)
in view of the vector identity (19) in Table 2-2, V' (V x A) O. The function A
defined by (5-22) is called the veclor magnetic potential field.
The vector magnetic potential A is related to steady current density sources J
responsible for the field B as follows. In a static magnetic field problem, the relation
(5-2), V x H J, is satisfied by the H field. It is also written
V x B IlJ (5-23)
for a region in which Il is constant; substituting (5-22) for B into (5-23) yields
V x (V X A) = IlJ (5-24)
This vector differential equation is simplified by use of the vector identity (2-88a)
V x (V x A) V(V' A) - V
2
A (5-25)
To assure the uniqueness of the potential A, both its curl and divergence must be
specified. The curl is given by (5-22), and div A appearing in (5-25) has not yet been
assigned. Assuming V . A = 0 does not conflict with any prior assumption, permitting
V x (V X A) in (5-24) to be replaced with -V2A to yield
(5-26)
This result, sometimes called the vector Poisson equation because of its similarity to (4-67),
is an inhomogeneous, linear diflerential equation relating A to its sources J, with Il
a constant in the region in question. The virtue of (5-26) lies in the availability of
several methods for finding its solutions, among which are the method of separation
of variables, and an integration approach described in the next section.
fla
r (
(b;
th
e (
ce
I
~
,er
nn
al
tit
-5
270 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
55 AN INTEGRAL SOLUTION FOR A IN
FREE SPACE: BIOT-sAVART LAW
An integral solution of (5-26) can be inferred as follows, assuming an unbounded
region of free space (It = Ito). In cartesian coordinates, the left side of (5-26) is written,
using (2-83),
whence (5-26) becomes the three scalar differential equations
Each of the latter is analogous to the Poisson equation (4-67)
Pv
E
( 5-27)
[4-671
the integral solution of which, in unbounded free space (E
charge of density Pv, has been shown to be (4-35a)
EO) containing a static
[ 4-35a]
There/ore, the analogous solutions of the three scalar differential equations (5-27) in
free space must he .
Adding these three integrals vectorially yields the desired integral solution of (5-26)
(5-28a)
The meaning of R in (5-28a) is the same as in (4-35a); it denotes the distance from
the source point P' to the field point P at which A is to be found. Once the A has
been obtained by means of (5-28a), the corresponding B field is ohtained from the
curl of A, using (5-22).
The geometry of a system with current sources of density J producing the vector
magnetic potential A given by (5-28a) is shown in Figure 5-8. Note that the integrand
5-5 AN INTEGRAL SOLUTION FOR A IN FREE SPACE: BIOT-SAVART LAW 271
dA
47TR
Field
I
dA =
./ 47TR
pr
\
\
\R
\
\
\
\
\

FIGURE 5-8. Three types of steady current distributions in space. (a) Volume distribu-
tion of elements Jdv'. (b) Surface distribution of elements Jsds'. (e) Line distribution of
elements J dv' -t I dt".
or (5-28a) is a differential dA given by
tI-om which it is seen that the current source J dv' at the typical source point
P' (U'l' produces, at any fixed field point P, a vector contribution dA parallel to
the element J dv'. Moreover, the magnitude of its influence at P is inversely propor-
tional to the distance R. These relationships are depicted in Figure 5-8(a).
In case of either a surface current (a current sheet) or a line current,! as noted
in Figures 5-8(b) and (el, (5-28a) reduces to the following surface and line integral
A(u u u) - r floJs( U'l' 113) ds'
1, 2, 3 - Js' 4nR
r flol dt'
Jt 4nR
(5-28b)
(5-28c)
I n practice, steady surface and line currents are approximated by physical currents
flowing in thin sheet conductors or thin wires. The vector magnetic potential results
(5-28a,b,c) deserve comparison with the analogous results (4-35a,b,c) for the scalar
electric potential fields of static charge distributions.
EXAMPLE 54. Find the vector magnetic potential in the plane bisecting a straight piece ofthin
wire of tinite length 2L in free space, assuming a direct current J as in Figure 5-9. Find
B from A.
lThe line element of current is shown in Fignre 5-8( c), enlarged into the volume element J dll' atJ dC' tis'
(] ds') (at dt') , which becomes just I dt' if the product] ds' denotes the finite current I in the line source.
291
Hal
r 0'
(b)
tht
eo
cel
rg)
b)
d
a:
Ita
)0
272 STATIC AND QUASi-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
: (z')
z' =L I
Source point
P'(O.O.z')
I
~ I d t =: azldz'
z'=: -L,
I
,
(p)
FIGURE 5-9. Geometry of a thin wire carrying a steady current I.
The fixed field point is on the plane z = 0 at pep, 0, 0). The typical current source
element at reo, 0, z') is I dt' = azI dz', and R from P' to Pis R = ~ p2 + (Z')2, putting the
line integral (5-28c) in the form
i
L floaJdz'
A 00- _.
(p,,)- z'=-L Tz 2
4nvp + (z')
The unit vector a
z
has the same direction at all r, yielding at P
One finds B at P using (5-22) in circular cylindrical coordinates
a
p
p
a",
B=VxA= 8
8p
0
0 0
For p L, (5-30) simplifies to
a
z
p
-a
0
'" 8p
A
z
flo
I
B=--a
2np 1>
flo
I
=a --
'" 2np
(5-29)
L
(5-30)
(5-31)
a result very nearly correct when near a finite-length wire, or correct at any p distance
for an infinitely long wire. In Example 1-13 (5-31) agrees with (1-64).
EXAMPLE 55. Find the A and B fields of a thin wire loop of radius a and carrying a steady
current I, as in Figure 5-10(a). Make approximations to provide valid answers at large
distances from the loop (assume a r).
5-5 AN INTEGRAL SOLUTION FOR A IN FREE SPACE: BIOT-SAVART LAW
(a)
Field point
P
R
Source point
P'
I
dA
FIGURE 5-10. Circular loop,
finding the static magnetic field at P.
use of symmetry to obtain fields at P.
I dtz'
t
(b)
(y)
dA= dAl+ dAz
(y)
the spherical coordinate geometry adopted for
Circular loop carrying a current I. (b) Making
273
Without detracting from the generality, the field point P can be located directly
above the y-axis as shown in Figure 5-10(b). The A field at P is given by (5-28c), in which
f dt' = aq,fad(f/. The variable direction of aq, in the integrand is handled by pairing the
eflcets of the current clements 1 dt
l
and f d t ~ at the symmetrical locations about the y-axis
in Figure 5-IO(b). From the geometry,
1 dt'l = aq,fa d4>' ax sin 4>' + a y cos 4>') fa d4>'
f d t ~ = (-ax sin 4>' - a y cos 4>') 1a d4>' (1)
to provide a cancellation of the y components of the potential contributions of the pair of
clements at P, leaving a net dA at P that is - x directed. Thus (5-28c) becomes
(2)
From the law of cosines applied to the triangle POP' in the figure, R2 = a
2
+ r2 -
2ar cos (l = a
2
+ (2 2ar sin 0 sin (//. If r a, one can approximate, making use of the
binomial theorem,2
[
a J1
1
2 [ a J
R ~ r 1 - 2 ; sin 0 sin 4>' ~ r I - ; sin 0 sin 4>' + ...
The reciprocal, for small a, is similarly approximated
1 1 a. . ,
~ -- + -- sm e sm 4>
R ( r2
2From the binomial theorem one may see that, in the expansion of (I b)", ifb 1 then (I b)";?; 1 nh.
291
flat
r 01
(b) ,
the'
e oj
eel,
rg)
b)
d
en'
l l ~
an
OJ
la)
:ll!
a
ta
iO
274 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
This puts (2) into the form
2/-lola .1:"/2
~ - -
q, - 4n q,'= [
~ + a sin e sin '] sin ' d'
n/2 r
(3)
The integral of the (sin ')jr term is zero, so integrating the second term yields the answer
(5-32)
Taking B = V X A in spherical coordinates therefore yields
(5-33)
if a r. The duality between the B field (5-33) of a small current-carrying loop and the
electric field (4-44) of a small electrostatic dipole is noted. This gives rise to the name
magnetic dipole, when reference is made to the field of a small loop earrying a steady
current.
Taking the curl of (5-28a) leads to an alternative free-space integral expression
for the B field of a static current distribution as follows.
B = V X A = V X r JicJ(U'l, u ~ U3) dv'
Jv 4nR
(5-34)
One may note that the differentiations imposed by the V operator in this expression are
with respect to the field point variables (u
1
, Uz, U3), whereas the integration is performed
within V with respect to the source point variables (U'l' . Thus R is a function of both
the source point and field point variables, since R =
so (5-34) becomes
B = r Jio V x [!J dv'
JV4n R
One can write V X [J/ R] from the vector identity (17) in Table 2-2
The last term is zero because J is a function of only the source point variables;
flll'thermore, the factor V (1/ R) can be expressed
if aR is a unit vector pointing from P' to P. Thus
5-5 AN INTEGRAL SOLUTION FOR A IN FREE SPACE: BIOT-SAVART LAW 275 n
(z) i
I
I
I
------0-----
(x) (y)
R
Source point
P'
Field point
P
FIGURE 5-11. A volume distribution ofcurreuts, showing the dB contribution ofa typical cur-
rent element J dv' from the Biot-Savart law.
obtaining
(5-35a)
This integral for B, expressed directly in terms of the static current distribution J in
free space, is known as the Biot-Savart law. It provides an alternative approach for
obtaining the magnetic fields of static current distributions in free space. Figure 5-11
shows the geometry relative to (5-35a), depicting a system of steady currents with
densities J, and a typical field point P at which B is found by means of (5-35a). The
differential contribution dB is given by the integrand of (5-35a)
meaning that dB contributed at P by J dv' is mutually perpendicular to both the
current element vector J and the unit vector aR, as depicted in Figure 5-11.
Specializations of the Biot-Savart law to surface or to line currents are readily
obtained. Thus, if the volume current of Figure 5-11 is contracted to a thin filament
of negligible cross section, putting J dv' --+ I dt' into (5-35a) obtains
(5-35b)
EXAMPLE 56. Usc the Biot-Savart law to find the B field of the thin wire of length 2L and
carrying a steady current, as given in Example 5-4.
The form (5-35b) of the law is applicable. In the circular cylindrical system as
shown in Figure 5-12, Idt' = azIdz', while a
R
is resolved into components as follows:
a
R
= a
p
sin Ct: - a
z
cos tt. = Ir 1 (app azz'). With R = .}p2 + (zy, (5-35b) becomes
hi
o
b)
tht
~ o
~ l
r g ~
ly
3;
en
in
ar
:c
la
11l
)t;
5(
'0
276 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
:(z')
'
T
Idf'
Source point R
P' z'
o ------------:.-:..-----
- ,
P Field
point
P
z'
a , , ~ ..... --.,,'\
- "', I
- - p - - - - ~ ~
--------- P
o
-
FIGURE 5-12. Geometry of'the straight wire of length 2L, using the Biot-Savart law to
find B.
and integrating obtains
(5-36)
Close to a wire of finite length (p L), or for an infinitely long wire, (5-36) becomes
B (5-37)
results that agree with those of Example 5-4.
5-6 QUASI-STATIC ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS
In previous sections of this chapter, only purely stalic magnetic fields, associated with
steady current distributions, were considered. Such fields are required to satisfy the
Maxwell integral laws (5-4) and (5-5) for all closed surfaGes or lines in the regions in
question, or equivalently the differential laws (5-1) and (5-2) for all points in the
regions. The boundary conditions, also to be satisfied at all interfaces, are (5-8) and
(5-9). If the current sources are generalized to the time-varying case, their fields are
then no longer purely magnetic but become electromagnetic, governed by all four
Maxwell equations, (3-24), (3-48), (3-59), and (3-77), with the boundary conditions
embracing the relations (3-42), (3-50), (3-70), and (3-79). For current sources that
vary slowly in time, however, approximate methods, termed quasi-static, may some-
times be employed to advantage. An instance has already been given in Example 1-16.
Quasi-static field solutions can be termed first-order solutions, because they do
not satisfy Maxwell's equations exactly except in the zero frequency limit. Another
view, bctter appreciated in Chapter 11 on radiation and antennas, is that the dimcn-
sions of the current-carrying system must be small compared with the wavelength AO
in free space
3
if the system is to be amenable to a quasi-static method of attack. This
3Suppose one assumes that a device such as a coil or capacitor should not exceed 0.01,1,0 in its maximum
dimension, adopted as a criterion for sufficient smallness to enable employing quasi-static analysis in the
description of its fields. Operation of the device at a frequency of 100 MHz implies that its size should then
not exceed 0.03 ill (3 em), since ,1,0 = 3 m at this frequency.
5-7 OPEN-CIRCUIT INDUCED VOLTAGE 277 91
constraint is equivalent to ignoring the finite velocity of propagation of the field from
the sources to the nearby field points of interest, amounting to ignoring field radiation
effects. A more sophisticated approach to quasi-static field solutions, using an appro-
priate power series representation of the fields, is described elsewhere.
4
The quasi-
static approach to field problems is sometimes the only method that provides ready
solutions to an otherwise difficult boundary-value problem. It has applications in the
discussion of the voltages induced in stationary or moving coils immersed in magnetic
fields that mayor may not be varying in time, as well as in the development of circuit
theory, particularly regarding concepts of self- and mu tual inductance, to be discussed
in subsequent sections.
EXAMPLE 57. Demonstrate that the approximate quasi-static fields of the long solenoid of
Example 1-18 obey the Maxwell's equations (3-59) and (3-77) exactly only in the static
field limit (}J -,> O.
The quasi-static Band E fields inside the solenoid were found to be
B(l) = azB
o
sin wt
wpBo
E(p, t) = -a.,--cos wt
2
Testing whether these fields satisfy (3-77), V X E = -aB/at, one finds
~
a
z
p
a.,
p
VxE= a = -azwB
o
cos wt
0 0
ap
0 pE., 0
(1)
(2)
revealing that Band E of (I) do indeed satisfy (3-77). This is to be expected, because E
was originally obtained using the integral form of (3-77), but Maxwell's equation (3-59),
reducing to V x H = aD/at within the solenoid, is not satisfied by (I). This is evident on
obtaining V X H = V x (B/Ilo) = 0, since B of (I) is independent of position inside the
a vanishing result only if w -> O. Thus (3-59) is satisfied only in the static field limit,
though an approximate equality prevails if w is sufficiently small.
57 OPENCIRCUIT INDUCED VOLTAGE
The transformer makes use of Faraday's law (3-77) to couple electromagnetic energy
from one electric circuit to another through the time-varying magnetic field. Typical
physical arrangements are diagramed in Figure 5-13. In (a) is shown the configuration
of Figure 1-25(b): a primary coil consisting of a long solenoid, encircled by a secondary
coil. Single-turn secondary coils are shown for simplicity; many turns are commonly
4See R. M. Fano, L. J. Chu, and R. B. Adler. Electroma.gnetic Fields, Energy and Forces. New York: Wiley,
1960, p. 221 If.
'!at
oj
b),
the
~ oj
:ell
rg)
b)
j "
en'
n ~
an
o
la'
53
or
278 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
B flux
Primary
Secondary
8;" ':3
(!Lo) Bj :' :3
~ C ~ ; ~
: ttttttt:
I I; I! 11
1111111
(a)
B flux
(b)
B flux
(c)
FIGURE 5-13. Typical transformer configurations. (al Primary coil a long solenoid. (b) Short
solenoid primary, secondary laterally displaced. (c) Gonfiguration of (b) with ferromagnetic core.
used to enhance the induced voltage V(t). A ferromagnetic or a ferrite core can also
be used in a magnetic circuit arrangement as in f'igure 5-l3(c), to augmentsubstan-
tially the magnetic flux intercepted by the secondary coil.
The voltage V(t) developed at an open-circuit gap in the secondary coil
5
of a
transformer is shown to be
V(t)
dl/l
m
--V
dt
(5-38)
in which l/I m denotes the magnetic flux intercepted by the surface S bounded by the
secondary winding. Suppose the coil shown in Figure 5-14(a) carries a time-varying
current 1(/). In the surrounding region, the accompanying magnetic field B(Ut, U2, U3, t)
induces an azimuthally directed, time-varying E field as described in Example 1-18
and depicted in the cross-sectional view of Figure 5-14(b). The secondary coil is shaped
such that Hux orB passes through the surface S bounded by the coiL This assures the
alignment of the conductor with the induced E field such that the free electrons in the
conductor are urged by the E field forces to move along the conductor as noted in
Figure 5-14(c). Thus an excess of electron charge accumulates at one end of the wire,
while a dearth of electrons (a positive charge) is established at the other, producing
about the gap another electric field denoted by Eo. Then the total E field about the
system becomes E = El + Eo. Faraday's law (3-78) written about the closed path
including the secondary coil and its gap thus becomes
J. E. dt == r (E
t
+ Eo) . dt + r (EI + Eo) . dt =
Yt J conductor J gap
dl/l
m
dt
(5-39)
The relationship between the total electric field El + Eo along the conductor and the
current density J within it is given by (3-7), bccoming J = a(El + Eo) along the coil.
SIt should be borne in mind that the designation secondary coil is arhitrary; either coil ora transformer may
be designated as the primary coil, with the other coil taking the name secondary.
5-7 OPEN-CIRCUIT INDUCED VOLTAGE 279 11
B
(a)
", I

(b)
with gap ;I
Eo field of ./
displaced charges
(c)
HGURE 5-14. Development of the open-circuit voltage V(t) ora transfOlmer. Trans-
former configuration nsed to prove (5-38). (b) Sectional view of E, induced by time-
varying B of (a). (c) Showing charges displaced by El to produce Eo, canceling total E
along wire.
Assuming the coil a conductor, E + Eo must tend toward zero if J is kept to a
necessary finite value, making El + Eo = 0 along the conductor portion of the closed
path t. This simplifies (5-39) to obtain
A: E' dt = r (El + Eo) . dt
Jgap
dt/lm
dt
( 5-40)
implying that the total tt E' dt generated by the time-varying magnetic flux t/lm em-
braced by t appears wholly at the gap. The closed-line integral of (5-40) is sometimes
called the induced electromotive force (emf) abou t t, and is denoted by the voltage symbol
V(t). Then (5-40) is written

dlPm
V(t) == E dt = --- V
t dl
(5-41)
Thus the induced emf: or equivalently the gap voltage V(l), depends only on the time
rate of change of magnetic flux through the surface S bounded by the closed line t de-
scribed by the wire. The explicit values ofE
1
and Eo are not required to be known on/he
path. Furthermore, the wire path t may be distorted, if desired, into any arbitrary
shape; for example, a square or a helix, in which case (5-4,1) is still valid. A
shaped (many turn) conductor is useful for increasing the induced voltage across the
gap, and it is commonly used in practical transfi)fmer and inductor designs.
If in the foregoing discussions a finitely conducting wire had been assumed, the
result (5-41) would have been modified only trivially if the conductivity (J were suffi-
ciently large (of the order of 10
7
U/m, as for most good conductors).
at
of
I),
ne
of
ell

)y
a
nt
:lg
re
or
ay
llg

:a'
0:
3'
280 STATIC AND QUASI.STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
Long solenoid
(J turn/m)
FIGURE 5-15. Showing open-circuit coils ( and (' and the induced voltages Vet) obtained
from the time-varying t/lm.
EXAMPLE 58. A thin wire is bent into a cirele of radius b and placed with its axis concentric
with that of the solenoid in Example 1-16. Find Vet) induced across a small gap left in the
conductor, for the two cases of Figure 5-15: (al b > a and (b) b < a. Include the polarity
(a) If b > a, (5-41) combined with (1-67) yields, for the solenoid current 10 sin wt,
Vet) = - ~ r B . ds =
dt Js
since Ssds = na
2

d r [ llo
n1
0 sin wt]
dt Js az d (azds)
b>a ( 5-42)
The polarity of Vet) is found by use of a right-hand-rule interpretation of the
induced voltage law (5-41). Assuming, at a given t, that t/Jm through t is increasing
in the positive z sense in Figure 5-15, aligning the thumb of the right hand in that
direction points the fingers toward the terminal P2 at the gap, which at that moment
ever, requires that the true polarity of Vet) becomes the opposite of the indicated
polarity in Figure 5-15, at that instant.
(b) If b < a, the surface S' bounded by the wire t' is smaller than the solenoid cross
section; (5-41) then becomes
Vet) = - ~ r B ds =
dt Js'
5-8 MOTIONAL ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND VOLTAGE
b<a (5-43)
The Faraday law (3-78) provides the connection between the time-varying magnetic
flux t/lm passing through a surface S and its induced E field. It states that the closed-line
integral ofE over the closed path t bounding S exactly equals the time rate of change
of the magnetic flux through S, or
~ E dt =
dt/lm
dt
[3-78]
5-8 MOTIONAL ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND VOLTAGE 281 1
B I ~
~ ~
dt
(a) (b)
FIGURE 5-16. A closed line t moving in spacc with a velocity'/} in the presence
ofa time-varying B field. (a) A moving contour t in the presence ofa time-varying
B field. (b) The contour t shown at the time t and t + dt.
In (3-78), the closed-line integral ofE' dt about t, termed the circulation ofE about
the closed path, has also come to be known as the induced electromotive force, or just
emf, produced by the time-varying magnetic field through S6. In the present section,
the emf induced by a motion of the path t relative to the frame of reference of the mag-
netic field is discussed.
Faraday's law (3-78) can conveniently be resolved into two terms on its right side,
accounting for the induced emf's about t produced (a) by the time variation of the B
field over the surface bounded by t and (b) by the relative motion of the closed path
t with respect to the coordinate frame of reference of the B field, as shown in Figure
5-16(a). This form of the law, useful in the analysis of moving-coil devices such as gen-
erators, motors, and d' Arsonval type instruments, is developed in the following.
If, as in the previous section, the closed path t in Faraday's law (3-78) is chosen
to coincide with a conductive wire path immersed in a steady magnetic field, but the
conductor is now moving with the velocity v (not necessarily constant about t), then
the free charges q available within the conductor would be subjected to the Lorentz
forces F B = qv X B given by (1-52a) in Chapter 1. The quantity v X B, having from
(1-52a) the units of force per charge, is evidently a motional electricjield, Em, defined by
vxB
The free conduction charges urged in the conductor by this electric field v X B will
establish the voltage difference V(t) at a gap left in the conductive path t and produce
current flow on closing the circuit; it is given by
V(t) = 1, Em . df = 1, (v X B) . df
1 Je
(5-44a)
If the moving conductor were immersed in a time-varying magnetic field, then the
added emf due to the time-varying magnetic field through the surface S bounded by
the circuit t would be required. This emf, accountable only to the time-varying B(t)
6Elcctromotive force (emf), f E dt, obviously does not have the units of force, but rather volts, or joules
per coulomb (work per unit charge about t). For this reason, the word eleclrornotance has been suggested
as an improved term for emf. Becanse it is widely used, however, emf is the term employed in this text.
at
of
I) ,
he
of
ell
gy
by
a
nt
ng
,rt'
OJ
a)
n ~
a:
ta
10
282 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
field, has been given by (5-41)
dljlm
dt
r B ds
dt Js
_ r aB ds
Js at
Adding the latter to (5-44a) thus obtains the desired total emf
V(t) = 1 E' de = - r aB. ds + 1 (v x B) . de
" Js at "
accounting {or two eontributions to the induced emf as follows
""
(5-44b)
1. The first term of the right side of (5-44b) accounts for the induced emf about
t provided by the time rate of change of the B field integrated over the surface
S bounded by t.
2. The second term yields the additional induced emf arising from the motion of
the path t relative to the coordinate fi-ame of reference in which B is specified.
If t is in space (v 0), (5-44b) reduces to
J. E . dt = _ r aB ds V
rt Js at
t stationary (5-44c)
Suppose that a wire loop t is immersed in a steady magnetic field, but t is moving
in space. Then (5-44b) becomes
x B)' dtV Static B (5-44d)
The correct polarities of the contributions to the voltage Vet) appearing at the gap
of a wire contour can be grasped from Figure 5-17, involving two cases
CASE A. In (a) of Figure 5-17, the polarity ofthe induced gap voltage Vet) obtained
from the surface integral (5-44c) of the time-varying magnetic field is desired. The
positively directed ds is chosen on that side of the open surface from which the positive
B field emerges. On aligning the thumb of the right hand with the positive ds (or B) sense,
the fingers will point toward the positive terminal of the gap voltage V(t).
CASE B. In Figure 5-17 (b), the polarity of the gap voltage obtained from the mo-
tionalline integral (5-44d) is desired. For illustrative purposes, the wire contour t in
that figure is assumed to be shrinking in size while immersed in a steady B-field (directed
toward the observer as shown). If the line integration sense is chosen for (5-44d) in
the same sense as v x B, the polarity is designated as positive at that gap terminal
toward which the integration is being taken (this is the direction in which positive
charges will be urged by Em = V X B).
5-8 MOTIONAL ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND VOLTAGE 283
-:1 r. V(t) = - Is ods

.'
---\
- B aB (in
time at)
ds )
(8) --;----
-------r---
J
I
I
I

Line
integration
sense vlCB
(a) (b)
l.(t + At)
Line
integration
sense
FIGURE 5-17. Conventions relative to Faraday's law. (a) Polarity of V(t) induced by time-varying
B, with t stationary. (b) A shrinking wirc contonr, showing scnse of induced field" X B, with B stalic.
A rigorous calculus proof of the motional-emf result (5-44b) can also be obtained
directly from the Faraday law (3-78)
r E dt
Jt
d
d r B ds
t Js
(3-78)
With the circuit t in motion, both Band ds in the right-hand integral of (3-78) are,
in general, functions of time. The time derivative of that integral can be found from
a three-dimensional vector extension of the rule of Leibnitz. Assuming the closed path
t, as well as the surface S which it bounds, to be moving with velocities v thereon,
the time derivative of (3-78) can be expanded into the following general form
7
d r B. ds =
dt Js
'oB
(v X B) dt + Is . ds + Is (V . B)v . ds
in which the last integral disappears, in view of the Maxwell relation (3-48), V B = O.
Substituting the resulting expression into (3-78) thus obtains the desired motional form
EXAMPLE 5-9. A rigid, rectangular conducting loop with the dimensions a and b is located
between the poles of a permanent magnet as shown. Let B = azB
o
, constant as shown
over the left portion of the loop, and assume the loop is pulled to the right at a constant
velocity v a
x
1-'o. Find (a) the emf induced around the loop, (h) the direction of the
current caused to flow in the loop, (c) the force on the wire resulting from the current
flow, and (d) the magnitude and polarity of the open-circuit voltage V(t) appearing at
a gap in the wire at P shown.
7See S. W. Maley, "Differentiation of Line, Surface and Volume Integrals," Scientific Report 60, Electro-
magnetics Laboratory, University of Colorado at Bonlder, March, 1981.
fla
r (
(b
tb
e (
ce

l t

rei
rll
a
:s
m:
ti
1,
to
y,
284 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
(y) I Region of a constant
i / magnetic field
/--i--.t' B = azBo
;/ 0 0 ir
l

{0 0 0 0 0 \
10 0 0 .... J
\0 0 0 0 01 P
'\. 0 0 ==r:!J- ---- 7;)
' ..... --.a...-El/ Gap
Conductor
(a)
(y) I
I
I
I
P1lb
Positive integration
sense of fE-de

(b)
EXAMPLE 5-9. (a) Moving wire loop in a constant magnetic fielfl'. (b) Geometry showing
assumed line-integration sense.
(a) The sense of the line integration is assumed counterclockwise looking from the front,
as in (b) of the accompanying figure. The emf induced about the loop is found
by use of (5-44d),
On P
1
(v X D) . dt
A:. E' dt
;Yt(t)
A:. (v x B) . dt
jj(t)
[(axvol X (azB
o
)]' aydy = -voBody, obtaining
A:. E dt = So (-'!JoB
o
) dy = voBob
Ye(t)
(I)
(b) The positive sign of (1) denotes that the induced emf about t is in the same sense
(counterclockwise) as the direction of integration. The result (1) therefore causes a
current to flow in the same direction.
(e) The force acting on the wire carrying the current I immersed in the field D is
obtainable from (1-52a), FB = q(v x D). The force on a differential charge dq =
Pv dv being dF B = dq(v X D), and with pvv of (1-50a) the current density J in the
wire, one obtains
dF
B
= J x Ddv (5-45a)
The product J dv defines a volume current element I dt in a thin wire, so (5-45a)
becomes
dF
B
Idt x B (5-45b)
Integrating (5-45 b) over the length OP 1 of the wire obtains the total force
(2)
in which the integration in the direction of the current produces the proper vector
sense of the force. F B is a force to the left in the figure, opposing the motion of
the wire.
(d) A small gap at P in the wire renders the loop open-circuited, reducing I to zero
and yielding Vet) = ft E . dt = voBob across the gap. The polarity is determined
by the direction of v X D, directed around the loop toward the positive terminal
of the gap as in (b) of the figure.
5-8 MOTIONAL ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND VOLTAGE 285 1
EXAMPLE 5-10. A small open wire loop of radius a in air is located in the y-z plane as
shown in (a), immersed in a plane wave composed of the fields
E: t) = - sin (rot - Poz) (I)
E+
H; (z, t) = m sin (rot - (1oz) (2)
tlo
Assume a Ao. Find V(t) induccd at the loop gap.
The gap voltage is obtained from (5-44c) because the loop is stationary. Using
B = flo" and (2) obtains
aB a J
- = - ---sin (rot - Paz) = ax --- cos (rot - PoZ)
at at tlo tlo
With a Ao, the coil occupies essentially the position Z = 0 on the plane wave moving
past, so (5-Hc) yields
[
fl roE+ 1 -roE+ na
2
V(t) = - fs ax cos (rot - PoZ) ax ds = ___ m __ cos rot
tlo =0
(3)
= 100 flVjm,f = I MHz, and a = I m (satisfying the criterion a A), the induced
voltage becomes V(t) = 396 cos rot flV. The five-turn coil shown in (h) provides a gap
voltage five times that of (a), in view of the structure of the surface S bounded by the
B or H hnes\
Gap ' ds = 8 xds
voltage
V (t)

Loop t /Integratlon
sense of
(z)
ftE.df
(a)
B lines
t
--B lines

I \ '\ \
/ I I "0 I -l ____ o-
j / I
I -J--!::::-- -
s ;t-:----
0
(b) (c)
EXAMPLE 5-10. (a) Loop immersed in a field. (b) Five-turn coil immersed in a time-varying
field. (e) Effect of spreading the turns; fewer B lines intercept S.
19
lS
al
})
\)
k
286 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
wire contour t, while from (e), the effect of opening the structure is to reduce l/Im inter-
cepting 51, reducing Vet) accordingly.
59 INDUCED emf FROM TIME-VARYING
VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTIAL
The emf induced about a closed path t linking a time-varying magnetic flux I/Im can
also be expressed in terms of the vector magnetic potential A developed in Section 5-4.
This is accomplished by use of (5-22), B = V x A, to permit writing Faraday's law
(3-78) as follows
rh E. dt
:Yt
d
d f B ds
t s
~ r h A. dtV
dt :Yt
d f (V x A)' ds
dt s
(5-46a)
on applying Stokes's theorem (2-56) to obtain the last result. [f t is stationary (motional
emf is absent), (5-46a) is written simply
rh E . dt = - rh aA . dt V Stationary path t
~ t ':Yt at
(5-46b)
One can see from (5-46a) that the flux through the path t is expressed two ways
./, = f B . ds = rh A . dt Wb
'I'm S ':Yt
(5-47)
Thus it follows that a knowledge of the vector magnetic potential A on the closed t
determines the magnetic flux I/Im passing through S bounded by t.
EXAMPLE 5-11. Find the emf induced about a rectaugular stationary path t in free space,
in the plane of two long, parallel wlres carrying the currents 1(t) and -l(t) as shown.
Find the emf two ways using the Faraday law expressed (al in terms of the B field and
(b) in terms of A.
(a) Fronl (1-64), the quasi-static B field exterior to a long, single wire carrying l(t) is
B = a",p
o
l(t)/2np, if p is the normal distance from the wire to the field point. In
the present example involving two wires, a cartesian coordinate system is adopted
as in (a). At any x on 51 bounded by t, the quasi-static B field due to both wires is
the vector sum
B - a ------ - -----
[
Po1(t) Ilo1(t) J
- y 2n(x d) 2n(x + d)
The latter into (5-44c) obtains the induced emf about t
(1)
the desired result.
\
-i (t)
5-9 INDUCED emf FROM TIME-VARYING VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTlAL 287
Closed
I (z)
r __ L:1Path t

b
I dx I
1(8) I
I.: ____ ...J ___ _
-i (t)
(x)
,
-d d
(a)
i(t) = 1 coswt A

2cm
- +
.- -
Vet) (x)
Wire loop
h = 4 em
, 2d = 4 em
I
(b)
EXAMPLE 5-11. (a) Geometry ora parallel-wire system and a rectangnlar dosed path t.
Showing polarity of gap voltage V(l), corresponding to sense of JE . dt integrated about
loop.
(b) To find the induced emf using A, note from Example 5-4 for a
2L that
wire of length
/1oI (t) ..}L2 + p2 + L
A = a .. -. t n -'-;==c=c.==c----
z 411: +-L
The latter is improved by noting that A for p L is desired. The first two terms
of the binomial expansion l')r the square root quantities obtains
valid for p L. For parallel wires, A is the vector sum
A = a)'.o!. [tn
2L
_ - tn = tn x + d
211: X - d x + d "211: X - d
With A z-directed, the induced emf by use of (5-46b) becomes
E dt = . dt
jt jt at
= - /10 {[t 'It jb dz + [t n fO dZ}
ot 211: x d x=h x - d x=h+a JZ=b
_+ __ ___
211: (h - d)(h + a + d)
(2)
which agrees with (1). Note that the integration has been taken clockwise about t,
291
flat
r of
(b) ,
the
e oj
cell
rg)
b)
d ;;
'en'

an
; 0'
Ill!
a
Ita
50
')3
to conform to dle assumption in (a) of a positive y-directed ds on S. Dri
288 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
If the current J(t) = 1 sin wt A flows in the wires, withf= 1000 Hz and d =
h/2 = a = b = 2 em, the induced emf (2) becomes
E . dt - (2n x 10
3
) cos wt
-17.4 cos wt flY
This is also the gap voltage Vet) developed if an open-circuited wire loop replaces t,
with a polarity as in (b).
From (5-46b) for the induced emf about a fixed closed path,

r aA. dt
at
[5-46b]
one might be inclined to argue, because (5-46b) is true f(Jr all closed paths t, that the
electric field can be expressed at any point in the region fi'om equating the integrands;
that is,
E=
aA
at
J t is, however, noted that adding an arbitrary function - V<I> to the latter, obtaining
E V<I>
aA
( 5-48)
provides an E field that still satisfies (5-46b), in view of the property (2-15), ft(V<I
dt = 0, true for any scalar function <1>. Thus (5-48) is in general the correct expression
for E in terms of its potential fields A and <1>. The physical meanings of each contribu-
tion to E in (5-48) is appreciated on noting, in the time-static limit, that (5-48) reduces to
E = V<I>
a/at
(5-49)
Comparison of (5-49) with (4-31) identifies <I> as the scalar potential field established
by the free-charges of the system, whether they be volume, surface, or line charges.
The potential integral (4-35a) provides this relationship, extended in (5-48) to time-
varying charge distributions. Secondly, the A field in (5-48) is connected with the
current distributions of the system through the integral (5-28). Summarizing, the total
electric field (5-48) is written
8
E
E
Eo + E]

Due to charges Due to time-varying currents

V<I>
aA
(5-50)
8From Section 5-7, one may observe that the notations Eo and E
t
with the meanings defined in (5-50) were
used in that discussion.
289
290
5-10 VOLTAGE GENERATORS AND KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS 291
R
SWitCh\Q,i
g Rg
- +
(a) (b)
FIGURE 520. The electrochemical generator connected to an external resistive
circuit. (a) Actual circuit and equivalent symbolism. (b) Magnetic flux I/tm generated
by I.
no current is delivered, the electrolyte is an equipotential region noted by the flat
central plateau in the potential diagram, with no E field inside it. The behavior of
the electrochemical system is thus equivalent to the lower diagram of Figure 5.19(b),
a series pair of charge double layers maintained by the chemical reactions at the
electrode-electrolyte interfaces.
1o
To maintain V
g
, energy is supplied at the expense of
one or more of the materials comprising the celL When they are used up, the cell
might be restored by replacing the materials, or in some instances by applying energi
externally to reconvert them to their original forms. A cell that must be restored by'
adding new materials is called a primary cell; it is not rechargeable, A cell is called a
secondary or a storage cell if it can be rejuvenated by externally driving the current
backward through the cell to reverse the electrolytic action that took place during
discharge. The reactants as well as the products of the electrochemical reactions are
in general gaseous, liquid, or solid. They can be stored in one or both electrodes or
in the electrolyte as the reaction proceeds, or, as in the case of fuel cells, they may
be removed continuously.
When a cell is connected to a resistive loop as in Figure 5-l9(c), the resulting
current is predictable fi'om a Kirchhoff voltage law, derived from field theory, as
described in Figure 5-20( a) to emphasize the role of the external conductor. The total
E field, at any field point either inside or outside the conductor or cell, obeys (5-50)
V<l> _ oA
at
10I,'or details of the chemical reactions, see Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 2nd ed., Vol. 3. New York:
Intersciencc, 1964.
292 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
The field
in which is the electric
dueting wirc and tlw
at the
Now
system
(5-54)
field associated with the current flow in both the con-
whereas Eg is the electric field within the cell, present
interfaces whether or not current flows, as depicted in
and (5-54)
aA
the closed path of Figure
+
J
electrodes)
(J
obtains
i
aA
. dt
t at
in which the fielr! Eg exists only inside the the first term of
open-circuit voltage, - V
g
with the last integral of
Then
, to
J
' aA
a
. tit
t I
d f A.dt
dt Jt
d f B. ds
dt Js
whieh can be rearranged illto the Kirchhoff
circui t of Figure 5-20
(R +R)I+ d!/lm
9 dt
dt
(5-57)
voltage expression {()r the
(5-58)
The term d!/l",/dt is the
region is magnetically
thus, ifJ m OC I. l-'he nr,o)""W'
voltage generated about the circuit t by the
called the self-flux of the circuit). If the surrounding
the self-flux is proportional to the current producing it;
constant, called the self-inductance of the circuit, is
designated L as
!/1m = LIWb
to a definition irw the seH:inductance
~ !/1m Wh/A or H
I
in which !/1m denotes the flux linked the circuit.
(5-59)
(5-60)
S-IO VOLTAGE GENERATORS AND KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS 293
RI
s ~ 1-
Rg
+
-=-V
g
M ~ ~
R I +
FIGURE 5-21. Series electric circuit and models. (a) The physical de circuit. (Ii) Circuit model
depicting voltage terms of (5-61). (c) Circuit model using inductance symbol L
With (5-59) inserted into (5-58), the Kirchhoff voltage expression for the circuit
of Figure 5-20 is written Vg = (R + Rg)I + d(LI)jdt, and if L is a constant (independent
of time), one obtains the Kirchhoff voltage law
dI
Vg = (R + Rg)I + L - V
dt
(5-61 )
The transient and de (steady state) solutions of this circuit differential equation
are well-known and are omitted here. A further discussion of the self-inductance
parameter L, from the energy point of view, is discussed in the next section.
The Kirchhoff equation (5-61) leads to the circuit model shown in Figure 5-21.
The effects of a time-changing magnetic flux linking the circuit, as noted in (a) of the
figure, is to produce a back voltage term, dt/l"jdt, seen from its polarity markings in
(b) to oppose any tendency for the current to change. The circuit convention
representing this phenomenon is the lumped-inductance element L of Figure 5-21(c),
across which the back voltage L dljdt is imagined to be generated.
B. The Electromechanical Generator
Another example of a generator is the electromechanical energy converter, or
rotating machine. Its emf is derived from a magnetic flux linked by the machine
windings, a flux that, in one version of such machines, becomes time-varying by virtue
of the motion of the conductor windings relative to a static magnetic field. A generic
model is diagramed in Figure 5-22(a). The magnetic flux is obtained from a permanent
magnet or a field winding as shown. A cylindrical iron armature forming part of the
magnetic circuit carries a winding that intercepts magnetic flux when the armature
is rotated. The purpose of the armature is to provide physical support for the winding
and to decrease the reluctance of the magnetic circuit by leaving only a small air gap,
thereby enhancing the magnetic flux intercepted by the armature winding. A single-
loop winding is illustrated for simplicity, although practical machines use many turns
294 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FlELDS
(a) (bJ
Winding contour
t (one turn)
(e)
FIGURE 5-22. The simple electromechanical energy convertor (generator). (a) Simplc
generator showing field and armature windings. (b) Enhancement of air gap using arma-
ture slots. (c) Voltage-inducing effect of armature-winding motion.
distributed about the armature to increase the induced emf. The wires are usually in
slots, as noted in Figure 5-22 (b), to lessen the eftective air gap even more and reduce
the mechanical forces on the armature conductors through a transference of the forces
to the core materiaL The armature iron is also laminated to reduce eddy current losses
(see Figure 3-14). .
If the armature of the generator is left open-circuited and rotated with an angular
speed w rad/sec, the gap voltage V(t) is obtained from (5-44d)
V(t) [5-44dl
as seen hom details in Figure 5-22(c). Thus, a radially directed magnetic field of
constant value Bo imposed on a single-turn coil of radius a and length d produces an
open-circuit voltage V 2Bo daw V, as long as the rotating coil is immersed in a
constant magnetic field. The polarity is shown in Figure 5-22(c), determining the
direction of the current in an externally connected load. If the voltage were taken oft'
slip rings, the waveform of V would approximate a square wave as the sides of the
coil are moved from the B field of one pole of the stator into the reversed magnetic
flux lines of the other pole, A proper shaping of the poles, to make the air-gap width
variable with the angular position of the armature winding, could produce an essentially
sinusoidal voltage V(t), making a sinusoidal alternator of the machine. Finally, the
use of an interrupted contactor (commutator) instead of the slip-ring arrangement
produces a rectified or unilateral output voltage polarity, to yield a direct current
machine. An analysis of the induced emf of such machines is left to appropriate books
on the subject. 11
If the output terminals of an electromechanical energy convertor are connected
to an external circuit, the resulting current is influenced not only by the external
IlFor example, see G, J. Thaler, and M. L. Wilcox. Electric Machines: Dynamics and Stead} State. New York:
Wiley, 1966.
-
,
5-10 VOLTAGE GENERATORS AND KlRCHHOFF'S LAWS 295
circuit, but also by the reactions of the armature winding itself. One of these reaetions
is the back torque that must be supplied by the motor driving the generator to keep
the latter at the desired speed. Because of the presence of iron in both the field and
the armature structures, the forees and torques developed between the armature and
the stator are best expressed in terms ofthe changes taking place in the system magnetic
energies with rotation. An interpretation is developed in Section 5-13 dealing with
virtual forces.
Another important reaction to current flow in the generator is the effect of the
armature-winding inductance. The linking of the winding current with the self-flux
produced by that current yields an opposition to changes in current with time resulting
from the self-voltage generated by the changing selfflux, a phenomenon already
observed relative to the circuit of Figure 5-20. In this way, an armature self-inductance
can be defined as in (5-60)
(5-62)
expressed as the ratio of the self-flux produced by the armature current, to the current
itself. An equivalent circuit of the armature winding with a connected load is depicted
in Figure 5-23, showing the generated voltage V(t) resulting from the rotation of the
armature winding in the impressed static B field, the self-inductance La of the armature
winding, and a series resistance Ra representing the ohmic winding losses. (Other
losses such as iron hysteresis and eddy current losses, as well as rotational wind resistance
and bearing friction losses, may be represented in more elaborate equivalent diagrams;
they are omitted here.) If the externally connected load has the resistance Rand
self-inductance L as developed in relation to the external circuit of Figures 5-20 and
5-21, one can deduce the equivalent circuit of the loaded rotating machine as in Figure
5-23. The Kirchhoff voltage differential equation for this system is evidently
dI
V(t) = (R + Ra)! + (L + La)
dt
(5-63)
with V(t) denoting the machine-generated voltage deduced from the basic expression
(5-44d).
Machine
( Armature self-flux
~ I
t :::
Impressed B flux
with rotation)
I
Equivalent circuit
FIGURE 5-23. Development 0[' an equivalent circuit of a rotating machine connected to a load.
296 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
J and ds elements
at source V(t)
E=_V<f>_iJA
iJt
FIGURE 5-24. Electric and magnetic field qnantities associated with a cnrrent-carrying
circuit.
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE
12
In this section, the glib assertions of the last section concerning the inductance of a
current-carrying circuit are examined from the viewpoint of the energy required by the
circuit to supply its heat losses and to build up the magnetic field. The generalized
definitions of the self-inductance of a single circuit, and in the next section, the mutual
inductance between pairs of circuits, are established in this way. This point of view
regards the inductance parameter as the basic criterion of the magnetic field energy,
or work done in establishing the magnetic field.
A. Self-Inductance in Terms of A and J
Consider the series circuit of Figure 5-24. An external energy source of terminal
voltage V(t) is connected to a conductive circuit of arbitrary shape, carrying a current
I. It is assumed that the currents form closed paths, that is, the current-continuity
relation is (4-22), V' J = O. Strictly speaking, the latter requires that the current be
dc, although it is very nearly satisfied up to fairly high frequencies as long as the overall
circuit dimensions are not an appreciable fraction of a free-space wavelength. At the higher
frequencies, however, the current penetration into the conductor is severely limited by
the skin effect, with negligible electromagnetic field penetration occurring at very high
frequencies.
13
The work done by the source V(t) in bringing the current up to the
value J, expressed in terms of the electric and magnetic fields developed in and around
a conductive circuit, leads to the circuit parameters (resistance and inductance) as
shown in the following.
Observe in Figure 5-24 that the conductive circuit, the interior denoted by v;, ,
is bounded by S (conductor surface), with endcaps at the gap where the voltage V is
impressed. At the gap V is specified by the quasi-static equipotentials <I> = <1>1 and
<I> <1>2 at the endcaps such that V <1>1 <1>2. With the current 1 = f J . ds deliv-
ered by V into the endcap at the positive terminal, and f J . ds coming out rif the
12 If you desire a shorter treatment of self-inductance, studying selected portions of Parts A, C, and D in this
section should provide a reasonable background, with emphasis on the important energy and flux-linkage
methods for finding L.
13See Appendix B, part A for a discussion of the skin effect.
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 297
negative side, the energy supplied by V(t) in the amount V dq = VI dt is written
The electric field anywhere in the conductor is (5-48)
aA
E = -V<I>--
at
(5-64)
(5-65)
The latter is given an energy rate interpretation by dotting (5-65) with J dv and
integrating the result throughout the volume v" of the conductor; thus
f E J dv = - f (V<I' J dv - f aA. J dv W
Jvc Jvc Jvc at
By the identity (15) in Table 2-2, J' (V<I = div (<I>J), since div J = o. With this into
the second volume integral and applying the divergence theorem (2-34), one obtains
_J. (<I>J) ds = f E J dv + f J' aA dv
:rs Jvc Jvc at
(5-66)
From the continuity of the current flux, only tangential currents appear at the con-
ductor walls in Figure 5-24, except at the gap endcaps. There, <I> <1>1 on one end cap
and <I> = <1>2 on the other, reducing the surface integral of (5-66) to just
_J. (<I>J) ds == (<1>1 - <1>2) f J' ds = VI
fs(gap) JS(gap)
the power delivered by V to the circuit at any instant. The second term of (5-66) is a
measure of the irreversible heat energy expended in the volume; its value is 12 R,
defining the low-frequency conductor resistance
14
R by
(5-67)
Inserting the last two expressions into (5-66) obtains
i
aA
VI = RP + J . :;- dv
Vc vt
but the energy expended by V in the time dt is
VI dt RI2 dt + Ivc J' (dA) dv ( 5-68a)
symbolized
(5-68b)
l4The question of conductor resistance, defined in terms of the heat generated by it, is examined in
ample 7-1.
298 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
By integrating (5-68a) with respect to time, the result
(5-69)
is obtained, yielding the work done by V in bringing the circuit to its final state. The
last term is interpreted as the energy Urn expended in establishing the magnetic field (the
energy stored in the field)
(5-70)
The interpretation of (5-70) is straightforward. The current density at any point in the
conductor is J, with A the vector magnetic potential there. Both J and A are fields, so
they are generally dependent on position in v;,. Equation (5-70) states that the energy
stored in the magnetic field is the integral of ~ J . dA] dv throughout the conductor
volume, in which ~ J . dA denotes, at any dv, the integral of] dA cos 0 as the potential
A there is built up from zero to its final magnitude A. Note that the integrand has
the units of joules per cubic meter.
For a linear circuit (a linear magnetic environment), A anywhere in the con-
ductor is proportional to the current density J (hence, to the total current J). If the
circuit were nonlinear, the relationship between A and the value of J at each volume-
element in the conductor would not be a straight line, but for a linear circuit, the
energy expression (5-70) simplifies as in the following.
The integration within the brackets of (5-70) entails a buildup in time of the
vector magnetic potential from zero to its final value A. For a linear magnetic environ-
ment, the vector potential anywhere in Vc is proportional to the densities J therein.
Suppose J is built up in a straight-line fashion from zero to its final (quasi-static)
value J<f) in the time to as well, as depicted in Figure 5-25. Put J = rJ(f), in which
r t/to, a normalized time variable. The linearity implies that A at the same point
becomes A = rA(f), making dA = A(f) dr. With these substitutions, the magnetic en-
ergy (5-70) becomes
Urn = t r A J dv J Linear circuit
Jvc
FIGURE 5-25. Simultaneous buildup of J and A at a typical volumc-
element dv in a conductor, as current is brought from zero to final value I ..
(5-71 )
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 299
if the final value (f) superscript notation is dropped. Note that (5-71) is applicable
to a linear system only. Like its more general version, (5-70), it expresses the energy
expended in establishing the magnetic field, through an integration required to be
taken only throughout the conductor volume region possessing the current densities J.
The selfinductance of a linear circuit can be defined in terms of the energy
(5-71). T t contains a product of J and A and is thus proportional to /2, whence
(5-72)
in which the proportionality constant L is termed the self-inductance of the circuit,
expressed in joule per square ampere, or henry. Solving for L thus permits expressing
the self-inductance in terms of the magnetic energy as follows
2U I
L = ---i'- = 2 r A J dv H
I I Jvc
( 5-73)
assuming the circuit is linear (i.e., immersed in a linear magnetic environment).
* B. Selflnductance of a Circuit in Free Space
For a linear circuit devoid of magnetic materials (e.g., an air core coil or a
parallel-wire line), (5-72) and (5-73) can be simplified by 'use of the free-space integral
(5-28a) for A
[5-28a]
The circuit in Figure 5-26 depicts the quantities needed in the evaluation of A at a
typical field point P by use ,of (5-28a). Substituting it into (5-72), the magnetic energy
FIGURE 5-26, Circuit in iree space, showing source point P' and field
point P relative to energy and self-inductance integrals.
300 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
integral (5-71) becomes
which can also be written
U =.1 r r JioJ" J du' du J Free space
m 2 Jvc Jv
c
4nR '
(5-74)
The result (5-74) is independent of the order of integration, but note the use of the
primed current density J' at the source point P' to avoid confusion with J at the field
point P. The corresponding self-inductance expression becomes, using (5-72)
:Free space (5-75)
No explicit use is made here of (5-75) in calculations. If you are
interested in applications of (5-75), consult other sources on this subject.
1s
*C. Self-Inductance from an Integration
throughout All Space
Another expression for the magnetic energy of a circuit can be obtained from
(5-70) in terms of the Band H fields of the system. The current densities J in the
conductor are related to H therein by (5-2) for quasi-static fields: J = V X H. Making
use of the vector identity (16) in Table 2-2, V . (F X G) = G (V X F) F (V X G),
J' dA in (5-70) can be written
J' (dA) = (dA) (V X H) = V' [H X (dA)] + H V X (dA)
= V' [H X (dA)] + H . dB
Inserting this into (5-70) and applying the divergence theorem (2-34) to the first vol-
ume integral yields
Urn = Iv [IOA V, (H X dA)JdU + Iv [I: H dB JdV
[I: (H X dA) J . ds + Iv [I: H . dB J dv
but the surface integral in the latter vanishes as S is expanded to include all of space,
because H and A decrease at least as r-
2
and r-
1
respectively in remote regions,
15For example, see R. S. Elliott, Electrvmagnetics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 309.
I
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 301
whereas surface area is picked up only as r2. Thus the magnetic energy expended in
establishing the fields of a quasi-static circuit becomes
( 5-76)
As with (5-70), the energy (5-76) is correct whether or not the circuit is linear,
although (5-70) requires integration only throughout the conductor volume, whereas
(5-76) must be integrated throughout all space to obtain the same result.
One can simplify (5-76) if the system is linear, by making use of the fact that
(5-76) is analogous in form to (5-70). Since the latter becomes (5-71) for a linear
system, one should thus expect (5-76) to yield
u = 1. f B HdvJ Linear circuit
m 2 Jv
(5-77)
The integrand B H/2, seen to have the units of joules per cubic meter, is called the
magnetic energy density in the volume region V.
Another expression for the self-inductance of the circuit of Figure 5-24 is obtained
by equating (5-77) to the definition (5-72) for L, whence
I Iv B Hdv (5-78)
One can separate (5-77), if desired, into two volume integrations as follows
u = 1. f B H dv + 1. f B H dv
m 2 JVi 2 JV
e
(5-79)
attributing the total energy U m to two contributions: one associated with the volume
i'i in the conductor, plus another outside it. With (5-79) substituted into (5-78), the total
inductance is expressed
2U
m
1 1 1 1
L = -2- = ? B . H dv + -2 B . H dv = L; + Le
1 1- Vi 1 V.
(5-80)
The first term, L;, is called the internal se(f-inductance; the remaining integration taken
outside the conductor yields the external self-inductance, Le.
EXAMPLE 512. Find only the internal self-inductance associated with every length t of a very
long straight wire carrying a low-frequency current I.
302 STATIC AND QUASI-STATlC MAGNETIC FIELDS
EXAMPLE 5-12
For any length of the single infinitely long wire shown, the energy in the external
magnetic field is infinite, a [act revealed on integrating (5-77) for the energy associated
with the exterior fields Band H; however, the energy stored within a length t of the
conductor is finite. The associated internal inductance is obtained from (5-80) !
I fVi
B

Hdv I)
By use of (1-64) for B1> inside the wire (the factor p used in the event of a magnetic
conductor), one obtains from (5-81)
1 I il' i
2
" J," p(lp)2 pt
Li = -2 = _ __ _ pdpdc/)dz =-
I Vi z-o 1>-0 p-O 4n a 8n
(5-82)
a result independent of the wire radius. A nonmagnetic wire therefore has the internal
inductance per unit length, Ldt po/Sn 0.05 pH/m.
EXAMPLE 513. Find the total selfinductance of every length t of a long coaxial line with
the dimensions shown. Assume uniform current densities in the conductors.
The total is obtained using (5-78). The magnetic fidds within and
between the conductors, obtained by the methods of Example 5-1, are
Ip
2na
2
1
H1>=
2np
H1> = p)
O<p<a
a<p<b
b<p<c
j
I
5-ll MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 303
V (2)
,
I
I
1: V (1) I ' I
L I I I
:
:,-- t---J
1, ... __ 1 __ ... ./
EXAMPLE 5- i 3
with H1> = 0 outside the system. The internal selt:inductance of the inner conductor (1) is
2U(l\ I t
f BoHdv=Jl
, P P Jv!') 8n
a result the sam(' as (5-82) for the isolated wire.
An external self-inductance, attributed to the field hetween the conductors, is
r
t
f2rr fb dp d<jJ dz = /lot t n
4n
2
Jz=o J1>=o Jp=a p 2n a
Another internal contribution by the field in conductor (2) yields
LF)
2U(2).
s: s:rr s:

p)
2
P dp d<jJ dz
m.tn
]2--
/It
l c c
4
t9'b
b
2
) + hc
4
- b
4
)]
(\)
(2)
(3)
The total self-inductance L of the coaxial line is thcrefore the sum of (1), (2), and (3). If
at high frequencies the two conductors are assumed perfectly conducting to prevent field
penetration into them, the self-inductance reduces to (2)
(5-83)
STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
IJIAMPLE 514. Determine the low-frequency self-inductance oflength t of the long parallel-
wire line in free space shown, by use of (5-73).
The integration of (5-73) is performed inside the conductors where J exists, so A
need be found only in the conductors. One might employ (5-28a) to evaluate A, but for
a single wire, applying symmetry to (5-22) obtains the answer more quickly. Thus, with
0/0;:; = tJ/tJ = 0 and only a Bq,component, B = aq,Bq, = V X A = aq,( -oAz/op) , implying
that A has only a ;:; component as noted in part (b) of the accompanying figure. From Bq, =
- oAzltJp, integrating yields
A
z
= - f Bq,dp + C (1)
with C an arbitrary constant, depending on the potential reference chosen [or A
z
Thus
A
z
values inside and outside the wire become, from (1)
A = _fl-loIP d + C = _'
t
olp2 + C
z 2naz p 1 4na
2
1
p<a (2)
p>a (3)
In the presence of both conductors, carrying I and - I as in (c) of the figure, the total A
z
is obtained by adding the contribution of each conductor, called A ~ l and A ~ 2 . For con-
ductor 2, choosing zero potential at p = flZ such that from (2), A ~ Z = 0 = l-l
o
I/4n + Cl'
From (3), with A ~ = 0 = - (l-loI/2n) tn az + C
2
, one obtains C
l
= l-l
o
I/4n and
A
z
= 0 on 2
lCiQl---
2
I
k--- d -----'0'>1
(b) (c)
EXAMPLE 5-14. (a) Parallel-wire line. (b) Vector potential A
z
associated with a single wire.
(el Sum of vector potentials at typical field point in one of the wires.
/
/
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 305
(flol (n a
z
)/4n. Thus the contribution of wire 2, satisfying = 0 on its surface, is
A(Z) = _flo! (n az
z 2n pz
P2 > a2
(4)
Similarly, the potential of wire I satisfying = Ao (an arbitrary value) at its surface
PI = al becomes
flol (1
4n
(5)
The total potential A
z
+ inside conductor 2, using PI a
2
+ + 2P
Z
il cos e/>
from part (c), is
fli [
A = - 1 - - - 2 {n
z 4n
In conductor 2, Jz IlnaL and with dv = pz dpz de/> dz, the inductance contribution of
a length (of conductor 2 only, from (5-73), is
1 j' IP) = A . J dv
12 V
Ao}
--2 pzdpzde/>
na2I
The integral contribution of the third term in the integrand can be written
in which the second term integrates to zero (Peirce's integral 523
16
), obtaining
L(2) = ito{ - + (n-
[
1 I dJ
8n 2n a2
A similar consideration of conductor I yields by analogy
making the total inductance L(l) + IPl of the two-wire system
L= (5-84)
16B. O. Peirce, A Short 'fable oj Integrals. Boston: Ginn, 1910.
306 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
Comparison with (5-82) shows that the leading term of (5-84) is the internal inductance,
making the last term the external inductance.
D. SeH-lnductance by the Method
The resolution of the selfinductance of a circuit into the sum of internal and
external self-inductances provided by (5-80) is closely related to another technique
known as the method if flux linkages. This approach is based on the use of the energy
definition, (5-78), but with the integration in all space replaced by a surface integral
intercepting all the magnetic flux of the system, the self-inductance being thereby
characterized by the linkage of that flux with the circuit current. The method is
described here.
For most circuits, the total magnetic flux generated by the current can be par-
titioned (exactly or approximately) into two amounts: that lying entirely outside the
conductor, plus that flux wholly internal to the conductor. Such a flux division occurs
precisely for the single round wire noted in Figure 5-27 (a), and very nearly so for the
parallel two-wire line shown in the same figure,17 especially for wires with diameters
small compared to their separation. Another example is the loop shown in Figure
5-27(e); for thin wire, the flux tubes can be separated into those wholly inside or outside
the wire as shown. The volume occupied by the magnetic field (all space) is thus
divisible into closed flux tubes that surround or are embedded in the current.
The magnetic energy contained in all space has been given by (5-77)
u =.1 r B Hdv
m 2 Jv
[5-77]
Suppose the volume of the typical flux tube in Figure 5-27(b) is subdivided into
elements dv = dsdt', in which dt' is aligned with the tube wall (and therefore with
the B field) and ds denotes the cross-sectional area of the tube. Then B H dv =
(a,tB) Hdsdt' = (a,tdt') HBds = H dt' dt/lm. Thus, if the integration (5-77) of the
latter is to include all elements dv where Band H prevail, H dt' should be integrated
about the closed median line (' of the flux tube shown, with the remaining surface
integration taken over an open surface S chosen to intercept all the flux tubes of the
circuit. For the single-turn circuit of Figure 5-27 (b) or (e), the appropriate S intercepting
all flux tubes is that bounded by a closed line { essentially coincident with the wire
axis. Thus the energy integral (5-77) can be written
(5-85)
with S bounded by the circuit t. [Note: The last integral is the consequence off H . d{',
integrated about any closed flux tube (I, being just the current i({I) enclosed by (I.]
170wing to the proximity effects of the low-frequency currents, the magnetic flux in the interior of parallel
wires is not concentric about the centers of the wires, but about points moved slightly apart from the centers.
This efleet is responsible for some of the magnetic flux being partly inside and partly outside the wire, as
noted in Figure 5-27(a).
I
\
\
,
,
,
\
\
,/
\
\
\
dl/;m
,
,
'"
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 307
--
-----_ ..
Single wire
,
,
,
""\
\
\
,
,
\
, \
\ ,
\ ,
I ,
/ :
,//
/
,
,
,
\
\
,
,
/
,
,
,
,
/
(a)
dv = dsd/'
Typical flux tube
carrying dl/;m
t' over which
,[Hdt=I
J
r
,
(c)
dl/;m
Circuit
t
(b)
Parallel-wire line
Flux tube
{' Conductor
FIGURE 5-27. Concerning the method of flux linkages. (a) Examples of internal and external
flux-partitioning. (b) Single-turn circuit (left) showing external flux tube linking lance, and a
two-turn circuit (right) with a flux tube linking I twice (passing through Sex twice). (c) Wire loop,
showing internal and external flux (lef!), and a typical internal flux tube (right) linking i(t'), a
fraction of 1.
For all exterior flux tubes, passing through Sex as shown in Figure S-27(b), the total
current I is linked by t', whereas a variable fraction itt') of I is linked by flux tubes
t' located inside the conductor and passing through Sin, as shown in Figure S-27(c).
In the event ofa circuit t having more than one turn as in Figure S-27(b), an exterior
flux tube t' may even encompass I more than once (in general, as many as n times for
I
308 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
an n turn coil). It is thus evident in such cases that the same flux tuBe t' can con-
tribute to (5-85) over the surface Sex several times, thereby increasing the magnetic
energy and the self-inductance correspondingly.
Whenever the magnetic flux of a circuit is separable into internal and external
linkages passing through Sin and Sex as depicted in Figure 5-27 (e), it is convenient
to separate (5-85) into the contributions
(5-86)
In the latter, one is cautioned to observe that the quantity t/lrn.ex JSex B . ds ap-
pearing in the external energy term denotes a total flux through Sex, which can be
the result of some or all the flux tubes passing through that surface more than once,
for example, as in Figure 5-27 (b), or for the many turn coils illustrated in Figure 5-28.
By use of (5-86), the self:'inductance of the circuit t is expressed in terms of
internal and external contributions as follows
2Um I r . , I r
L = J2 = Js z(t) dt/lm = JSin itt') dt/lm +
such that the external inductance is given by
L = t/lrn.ex = r B ds
e I t JSex
I
( 5-87)
(5-88a)
or just the total magnetic flux penetrating Sex divided by the current t. The internal
(a)
Circuit
t
n-turn coil
(circuit f)
.1--

t

B flux-...
/ . ,
.--- I' f"

l'::::;;:
I
, Core
flux
(b)
I

"
(c)
FIGURE 5-28. Examples of many-turn coils having negligible interual self-inductance.
(a) Air core solenoid. (b) Toroidal winding. (c) Coil and iron core.
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 309
inductance is
(5-88b)
a consequence of i(t') dljlm integrated over the appropriate internal strip Sin connecting
with the wire axis, as depicted in Figure 5-27 (c). An illustration of the use of the
latter for a long straight wire is taken up in Example 5-15. Although the internal
conductor volume of a circuit may be small, the magnetic fields may be relatively
large there; individual circumstances will dictate whether or not the internal inductance
is negligible. For circuits having large external fluxes, such as those with iron cores,
the total self-inductance is generally well approximated by (5-88a), the external self-
inductance.
II EXAMPLE 5-15. Determine the internal self-inductance of every length t of the infinitely long
wire shown, carrying the low-frequency current I. Use (5-38b), employing the method
A typical flux tube t' carrying dl/l
m
= B ds through Sin is shown in the accom-
panying figure. With the internal B obtained from (1-64), the flux in the tube is
/lIp
dl/l
m
= B ds = Bq,dpdz = --2 dpdz
2na
The current i(t') intercepted by dl/l
m
is the fraction I(np2jna
2
) = I(p2ja
2
), obtaining
from (5-83b)
(5-89)
which agrees with (5-32).

iU') = I A, encompassed by dl/l
m
a
EXAMPLE 5-15
I
11.1
-
310 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNt:TIC FIELDS
EXAMPLE 5-16. Determine the approximate self-inductance of a length t' of a long parallel-
wire line shown in (a), using the flnx linkage method. Assume the radii small compared
to the spacing d.
For well-separated conductors as in (b), the internal field is essentially that of an
isolated conductor, making the internal self-inductance for both conductors just twice
(5-89), that is, Li = JIt'/4n.
The external inductance is found by using (5-88a), the ratio of the magnetic flux
through Sex of (a), divided by I, but the total flux is just twice that through Sex due to one
wire, given by
r B' ds
JSex
yielding for both wires
i
t J,d-a (JIOI ) JIoIt' d
-- a . a dp dz t' n -
z=O p=a 2np 4> 4> 2n a
The total self-inductance is the sum
pt' JIot' d
L = Li + Le = + t' n - H
4n n a
(1)
(2)
(5-90)
a result seen to agree with the exaet expression (5-84) on putting a
1
= a
z
into the latter
and assuming nonmagnetic wire. For a nonmagnetic parallel-wire line with d = 12 in. and
a = 0.1 in., one obtains
L/t' = lO-7 + (4 x 10-
7
) t'n 120 = 2.02 JIH/m
Neglecting the internal inductance would incur about 5% error' in this example, not a
negligible amount.
In calculating self-inductance at low frequencies, the internal-inductance contri-
bution is in some cases quite small; in others it should not be neglected. The internal
inductance of a single-layer air core coil of several turns, .illustrated in Figure 5-28(a),
contributes little to the self:inductance if the volume of the wire is small compared to
(a) (b) (c)
EXAMPLE 5-16. (a) Parallel-wire line and surfaces linked by internal and external magnetic
fluxes. (b) Division of internal and external Huxes for thin wires. (c) Proximity effect for thick
wires.
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 311
EXAMPLE 5-17
the region where the significant fields are located. In the closely spaced toroid as in
, Figure 5-23(b), with every turn intercepting all the core flux, the selfinductance is pro-
portional to the square of the turns, as seen in Example 5-17. The addi tion of an iron
core in the form of the low-reluctance magnetic circuit of Figure 5-23(c) increases the
selfinductance substantially more. In these cases, the added effect of the internal in-
ductance is insignificant.
EXAMPlE 517. Find the self-inductance of an n turn toroid with a rectangular cross section
as shown, for two cases: (a) with an air core, assuming closely spaced turns, and (b) with
the core a linear ferromagnetic material (constant /l).
(a) The magnetic flux in the air core, from Example S-2, is
/lonld b
I/Imcore=--tn
, 2n a
An inspection of the sUlface Sex bounded by the circuit t, as given in Figure S-28(b),
reveals that Sex intercepts the core flux n times,18 yielding t/lm,ex = nt/lm,core through
Sex. Thus the self-inductance from (S-88a) becomes
!/Im,ex n!/lm, core /lon
2
d b
~ =--=-_._-= t n ~
ell 2n a
(S-9Ia)
with the internal inductance neglected. Thus, a 100-turn air core toroid with di-
mensions a = 1 em, b = 3 em, d = O.S cm has the inductance
L = (4n x 10-
7
x 100
2
x O.OOS tn 3)/2n = 11.0 /lH
Doubling the turns to 200 is seen to quadruple the inductance.
(b) Inserting an iron core with the permeability /l, (S-91a) becomes
L (5-91b)
Using a linear ferromagnetic material with /lr = 1000 makes the inductance of the
100-tnrn toroid just 1000 times as large, yielding L = 11.0 mHo
ISOr equivalently, every flux tube dJ/!m encompasses the culTent In times in this example.
I I
312 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
*E. Formula for External
Inductance in Free Space
An extension of the flux linkage expression (5-87) leads to Neumann's formula,
applicable to circuits in free space. Equation (5-87) consists of internal and external
self-inductance terms as follows
[5-87]
Consider first only the external inductance term (5-88a) of (5-87), involving the flux
t/lm,ex linked by the external surface Sex bounded by the circuit t. From (5-47), this is
expressed
t/l = r B ds = r (V X A) . ds = A dt Wb
JSex JSex Yt
(5-92)
With (5-92), (5-88a) becomes
t/lmex II
L = -'- = - B ds = - A dt
e I I Sex I t
(5-93)
In free space, the vector magnetic potential A can be found by use of (5-28a)
[5-28a]
Applied to the circuit of Figure 5-29(a), (5-28a) obtains A at the typical field point
P located on t bounding Sex. Another integration of A . dt about t in accordance
with (5-93) then obtains the external self-inductance of the circuit. These steps are
combined by inserting (5-28a) into (5-93), yielding
1 f [i JloJ dV']
Le = - --R- . dt H
I t Vo 4n
t
(a) (b)
FIGURE 5-29. A closed circuit in free space, relative to external self-inductance calcula-
tions. (a) Wire circuit, showing source and field points P' and P. (b) Simplification of
(a), with sources I dt' concentrated on the wire axis.
(5-94a)
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 313
This quadruple integration is simplified for a thin-wire circuit if I is considered con-
centrated on the wire axis as in Figure 5-29(b). Then J dv' becomes I dt', reducing
(5-94a) to
L -- -- -dt-
1 floIdt'] flodt' - dt
e - I { C' 4nR - t (' 4nR
(5-94b)
a result known as Neumann's formula for the external inductance of a thin circuit in
free space. The order of the integrations relative to dt' and dt, and hence, relative to
the source point and field point coordinates, is immaterial.
From (5-87), the total self-inductance L is obtained by adding (5-94b) to the
internal inductance term L
i
Since the latter is a measure of the internal stored mag-
netic energy, Li is expressible using either (5-S1) or (5-8Sb); thus L = Li + Le becomes,
in Fee space
,
L=
i
flo dt' - dt
B-Hdv +
V;n t t' 4nR
1 r i(t') dl/tm + J. J. Il
o
dt' - dt
JSin 'ft 'ft' 4nR
(5-95)
EXAMPLE 518. Find the of a thin circular loop of wire in free space, with
dimensions as in (a). Use the Neumann formula (5-94b).
The current assumed concentrated on the wire axis as in (b) allows the use of
(5-94b). In cylindrical coordinates, dt' = a",bdf/J' at the souree point P'(b, f/J', 0) on the
axis t'. From the circular symmetry, the location of the field point P on t is immaterial,
so put P at f/J 0; that is, at P(b - a, 0, 0). The distance from 1" to P is given by the
law of cosines
R=
(a) (b)
EXAMPLE 5-UI. (a) Circular loop of round wire. (b) Axial, line current approxi-
mation of (a).
(1)
314 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
while dt' dE in (5-94b), from part (b), means dE' dE cos cp' (implying that only the com-
ponent of A parallel to dE at P is required in the integration.) Then (5-94b) becomes
L - J.2l< J.2l<
e - 1>= 0 1>' =0
(5-96)
This result is not integrable in closed form, though with numerical values of a and b it
yields to computer solution. An alternative makes use of tabulated values of the complete
elliptic integrals K(k) and E(k). A conversion of (5-96) in terms of such integrals is
accomplished as follows. Change the variable cpt to 21X, making dcpt = 2 dlX and cos cpt =
cos 21X = 2 cos
2
IX - 1, with the limits on IX going from 0 to n. Then R in (5-96) becomes
R = .jb
2
+ (b - a)2 - 2b(b - a)(2 cos
2
IX - 1)
.j(2b - a)2 - 4b(b - a) COSzlX
if k
2
= 4b(b - a)/(2b - a)2. The complete elliptic integrals, defined by
fo"!2
K(k) J, -r===::;===
de
(2)
(5-97)
are incorporated into (5-96) as follows. The integral in (5-96), making use of (2), becomes
J.
21t fIt 2 cos 21X dlX
1>'=0 = Jo (2b - a)
---;:=== S: rk=co="
but the numerator of (3) is written
k cos 21X = k(2 cos
2
IX - I) = 2k cos
2
IX
to yield a further conversion of (3)
2
k+k
2
k
{
( 2 ) }
- k dlX
I " 1 "k 2 "
= - "7 .j 1 - k
2
cos
2
IX dlX
.jb(b - a) So .jb(b - a) SO.jl - k
2
cos
2
IX k So
An inspection of the last integral shows that
(3)
(4)
which from (5-97) is just 2E( k). A similar consideration of the preceding integral in (4)
I
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUG'TANCE 315
reveals that it is just 2K(k), so (5-96) becomes
(5-98)
The tabulated values
19
of K(k) and E(k) can be used in (5-97) to evaluate Le ofa circular
loop with desired dimensions. For thin wires (a b), the elliptic integrals are approx
imated by
E(k) 1 ab
yielding the simplification
ab (5-100)
For example, a 2-mm diameter wire bent into a circle of 10-cm radius has the external
inductance Le = (4n x 10-
7
) (0. l)(tn 800 2) = 0.588/lH. The internal magnetic field
of the loop is virtually that of a straight, isolated wire, making their internal inductances
nearly the same. Applying the results of Example 5-12, the approximate internal induc-
tance of the loop becomes
L. /l(2nh) ftb
,- 8n 4
(5-101)
With b = 10 cm and assuming nonmagnetic wire, L; = 0.031 /lH. Thus the self-inductance
expressed by (5-93) becomes L = Le + L; = 0.619/lH, in which Le is seen to be the pre-
dominant term.
A summary of expressions for magnetic energy described in the foregoing dis-
cussion, together with expressions for the circuit inductance when the system is linear,
is given in Table 5-1.
*F. Kirchhoff VoHage Relation
from Energy Considerations
In concluding the remarks about the circuit of Figure 5-30(a), a Kirchhoff-type
voltage equation resembling (5-63) can be obtained for it from the energy expression
(5-68a)
abbreviated
Dividing by dt obtains
VI dt = RI2 dt + r J' dA dv
Jvc
VI = RP + dUm
dt
19For example, sec E. Jahnke, and F. Emde. Tables oj Functions, 4th cd. New York: Dover, 1945.
[5-68a]
[5-68b]
( 5-102)
316 STATIC AND QUASI.STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
TABLE 5-1 Summary of Magnetic Energy and Self-inductance Relations
MAGNETIC ENERGY SELF-INDUCTANCE
In terms of A and J integrated throughout conductor volume
In general
(5-70)
Linear circuit
(5-71 )
In free space
U = 1 1 1 fioJ" J du' dv
m Jvc Jvc 4nR
(5-74)
In terms of Band H integrated throughout all space
In general
(5-76)
Linear circuit
U = 1 B Hdv
m 2 Jv
(5-77)
2U
m
1
L = -- = - B . H dv
12 12 V
=1
1
B'Hdv+1
1
B'Hdv(5-79)
JVin JVex
Extension to method of flux linkages
Urn = 1 Is itt') dt/lm
(5-85 )
L = )2 Is itt') dt/lm
(5-86)
= I itt') dt/l + t/lm.ex
12 Stn m 1
= I itt') d,I, + It/lm.ex
2 Stn 'I'm 2
In free space _
L = I Is i(t') dt/lm + rC, rC,
in j-t 'fe'
(5-73)
(5-75)
(5-78)
(5-87)
de" dt
4nR
(5-95)
5-11 MAGNETIC ENERGY AND SELF-INDUCTANCE 317
v
(a) (b) ( c)
FIGURIfS-30. Development of circuit models of the circuit oLFigure 5-24. (a) Physical circuit
driven by V(t). (Ii) Circuit model depicting terms of (5-106). (c) Circuit model using lumped
elements.
signifying the instantaneous power delivered by V: the sum of the instantaneous heat
loss plus dUm/dt, the power delivered to the magnetic field (rate of magnetic energy
storage or release). Dividing by I produces a voltage relation
1 dUm
V=RI+--
I dt
(5-103)
in which Urn, the im;tantaneous magnetic stored energy, is specified by any of the ex-
pressions listed in Table 5-1, depending on whether the system is magnetically linear.
For a linear circuit, a L is attributable to the circuit energy by (5-78)
(5-104 )
With L constant, the last term of (5-103) becomes
(5-105)
making (5-103) a voltage relation comparable to the Kirchhoff expression (5-61);
that is,
V= RI + d(LJ)
dt
(5-106)
Equation (5-106) states that the applied voltage V(t) supports two effects: (a) a voltage
drop RI associated with the circuit resistance Rand (b) a back voltage d(LI)/dt or LdI/dt
produced by the time-varying magnetic flux linking the circuit, a flux produced by 1.
Because of the separation of these effects into two terms, one may properly lump the
resistive voltage and the self-induced voltage to yield the series circuit model shown in
Figure 5-30.
318 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIEI,DS
5-12 COUPLED CIRCUITS AND MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
Besides the single circuit of Figure 5-24, also of physical interest is a pair of such circuits,
coupled electromagnetically by the time-varying fields generated by their currents.
Examples are the iron core and air core transformers of Figure 5-31 (a), which may have
active sources in one or both windings. A generalization is illustrated in (b).
The analysis of coupled circuits from the magnetic energy point of view closely
parallels that for the single circuit. Consider the circuit pair of Figure 5-31 (b) with
one driving source V(t) in circuit 1, producing the primary current 11 (t). The latter
generates a field B
1
, the flux of which links not only circuit 1 but some fraction of that
flux (governed by the geometry and the presence of ferromagnetic bodies) also links
circuit 2, generating an emf about each circuit in accordance with the Faraday law,
(3-78). The ensuing current 12 produces a field B2 reacting similarly on circuit 2 while
also partly linking circuit 1, therehy establishing an additional back emf in each to
modify 12 and 11 accordingly. The influence of these mutual coupling effects on current
flow can conveniently be treated by use of Kirchhotf voltage equations, developed later
in this section. The mutual magnetic coupling between the circuits leads to their mutual
inductance parameters, developed in the following.
A simple extension of the power integral (5-66) to the pair of circuits of Figure
5-31(b) yields
- J, (<I> J) . ds = r E J dv + r E J dv + r aA. J dv + r. aA. J dv
j-'Sl JVl JV2 JVl at JV2 at
(5-107)
in which V
j
, V
2
denote the volumes inside the two conductors, with S] taken as the
surbce enclosing VI exclusive of the driving source V(t). The left side of (5-107) denotes
the instantaneous power Vi
l
delivered, whereas the two-volume integrals ofE J are
the ohmic losses Rili and within the conductors. Multiplying (5-107) by dt
_. I2 RL
h With iron core
V(t)
With air core
(a)
BI flux (of h only)
Vj
(Conductor volume)
(b)
FIGURE 5-31. Magnetically coupled circuits. (a) Typical coupled circuits. (b) Generalized
coupled circuits.
5-12 COUPLED CIRCUITS AND MUTUAL INDUCTANCE 319
yields
(5-108a)
abbreviated
(5-108b)
Integrating (5-1 08b) obtains
denotil)g the work done by V(t) in bringing the system up to the levels II and 12 at
the instant t. The volume integrals in (5-109) represent the energy expended by V in
establishing the magnetic fields of the coupled circuits; that is, the energy stored in the
magnetic fields in the amount
(5-110)
The integrations are required only within the conductors, since no densities J exist
outside them. Equation (5-110) is correct whether or not the system is linear.
If the system of Figure 5-31 (b) is linear, one can assert that the contributions to
the total A at any point in the region are proportional to the current densities J in the
circuits. Then
Urn = 1 Iv! A" J dv + 1 IV2 A" J dv J Linear system
(5-111 )
obtained analogously from (5-110) in the manner that (5-70) led to (5-71).
I t is advantageous to rcexpress (5-111) in terms of the vector potential contri-
butions of each current. Let the total vector potential at any field point P in either con-
ductor be written
(5-112)
with Al and A2 denoting the potentials at P due to the currents in circuits 1 and 2,
respectively. Then (5-111) splinters into the four contributions
U
m
=1' A
1
"Jdv+1' A
2
Jdv+1' A
1
Jdv+1' A
2
"Jdv (5-113a)
Jv! JV2 JV2 JVl
abbreviated as follows
(5-113b)
320 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
Note that Urn 1 , for example, denotes the magnetic of circuit 1 taken alone
(with circuit 2 open-circuited), with (5-71) revealing that U
rn1
is the energy associated
with the self-inductance of circuit 1, called L
1
. A similar remark applies to U
m2
to the self-inductance L2 of circuit 2. With J in conductor 1 as well as At both pro-
portional to 1
1
, U
rnl
becomes proportional to Ii. Similarly, U
m2
, U
m12
, and U
m21
are proportional to 1
1
1
2
, and 1
1
1
2
, respectively, yielding from (5-113a)
(5-1 14a)
(5-1l4b)
(5-114c)
(5-114d)
The constants M12 and M21 appearing in (5-114c) and (5-114d) are known as the
mutual inductances of the pair of circuits, related to the additional mutual magnetic en-
ergies associated with the magnetic coupling of the circuits. It is now shown that the
mu tual inductances M 12 and M 21 are identical for linear systems, namely
(5-115)
with the symbol M chosen to denote either parameter.
That (5-115) is true for a linear system is demonstrated on reexpressing (5-113a)
in terms of the volume integral of B . H by use of (5-77)
U = f B Hdv
m 2 Jv
[5-77]
This result, derived for the single circuit of Figure 5-24, is equally valid for the coupled
circuits of Figure 5-31. Suppose Band H of the coupled system are expressed as the sums
B = Bl + B2
H = HI + H2 (5-116)
in which Bl V X Al ,uH1' B2 V X A2 = ,uH
2
, whence B
1
, Hi are taken to be
due to II in circuit I, while B
2
, H2 arc proportional to 12 in circuit 2. Then (5-77)
expands into the four terms
in which the integrations are to be taken throughout all the space where the fields B
and H exist. A comparison of the four integrals in (5-117) with those of (5-113a) reveals
5-12 COUPLED CIRCUITS AND MUTUAL INDUCTANCE 321
a one-to-one energy correspondence, implying that the self and mutual inductances
defined in (5-114) can also be written
(5-118a)
(5-118b)
(5-118c)
,
(5-118d)
but in the latter, the product Bl . H2 equals B2 HI because
(5-119)
Thus (5-1 18c) and (5-118d) are identical, proving (5-115), that M12 = M
21
. Com-
bining (5-114) and (5-115) into (5-1 13b) permits writing the total magnetic energy in
the form
(5-120)
Hence, a knowledge of the inductance parameters and instantaneous currents
determines the magnetic energy state of coupled circuits at any instant. Since the self-
inductance expressions (5-118a, b) have already been considered in detail, the expres-
sions (5-118c,d) concerning the mutual inductance M will occupy the attention of the
remainder of this section.
For coupled circuits in free space, M can be expressed by a volume integral in
terms of the current sources, yielding a result resembling (5-75) for self-inductanee.
Hence, substituting (5-28a) for A into (5-118c) or (5-118d) obtains
I 1 1 lloJ" J ,
M21 = M= ---dv dvH
1112 Vi V2 4rcR
Free space (5-121)
with primes again used to distinguish the souree point current element J'dv' from
the unprimed field point element as in (5-75). In Figure 5-32(a) is shown the geometry
322 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
Circuit
(1
(a)
\ S2
(Cross- section)
(b)

(c)
Current
fiiamentt'2
FIGURE 5-32. Generalized coupled-circuit configurations pertaining to mutual energy and
inductance calculations. (a) Linear coupled circuits in free space. (b) Linear coupled circuits in
general (iron present or not), showing the portion of the flux of I, liuking current
filament (e) Special case of (b): thin circuits. Depicting portions tfr12 (If:ft) and tfr21 (r(lflll)
of the fluxes of I, and 1
2
,
relative to the integrations. The Neumann integral (5-121) is not discussed further here;
refer to other sources for applications. 20
More general expressions for M can be derived from magnetic flux and current
linkage interpretations of (5-114c) and (5-114d), to include the effects of magnetic
materials. Subdivide circuit 2 into closed current filaments carrying the differential
current di as in Figure 5-32(b), each linking a portion of the flux of circuit 1.
20See R. S. Elliott, Electromagnetics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 309.
5-12 COUPLED CIRCUITS AND MUTUAL INDUCTANCE 323
Equation (S-114c) for the mutual energy U
m12
then becomes
a result that follows on noting that Ai . J dv = Ai . (atJl dt'ds Ai' dt" di, andob-
serving from (S-47) that f Ai . dt" denotes t{! 12(t
2
), the portion of the flux of Ii linking
t
2
. Thus U
m12
is found by integrating t{!12(t'2) di over the cross section S2 of wire 2, as
depicted in Figure S-32(b). Similarly, (S-114d) becomes
I
(S-122b)
The use of the flux linkage expressions (S-122a, b) is facilitated by assuming Ii
and 12 to be concentrated along the wire axes. Then t{!12(t
2
) and t{!21(t'1) in (S-122a)
and (S-122b) become constants, yielding the simpler results
in which
t{! 12 = the portion of the flux of Ii linked by circuit 2
t{! 21 = the portion of the flux of 12 linked by circui t 1
(S-122c)
(S-122d)
The simplifications (S-122c) and (S-I22d) are excellent approximations if the circuits
are thin, as depicted in Figure S-32(c).
The mutual inductance M is finally obtained by substituting the energies (S-122)
into the definitions (S-llSc) and (S-11Sd), making use of M12 = M21 = M of (S-IIS);
thus
M
Exact (S-123a)
For thin circuits (S-123b)
324 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
EXAMPLE 5-19
The latter approximations (5-123b) are usually acceptable in practical mutual induc-
tance calculations.
EXAMPLE 5-19. Find M for the iron core toroidal transformer illustrated, the windings having
n
1
and n2 turns and assuming no leakage flux. Compare M2 with the product LIL
z
.
M for thin coils is conveniently found by use of (5-123b). For II in t
l
, the core flux
obtained in Example 5-2 is
but t/I 12 linked by t2 (i.e., passing through Sex.2 bounded by t 2) is n2 times t/lm,core,
obtaining from (5-123b)
(2)
The same answer is obtained using M = t/lzl/I
2
,
The se1f:'inductances of the coils, from Example 5-17, are
(3)
Thus the product LIL2 equals the square of M given by (2). This is expected for coupled
circuits whenever all the magnetic flux links each turn of the windings.
The idealization that all the magnetic flux produced by one circuit completely
links the other, as in Example 5-19, is never quite attained in practice, even when
high-permeability cores are used to minimize flux leakage. There is invariably some
leakage, as depicted in Figure 5-33(a), causing M2 to be less than L
I
L
2
. This circum-
stance is expressed by the so-called coefficient of coupling between circuits, symbolized
5-12 COUPLED CIRCUITS AND MUTUAL INDUCTANCE 325
(a) (b)
FIGURE 5-33. Magnetic coupling between circuits yielding high and low coupling coefficients.
(a) Iron core transformer with small leakage (k .... I). (h) Circuits coupled in air, Jar high-frequency
applications.
by k and defined
M
k=--
.JL
1
L
2
(5-124)
The latter permits expressing M as a function of the self-inductance of each circuit
whenever k is known; that is,
(5-125)
The maximum value attainable by k is unity, while for circuits totally uncoupled,
k = O. If coils are coupled using high-permeability cores, k may have a value as high
as 0.99 or better, though with air as the coupling medium as in Figure 5-33(b), a much
smaller k is usual, in view of one circuit linking a correspondingly smaller fraction of
the total self-flux of the other.
The circuit model of coupled circuits can be deduced in the same manner as for
single circuits. Since a pair of circuits is involved, two Kirchhoff voltage relations are
desired. Three interrelated methods can be employed to obtain the Kirchhoff voltage
equations: (a) a method based on the scalar and vector potentials I]) and A of the elec-
tromagnetic fields, described in Section 5-10; (b) a technique based on energy con-
siderations, treated in Section 5-11, part F; and (c) an approach making use of the
The Kirchhoff voltage equations of coupled circuits are derived from application
J: E. dt = _ dt/Jm
dt
[3-78]
to the closed paths tl and t2 defining the circuits. In (3-78), E denotes the total field
existing at the elements dt of the paths tl and t
2
, with o/m the total flux intercepted
by each circuit-flux generated by both 11 and 1
2
, To help visualize this process, in
326 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
(a) (b)
FIGURE 5-34. Se!f- and mutual fluxes produced by 11 and 12 in coupled circuits. and emfs
induced. (a) Flux of 11 only. The self-flux l/i I links t p inducing
El 'dt

The mutual flux 1/112 = I
S
2 BI . ds links t
2
, inducing
(b) Flux of 12 only. The self-flux l/i2links /:2, inducing
E . d/: = _dl/i2
:Yt2 2 dt
The mutual flux t/121 = Is! B2 . ds links t 1, inducing
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Figure 5-34 are shown the separate fluxes of 11 and 1
2
, Only one independent voltage
source V(t) is used. The senses of 11 and 12 are arbitrary, being assumed as shown.
Figure 5-34 shows that the total E generated along the closed path of circuit II
and appearing in the left side of (3-78) consists of three contributions: a field El
induced along II by -dl/1t/dt, in which 1/11 is the linking the circuit II and
due to the current 11; another field E21 induced along II by -dl/121/dt, in which 1/121
is the "mutual flux" linking II and produced by 1
2
; plus the generated field Eg produced
only within the independent voltage source V(t). Thus, the total E dl contribution
to the integrand of the left side of the Faraday law (3-78) becomes
E . dl = (E1 + E21 + E ) . dt = ! . dt + E . dt
9 (J 9
(5-126)
in which the current density J is that induced in the conductor via (3-7) and by the
continuity of the tangential portion of the total electric field Econd = El + E21 ap-
pearing at the conductor surface.
5-l2 COUPLED CIRCUITS AND MUTUAL INDUCTANCE 327
(0) (b) (e)
FIGURE 5-35. Magnetically coupled circuits and circuit models. (a) The physical coupled cir-
cuits, with assumed current directions. (b) Circuit model showing elements corresponding to terms
of (5-128). (e. Circuit model using symbolic convention to denote circuit self-indnctances.
The right side of the Faraday law (3-78) concerns the two magnetic flux con-
tributions t/lm = t/ll + t/l21 linking the surface SI bounded by the circuit tl as shown
in Figure 5-34(a) and (b). With this and (5-126), (3-78) finally becomes
l. dt + j( +) E . dt = _ dt/ll _ dt/l21
:Yt, (J J(-) 9 dt dt
(5-127)
At low frequencies, the leftmost integral of (5-127) becomes Rllb Rl being the resis-
tance of the conductive path by the arguments of Section 4-14B. Thus (5-127) may
be written
The fluxes t/ll = Is, BI . ds and t/lzl = Is, B
z
. ds linked by tl are the positive quantities
t/ll = LIIl and t/lZl = M1
2
, since those fluxes emerge from the positive side of S1
bounded by tl in Figure 5-34. With these substitutions one obtains
(5-128a)
the desired Kirchhoff voltage relation for the circuit t
l
.
Applying a similar line of reasoning to the other circuit, one obtains the desired
Kirchhoff voltage relation for t
z
o (5-128b)
These coupled diflcrential equations correspond to the circuit model in Figure 5-35.
The use of this model makes it evident, without recourse to field theory, that on
removing Rv tor example, the open-circuit voltage obtained across gap terminals at
cod is just M dlddt. Other features of coupled circuits from the point of view of this
model are treated in standard texts on circuit theory.21
liSee, for example, S. 1. Pearson, and G. J. Maler. introductory Circuit Analysis. New York: Wiley, 1965, pp.
54-63.
328 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
513 MAGNETIC FORCES AND TORQUES
Although the force acting on a current-carrying circuit in the presence of an external
magnetic field can often be obtained by use of the Ampere force law, (5-45a), frequently
it is more expedient to obtain it from the stored magnetic field energy. It is shown
how the force or torque acting on a current-carrying circuit or a nearby magnetic
material region is deduced from an application of the conservation of energy principle
to a virtual displacement or rotation of the desired body. This process is analogous
to the determination of forces or torques exerted on charged conductors or dielectrics
in the presence of an electrostatic field, discussed in Section 4-15.
Suppose the magnetic circuit of Figure 5-36(a), having an air gap of variable
width x, derives its energy from the source V supplying a direct current to the winding.
If the armature were displaced a distance dt at the gap due to the magnetic field
force F acting on it, the mechanical work done would be
(5-129)
This work is done by V at the expense of the energy in the magnetic field such that
the following energy balance is maintained
dUm

energy change
+ dU dU
s

Mechanical Work done
work done by source V
(5-130)
The change in the magnetic energy, on changing the air gap in Figure 5-36(a), produces
a corresponding inductance change. The magnetostatjc energy Urn is 1/2LP from
(5-72), so the energy change occurring with 1 help constant becomes
(5-131)
Omitting the 12 R heat losses associated with the coil resistance in the equivalent
circuit of this system depicted in Figure 5-30(c), the work dU
s
exerted by V to maintain
(5-130) is done against the voltage induced by the flux change dl/l
m
in the time dt such
I
v-=-
(a) (b)
FIGURE 5-36. Single circuits using magnetic cores subject to relative translation
or rotation. (a) Armature translates. (b) Armature rotates.
513 MAGNETIC FORCES AND TORQUES 329
that V = -dljim/dt. With ljim = LI from (5-88a), and with I maintained at a constant
value, the induced voltage becomes V = -dljimfdt = -ldL/dt. The work dU
s
done by
the source in the time dt to overcome this voltage is therefore
dU
s
= - VI dt = 12 dL (5-132)
which is just twice (5-131), the change in the stored energy. Combining (5-129),
(5-131), and (5-132) into the energy balance, (5-130) thus yields (i)PdL+F'dt=
[2 dL, reducing to F' dt = (1)P dL, or
( 5-133)
The latter shows that the mechanical work just equals the change in the magnetostatic
field energy. Thus, of thc electrical energy supplied by V, one-half goes to increasing the
magnetic ener[jY of the system, whereas the other half is used up as mechanical work done by the mag-
netic force.
The differential magnetostatic energy change dUm can be written in terms of the
coordinate variations of Urn as the armature moves the distance dt = axdx + a
y
4Y +
a. dz if desired; that is,
(5-134)
gradient form allowable in view of (2-11). A comparison of (5-134) with (5-129),
making use of (5-133), leads to the cartesian components ofF
(5-135a)
Since Urn = (i)LP from (5-72), the force components with I constant can also be
written in terms of the derivations of the self-inductance L as follows
I
2
0L
F=--
y 2 oy
(5-135b)
To evaluate F, the magneLostatic energy Urn (or the L) should be given
in terms of the coordinates of the displaced element of the system. In Figure 5-36(a), for
example, U m would be expressed in terms of the single coordinate x denoting the air-gap
width.
Suppose a portion of the iron core, instead of being translated, is constrained to
rotation about an axis as in Figure 5-36(b). Then the differential work (with dU =
dUm) done by the magnetic force in the angular displacement dO a1 dOl + a2 d0
2
+
a3 d0
3
becomes
(5-136)
wherein T = a
1
T1 + a2 T2 + a
3
T3 denotes the vector torque due to the magnetic
force. Then results analogous with (5-135a, b), in terms ofthe variations ofthe magnetic
330 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGN.ETIC FIELDS
energy with respect to angular changes, obtain as follows
(5-137a)
and in terms of the variations in the circuit self-inductance with respect to the angular
motions, one obtains
(5-137b)
EXAMPLE 5-20. A magnetic relay has a movable armature with two air gaps of width x as
shown in the accompanying figure. The n turn coil carries a current 1 derived from the
source V. The core and armature, both of permeability f-t, have the median lengths and
cross-sectional areas t
1
, AI; t
2
, A
2
, respectively. (a) Find the expression for the magnetic
flux, the magnetic energy stored, and the self-inductance of the system, expressed as func-
tions of the gap width x. (b) Determine the force acting on the armature. Express this force
in terms of magnetic flux in the air gap, and in terms of the air-gap Bav field.
(a) The core flux is obtained by use of the magnetic circuit methods in Section 5-3. The
reluctances are 91
1
= tdf-tAl' 91
2
= tzlf-tAz, and that of the two air gaps in series is
2x/ f-toA 1; whence
1
nl
t/lm,core = ------2-x-
91
1
+ 91
2
+ --_.
f-to
A
l
(1)
L is well approximated by the extcrnal self-inductance (5-88a). The core flux passes
n times through the surface Sex bounded by the coil, so that
(
I
I
I
I
L
I
\
L = nt/lm.core =
1 ----------2-x-
91
1
+ 9l
z
+--
f-toAl
(2)
EXAMPLE 5-20
PROBLEMS 331
The magnetic energy of the system is therefore
(3)
It is evident that increasing the air gap results in a decrease in the core flux, the
self-inductance, and the stored energy.
(b) The force on the armature is obtained from (5-135a) or (5-135b); F has only an x
component, as expected from the physical layout; thus
(4)
[
2x J2
JloA [Jt 1 + [Jt 2 + JloA
The negative sign means Fx is in the direction of deereasing gap width x, corre-
sponding to an increase in magnetic energy. ''''ith the core flux expression (1), re-
write the air-gap force (4) as
I 2
F = __ .1,
x A 'P m,core
Jlo
(5-138a)
With !/Im,eore = BovA, is also written
(5-138b)
showing thc air-gap force to be proportional to the air-gap flux squared, as well as
to the flux-density squared.
REFERENCES
ELLIOTT, R. S. Electrornagnetics. New York: 1966.
LORRAIN, P., and D. R., CORSON. Electrornagnetic Fields and Waves, 2nd ed. San Francisco:
Freeman, 1970.
REITZ, R., and F. J. MILFORD. Foundations of Electrornagnetic Theory. Reading, Mass.:
Wesley, 1960.
PROBLEMS
SECTION 5-1
5-1. From the divergence of the static diflerential Ampere law (5-2), show that the differential
property of static current density (5-3) follows. Explain the physical meaning of (5-3). Show
how (5-6) follows from (5-3), from an appropriate integration and by an application of the di-
vergence theorem.
SECTION 5-2
5-2. In the figure is shown a toroid of permeability Jl = JloJl" through which a long wire
carrying the steady current I is coaxially threaded. (a) Making use of the symmetry, Ampere's
and boundary conditions, argue why the same H field exists in the toroid as in the sur-
rouuding air. Find B in the two regions. (b) With 1 = 10 A, Jl = 500Jlo, a = I cm, b = h = 2 cm,
332 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
I
I
h
L
PROBLEM 5-2
find Hand B to either side of the interface at the inner radius p = a. Determine the core flux
in the toroid.
SECTION 5-3
5-3. A particnlar ferromagnetic core with an air gap is similar to that shown in Example 5-3.
I t has a 5-cm 2 cross-sectional area, a median core length in the iron of 20 em, a 4-mm air-gap
length, and is wound with a 200-turn coil carrying 0.1 A. The iron core has the constant per-
meability It = 5000lto. (a) Sketeh the analogous dc electric circuit and the equivalent magnetic
circuit diagram, labeling the symbolic quantities that apply. (b) Calculate the reluctances of
the iron path and the air gap. Find Bov and Hav values in each region. (c) At the iron-to-air-gap
interface, which boundary condition (from Table 3-2) applies there? (d) Show that the Ampere
integral law (5-5) is satisfied, by integrating H dt about the closed median path. To which
Maxwell law is the Ampere law analogous, but applicable to the electric-current analog? (e) If
the air gap were missing and the applied mmfnI were the same, by what factor would Bov and
the core flux increase? [Answer: (b.) Bav 6.22 mT]
5-4. Suppose the toroidal magnetic circuit of Exam pie 5-3 had no air gap. With the dimensions
and parameters as given, find the H field in the core along the median path (p = 5 cm) two
ways: (a) using the magnetic circuit method; (b) using Ampere's law. Compare the answers.
If this toroid has an air gap, explain why the Ampere law cannot be applied to find H directly.
5-5. Given is the two-mesh magnetic circuit with an n-turn winding as shown in Figure 5-7 (b).
Let the iron core /1 10
4
Ito and the coil wound about the middle leg carry 0.1 A with 80 tUfns.
The median path length of the middle leg is t3 = 4 crn, whereas the outside legs have tl =
(2 = 12 em, with all cross-sectional areas fixed at 2 em
2
. Sketch the schematic diagram of the
magnetic circuit appropriately labeled, along with the analogous dc electric circuit. (a) Using
the analogous circuit, employ simple circuit reduction methods borrowed from the analogous
electric circuit to calculate the magnetic flux in each branch, neglecting leakage. Find Bav in
each branch. (b) Find Hav in each branch. Check your solution by verifying whether Ampere's
law is satisfied around one closed loop that includes the mmf source rd. [Answer: (a) ifJm3 =
0.201 mWbl
PROBLEMS 333
5-6. Given is the same two-mesh magnetic circuit as in Problem 5-5, except that, additionally,
a O.5-mm air gap is sawed through the middle branch t3' (a) What is the air-gap reluctance?
Sketch the new analogous electric circuit, labeling appropriate quantities and their analogies.
(b) Find the new value of current required in the n-turn coil to establish the same magnetic
flux in each branch as was obtained for Problem 5-5. By what factor does the current need
to be increased? Comment on the effect of the air gap. (c) If the air gap had instead been
placed in the outer branch t
1
, comment qualitatively on its effects in this event. [Answer:
(b) 1= 5.1 A]
5-7. Given is the two-mesh magnetic circuit of Figure 5-7(a), with the mmfsource nl wound
on the outer leg t
1
Sketch this system, along with a labeled schematic magnetic circuit. Assume
the identical dimensions and parameters of Problem 5-3. (a) Repeat part (a) of Problem 5-5
for this new configuration. (b) Calculate Hap in each branch. Check your solution by verifying
whether Ampere's law, of the form (5-20e), is satisfied around the closed loop defined by the
branches tl and t
2
.
5-8. A particular I %-silicon (Si) steel, useful in magnetic circuit applications, has the type
of nonlinear B-H curve depicted in Figure 3-13(b). Only points on the virgin curve OP3 are
considered lkre. (1'he hysteresis efleet is disregarded.) Tests on this steel show a curve having
the (B, H) coordinates: (0.04,20), (0.13,40), (0.24,50), (0.39,60), (0.53,70), (0.63,80),
(0.76,100), (0.87,125), (0.95,150), (1.06, 200), (1.19, 300), (1.25,400) in mks units. (a) Graph
this B-H eurve on linear graph paper with reasonable care. (b) With fl, defined by B/floH,
calculate the static fl and fl, values for each given point, and graph fl, as a function of Hover
the given range.
5-9. The gapless toroidal ring shown is made of the Si steel described in Problem 5-8, with
R = 10 em, r = 2 cm. Let the current in the 100-turn winding be 1.257 A. (a) Use (5-20e) to
find Hav in this core. Find also Bap and the magnetic flux in the core. Employ the B-H charac-
teristic given in Problem 5-8. [Answer: I/Im = 1.33 mWb] (b) Use answers obtained in (a) to
deduce tbe values of fl and fl, of the core at its operating point. Find the reluctance of this
magnetic core. Making use of the latter, check the value of the core flux obtained in (a).
(c) Explain why the use of (5-20c) would have been unsuitable in part (a).
5-10. A toroidal magnetic circuit with an air gap has dimensions the same as those of Example
5-3. The core is made of the Si steel described in Problem 5-8. (a) Suppose that the maximum
magnetic density Bav at which this device is to be operated is 1.06 T. Determine the correspond-
ing core flux, the field Hav established in the steel core and in the air gap, and the mmf drops
across the two regions. What mmf is required of the 100-turn coil to produce the desired Bav?
What coil current? (b) If there were no air gap, what coil current would then be needed?
Comment on the effect of the air gap on the required driving current to produce a desired Bap
in the magnetic core. .
5-11. In the toroidal magnetic circuit with air gap of Problem 5-10, assume 1= 10 A flows
in the 100-turn coil. Find Bav and the core flux. [Hint: Since neither (5-20c) nor (5-20e) is
amenable to a direct solution for B
ap
, assume as a first approximation that the applied mmf
due to nl is entirely across the air gap only, using successive approximations to find Bap from
the B-H graph of Problem 5-8.]
PROBLEM 5-9
334 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FlELDS
SECTION 5-4
5-12. Given a very long, round conductor of radius a carrying the static current I in free
space and that its exterior B field is aq,1l01/2np, use (5-22) as the basis for finding the potential
A outside the wire. [Hint: Expand (5-22), noting it has only a z-eomponent and that its %z
operator is zero (why?). Integrate the resulting differential equation to obtain
110
1
tnp+C (p?:a)
2n
If desired, put the arbitrary potential reference (where A
z
= 0) at p = a to eliminate C.J
5-13. Repeat Problem 5-12, but this time find A inside the wire, given that B there IS
aq,llolp/2na2 Show that
To what docs this result reduce, if the wire surface is taken as the potential reference?
SECTION 5-5
5-14. A finite length of this wire, in air, carries the static current I and lies on the z-axis as
in Example 5-4, except it is displaced so that its lower end is at z = L
J
and its upper end is at
L
z
. Sketch and label it. Find the vector magnetic potential A at any location P(p, 0, 0) on the
p-axis by integrating (5-28c), showing that
5-15. (a) In Example 5-5 concerning the small curre'nt loop, show the details of inserting
(5-32) into (5-22) to obtain B of (5-33). (b) Comment on the duality existing between the B field
(5-33) of the current loop of Figure 5-10 and the E field (4-44) of the electric dipole charge of
Example 4-8. How do their field sketches compare? The strength of the electric dipole moment
in (4-44) is qd. Recalling the definition (3-53) of the magnetic moment of a current loop, what
is the "magnetic dipole" moment inferred from (5-33)?
5-16. A square loop of thin wire centered in the z = plane and of sides 2a parallel to the
X,] axes in air carries the current I flowing counterclockwise looking from the top. Sketch this
geometry, and show details of how the Biot-Savart law (5-35b) is used to obtain the B field at
P(O, 0, 0), yielding
1l0J21
B(O, 0, 0) = a
z
---
11.a
Make use of symmetry to show that integration along only one side of the loop is needed.
5-17. (a) Show that B along the z-axis of the thin, square loop of Problem 5-16 is given by
21lo
Ia2
B(O, 0, z) = a z 2 2 1/2 Z 2
11.(z + 2a) (z + a )
[Hint: Make use of results of Example 5-4, if desired.] (b) To what result does this reduce at the
center of the loop? (See Problem 5-16.) If 1= 10 A, a = 1 ern, find B(O, 0, 0). (c) Show, as z be-
comes sufficiently large, that B at great distances falls oft' as the inverse cube of the distance.
\
5-18. A thin, circular loop of thin wire centered in the z plane is of radius a and carries /
the current I (going couHterclockwise seen from the top) in air. Sketch it. (a) Use a direct inte-
free
Iltial
a/az
:e IS
IS as
is at
the
ting
'ield
e of
lent
That
the
this
j at
I by
the
be-
1ce.
nes
Ilte-
: :
t
d[JU b
I(t) t
i-'- Viti
(a)
I'ROBLEM 5-19
I I
I I
(b)
I I
I I
I I
PROBLEMS 335
t I(t)
ofthc Biot-Savan law (5-35b) to show that B along the z axis is given by
what result does this reduce at the loop center? Find B there iff = lOA, a = I em. Iff = lOA,
10 cm. (b) Show that this B field agrees, as the distance from the loop is made large, with
f()!' the B field of a small loop.
SECTION 5-7
5--UI. A highly conductive wire loop, of the rectangular dimensions as noted, is placed in the
('ommon plane of a nearby long wire carrying the current I(t) = 1m sin rot as shown in (a).
What (quasi-static) B field is produced by the current'? (b) Use the Faraday law (5-41) to
the open-circuit voltage V(t) at the loop gap. (Show on a sketch the direction orB on the
bounded by the loop and the choice of a positive surface element.) What is the polarity
at the gap? Explain. If 1m 10 A, f 20 kHz, d 4 mm, a b 10 em, find V(t),
its polarity. (c) Repeat (b) for the parallel-wire system of figure (b), making use of

5--20. A high-11 magnetic toroid has a rectangular cross section as shown, and is wound with
n-turn coil carrying the current I(t) 1m sin rot. A one-turn secondary loop of wire embraces
core as shown. (a) Use Ampere's law to deduce the quasi-static B(p, t) field in the toroidal
Find the "core flux. (Sketch the flux in a side view of the system, noting its direction in
relation to the positive current sense.) (b) Use Faraday's law (5-41) to deduce the open-circuit
V(t) at the gap of the secondary loop t
2
. If a = 1 em, b = 3 em, d = 2 em, n
1
= 150 turns,
kHz, core 11 = 4000Jlo, and 1m = 2 A, find t/lm(t) and V
2
(t). Label the polarity of V
2
(t)
-(z)
('ROBLEM 5-20
II
336 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
It
I I
I I
1'1
"I
! T V(t)
I
1 I
I I
1 I
p
PROBLEM 5-21
SECTION 5-8
. E7
5-21. The long, straight, round wire shown carries the static current 1. The thin, rectangular
loop shown is located with its nearest side at the distance p from the wire center. The rigid loop
is moved radially away from the long wire, all points on the loop moving at the velocity v
apv" relative to the wire. Use (5-44d) to determine V(t) induced at the loop gap, including its
polarity and the reason for your choice. (Sketch the system, labeling typical v, B, and v X B
symbols thereon, as required by the integration.)
SECTION 5-10
5-22. In Figure 5-22(c) assume, in the end view of the simple generator shown, that the radial
magnetic field has the constant Eo magnitude in the gap over a 60 angular interval measured
{i'om the vertical, and is zero outside the gap. Use (5-44d) to derive the motional voltage V(t)
generated by the rotating coil across its open terminals, assuming the coil has n turns. (Show
its polarity on a sketch, justifying your choice.) Show that V(t) = 2B
o
dawn. If Bo = 0.3 T, d =
12 cm, a 4 cm, n 20 turns, and the r'otor is spinning at 50 revolutions per second, find V(t).
SECTION 5-11C
5-23. (a) Make use of (5-77) to show that the magnetic energy stored in the toroid of Problem
5-20 is U
m
= (J.ldn
2
J2/4n) tn (b/a). Deduce its self inductance therefore to be
L
/.ldn
2
R b
,n-
2n a
and compare this wi th the result obtained in Exam pie 5-17 by the flux-linkage method. (b) For
the toroid with dimensions as given in Problem 5-20(b), find its magnetic energy if J = 2 A,
and its self-inductance. Under what condition would the be a function of the
current in the device?
5-24. (a) Find the magnetic energy stored in the toroidal inductor of Examplc 5-3, using
average magnetic field values. What percentage of the total energy is stored in the air gap? What
is the self-inductance? (b) Repeat the energy and inductance calculations of (a), but for no air
gap in the core. Comment on the comparative results.
5-25. Determine, from results obtained in Example 1-17, the magnetic energy stored in a
length d of a very long solenoid in air, with n/d closely spaced turns per meter. Show that its self-
inductance per meter, L/d, is /.lonb
2
(n/d)2. For a long solenoid with b = 3 em and 10 turns per
centimeter, find its inductance per meter.
PROBLEMS 337
PROBLEM 5-31
5-26. (a) For the coaxial line of Example 5-13, verify the results (I), (2), and (3) obtained for
its internal and external inductances, giving ample details. (b) The expression (5-83) is some-
times used for the inductance of a length t of the coaxial line. Under what condition(s) would
this result be accurate?
SECTION 5-11D
5-27. For the toroidal inductor of Example 5-3, use the external flux linkage to lind its self-
inductance. With no air gap, by what factor docs its inductance increase?
5-28. Find, using the flux linkage method, the expression for the self-inductance of every
length d of the very long solenoid in air of Example 1-17. Check the result with that given in
Problem 5-25.
51.29. For the two-mesh magnetic circuit with parameters as given in Problem 5-5, it was found
that 0.1 A in its 30-turn coil produced 0.201 mWb of magnetic flux through the coil. Find its
external using the flux linkage method.
5-30. In the two-mcsh magnctic circuit with an air gap, as described in Problem 5-6, it was
found that the coil current of5.1 A produced the magnetic flux of 0.201 mWb through the coil.
the flux linkage method to find the coil self-inductance. Neglect internal inductance.
5-31. The toroidal magnetic core of circular cross section has a coil ofn turns as shown. Ncglect-
the winding intcrnal inductance and the flux leakage and assuming the iron permeability
p to be constant, use the flux-linkage expression (5-83a) to determine the approximate self-
inductance. Use magnetic circuit methods to determine the core flux. Show that L = 1lT/
2
r2/2R.
If Ilr 10
5
, n 50, r = .5 mm, R 3 em, find L.
5-32. Rework Problem 5-31, this time employing Ampere's law to find the exact expression
H in the core, whence deduce the core flux from the integration ofB . ds over the core cross
lIection. From this, deduce the external by usc of (5-33a) and flux linkages.
Calculate L for the values given in Problem 5-31.
5-33. A wire circuit is threaded through a small toroidal low-loss ferrite bead of permeability
shown. How much self-inductance is added to the circuit? [Hint: Reason that the H field
or without the bead is essentially the same. The fields within the bead (sec enlarged figure)
essentially those for the straight-wire Problem 5-2.]
I'ROBLEM .5-33
338 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
I
I
<:!;50.5cm
0.1 mm
(a)
PROBLEM 5-36
SECTION 5-11E
Loop
of (a)
= 0.5 em
(b)
5-34. Employing the elliptic integral approximations (5-99), provc (5-100) for the external
inductance of a circular loop of wire.
5-35. Add (5-100) and (5-101) to obtain the expression for the self-inductance of a circular
wire loop in air. Use the result to calculate the low-frequency and high-frequcncy inductances
(explain the difference) of a loop of nonmagnetic wire 4 mm in diameter, forming a IO-cm
diameter circle. Is the internal inductance negligible in the low-frequency case?
5-36. (a) The wire loop in figure (a) has the dimensions shown. Calculate by use of (5-100)
and (5-101) its self:inductance. Assuming low-frequency operation, what percentage of this is
internal inductance? (b) Now wind the wire loop about the iron core as in figure (b), with the
mean radius R = 1.5 cm and the cross-sectional radius r = 5 mm. Assume no leakage flux and
J1. = 5000J1.0 for the core. Determine the factor by which L increases ovcr its free-space value
in (a). Comment on the effect of the closed, high-permeability magnetic path. Is internal induc-
tance of importance here?
SECTION 5-12
5-37. Beginning with (5-65), prove the result (:>-107) for the power delivered to coupled cir-
cuits. [See thc proof of (5-66) for a single circuit.]
5-38. From the expression (5-110) for the magnetic energy of coupled circuits, derive (5-111)
for linear circuits. [Hint: Observe how the linear result (5-71) was obtained from the general
expression (5-70) for a single magnetic circuit.]
5-39. Usc (5-121) to deduce thc Neumann formula for two thin circuits in free space
1 1
J1.
o
dt' dt
M= .... _.-
{, 12 4nR
Sketch a pair of circuits with labeling appropriate to the usc of this intcgral.
5-40. Use the Neumann formula for thin circuits given in Problem 5-39 to derive the mutual
inductance between two coaxial, circular loops with radii a and b, and separated by the distance
PROBLEM 5-40
PROBLEMS 339
free space as shown, obtaining
which K(k) and E(k) are the complete elliptic integrals (5-97), and
k=
Proceed along lines suggested by Example 5-18, noting that the distance between a source
P' and a field point P is
5-41. Given a fixed circuit tl in free space as shown, suggest, with respect to the flux-linkage
definition (5-123b) of M, how the mutual inductance varies with respect to the second circuit
on relocating it according to the three cases illustrated. Explain briefly, showing roughly
the extent to which the flux of 11 (in t
1
z
.
5-42. Suppose a second coil tz with Tt2 = 250 turns is wound on the iron core with an air
gap, described in Example 5-3. Employ flux linkage methods to determine the self-inductance
of each winding. Find the mutual inductance between these windings two ways: (I) by usc of
the flux linkage result (5-123b); and (2) using (5-125), assuming zero leakage flux in this
system.
~ 4 3 . (a) In the coaxial coupled circuit system (in air) of Problem 5-40, assume the radius b
of circuit t2 to be small compared to a, the radius of circuit t
1
. Then the current 11 in tl
would produce an essentially uniform B field over the smaller circuit t
z
. Using the solution to
Problem 5-18 for Bl along the z-axis, show that the mutual inductance between these circuits
is essentially J1.o1f.(ab)z/2(a
2
+ d
2
)3/2. (b) Find M between these circuits if a = 12 em, b 2 em
for two cases: (I) if d = 20 cm (coaxial circuits), and (2) if d = 0 (coaxial and coplanar). Let
the wire diameter be Imm. (c) If 11 = 10 A flows in circuit iI' find the magnetic flux 0/12
linking the second circuit. (If 12 were 10 A, then from (5-123b), how much flux 0/21 would
5-44. Make use of the inductance expressions (5-100) and (5-\ 0 1) for a circular wire loop to
determine the self inductance of each of the two loops with dimensions as given in Problem
5-43(b). Usc these and the value of M to deduce the coupling coefficient k for both circuit
separations d 0 and d 20 cm.
5-45. (a) For the same rectangular circuit near a long, straight wire in air as shown in figure
(a) of Problem 5-19, find the expression for the mutual inductance between the two circuits.
Sketch this labeled system. Find the value of M, using the dimensions given in Problem 5-19.
(b) If ll(t) 10 sin Wi, make use of (5-123b), 0/12 MIll to find the amount of flux 0/12(t)
linking the rectangular circuit having the given dimensions. (c) Use the Faraday law (5-41) to
(a) (b) (c)
PROBLEM 5-41 (a) Coaxial circuits. (b) Coplanar circuits. (e) Coaxial
and coplanar circuits.
340 STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
PROBLEM 5-46
deduce the open-circuit voltage V(t) (ineluding its polarity) appearing at the gap in the rec-
tangular circuit at the frequency f= 20 kHz specified in Problem 5-19. (Identify the flux l/l",
in (5-41) here as precisely 1/112' the flux produced by 11 and linking the circuit whcre
t/1l2 = MIl' Evaluate V(t) making usc oftlle latteL)
5-46. Clamped firmly about the long, straight wire shown is a split toroidal core of perme-
ability I' and the given dimensions, with n turns wound about it. The long wire carries the
currentl
j
(t) 1m sill wt. (a) Based on thc flux produced in the toroidal core, obtain an expression
for the mutual inductance betwecn circuits tj and t2 using the flux-linkage definition (5-123b).
(Note tbat the flux t/112 linked by t
z
, that is, passing through the surface Sex,2 bounded by t
z
,
is rl Limes the core flux.) (b) Find the value of Nt, if a 5 nnll, b = 1.5 cm, d = 3 cm, n = 200,
11 (t) = 50 sin wt A at the frequency f = 60 Hz, with I'r 5000. (c) For the values given in (b),
use the Faraday law (5-41) to obtain the open-circuit voltage (including polarity) at the ter-
minals of circuit l2' Do this two ways: (l) by usc of (5-41), or V -dl/l
12
/dt; and (2) making
use of 123b) to express the flux t/l
1
2 linked by l2 as t/1 12 M I], yielding V
2
(t) d(MItl/dt
-Mdl
l
/dt.
SECTION 5-13
5-47. In Example 5-20, let n 150, 1 0.2 A, tl 10 cm, t2 5 em, 5 cm
2
, A2
I cmz, gap x 1 mm, and I' = 80001'0' (a) Find the core flux, the densities Bav in the U-shaped
stator and in the armature, and the force on the armature at the given gap width. (b) Repeat
for the gap closed.
5-48. The hinged, movable iron armature provides a variable air gap oflength x with respect
to the fixed iron U-shaped stator shown, both having the same cross-sectional area Ac- Assume
that the small armature displacement x is linear translation. (a) Write the expression tor the
core flux of this system, neglecting leakage. (b) Obtain an expression for the self-inductance
of the coil, using the flux-linkage method. Find Ii'om this the expression for the magnetic stored
I
t,.
I I
~ - X
I I
r--------- ..
I
I
I
I
(Ill I
I
I
I
(ILl I
'- ________ ---.I
PROBLEM 5-48
PROBLEMS 341
energy. (e) Determine the expression for the force on the armature, as a function of x. (d) If
t c = 12 em, Ac = 4 cm
2
, x = 1.5 mm, I = 1.25 A, n = 200 turns, and J.l = 10
5
J.lo (assuming linear
iron), find the values of the core flux Eav and Hav in the iron and air-gap regions, the self-
inductance, the stored magnetic energy, and the force on the armature. (e) [f the gap length
x were reduced to 0.75 mm, by what factor would the force increase? If x were reduced to zero?
5-49. A magnetic relay has a rotating armature as in Figure 5-36(b). Label (as for the relay
of Example 5-20) mean paths t
1
, t2 and cross-sectional areas A
l
, A
z
in the iron stator and
armature, each of permeability J.l = J.lrPO' The air gap is produced by the small angle 0 = x/t
z
,
x being the mean air gap length. Find expressions for the magnetic flux, self-inductance, stored
energy, and torque, each in terms of the small angle 8.
,
(
CHAPTER 6---______________________ _
Wave Reflection
and Transmission
at Plane Boundaries
This chapter is concerned with plane-wave boundary-value problems in one or two
dimensions. The reflection from a conducting' plane on which a uniform
plane wave is incident is considered first. Replacing the perfect conductor with a lossy
dielectric extends the problem into a two-region system, f()r which the wave trans-
mitted into the dielectric is also of interest. The definition of wave impedance and re-
flection coefficient permits a systematic analysis of the multiple-layer problem, dealing
with the reflected and transmitted waves excited by a normally incident wave. Next,
a developmen1 of the Smith chart is discussed, with applications to the foregoing prob-
lems. Then the concept of standing waves and standing-wave ratio fiJr a lossless region
is treated. The chapter concludes with a discussion of wave reflection and transmission
at oblique incidence on a plane boundary.
6-1 BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS
A boundary-value problem in electromagnetics is one involving two or more regions
(separated by one or more intedaces) lew which solutions are desired such that
(a) Maxwell's equations are satisfied by those held solutions in each of the regions,
and (b) the boundary conditions discussed in Chapter 3 are satisfied at the interfaces.
Examples are illust.rated in Figure 6-1. Figure 6-1 (a) shows a rudimentary boundary-
value problem: a plane wave normally incident on a perfect conductor, yielding a
reflected wave. In (b) is a two-region system separated by a plane interface. A given
plane wave traveling in region I leads to the additional waves shown, such that the
boundary conditions at the are satisfied. In these problems, the given inci-
dent wave is presumed to originate hom an appropriate electromagnetic source (a
generator) at the far left.
342
To sources
of plane wave
Region 1 Region 2
Reflected
{
wave
- 7' "-
/
-+-----,-
/
/
// Perfectly
- conducting
(a)
plane
boundary

(Region 2); Air

Monopolt;: Region 1 ;f\ \ \ \ \
Voltage source
(c)
G;,,",'holo. .' ."

Z
0' - -------tJli_____..... L

J: "- Rectangular,
'" hollow waveguide
(e)
6-1 BOUNDARY-VALlIE PROBLEMS 343
Region 1
Incident
-E-- To sources
of plane wave
(b)
(d)
Region 2
Transmitted
Linear Biconical Biconical Spherical
(thin) (fat)
(f)
I"IGURE 6-1. Examples of boundary-value problems in electromagnetic thCOIY, (Il) Reflection
of a plane wave from a perfectly conducting plane. (b) Reflection of a plane wave from, and
transmission into, a dielectric region 2. (el Monopole antenna at the earth's snrface. (d) Two types
of conducting pairs, carrying waves from a generator to a load. (e) Two types of hollow wave-
guides, carrying waves from a generator to a load. (f) Four types of driven antennas in free spacc.
Whenever the source of electromagnetic energy is included in a boundary-value
problem, you can say that you are discussing the complete boundary-value problem.
If the reflected wave does not couple signiticantly with the generator, a discussion of
the complete problem may not be necessary. [n Figure 6-1(c) is shown a three-region
problem consisting of a driven monopole antenna source transmitting electromagnetic
energy into the surrounding space (regio1l 2) and into the earth (region 3). In Fig-
ure 6-1 (d) and (e) are showIl other complete boundary-value problems involving gener-
ators (sources) driving waves down one- or two-conductor systems (waveguides or
tr::msmission lines) to a load at the far end. Systems such as these are considered in
Chapters 8 through 10.
(
344 WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION AT PLANE BOUNDARIES
6-2 REFLECTION FROM A PLANE CONDUCTOR
AT NORMAL INCIDENCE
A fundamental boundary-value problem of electromagnetics involves the reflection of
a normally incident uniform plane wave from a plane perfect conductor. Assuming a
plane of infinite extent avoids edge (diffraction) effects, and with the simplification
of normal incidence, the problem is reduced to two dimensions (t and z). The geometry
is shown in Figure 6-2. The sources of the incident wave are assumed at the far left
in lossless region 1. Assuming x polarization, the incident wave is given in the real-time
domain by (2-121)
E; (z, t) = E:' cos (wt -/3z) Vjm (6-1)
letting the phase angle </>+ = 0 for convenience, but the incident wave (6-1) alone
cannot satisfy the tangential field boundary conditions (3-72) and (3-79) at the inter-
face. One must add a reflected wave solution, its effect being such as to cancel the
incident field everywhere on the perfect conductor at every instant t. This occurs only
if the second solution has the same frequency and if its equiphase surfaces are parallel
to the walL The only other independent solution of Maxwell's equations that meets
these requirements is the negative Z traveling wave solution of (2-119)
E; (z, t) = ~ cos (wt + 13z + (P-) (6-2)
The unknown amplitude ~ and phase </> - are found by applying the boundary con-
dition (3-79). The details are more readily carried out in the complex time-harmonic
form; hence, the sum of (6-1) and (6-2), in complex notation, takes the form of (2-115)
Sources
-
Ex(z) = E; (z) + E; (z)
= E:'e- jpz + ~ e i P z Vjm
);
I
I
I
I
(z)
(or (:1z)
o
FIGURE 6-2. Reflection of normally incident planc wave from perfect
conducting plane.
(6-3)
6-2 REFLECTION FROM A PLANE CONDUCTOR AT NORMAL INCIDENCE 345
The boundary condition (3-79), that the total tangential electric field must vanish at
the surface of the perfect conductor, is written Ex(O) = 0; so (6-3) becomes 0 = E:. +E;;',
whence
= -E;;' (6-4)
Thus total reflection occurs, with the reflected wave amplitude equaling the negative
of the incident wave. Inserting (6-4) into (6-3), the total electric field at arry location
to the left: of the conducting plane becomes
(6-5)
a result with a wave amplitude just twice that of the incident wave. The depen-
dence of (6-5) on z is unlike the traveling wave nature of either wave constituent in
(6-3). 1 t has instead a standing wave character, in view of the factor sin /lz. A graphical
space-time sketch of this standing wave is facilitated on converting (6-5) to its real-time
form by use of (2-74). Assuming the real amplitude one obtains
EAz, t) = Re [It(z)eiwtl = Re [ - sin {3::: e
jrot
]
Re [e - sin {3::: e
jwt
1 sin {h sin wt (6-6)
A sketch depicting the dependence on Z at successive t is shown in Figure 6-3(a).
The total magnetic field accompanying the electric field (6-5) is obtained directly
by substituting (6-5) into Maxwell's curl relation (2-108). This was, in effect, already
done in Section 3-6, however, in which it was shown in (3-98b) that magnetic field
traveling waves are related to corresponding electric fields by the intrinsic wave im-
pedanfi:e. Hence, to (6-3) correspond the two terms of the magnetic field
Hy(z) = II; (z) + H; (z)
e- jf!z
E-
m eifJ
z
A/m
1J
(6-7)
in which 1J == (Il/E) 1/2 is, from (3-99a), the intrinsic wave impedance of the lossless
region. If (6-4) is inserted into (6-7), the complex magnetic field reduces to
2"+
m cos IJz
1J
The real-time form of (6-8) (with taken to be the pure real becomes
(6-8)
(6-9)
another standing wave. It is plotted in Figure 6-3(b) for comparison with the electric
field. A space phase shiji of 90 occurs hetween the peaks of the electric and magnetic
field standing waves, with the maximum magnetic intensity appearing at the perfectly
conducting surface z O.
The magnetic field (6-9) cannot fall abruptly to zero on passing into the interior
of the perfect conductor without inducing an electric swface current, predictable trom
346 WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION AT PLANE BOUNDARIES
(/J., t, "1 = 0) (/J., t, "I = 0)
z
z
z
(a) (b)
Region 1: (/J., t, "1 = 0)
-(y)
(c)
FIGURE 6-3. Standing waves resulting from a plane wave normally incident on a pcrfect
conductor. (a) Incident, reflected, and total electric fields. (b) Incident, reflected, and total
magnetic fields. (e) Showing the vector electric and magnetic fields of (a) and (b).
the boundary condition (3-72). Observe that the induced surface current density J.
is x directed and cophasal over the conducting plane as shown in Figure 6-3(c).
One can see a close physical analogy between the electromagnetic standing waves
of Figure 6-3 and the mechanical standing waves of displacements and tensions along
a transversely oscillating string anchored at one end! as shown in Figure 6-4(a). In
(b) is shown another example of standing waves resulting from the reflection of electro-
1 For example, sce D. Halliday, and R. Resnick. Physics for Studmls ~ Science and Engineering. New York:
Wiley, 1962, p. 412.
6-3 TWO-REGION REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION 347
Incident wave_

Reflected wave
..... ------..
.
.
.' l "
Vibration ..
source , '\
(wave '.
generator) /
(a)
Electromagnetic
transmitting
horn
Generator
Region far frorn horn:
spherical waves
nearly plane
1 1
1 1 I I ::;:::
I ): I
I ,..+'" J...--. .: _""'
(b)
fIGURE 6-4. Experiments involving standing waves. (a) Standing waves on a string con-
nected to a rigid body and a wave generator. Null locations are checked visually. (b) Elec-
tromagnetic standing waves ncar conducting plane. Waves may originate !i'om a distant
source as shown. A neon bulb reveals maxima and nulls.
magnetic waves from a conducting plane. Although the waves emanating from the
horn are essentially spherical in the vicinity of the horn, at suitable distances away
and over a limited transverse region they are very nearly plane waves, so that the
solutions (6-5) and (6-8) are applicable in the vicinity of the plane reflector. If suffi-
cient power is available, a small neon bulb might be used for detecting the nulls in
the electric-field standing waves, yielding a rongh measure of wavelength.
6-3 lWO-REGION REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION
The wave problem of Figure 6-2 can be generalized by assnming region 1 conductive
((j, i= 0) instead oflossless, and region 2 with a finite conductivity instead of being a
perfect reflector. The system is shown in Figure 6-5. An incident plane wave originating
from the far left is given by the positive z traveling wave terms of (3-9Ib) and (3-98c)
j;+ (7) = j;+ e- Y'z
xl "" ml
(6-10)
wherein fj 1 is specified by (3-99a) f()r conductive region I or equivalently by (3-111).
The propagation constant of region 1 is 1'1> given by (3-89)
(6-11 )
111 which ex and p are obtained from (3-90a,b), or equivalently from (3-109) and
(3-110).
The continuity of the tangential fields across the interface in Figure 6-5 (a) gives
lise to another plane wave at the same frequency in region 2. This wave is not suffi-
cient to satisfy the boundary conditions (3-71) and (3-79) at the interface, however.
One more wave, reflected in region I, is required if the boundary conditions are to be
met. The three waves are shown in Figure 6-5(a) in real-time, and as complex vectors
ill Figure 6-5(b). Thus, in region 1, the reflected wave is required as follows
(6-12)
348 WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION AT PLANE BOUNDARIES
l
E;'(Z)
Wave
-- - -- motion
,
l
EX](Zi
Motion ....;---- if;;. (z) = -
(a)
z 0
o
(b)
Motion
-
Transmitted:
~ + A" +
Ex2 = 71c2Hy2
l
E:
Z
(Z)
- - -..-. Motion
--- (x)
FIGURE 6-5. Plane wave normally incident on an interface separating two
lossy regions. (a) Incident and reflected waves in region I, transmitted wave in
region 2. (b) Vector representations denoting the fields of (0).
in which iiI and Yl are given by (3-99a) and (6-11). In region 2, the transmitted wave
IS
E
"'+ ( ) - E"'+ -nz
~ x 2 Z - m2
e (6-13)
No reflected wave can exist in region 2, because that region is infinite in extent to-
ward the right in Figure 6-5, whereas the only sources of the fields are to the far left
in region 1.
Satisfying the boundary conditions at the interface in Figure 6-5(b) requires
setting the total tangential fields equal to each other at Z O. In region 1, the total
electric and magnetic fields are given by the sums of (6-10) and (6-12)
(6-14 )
0-3 TWO-REGION REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSlON 349
Tn region 2, they are simply (G-13) The boundary condition (3-79) requires the equal-
ity of the electric fields of (G-13) and (6-14) at z = 0; that is,

+ e-
Y1Z
+ e
i1Z
= ';+ e-Y,Z]
..... m1 1111 .1m2 z=o
(6-15)
obtaining
(6-16)
The other boundary condition (3-71) requires the continuity of the magnetic fields
there, obtaining
(6-17)
Thc linear results (6-16) and (G-17) involve the known impedances fil and fi2 of the
regions, as well as the com plex amplitudes of the incident.:. the reflected, and the trans-
mitted waves. Assuming the incident wave to be given (E;:;1 is known), the other am-
plitudes are pbtained from the simultaneous solution of (6-16) and (6-17). Rearranging
them with ;:;! on the right yields

Em! - Em2 =

Eml
(6-18)
it;;'1

Em2 Em!
(6-19)
+
fi1
Their simultaneous solution obtains the complex amplitude of the reflected wave
(6-20)
Similarly, the transmitted wave has the amplitude
(6-21)
Additional confidence is gained in the results (6-20) and (6-21) on considering
two special cases: (a) for which region 2 is a perfect conductor and (b) for which re-
gions 1 and 2Jlave identical parameters (no interface exists). In case (a), with fi2 = 0,
(6-21) yields E;:;2 = result ez:pected from the null fields within a perfect conductor;
while (6-20) obtains E;;'1 = - E;:;I, agreeable with (6-4) as one should expect. In case
regions means fil = fi2' whence from (6-20) and (6-21), it;;'1 = 0 and
= E;:;I, implying the reasonable conclusion that no reflection occurs if the region
has no discontinuity.
IXAMPLE 61. A uniIorm plane wave with the amplitude ;1 = lOOe
W
Vim in air is nor-
mally incident on the plane surface of a losslcss dielectric with the parameters Ji2 = Jio,
E2 = 4o, and (J2 = O. Find the amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted fields.
350 WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION AT PLANE BOUNDARIES
The geometry is sho""n in Figure 6-5. Region 1 is air, so iii = 110 = = 120n n.
For region 2, liz = J Jlo/4Eo = 60n n. The complex amplitudes of the reHected and trans-
mitted waves are given by and (6-21)
60n 120n
k';l1 = \00
60n + 120n
= I 00 ..
60n + 120n
33.3 Vjm
66.7 Vim
These amplitudes into (6-13) and (6- provide the total fields in each region
.<1
= 1 OOe - Jilt
Z
33.3e
ifltz

66.7 e - ill,z
Hy\(Z)
_ 10O_jPt
Z
(-33.3)
e
jPtZ
_ 66.7
p
Hyz(z) = 60n e-
1
2Z --'-e
120n 120n
in which Il =jf1t and IZ j{J2 the values of which can be
inserted into the wave expressions once (jJ is specified. Observe that setting .z = 0 produces
continnous tangential electric and magnetic fields across the interface, as expected.
64 NORMAL INCIDENCE FOR MORE
THAN TWO REGIONS
An extension of the two-region problem or the last section to three or more regions
leads to a multiplicity or rellected and transmitted wave terms that, in the sinusoidal
steady state, yield single f()rward- and backward-traveling plane in region.
Suppose the three-region system of Figure 6-6(a) has the wave E;;A(Z) = E;:;Ae-
YlZ
impinging normally on it as shown. A study orlhe suhsequent phenomena in the time
domain, after the arrival of the incident wave labeled A in Figure 6-6(b), reveals the
generation of an infinite sequence of forward and backward waves in the system. Thus,
two time-harmollic waves designated Band C are established successively in regions 1
Region 1:
(fJ.b fh (11)
Wave
motion
Region 2: I Region 3:
(fJ.2, f2, (12) 1 (fJ.3, E3, (i3)
_ ' ____ _
0 z = d
-----i>-(z)
//'"
Incident
field:
E:A =
I
I
I
Interface 1
(a)
I
I
I
Interface 2
Region 1: I Region 2: I Region 3:
(fJ.l. fl, (il) I (fJ.2, f2, (i2) I (fJ.3, f3, (i3)
Incident
field: A
-
_ ____ Q. ______ d ____ i>-(z)
BCD
--E --
G "F-
-:.: J
: ....;-- --
etc. etc:-- 1
etc. etc.
(b)
FIGURE 6-6. Three-region system on which a uniform plane wave is normally incident.
(a) Three-region system, showing the plane wave field incident on a thickness d of region 2.
(b) Depicting the effects of the incident field on reflected and transmitted waves, with
increasing time.
6-4 NORMAL INCIDENCE FOR MORE THAN TWO REGIONS 351
and 2, the ((lfWard wave C in region 2 striking the second interhce to produce a trans-
mitted wave D, plus another reflected wave E returning to interl'ace 1. A continuation
of this process, as time increases, produces an infinite sequence of reflected and trans-
mitted waves, the linear sum of which obtains sinusoidal steady ,I-tate forward- and
backward-traveling waves in the respective regions, Thus, in region I, the net positive
z traveling electric field will consist only of the postulated x polarized incident wave A,
denoted by
while the reflected wave in that region consists (Jfan infinite sequence ol' contributions
of the waves B, G, ... ; that is,
Each wave term of the latter has a common factor e
Y1Z
, so that the infinite sum, in the
reducing to a net reflected wave in region I designated by

eY1Z
"ml
(6-22)
(6-23)
in which :;1 denotes its eomplex amplitude. Every term of (6-22) has an associated
magnetic field related by the intrinsic wave impedance of region 1, yielding
YiZ
---e
it
(6-24 )
The net, sinusoidal steady state f()rward and backward waves in region 1 are depicted
in Figure 6-7. Similar arguments applied to the infinite sequences of waves in regions
and 3 lead to the net field vectors shown.
Region 1:
(ILl, fj, ITj) or ('n, 1/1)
Region 2:
(1L2, E2, <F2) or ('Y2.
E
\+ ;;+ -"I Z
:t2 = 2
. -.,...
'+ Ext
HY2 = -.".-
o '12
Region 3:
(1L3, Ea, <Fa) or h3,
nGURE 6-7. Simplification of the multiplicity of reflected and transmitted waves of Fignrc
showing the net plane wave fields.
352 WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION AT PLANE BOUNDARIES
The sinusoidal steady state wave solution of the three-region problem of Figure
1i-7, a kno:vn incident field amplitude [;;;;'1' involves finding the amplitudes [;;;;'1'
E;;'2, E;;'2, and E;;'3, a total offour unknowns. The four boundary conditions, involving
the continuity of the tangential E and 11 fields at the interfaces, are sufficient to gener-
ate four linear equations in terms of these amplitudes. To illustrate the procedure for
Figure 6-7, the material parameters (/1, E, (J) of each region are given, permitting ')'
and q of each to be calculated by use of (6-11) and (3-99a). The depth d of region 2 is
also specified. The total fields in the three regions are

() -Y1 Z YlZ
xl Z = "ml
e
+ m1 e
(6-25)
Region 1 (6-26)
(6-27)
(6-28)
(6-29)
E\

q3
Region 3 (6-30)
The boundary conditions (3-71) and (3-79) are satisfied by eq uating (6-25) to (6-27)
and (6-26) to (6-28) at Z = 0, and equating (6-27) to (6-29) and (6-28) to (6-30) at
Z = d. rearrangement of the resulting four simultaneous equations, placing'
the known E;;'l on the right, yields
E'- -

E'- E'+
m1 Em2 m2 m1
(6-31 )
[;;;;'1

E'-

Em2 m2 Eml
-A-+
q2 q2 q1 111
(6-32)

e-Y2d + [;;- e
Y2d
- [;;+ e-
nd
= 0
m2 m2 m3
(6-33)
(6-34)
This is suitable for solution by fourth-order determinants or Gaussian elimination, but
it is a tedious process, to say nothing of the higher-order results obtained when three
or more interfaces are present. An alternative procedure is described in the next section.
6-5 SOLUTION USING REFLECTION COEFFICIENT
AND WAVE IMPEDANCE
The system of Figure 6-7 is generalized illto n ,.regions in Figure 6-{,1yExcited by the
normally incident, time-harmonic wave (E;b H;1) in region I, each region
in the sinusoidal steady state, the forward- and backward-traveling fields (E.:, 11;)

6-5 SOLUTION USING REFLECTION COEFFICIENT AND WAVE IMPEDANCE 353
Region 1:
(f..i )
n - 1 I Region n:
I (
2
h tl, <11 Mk, tk, Uk J..1.ill fn, un
-+
'+
EXl
l-->-
L.
EXl
. . _rt>tion
-+
- + +
Exl
yJ =-;::- Hyn =

\\ \\
"
\\
z (or (:Jz)

.l .. l ..:l
.. j
Mot
.....
E-
xl
=--

To
--- sources
I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I
J:?IGURE 6-3. A multilayer syslem ofn layers, ou which a uniform plane wave is normally incident
from the left.
and (E';, if;) except for the last (k = n) region, in which only the forward-traveling
components f;;;n, appear. The total electric field for each region
2
becomes
in which fez) is caIled the reflection coefficient at any location z in the region, defined
the complex ratio of the reflected wave to the incident wave as follows
The corresponding total magnetic field is
E,'- J E,'+
'" 2yz _ 'm -YZ[l
--e
E; q
(6-36)
f(z) I (6-37)
total-field impedance Z(z) is defined at any Z location by the ratio of the total electric
(6-35) to the total magnetic field (6-37)
(6-38)
these results apply to any (kth) region, an additional k subscript should be applied to all quantities.
simplicity, such subscripts have been dropped.
354 WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION AT PLANE BOUNDARIES
A converse expression for ['(z) in terms of Z(z) is obtained from (6-38) by solving
for ['(z)
['(z) = fj
Z(z) + fj
(6-39)
a form convenient for finding ['(z) whenever Z(z) is
Another useful expression is one that enables finding r at any location z' in a
region in terms of that at another position z. At z', the reflection coefficient is expressed
by use of (6-36): [,(z') = (E;;,/E:')e
2YZ
'. Dividing the latter by (6-36) eliminates the
wave amplitudes, yielding the desired result
(6-40)
In the application of (6-35) through (6-40) to the wave system of Figure 6-8, one
should note the following properties of ['(z) and Z(z) at any interface separating two
regIOns.
1. The total field impedance Z(Z) is continuous across the interface; that is, at an
interface defined by z = a
(6-41 )
evident from the continuity of the tangential electric and magnetic fields ap-
pearing in the definition (6-38).
2. The reflection coefficient ['Jz) is discontinuous across the interface. This
from (6-39), for, because Z(z) must be continuous across the interface, r(z)
cannot be if the wave impedance fj is different in the adjacent regions.
The procedure for finding the complex amplitudes ofthe forward- and backward-
traveling waves in a multilayer system like that of Figure 6-8 is illustrated in two
examples.
EXAMPLE 62. A uniform plane wave is normally incident in air on a slab of plastic with the
parameters shown, a quarter-wave )hick at the operating frequency f = 1 MHz. The x
polarized wave has the amplitude = 100e
N
' Vim. Use the concepts of reflection co-
eHicient and total field impedance to find the remaining wave amplitudes.
To obviate carrying cumbersome phase terms across the interlaces, ass LIme separate
Z origins 0
1
,02> and 0
3
shown in (b) of the figure. The wave amplitudes are referred to
these origins. First, values ofq for each region by using (3-99a); thus, fil fi3
.Jfto/Eo = 120n Q; in the plastic slab, q2 = .JJ4J4Eo = 60n Q. The propagation constants
Y = rx + jf3 are computed from (3-90a,b) or (3-109) and (3-110); thus, in lossless region 2,
6-5 SOLUTION USING REFLECTION COEFFICIENT AND WAVE IMPEDANCE 355
1: Air (110, EO) I 2: Plastic 13 Air (110, EO)
!
(110, 4Eo)
I
I
I
Eii = 100e-
Y1
"
Ex2
j:;+
x3

motion

L--
l Motion
A - ......
-+
-+
Hy:
iI+ = Exl
HY2
yl -

-(z)
0
1 O
2
A
0
3
--..

j,E;2
(z)
-- fr
Plastic
A _ E;l
y2
HYI =-fI;
(a) (b)
!EXAMPLE 62, (al Uniform plane wave normally incident on a plastic slab. (bl Side view
wave components in the regions.
(
Then finding the complex wave amplitudes proceeds as follows.
(a) One begins in region 3, containing no reflected wave. [3(Z), [rom (6-36), is therein
zero, yielding the total field impedance from (6-38) Z3(Z) = ry3(1 + 0)/(1 - 0) =
ry3 = 120n Q. By (6-4)), the t<;!tal field impedance Zz(O) just inside region 2 has the
same value, that is, Zz(d) = Z3(0) = 120n Q.
(b) By use of (6-39), f2 at Z = d = Az/4 in region 2 becomes
Z2(d) - ry2
Z2(d)'+ ry2
120n - 60n
l20n + 60n
1
3
Equation (6-40) is employed
3
to translate f2(d) to the value f
2
(0) at the input
plane of region 2. With z' = 0 and 1'z = jfJz = j2nlA
2
f 2(0) = r 2(d)e
2Y2
(O-d) = r 2(d)e
i
(4n/A2)t-
1
2/
4
)
(e) Steps (a) and (b) are repeated to find Z and f in the next region to the left. First,
the use of (6-38) at Z = 0 in region 2 obtains
which from continuity relation (6-41) yields Z2(O) = 30n Q = ZI (0). The reflec-
tion coefficient at the output plane of region I, !i'om (6-39), is
3
5
advantage of specifying the thickness of the lossless region in terms of wavelength (d
2
= A
2
/4) is evident
the determination of f 2 (0). Note, in view of y = j{J = /(211./ A) for a lossless region, that the product
z) appearing in the exponential factor does not require an explicit numerical value for {J.
356 WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION AT PLANE BOUNDARIES
The reflected wave amplitude il';;'r is now obtained, us.ing the definition (6-36) of
reflection coefficient. Applied at z = 0 in region I, given ;:;1 = IOOe
iO
", it yields
- =+f (z)e-
2YlZ
] =(IOOeiO")(-.,l)= 60V/In
ml rnl 1 z=o 5
Then the total electric field in air region I, from (6-36), is
The total magnetic field is obtained by usc of (6-37)
100 '" (-60)" . "" 'p
H (z) = e'- lpoz - _._- e
JpOZ
= 0,266e - 1 ,oz + 0.15ge
J
0' A/m
,1 120n 120n
(d) The rest of the problem c<.:mcerns finding R;:;2, ;;'2' and [;;;:;3' For example, ;;'2 is
obtained by specializing 1'-"'xl (z) to z = 0 at the interface, whence
in which the last equality evident the ty condition (3-79). The total
electric field in region 2 is Exz(z) = + 1
2
(z)), from (6-35), but at Z = 0,
all quantities in (6-35) are known except E;:;2; solving for it obtains
eO I
;:;2 = Exz(O) = 40 ----= 60 V /m
1+1
2
(0) 1+( 1/3)
Then applying (6-36) at Z = 0 in region 2, ;;'2 = f 2(0);;'2 = (-})60 = -20 V/m,
whence the total fields E
x2
(z) and [I,2(z) can be written, A similar procedure ap-
plied at the second interface then completes the problem,
EXAMPLE 63. An x polarized wave arrives from the left at f = I MHz with an amplitude
il';:;l = 100e-
W
V /m, It is incident on a lossless slab an eighth of a wavelength thick,
backed with a quarter wave lossy slab, with parameters as shown in the diagram. Find
the remaining wave aniplitudes.
Region 1:
(p.o, fO)
EXAMPLE 6-3
\.
6-5 SOLUTION USING REFLECTION COEFFICIENT AND WAVE IMPEDANCE 357
The origins assumed for the k)Ur regions arc noted in the diagram. A tabulation
of Ct, {3, )., and 1/ obtained for the regions using (3-109), (3-110), and (3-111) is given here:
REGION
I
2
3
4
E"
/1,
E,
E'
a(m-I) p (m-I)
A(m) ~ Q )
1 0 0 0.0209 300 377
2 0 0 0.0296 212 266
4 I 0.019\ 0.0461 136 159e1
22s
I 0 0 0.0209 300 377
(a) Beginning in region 4, which contains no reflection, t 4(0) is by (6-36) zero,
yielding, 'from (6-38), Z4(O) 1/4 120n Q Z3(d
3
).
(b) Inserting the latter into (6-39) obtains
A 377 - 159e1
22s
. '21 4"
r (d) = =0.45Ie-.1 .
3 3 377 +
to yield from (6-40) at the input plane, z' 0, the result
t
3
(0) =
= 0.45Ie-
j2
1.4'e-
Z
(0.0191)34
e
-j180 = 0.\233e-
jZ0
1.4" = -0.1148 + jO.0450
(e) Steps (a) and (b) are repeated, this time to find Z and t at the output plane of
region 2. Tbus, (6-38) at.;: = 0 in region 3 yields
;;;, A I + t3(0) "'225,0.885
.3(0) = 113 1'- t O ) = l::l9<" . -1.-11-5---'-)-'0.-04-5-0
= 126.2e1
27
.
9
' = 111.5 + j59.1 Q
and fi'om (6-41), Zz(d
z
)' yielding !i'om (6-39) in region 2
r
A
Z2(dz) 1/2 111.5+j59.1-266
1503
,
2(d
z
) = -A---- = --- = 0.434<" .
Z2(d
z
) + 1/2 111.5 + j59.1 + 266
The latter lransfi)fl11S, by use of (6-40) at the input plane z' = 0, to
(d) The total field impedance there, from (6-38), is
A _ A I + \(0) , . I + 0.434e1
60
.3' _ .142.9'
Z2 (0) - 11 ---A--- = 266 ----. ---0 - 390e- Q
2 I r 2 (0) I - 0.434<,,60.3
( which, by continuity across the interface, yields Zl (0) = 390el
42
.
9
' Q. From (6-39)
A Zl (0) - 1/1 390el
42
.
9
' - 377 '87.1'
r 1 (0) = -;0:-'--- = + 377 = 0.393<"
ZdO) + 1/1
358 WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMlSSION AT PLANE BOUNDARIES
The wave amplitude is obtained using (6-36); applying it at 0 yields
E;;'1 = ;:;l
r
l (0) = (100) (O.393ei
87
.
1
) = 39.3ei
87
.
1
", whence the total fields in re-
gion I become, from (6-35) and (6-37)
39.3 "(" +87 I")
e1 ,'1Z . AIm
377
(e) The rcmaining task concerns finding i:;:;2' [;;;'2' i:;:;3, [;;;'3' and [;:'4' The procedure
has aLready been outlined in part (d) of Example 6-2.
*6-6 GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS USING THE SMITH CHART
A convenient way to attack multiregion wave problems like those of Examples 6-1
through 6-3, or the generalized system of Figure 6-8, is by usc of the Smith chart,
named for it.. originator. 4 This chart enables finding, by graphical means, the total !.i
e1d
impedance Z(z) at any point in a region from the known reflection coeftlcient r (z)
there, or vice versa, thereby providing graphical solutions to (6-39) or (6-10). Additionally,
from a rotation about t}.le chart, (6-41) is also solved graphically, to permit
reflection coefficient i(z'), at any desired location z', from the known value i(z)
elsewhere in the region.
The theoretical development of this graphical tool is given in Appendix D. If
you are unfamiliar with the theoretical basis for the Smith chart, refer iirst to Appendix
D, before proceeding with applications of the chart to wave-reflection and transmission
problems involving multilayer regions. The latter is taken up in the remainder of this
section, as follows. .
To establish the desired normalized wave impedance 2C:::) required in applying
the Smith chart to multiregion wave reflection problems, a divisionofexpn:ssion (6-38)
by the intrinsic wave fi of the region is needed. This bbtains "
== 2(z)
17
I + ['(z)
['(z)
(6-42)
an expression comparable to (D-I) in Appendix D. The normalized expression (6-4-2)
(or its inverse) is solved i!,raphicaLIy by the Smith chart (see Appendix D); in addition,
the translational expression (6-40)
['(z')
[6-40J
is also solved graphically by use of the chart, fi'om an appropriate rotation about the
chart, as illustrated in the examples that follow.
EXAMPLE 64. Rework Example 6-2 by making use of the Smith chart. This problem con-
cerns a plane wave of amplitudc 100 V 1m, normally incident in air on a quarter-wave
Losslcss slab.
4See articles by P. H. Smith, "Transmission-line calculator," Electronics. January 1939; and "An improved
transmission-line calculator," Elec/ronics. January 1944.
ti
6-6 GRAPHIGAI" SOLUTIONS USING THE SMITH CHART 359
Region 1: Air (/-i(), EO) Region 2: (/-iD. 4<0) Region 3: Air (/-io. fO)
I I

I

= 607rfl
, ,27r
'Y2 = }w-y/-iO 4fO = J --
\2
(a)

= 1207f n
, , 211'
1'3 = ;(3o =; ;-
A(I
:>-
(z)
___ -_.....1' plane
= 0.5 + jO
(d)
IXAMPLE 6-4
tal In region 3 of (a), containing no reflection, the total ficld impedance from (6-38)
<:'3(Z) =)h t20n n. From (6-41), the impedance just across the interface is
<:'z(d
z
) = <:'3(0) = 120n n. Normalizing the latter using ry2 = 60n n obtains
(
120n
60n
2 (=1 +Jx)
Thus i = 2 and a; = 0 at Z d
z
in region 2, entered onto the Smith char1;." as in
part (b) of the accompanying figure. (Although the reflection coefficient rz(d
z
)
can be fou