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Problem sheet
Steady state heat conduction
Composite system
1. A steam boiler furnace is made of a layer of fireclay (k = 0.533 W/m K)12.5cm thick and a layer of red
brick(k = 0.7 W/mK) 50cm thick. If the wall temperature inside the boiler furnace is 1100C and that on
the outside wall is 50
o
C, determine the amount of heat loss per square meter of the furnace wall.
2. The wall of a cold storage consists of three layers, an outer layer of ordinary brick of 25cm thick, a
middle layer of cork,10cm thick, and inner layer of cement,6cm thick. The thermal conductivities of the
materials are: k
brick
= 0.7 W/m
o
C, k
cork
= 0.043 W/m
o
C, k
cement
= 0.72 W/m
o
C. The temperature of the
outer surface of the wall is 30
o
C, and the inner is -15
o
C. Calculate rate of heat transfer per unit area of the
wall and interface temperatures.
3.The inner dimensions of a freezer cabinet are 60cm x 60cm x 50cm(height). The cabinet walls consist
of two 2mm thick enameled sheet steel (k= 40W/mK) walls separated by a 4cm layer of
fiberglass(k=0.049W/mK) insulation. The inside temperature is to be maintained at -15
o
C and the outside
temperature on a hot summer day is 45
o
C.Calculate the rate of heat transfer assuming heat transfer
coefficient of 10 W/m
2
K both on the inside and outside of the cabinet. Also calculate the outer surface
temperature of the cabinet.
4. A wall of 0.5m thickness is to be constructed from a material which has an average thermal
conductivity of 1.4W/mK. The wall is to be insulated with a material having an average thermal
conducting of 0.35W/mK, so that the heat loss per square meter will not exceed 1450W. Assuming that
the inner and outer surface temperatures are 1200
o
C and 15
o
C respectively, calculate the thickness of
insulation required.
5. An exterior wall of a house may be approximated by a 10cm layer of common brick(k=0.7W/mC)
followed by a 3.75cm layer of gypsum plaster (k=0.48W/mC).What thickness of loosely packed rock-
wool insulation (k=0.065W/mC) should be added to reduce the heat loss through the wall by 80%?
6. The door of a cold storage plant is made from two 6mm thick glass sheets(k = 0.75W/mK) separated by
a uniform air gap(k = 0.02W/mK) of 2mm. The temperature of the air inside the room is -20C and the
ambient air temperature is 30
o
C. Assuming the heat transfer coefficient between glass and air to be 23.26
W/m
2
K, determine the rate of heat loss into the room per unit area of the door. Neglect convection effect
in the air gap.
7.A hot steam pipe having an inside surface temperature of 250C has an inside diameter of 8cm and a
wall thickness of 5.5mm. It is covered with a 9cm layer of insulation having k=0.5 W/m C, followed
by a 4cm layer of insulation having k = 0.25 W/mC. The outside temperature of insulation is 20C.
Calculate the heat lost per meter of length. Assume k=47 W/mC for the pipe.
8.A multilayer cylindrical wall of a furnace is constructed of 4.5cm layer of insulating brick with thermal
conductivity of 0.081W/mK followed by a 9cm layer of common brick with thermal conductivity of
0.0812W/mK . The inner wall temperature is 2500
o
C and outer wall temperature is 70
o
C .What is the
heat loss through the wall, when the inner diameter of the furnace is 1.2m and the length of the wall is
1m?
9.A steel pipe having an I.D.52.50mm and an O.D.60.33mm and k=39.7kcal/hr m
o
C carries steam at
150
o
C . It is lagged with 12.7mm thick rock wool of thermal conductivity 0.049kcal/hr m
o
C and the
surrounding air is at 20
o
C .If the heat transfer coefficient from the insulated pipe to the surrounding air is
6kcal/hr m
2o
C, what will be the (a) heat loss per meter length of pipe (b) temperature at the boundaries
between the pipe wall and rock wool and (c) between the rock wool and surrounding air.
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10.A steel pipe (k= 44W/mK) of 5.08cm I.D and 7.62cm O.D is covered with a 2.54cm layer of asbestos
insulation(k=0.208W/mK).The inside surface of the pipe receives heat from the hot gas at a temperature
of 316
o
C with the heat transfer coefficient 284W/m
2
K,while the outer surface of the insulation is exposed
to the ambient air at 38
o
C with the heat transfer coefficient of 17W/m
2
K. Calculate the heat loss to
ambient air for 3m length of the pipe and also calculate the interface temperatures.

Extended surfaces
Long fins
1. One end of a very long aluminum rod is connected to a wall at 140C,while the other end
protrudes into a room whose air temperature is 15C.The rod is 3mm in diameter and the heat transfer
coefficient between the rod surface and environment is 300W/m
2
K. Calculate the total heat dissipated by
the rod taking its thermal conductivity as 150W/mK.
2. In an experiment to determine the thermal conductivity of a long solid 2.5cm diameter rod, its
base is placed in a furnace with a large portion of it projecting into the room air at 22C. After steady state
conditions prevail, the temperature at two points,10cm apart, are found to be 110C and 85C
respectively. The convective heat transfer coefficient between the rod surface and the surrounding air is
28.4W/m
2
K.Determine the thermal conductivity of the rod material.
3. In an experiment to determine the thermal conductivity of a long solid 20mm diameter rod,its
base is placed in a furnace with a large portion of it projecting out. The temperature at two points 100mm
apart are found to be 125C and 91C respectively. The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of the
rod is estimated to be 17.45W/m
2
K.Determine the thermal conductivity of the rod material.
4. A long,thin copper rod 5mm in diameter is exposed to an environment at 20C.The base
temperature of the rod is 120C. The heat transfer coefficient between the rod and the environment is
20W/m
2
K.Calculate the heat given up by the rod. The thermal conductivity of the rod material is 372
W/mK.
5. A very long copper rod(k = 372 W/mK) 2.5cm in diameter is exposed to an environment at 40C.
The base temperature of the rod is 90C. The heat transfer coefficient is 3.5W/m
2
K.How much heat is lost
by the rod?

Convection from the fin end
1. A 1 m long,5cm diameter cylinder placed in an atmosphere at 40C is provided with 12
longitudinal straight fins(k= 75.6W/mK).The fins are 0.8mm thick and protrude 2.5cm from the
cylinder surface. The heat transfer coefficient from the cylinder and fins to the ambient air is
23.25W/m
2
K.Calculate the rate of heat transfer, if the surface temperature is 150C.
2. A 1 m long,5cm diameter cylinder placed in an atmosphere at 45C is provided with 10
longitudinal straight fins(k= 120W/mK).The fins are 0.76mm thick and protrude 1.27cm from the
cylinder surface. The heat transfer coefficient from the cylinder and fins to the ambient air is
17W/m
2
K.Calculate the rate of heat transfer and the temperature at the end of fins, if the surface
temperature is 150C.
Fin with an insulated tip
1. A turbine blad 6cm long and having a cross sectional area 4.65cm2 and perimeter 12cm is made
of stainless steel(k=23.3W/mK).The temperature at the root is 500C. The blade is exposed to a
hot gas at 870C. The heat transfer coefficient between the blade surface and the gas is 442
W/m2K. Determine the temperature distribution and the rate of heat flow at the root of the blade.
Assume tip of the blade to be insulated.
2. Compare the temperature distribution in a pin fin having a diameter of 2cm and length 10cm and
exposed to a convection environment with h = 25W/m2K for three fin materials: copper(k =
385W/mK),stainless steel (k = 17W/mK), and a glass (k=0.8W/mK).Also calculate the relative
heat flows and the fin efficiencies with respect to the copper fin.
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3. An aluminum fin (k=200W/mK) 3mm thick and 7.5cm long protrudes from a wall at 300C. The
ambient temperature is 50C with h = 10W/m
2
K.Calculate the heat loss from the fin per unit
depth of the material. Also calculate its efficiency and effectiveness.
4. An aluminum fin(k=200W/mK) 1.5mm thick is placed on a circular tube with 2.7cm OD. The fin
is 6mm long. The tube wall is maintained at 150C. The environment temperature is 15C, and the
heat transfer coefficient is 20 W/m
2
K.Calculate the heat lost by the fin per unit depth of material.
5. A straight fin of rectangular profile has a thermal conductivity of 14 W/mC, thickness 2mm and
length of 23mm.The base of the fin is maintained at a temperature of 220C,while the fin is
exposed to a convection environment at 23Cwith heat transfer coefficient 25W/m
2
C. Calculate
the heat lost per meter of fin depth.
6. A straight rectangular fin 2cm thick and 14cm long is constructed of steel and placed on the
outside of a wall maintained at 200C. The environment temperature is 15C, and the heat transfer
coefficient is 20 W/m2C. Calculate the heat lost by the fin per unit depth.
7. A straight fin of steel(1%C)(k= 43W/mC) is 2.6cm thick and 17cm long. It is placed on the
outside of a wall which is maintained at 230C. The surrounding air temperature is 25C,and the
convection heat transfer coefficient is 23 W/m
2
C.Calculate the heat lost from the fin per unit
depth and the fin efficiency.

Circumferential fin

1. A circumferential fin of rectangular profile has a thickness of 0.7mm and is installed on a tube
having a diameter of 3cm that is maintained at a temperature of 200C. The length of the fin is
2cm and the fin material is copper. Calculate the heat lost by the fin to a surrounding convection
environment at 100C with a convection heat transfer coefficient of 524 W/m
2
C.
2. A circumferential fin of rectangular profile is constructed of a material having thermal
conductivity 55 W/mC, and is installed on a tube having diameter of 3cm. The length of the fin
is 3cm and the thickness is 2mm. If the fin is exposed to a convection environment at 20C with a
convection coefficient of 68 W/m
2
C and the tube wall temperature is 100C.Calculate the heat
lost by the fin.
3. A 2.5cm diameter tube has circumferential fins of rectangular profile spaced at 9.5mm increments
along its length. The fins are constructed of aluminum (k=200W/mC) and are 0.8mm thick and
12.5mm long. The tube wall temperature is maintained at 200C,and the environment temperature
is 93C. The heat transfer coefficient is 110W/m2C.Calculate the heat loss from the tube per
meter of length.
4. A circumferential fin of rectangular profile surrounds 2cm diameter tube. The length of the fin is
5mm,and the thickness is 2.5mm. the fin is constructed of mild steel. If air blows over the fin
sothat a heat transfer coefficient of 25W/m2C is experienced and the temperature of the base and
air are 260 and 93C respectively, calculate the heat transfer from the fin.
5. An aluminum fin (k=200W/mC)1.6mm thick surrounds a tube 2.5cm in diameter. The length of
the fin is 12.5mm. The tube wall temperature is 200C,and the environment temperature is 20C.
The heat transfer coefficient is 60W/m
2
C. Calculate the heat lost by the fin.
6. A circumferential fin of rectangular profile is installed on a 10cm diameter tube maintained at
120C. The fin has a length of 15cm and thickness of 2mm. The fin is exposed to a convection
environment at 23C, with heat transfer coefficient 60W/m
2
C. and the fin conductivity is
120W/mC. Calculate the heat lost by the fin.
7. Circumferential aluminium fin (k=200W/mK) of rectangular profile (1.5cm wide x 1mm thick)
are fitted onto a 2.5cm diameter tube. The fin base temperature is 170C and the ambient fluid
temperature is 25C. Calculate the heat loss per fin. The heat transfer coefficient may be taken as
130W/m
2
K.

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Unsteady state heat conduction (Transient Heat conduction)
Lumped Heat Capacity method of analysis:(systems with negligible internal resistance)
1. A 40 x 40 cm copper slab 5mm thick at a uniform temperature of 250C suddenly has its surface
temperature lowered at 30C. Find the time at which the slab temperature becomes 90C; =
9000kg/m
3
; Cp = 0.38 kJ/kg K; k =370 W/mK and h = 90 W/m
2
K
2. A 2mm thick copper plate at 400C is suddenly dipped into water at 20C. Calculate the time
required for the plate to reach a temperature of 40C, taking h = 93 W/m
2
K. Data: = 8800kg/m
3
;
Cp = 0.381 kJ/kg K; area = 30cm x 30cm; k = 370W/mK.
3. A stainless steel rod of OD 1 cm originally at a temperature of 320C is suddenly immersed in a
liquid at 120C for which the convective heat transfer coefficient is 100 W/m
2
K. Determine the
time required for the rod to reach a temperature of 200C. Properties of stainless steel : =
7800kg/m
3
; Cp = 460J/kg K; k = 40 W/mK
4. (i)A copper wire 0.8mm diameter at 150C is suddenly dipped into water at 35C. If the heat
transfer coefficient is 85.5 W/m
2
K,calculate the time required to cool the wire to 95C. Data: =
9000kg/m
3
; Cp = 0.38 kJ/kg K; k = 373 W/m K. (ii) If the same wire is placed in air instead of
water what will be the time required to cool it to 95C. h= 11.65 W/m
2
K?
5. A metallic rod 12.5mm diameter at 90C is cooled to 35C in 105 s by placing it in air stream at
30C. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient for air. Data(for rod): mass = 0.1kg; Cp = 350J/kg K;
surface area = 0.004m
2
.
6. Aluminum sphere weighing 5.5 kg and initially at a temperature of 290C is suddenly immersed
in a fluid at 15C. The convective heat transfer coefficient is 58W/m
2
K. Calculate the time
required to cool the aluminum to 95C, using lumped heat capacity method of analysis. Properties
of aluminum: = 2700kg/m
3
; Cp = 900J/kg K; k = 205 W/mK.
7. Aluminum sphere weighing 7 kg and initially at a temperature of 260C is suddenly immersed in
a fluid at 10C. The convective heat transfer coefficient is 50W/m
2
K. Calculate the time required
to cool the aluminum to 90C, using lumped heat capacity method of analysis. Properties of
aluminum: = 2700kg/m
3
; Cp = 900J/kg K; k = 205 W/mK.
8. A steel ball 5cm in diameter and initially at a uniform temperature of 450C is suddenly placed in
a controlled environment in which the temperature is maintained at 100C. The heat transfer
coefficient is 10 W/m2 K. Calculate the time required for the ball to attain a temperature of
150C.Properties of steel: = 7800kg/m
3
; Cp = 0.46 kJ/kg K; k = 35 W/mK.
9. The average heat transfer coefficient for flow of 100C air over a flat plate is measured by
observing the temperature time history of a 3 cm thick copper slab exposed to 100C air. In one
test run, the initial temperature of the plate was 210C, and in 5 min the temperature decreased by
40C.Calculate the heat transfer coefficient. Properties of copper: = 9000kg/m
3
; Cp = 0.38 kJ/kg
K; k =370 W/mK

Systems with negligible surface resistance:
1. A large plate,50cm thick, initially has a uniform temperature of 40C. If the plate is suddenly
raised to and maintained at a temperature of 440C,calculate
(i) The temperature at a depth of 20cm from the surface after 30s
(ii) The instantaneous heat flow across the above plane per m
2
after 30s
(iii) The heat flow across the above plane after 30s
(iv) The temperature at the central plane after 30s.
Data: k = 6 W/m K; = 2.5 x 10
-6
m
2
/s
2. A large wall 62.8cm thick has uniform temperature of 50Cinitially. If the temperature is
suddenly raised to and maintained at 550C,find
(i) The temperature at a depth of 15.7cm from the surface after 5h
(ii) The instantaneous heat flow across the above plane per m
2
after 5h
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(iii) The heat flow within 5h from the above plane
(iv) The temperature at the central plane after 5h.
Data: k = 46.4 W/m K; = 0.55 x 10
-7
m
2
/s
3. A large plate of thickness 2cm is initially at a temperature of 30C.suddenly both of its
surfaces are raised to and held at 400C. Determine
(i) The temperature at a plane 0.8cm from the surface after 10s
(ii) The instantaneous heat flow across the above plane per m
2
after 10s
(iii) The heat flow within 10s from the above plane
(iv) The temperature at the central plane after 10s.
Data: k = 5.815 W/m K; = 2.22 x 10
-6
m
2
/s
4. A mild steel slab 5cm thick,very long and very wide, is initially at a uniform temperature of
50C. One of the surface is exposed to a fluid which suddenly causes the surface temperature
to increase to and remain at 100C. Calculate the temperature at the midplane 1 min after the
surface temperature change. Data: k = 45 W/m K; = 1.26 x 10
-5
m
2
/s

Chart solutions of unsteady state heat conduction problems
Slab:
1. A slab of aluminium 10cm thick is originally in a temperature of 500C. It is suddenly immersed
in a liquid at 100C resulting in a heat transfer coefficient of 1200W/m
2
K. Determine the
temperature at the centerline and the surface 1 min after the immersion. Also calculate the total
thermal energy removed per unit area of the slab during this period. The properties of aluminium
are : = 8.4 x 10
-5
m
2
/s ; k = 215 W/mK ; = 2700kg/m
3
; Cp = 0.9 kJ/kg K
2. A large slab of aluminium 5cm thick at a uniform temperature of 200C is suddenly exposed to a
convective surface environment at 70C with a heat transfer coefficient of 525W/m
2
K. Calculate
the temperature at a depth of 12.5mm from one of the faces 1min after the immersion. Also
calculate the energy removed per unit area from the plate during 1 min of immersion. The
properties of aluminium are : = 8.4 x 10
-5
m
2
/s ; k = 215 W/mK ; = 2700kg/m
3
; Cp = 0.9
kJ/kg K
3. A 15cm thick plate initially at 20C is suddenly put into a furnace at 1020C and is heated from
one side only. Determine the temperature at a distance of 9cm from the heated surface after one
hour. Data : = 0.042 m
2
/h ; k = 37.2 W/mK ; h = 365 W/m
2
K
4. A leather slab 10cm thick initially at 35C is suddenly immersed in a cooling medium at 1.5C
for which heat transfer coefficient is 24.2W/m
2
K. Determine the time at which the centerline
temperature drops to 4C. The properties of leather are : k = 0.605 W/mK ; = 1040kg/m
3
; Cp
= 3.56 x 10
3
J/kg K
5. A large slab of aluminium has a thickness of 10cm and is initially uniform in temperature at
400C. Suddenly it is exposed to a convection environment at 90C with heat transfer coefficient
1400 W/m
2
K. How long does it take the centerline temperature to drop to 180C. The properties
of aluminium are : = 8.4 x 10
-5
m
2
/s ; k = 215 W/mK ; = 2700kg/m
3
; Cp = 0.9 kJ/kg K

Cylinder:
1. A long steel cylinder 12cm in diameter and initially at 20C is placed into a furnace at 820C
with the heat transfer coefficient 140 W/m
2
K.Calculate the time required for the axis temperature
to reach 800C. Also calculate the corresponding temperature at a radius of 5.4cm at that time.
The properties of steel are : = 6.11 x 10
-6
m
2
/s ; k = 21 W/mK
2. A 25mm OD steel ball bearing initially at a temperature of 600C is quenched in oil at 40C. The
heat transfer coefficient is 1500 W/m2K. Calculate the centerline temperature and the
temperature at 1.25mm from the surface after bearing has been in oil for 30s. Also calculate the
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heat lost by the bearing during this time period. The properties of steel ball are : k = 24.2 W/mK ;
= 7690kg/m
3
; Cp = 460 J/kg K
3. A long aluminium cylinder 5cm in diameter and initially at 200C is suddenly exposed to a
convection environment at 70C and heat transfer coefficient 525 W/m2K. Calculate the
temperature at a radius of 1.25cm and the heat lost per unit length 1 min after the cylinder is
exposed to the environment. The properties of aluminium are : = 8.4 x 10
-5
m
2
/s ; k = 215
W/mK ; = 2700kg/m
3
; Cp = 0.9 kJ/kg K
4. A short metallic cylinder 75mm diameter and 10cm long,initially at a uniform temperature of
250C,is placed in a fluid at 40C resulting in a heat transfer coefficient 400 W/m2K.Determine
the temperature at the centre of the cylinder after 4 min. Data: = 0.046 m
2
/h ; k = 37 W/mK.
5. An aluminium cylinder with a diameter 5cm is cooled in a medium which is at a constant
temperature 70C.At time t=0, the temperature at all points of the cylinder is same and equal to
200C. The heat transfer coefficient is 5.25 W/m
2
K.Determine the temperature at the axis and
surface of the cylinder at a point 100mm from the end after time period of 1 minute has elapsed.
Also calculate the heat lost by the cylinder during this time period The properties of aluminium
are : = 8.4 x 10
-5
m
2
/s ; k = 215 W/mK ; = 2700kg/m
3
; Cp = 0.9 kJ/kg K





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